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09-11-2018

ME 770

Selection of Materials:Spring

09-11-2018 ME 770 Selection of Materials:Spring Kamal K. Kar, Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Selection
09-11-2018 ME 770 Selection of Materials:Spring Kamal K. Kar, Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Selection

Kamal K. Kar, Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Selection of Materials: Examples

of Mechanical Engineering Selection of Materials: Examples De Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory Eng
De
De

Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory

Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Selection of Materials: Examples De Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory Eng Materials: Problem- Spring 1
Selection of Materials: Examples De Advanced Nanoengineering Materials Laboratory Eng Materials: Problem- Spring 1

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Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

The following symbols have been used throughout:

-S is the Stress at any point -Z is the Section Modulus of beam cross section. -y is the deflection at any point. -W is the load on the Beam. Note for uniform loads W = wl where w is the load per unit length -E is the Modulus of Elasticity ( Young's Modulus) -I is the Moment of Inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axi

Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Supported At Both Ends With A Uniform Load.

cross-section about the neutral axi Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported At Both Ends With A
cross-section about the neutral axi Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported At Both Ends With A

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Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

09-11-2018 Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Eng Materials: Problem- Spring 3

Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

09-11-2018 Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Eng Materials: Problem- Spring 3
09-11-2018 Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Eng Materials: Problem- Spring 3

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Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Supported At Both Ends. Two Equal Loads Symmetrically Placed

Supported At Both Ends. Two Equal Loads Symmetrically Placed Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported But
Supported At Both Ends. Two Equal Loads Symmetrically Placed Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported But

Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Supported But With Both Ends Overhanging Symmetrically. Uniform Load.

Placed Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported But With Both Ends Overhanging Symmetrically. Uniform Load. 4

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Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Supported But With Both Ends Overhanging Symmetrically. Uniform Load.

But With Both Ends Overhanging Symmetrically. Uniform Load. Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported With Both

Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Supported With Both Ends Overhanging, Supports Unsymmetrical, Uniform Load.

Load. Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported With Both Ends Overhanging, Supports Unsymmetrical, Uniform Load. 5

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Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Unsymmetrically Supported With Both Ends Overhanging And

A Load At Any Point.

With Both Ends Overhanging And A Load At Any Point. Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported

Eng Materials: Problem- Spring

Simply Supported With Ends Overhanging. Single Overhanging Load

And A Load At Any Point. Eng Materials: Problem- Spring Simply Supported With Ends Overhanging. Single

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Eng Materials: Problem- Leaf Spring

09-11-2018 Eng Materials: Problem- Leaf Spring Comparison of stress and maximum deflection is given in table.
Comparison of stress and maximum deflection is given in table.
Comparison of stress and maximum deflection is given in table.
of stress and maximum deflection is given in table. Table: Stress & Deflection in Beams of

Table: Stress & Deflection in Beams of Uniform Cross-section & Uniform Strength

Eng Materials: Problem- Leaf Spring (Laminated)

Strength Eng Materials: Problem- Leaf Spring (Laminated) If friction between the strips (also called leaves) is

If friction between the strips (also called leaves) is neglected, stress and deflection equations used for original plate can be used for this arrangement by replacing ‘B’ with ‘nb’, where n is number of strips or leaves and b is width of each strip. Relation of maximum bending stress and maximum deflection of cantilever beam and simply supported beam of uniform strength, in the form of a laminated spring, are given in table 18.2

beam and simply supported beam of uniform strength, in the form of a laminated spring, are

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Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated)

Semi-elliptical leaf spring is the most popular and widely used leaf spring. It consists of a number of flat plates or leaves of semi-elliptical shape. U-bolts and center clip are used to hold these leaves together. To keep the leaves aligned and avoid lateral shifting, rebound clips are used. Ends of the longest leaf are bent to form eyes. This longest leaf is called ‘master leaf’ and other smaller leaves are called ‘graduated leaves’. One or two extra full length leaves are generally provided along with the master leaf, to increase strength

against the transverse shear force. Typical semi-elliptical leaf spring is shown

shear force. Typical semi-elliptical leaf spring is shown Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical

Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated)

Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated) For the analysis purpose, leaves are divided into two

For the analysis purpose, leaves are divided into two groups: i. Master leaf and graduated leaves ii. Extra full length leaves.

ng = number of graduated-length leaves including master leaf nf= number of extra full length leaves n= total number of leaves b = width of each leaf t = thickness of each leaf L= half the length of semi-elliptical spring F= force applied at the ends of the spring Ff = part of F taken by extra full length leaves

Fg = part of F taken by graduated leaves and master leaf

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Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated)

ng = number of graduated-length leaves including master leaf nf= number of extra full length leaves n= total number of leaves

b

= width of each leaf

t

= thickness of each leaf

b = width of each leaf t = thickness of each leaf L= half the length

L= half the length of semi-elliptical spring F= force applied at the ends of the spring Ff = part of F taken by extra full length leaves Fg = part of F taken by graduated leaves and master leaf

Now, this spring can be treated as a simply supported beam of length 2L, with load 2F acting at its centre or for simplification of analysis, half portion of it can be considered as a cantilever of length L, with one end fixed (centre of the spring which is fixed with axle) and load F acting on the other. Now the first group of leaves i.e. master leaf along with the graduated leaves can be considered as a cantilever beam of uniform strength as discussed in previous article. Similarly group of extra full length leaves can be considered as a cantilever beam of uniform cross-section. Therefore the relations given in table 18.1 can be used to write the stress and deflections in these leaves by replacing B with ‘n f b’ and ‘n g b’ and considering the the share of load taken by them, as given in table 18.3 below.

share of load taken by them, as given in table 18.3 below. Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring

Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated)

Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated) As deflection in the full length leaves and graduated leaves

As deflection in the full length leaves and graduated leaves is equal,

Laminated) As deflection in the full length leaves and graduated leaves is equal, Also Solving Final
Laminated) As deflection in the full length leaves and graduated leaves is equal, Also Solving Final

Also

Solving

Laminated) As deflection in the full length leaves and graduated leaves is equal, Also Solving Final

Final expression

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Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping

Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping It is clear from the above equations that the stress
Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping It is clear from the above equations that the stress

It is clear from the above equations that the stress in the full length leaves is 50% higher then the graduated leaves. In addition to this, the full length leaves also have to carry transverse load, longitudinal load and also the load due to twisting, which further increases the stress in the full length leaves. In order to reduce the value of maximum stress in the full length leaves and to equalize the stresses in different leaves the spring may be pre-stressed in such a way that the full length leaves are stressed in the opposite direction to the stresses due to external load. This is done by giving different radius of curvature to the full length leaves than the graduated leaves. Full length leaf is given higher radius of curvature than the adjacent leaf and it is reduced further for smaller length leaves. Initial gap between the full length leaf and graduated leaf is called nip and this process is known as nipping. The leaves get pre- stressed when they are clamped together. As discussed earlier, pre-stressing leads to equalization of stresses in graduated leaves and full length leaves, therefore

in graduated leaves and full length leaves, therefore Initial pre-load required to close the gap C

Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be determined as follows:

Nip is equal to the sum of initial deflections in the full length leaves and graduated leaves,

Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping

Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be
Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be

Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be determined as follows:

Nip is equal to the sum of initial deflections in the full length leaves and graduated leaves,

deflections in the full length leaves and graduated leaves, Resultant stress in the extra full length

Resultant stress in the extra full length leaves is then given by,

in the full length leaves and graduated leaves, Resultant stress in the extra full length leaves

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Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping

Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be
Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be

Initial pre-load required to close the gap C can be determined as follows:

Nip is equal to the sum of initial deflections in the full length leaves and graduated leaves,

deflections in the full length leaves and graduated leaves, Resultant stress in the extra full length

Resultant stress in the extra full length leaves is then given by,

stress in the extra full length leaves is then given by, Substituting the values of Ff

Substituting the values of Ff and Fi And considering that the stress in all the leaves should now be equal,

that the stress in all the leaves should now be equal, Eng Materials: Carry load without

Eng Materials:

Carry load without failure

now be equal, Eng Materials: Carry load without failure Lightest road which will carry load safely,
now be equal, Eng Materials: Carry load without failure Lightest road which will carry load safely,
now be equal, Eng Materials: Carry load without failure Lightest road which will carry load safely,
now be equal, Eng Materials: Carry load without failure Lightest road which will carry load safely,

Lightest road which will carry load safely,

where /f

is maximum

Or f /

is

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Eng Materials:

Carry load without failure

Or f / minimum=M

O r  f /  m i n i m u m = M Eng

Eng Materials:

Carry load without failure

Or f / is minimum=M

without failure O r  f /  i s m i n i m u

Minimum

deflection

f /E =M

09-11-2018

Eng Materials:

Carry load without failureOr f /

is minimum=M

f /E =M

/  i s m i n i m u m = M  f /E

Minimum

deflection

and

light

weight

Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping

Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping The leaf spring behaves like a simply supported beam which

The leaf spring behaves like a simply supported beam which subjected to both bending stress and transverse shear stress. In this design the thickness and width is kept constant over the entire length of the leaf spring. Bending stress developed: Considering the maximum load capacity of 1800 kg which is the capacity of the system and multiplying it with the dynamic load factor of 2.76 for the equivalent static capacity. We get the equivalent static capacity as: Static load (kg) 1800 kg Load factor 2.76

for the equivalent static capacity. We get the equivalent static capacity as: Static load (kg) 1800
for the equivalent static capacity. We get the equivalent static capacity as: Static load (kg) 1800

09-11-2018

Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping

Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical

Eng Materials: Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping

Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Model 4 showing factor of safety 4.1 which is close
Problem-Leaf Spring (semi elliptical Laminated), nipping Model 4 showing factor of safety 4.1 which is close

Model 4 showing factor of safety 4.1 which is close to FOS of steel i.e model 1 of FOS 4.5, nevertheless model 2 also showing FOS of 4.08. Model 2 and model 4 shows less static deflection and less stress compare to model 3, in which six composite leaves are used and only two steel leaves are used. It denotes that alternate placing of composite leaves provides similar strength as that of conventional steel leaves with additional advantages. Also implementation of three steel leaves instead of four leaves, gives better results than alternate arrangement of steel and composite leaves. Fourth model arrangement shows better result than other two arrangements. It is observed that the composite material arrangement shows more deflection and

stress than that of steel material leaf spring but the model 4 gives considerable reduction in weight

and whose FOS is also 4.1 close to steel leaf springs FOS of 4.5.