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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES
AND GUIDELINES
TRANSITION TO 5TH GRADE
BOOKLET FOR TEACHERS

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

PEDAGOGICAL
PRINCIPLES
AND GUIDELINES
SUGGESTED ENGLISH
CURRICULUM
TRANSITION TO 5TH GRADE
ENGLISH FOR DIVERSITY AND EQUITY

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

AGRADECIMIENTOS PROCESOS DE PILOTAJE, EVALUACIÓN Y


VALIDACIÓN CURRICULAR
JUAN MANUEL SANTOS CALDERÓN
Presidente de la República de Colombia EVALUADORA INTERNACIONAL CERETÉ, CÓRDOBA
Dra. Heather Weger, Universidad de Georgetown Eva Lara Cogollo - IE Alfonso Spath Spath
YANETH GIHA EVALUADOR NACIONAL Natividad Bruno Mestre - IE Alfonso Spath Spath
Ministra de Educación Nacional Dr. José Herazo Rivera, Universidad de Córdoba
UNIVERSIDAD DEL NORTE CIÉNAGA, MAGDALENA
VÍCTOR JAVIER SAAVEDRA MERCADO Dra. Mónica Borjas Glisela Martínez - IE Liceo Moderno del Sur
Viceministro de Educación Preescolar, Básica y Media Valmiro Narváez Goenaga Marlene Castañeda Adarraga - IE Liceo Moderno del Sur

PAOLA ANDREA TRUJILLO PULIDO DOCENTES, INSTITUCIONES Y SECRETARÍAS DE EDUCACIÓN DOSQUEBRADAS, RISARALDA
Directora de Calidad para la Educación Preescolar, Básica y Diana Vallejo Vera - IE Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, sede Manuela
Media ACACÍAS, META Beltrán
Angélica Torné Ramírez - IE Luis Carlos Galán Sarmiento Gabriel López Ayala - IE Popular Diocesano
ANA MARÍA NIETO VILLAMIZAR Diana Sánchez Solano - IE Popular Diocesano, sede Jesús Maestro
Directora de Primera Infancia ARMENIA, QUINDÍO
Luisa Benavides Suarez - IE Santa Teresa de Jesús EL CERRITO, VALLE DEL CAUCA
ANA CAMILA MEDINA PULIDO Oscar Montoya Gómez - Universidad del Quindío Eliana Pulido Henao - IE Jorge Isaacs
Gerente de Currículo Jorge Madroñero - IE Jorge Isaacs
BARRANQUILLA, ATLÁNTICO Sandra Ávila Vásquez - IE Jorge Isaacs
ROSA MARÍA CELY HERRERA Ángela De Alba Gutiérrez - IED Comunitaria Siete de Abril
Gerente Programa Colombia Bilingüe Aura Pérez Fortich - IED Comunitaria Siete de Abril GALAPA, ATLÁNTICO
Bertha Contreras Mendoza - IED y Cultural Las Malvinas Ana Mendoza Morelo - IE Frutos de la Esperanza de Galapa
Carmen Mazo Múnera - IED Mundo Bolivariano Cintya Rada Zárate - IE Técnica Antonio Nariño De Paluato
Equipos Técnicos Ministerio de Educación Nacional Juan Miguel Antequera - IED Mundo Bolivariano
Milly Rodelo - IED Mundo Bolivariano IBAGUÉ, TOLIMA
Currículo y Primera Infancia Carmen Jiménez Olmos - IED Nuestra Señora del Rosario Paola Urueña Martínez - Universidad de Ibagué
Alba Lucía Núñez Goenaga Melina Alzate Ariza - IED Jorge Nicolás Abello
Diana Isabel Marroquín Patricia Barranco - IED Jorge Nicolás Abello ITSMINA, CHOCÓ
Virginia Mendoza Niebles - IED Nuevo Bosque María Sánchez Torres - IE Andrés Bello
Programa Colombia Bilingüe Zully Henríquez Balza - IED Pinar del Río, Fe y Alegría
Elena Urrutia Sánchez Zuleima Ahumada Angulo - Colegio San José MAICAO, LA GUAJIRA
Fressman Eduth Ávila Inés Junco - IE N° 2
Marcela Forero Jiménez SED BOGOTÁ D.C.
Fabiola Téllez Álvarez MARINILLA, ANTIOQUIA
UNIVERSIDAD DEL NORTE Katherine Rivera Díaz - IED Garcés Navas Eliana Carvajal Gallo - IE Simona Duque
Decana Instituto de Idiomas Aurora Luquerna Reyes – IED República de Estados Unidos Margarita Orozco - IE Simona Duque
Pía Osorio Gómez ©Ministerio de Educación Nacional (2016) de América
ISBN 978-958-691-989-0 Anel Araújo Mendoza – IED República de Estados Unidos de
Equipo académico Calle 43 No. 57-14 Piso 5, Bogotá D.C, Colombia América MEDELLÍN, ANTIOQUIA
Lourdes Rey Paba www.mineducación.gov.co Vivian Morales- IED República de Estados Unidos de América Claudia Muñoz - IE Finca La Mesa
Luzkarime Calle Díaz Carlos Rico Troncoso - Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Javier Navarro González - IE Finca La Mesa
Janitza Guerrero Acosta Citación: Ministerio de Educación Nacional (2016) María González Gutiérrez - Universidad de Los Andes Leonardo Acevedo Agudelo - IE Finca La Mesa
Breiner Saleth Torres Impresión: Martha Ofelia Gómez - IE Finca La Mesa
Disponible en línea a través de la página: BUCARAMANGA, SANTANDER Luz Adriana Lopera - CEIPA
ILUSTRACIÓN Y DISEÑO GRÁFICO www.colombiaaprende.edu.co/colombiabilingue Ángela Carvajal Ariza - IE Maiporé Sede B primaria Jaime Usma Wilches – Universidad de Antioquia
Team Toon Studio Zaida Saavedra Cortés - IE Maiporé Sede B primaria
León Mejía Todos los derechos reservados. MONTERÍA, CÓRDOBA
Beatriz Jiménez Prohibida la reproducción total o parcial, el registro o la CALI, VALLE DEL CAUCA Diana Petro Corcho - IE Buenos Aires
Camila Gómez transmisión por cualquier medio de recuperación de infor- Lady Rodríguez Velasco - IE Guillermo Valencia (Sede Pres- Nesly Germán – IE Cristóbal Colón
Martha Mancilla mación, sin autorización previa del Ministerio de Educación bítero Ángel Piedrahíta) Álvaro Toscano Villalba - IE Liceo La Pradera
María Alejandra Torres Nacional Jennifer Lenis Ayala - IE Guillermo Valencia (Sede Presbítero Álvaro Vélez Fuentes - IE Tres Palmas
Oscar Reyes Bogotá, D.C. - Colombia Ángel Piedrahíta) Ana Sagre Barbosa – Universidad de Córdoba

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

PEREIRA, RISARALDA
Lucero Vargas García - Escuela Normal El Jardín de Risaralda
PROGRAMA ENGLISH FOR SCHOOLS, UNIVERSIDAD DEL NORTE
Adriana Aguado Cochez CONTENTS
Arturo Torres Porto
PLANETA RICA, CÓRDOBA Basilia Santiago Palma
Sandra Díaz Zapa - IE Simón Bolívar - Sede Miraflores Diana Tirado Tenorio Introduction
Dibia Corrales Narvaez
POLONUEVO, ATLÁNTICO Diego Benitez Julio
Gina Solano Algarín - IE Técnica San Pablo de Polonuevo
1. What is the state of English teaching and learning in Colombia? 12
Eliana López Cogollo
Tania Orozco Arcón - IE Técnica San Pablo de Polonuevo Heidy Osorio Plata 1.1. Towards a bilingual Colombia 12
Iury Ferrer Solano 1.2. Bilingual Policy (Spanish - English) in the Colombian context 12
PONEDERA, ATLÁNTICO Jessica Begambre Pérez 1.3. Teaching tools for Transition and Primary 14
Olga Lucía Varela Barraza - IE Técnica Comercial De Ponedera Jesús Galindo Zabaleta
Johanna Baiz Correa 2. What reality does this curricular proposal consider for the teaching of English in
PUERTO COLOMBIA, ATLÁNTICO Karina Castro Durán
Maddy Mercado Mercado - IE San Nicolás de Tolentino
Transition and Primary? 16
María Montiel Aruachan
Román Rodríguez Vargas - IE San Nicolás de Tolentino Mariluz Vásquez Cassis 2.1. Legal Framework 17
Marisela Restrepo Ruiz 2.2. Characteristic of children between the ages of 5 and 12 17
REPELÓN, ATLÁNTICO Patricia Barros Herrera 2.3. Teachers’ challenges 18
Alison Mendoza Pertuz - IE Jhon F. Kennedy 2.4. Factors to consider for the implementation of the Suggested English
Curriculum for Transition and Primary schools in Colombia 19
RIOHACHA, LA GUAJIRA
Dileyny Bermúdez Castro - IE María Doraliza López de Mejía
3. What are the curriculum proposal principles for Transition and Primary? 21
SAN ANDRÉS, ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE SAN ANDRÉS, PROVIDENCIA 3.1. Why is an English curriculum necessary for Transition and Primary? 21
Y SANTA CATALINA 3.2. What are the purposes of the curriculum proposal? 21
Reina Newball Grenard - IE De La Sagrada Familia 3.3. What is understood by curriculum in this proposal? 23
Briceña Corpus Stephens - IE Flowers Hill Bilingual School
3.4. What was the adopted curriculum approach for this proposal? 23
Penny Bryan Downs - IE Flowers Hill Bilingual School
3.5. What are the curriculum themes that support this proposal for English
YOPAL, CASANARE teaching and learning in Transition and Primary? 26
Ana Díaz Díaz - IE Llano Lindo 3.6. What are the characteristics of the Suggested English Curriculum for
Rosa Rojas Arias - IE Llano Lindo Transition and Primary? 30
Ana Mesa Mesa - IE Policarpa Salavarrieta
Yenny Castro Sotaquirá - IE Policarpa Salavarrieta
4. What conceptions build up the Reference framework for the Suggested English
YUTO, CHOCÓ
Curriculum for Transition and Primary? 34
Luis Enrique Zúñiga Nagles - IE Antonio Abad Hinestroza 4.1. What is the vision of education in this proposal? 34
Mercedes Mena Manjarres - IE Antonio Abad Hinestroza 4.2. What is the vision of learning in this proposal? 34
Ruldys Machado Valencia - IE Antonio Abad Hinestroza 4.3. What competences are aimed at through this curriculum proposal? 36
4.4. How do language skills develop in the Suggested English Curriculum for
GESTORES DE BILINGÜISMO – MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN
Transition and Primary? 38
NACIONAL
Edwin Ortiz Cardona
Juan Chilito García
Luisa Zapata Londoño
Nathalie Betancourt Rodríguez
Wilson Cardona Peláez

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

5. What methodological principles guide the Suggested English Curricu-


lum for Transition and Primary? 39
5.1. Task-based learning 39
5.2. Project-based learning 40
5.3. Other considerations 41
5.4. How are the articulation and progression of methodological
principles evidenced in the Suggested Curriculum Structure? 42 English is fun!
6. What are the principles that guide assessment in this curriculum proposal? 43
6.1. Competence-based assessment 43
6.2. Assessment for learning 43
6.3. Assessment of learning 44
6.4. Game-oriented assessment 44
6.5. How is assessment carried out according to the suggested
methodologies? 44
6.6. How are the articulation and progression of assessment
practices evidenced in the Suggested English Curriculum for
Transition and Primary? 46
6.7. What are the alternatives for adaptation of the methodological
and assessment principles considering the diverse national
contexts? 47
Yay!
7. What participants play a pivotal role for the implementation of the cu- We love learning
rricular proposal? 48 English!
7.1. Students 48
7.2. Teachers 48
7.3. Schools 48
7.4. Parents 49
7.5. Local Education Authorities 50
7.6. Other strategic allies 50

8. What criteria can be used to select supporting materials and resources


for the implementation of this curriculum proposal? 51

9. How can Transition and Primary teachers organize the implementation


of this Suggested Curriculum? 53
9.1. PHASE 1: Analysis and adaptation of the Suggested English Cu-
rriculum for Transition and Primary 54
9.2. PHASE 2: Planning of the implementation 59
9.3. PHASE 3: Implementation of the curriculum proposal 60
9.4. PHASE 4: Evaluation 62

References

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

INTRODUCTION
Estimada Comunidad Educativa: Education constitutes an essential tool for the This proposal aims to become a guide for
social, cultural, and economic development Transition and Primary English teachers in terms
of Colombia. Therefore, much effort has been of what children need to learn, how they learn it
El Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014-2018 “Todos por un nuevo país”, tiene como objetivo channeled toward improving coverage and and how they are evaluated in each grade level.
construir una Colombia en paz, equitativa y educada. El Ministerio de Educación Nacional
quality in the educational system, following high
se hace partícipe de esta meta a través de programas como “Colombia Bilingüe”, cuyas
acciones se enmarcan dentro del propósito de hacer de Colombia la mejor educada de international standards aimed at reducing the gap Furthermore, this document gives students and
la región para el año 2025. between individuals, social groups, and regions; parents the opportunity to actively participate
and offering equal development opportunities to in the construction of the teaching and learning
Hoy tenemos el gusto de presentar al país los Derechos Básicos de Aprendizaje de Inglés all citizens. The design of a Suggested English processes of a foreign language, both in and
y el Currículo Sugerido de Inglés grados Transición a 5º de Primaria. Estas herramientas Curriculum for Transition to 5 becomes a tangible outside the classroom.
buscan que los docentes tengan unos lineamientos curriculares sugeridos y claros,
contribution to achieve equal opportunity, as well
contribuyendo, por un lado, a mejorar las prácticas pedagógicas en el aula de clase y,
por el otro, a que los estudiantes alcancen el nivel de inglés esperado en cada grado. as improve the overall quality of the country’s The document has eight essential components
Por esta razón, se integran diferentes temáticas esenciales a través de la formación en educational system. that include the pedagogical, curricular,
inglés, tales como la salud, la convivencia, la paz, el medio ambiente y la globalización. A methodological, and assessment guidelines of
través de la implementación de esta propuesta, los docentes de inglés y las instituciones This document offers the educational community the proposal. They are organized from general to
educativas del sector oficial aportarán cada vez más a la construcción del país bilingüe and diverse sectors of society a flexible, open specific. First, a brief overview of English teaching
que deseamos.
curriculum proposal that can serve as input for and learning in Colombia as well as the needs
Estos dos documentos se construyeron teniendo en cuenta las necesidades y planning, implementing, evaluating and revising analysis that led to this proposal is provided.
características propias de los docentes de educación básica primaria del sector oficial, the English curriculum in schools nationwide. Then, a description of the theoretical basis and
lo que permitió establecer ejes transversales adaptables a estos contextos particulares. This Suggested English Curriculum for grades methodological and assessment principles that
Se trata de una propuesta dirigida también a las Secretarías de Educación, a las Escuelas Transition to 5 of the Colombian educational underlie the approach taken for the Suggested
Normales y a las Facultades de Educación del país, debido a que son dichos actores system complements the curricular proposal Curriculum are given. Finally, a description of the
quienes, en su autonomía curricular, podrán analizar, adaptar e implementar cada uno
already available for grades 6 to 11. participants to whom the proposal is addressed,
de los elementos dentro del marco de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje del
inglés en sus instituciones educativas. and recommendations for the selection
This curricular proposal serves as common of materials and resources to support the
Los Derechos Básicos de Aprendizaje y el Currículo Sugerido de Inglés para Transición y ground for the articulated achievement of goals implementation of the curriculum are presented.
Primaria son apuestas que buscan generar igualdad educativa y hacer que la enseñanza established by the Colombia Bilingüe program.
y el aprendizaje del inglés sean vistos como una herramienta fortalecedora de la The proposal also serves as a guide for decision-
formación integral y pertinente para los estudiantes del siglo XXI en Colombia.
making that may contribute to the improvement
Agradecemos a la comunidad educativa por sus valiosos aportes, dirigidos a la of English teaching and learning conditions in
construcción de un país que busca abrirse cada vez más al mundo globalizado y our schools; prioritizing on projects that are
multicultural en el que vivimos. relevant to the current and desired realities of our
educational institutions.

Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia.

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1- WHAT IS THE STATE OF ENGLISH and reading elements in at least one foreign language”
and, for secondary education: “The ability to understand
Law 1651 of 2013 added some substantial contributions
to the General Education Law, strengthening the process
TEACHING AND LEARNING IN COLOMBIA? and speak in a foreign language” (1994). of transforming the country into a bilingual nation. For
example, the following objective was included as part of
This section introduces the reader to a brief summary of professional development opportunities both in language Another relevant contribution is to declare foreign the objectives that the different levels of education have
the actions and policies around the teaching and learning and methodology (Socialization Document, Colombia languages a fundamental and mandatory part of the in common: “competencies and skills that promote
of English in Transition and Primary schools nationwide. very well, 2014). The following pedagogical strategies curriculum and the institutional educational project equality and equity of access to higher education and
This section’s purpose is to establish an overview of the were also initiated: Bunny Bonita, ECO, English Please (PEI). Five years later, in 1999, the foreign language the labor market” (Literal j, 2013). Also, there is an
state of current regulations, curriculum proposals, and and My Abc English Kit. Additionally, 65 Local Education curriculum guidelines are published, emphasizing addition to Article 20, which establishes within the
projects schools have designed and implemented based Authorities were included in mentoring programs “multilingualism as an educational priority” (MEN, general objectives of basic education (1994) the need
on their particular contexts throughout the country. and during the same period, law 1651 also known as 1999 p.1). These guidelines see the teaching of a foreign for students to develop communication skills in order
Bilingualism law (MEN 2013) was enacted. language beginning at primary as a way to approach to “read, understand, write, listen, speak and express
This reading should be supplemented with publications other cultures. In 2006, the MEN introduces the “Basic themselves correctly in a foreign language” (2013).
referenced throughout this document especially Finally, in 2015 the program became known as Standards of Competence in Foreign Languages: Regarding the specific objectives of basic education in
the “Guía 22: Estándares Básicos de Competencias Colombia Bilingue Program, and according to its letter English.” The new document proposes “clear and Primary and Secondary, included in Articles 21 and 22
en Lengua Extranjera: Inglés” (Ministerio de of introduction, the program “resizes its components public criteria” to classify students by levels: A1, A2, respectively, there were modifications related to the
Educación [MEN], 2006a) and “Orientaciones para la with large-scale interventions, more investment and B1 (see table 1) according to the “Common European development of conversation, reading and writing skills.
implementación de proyectos de fortalecimiento del includes new components such as social mobilization, Framework of Reference for language learning” As for the specific objectives of Secondary education
inglés en las entidades territoriales” (MEN, 2014c). partnership management and involvement of parents” (2002) which consistently unifies “the purposes of expressed in Article 30, it simply added to Article 21
These documents reflect the country’s interest in (2014, p. 4). Components of this new strategy are: the educational system” (2006) regardless of region, the levels of comprehension and the ability to perform
providing high quality education in order to develop skills design of a suggested national curriculum; immersion socioeconomic strata, or special conditions. successfully in at least one foreign language.
and competencies that would improve competitiveness programs for students; mentoring programs for Local
at the international level. Education Authorities and schools by “bilingualism This new proposal aims for students finishing primary Furthermore, another document, Orientaciones para
managers”; implementation of the teaching materials to achieve initial A1 and A2 levels of proficiency with la Implementación de Proyectos de Fortalecimiento
1.1. TOWARDS A BILINGUAL COLOMBIA English, Please! and Fast Track; Native Speaker teacher the understanding of “contributing to the definition of de inglés en las entidades territoriales y en las
assistant programs in educational institutions; and realistic processes and achievable goals in each grade instituciones educativas, seeks to “ensure Colombian
The Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo 2004 - 2019 incentive plans for elementary and high school teachers group” (2006, p. 11). students develop better communication skills in a
(GNP) was initially introduced by the MEN as a long- to encourage participation in national and international
term strategy that included the following components: (USA, India) English immersion programs. CEFR levels Levels for Colombia Grades
design and socialization of the “Basic Standards of
Competence in Foreign Languages: English”; diagnosis 1.2. BILINGUAL POLICY (SPANISH - ENGLISH) IN
Pre-intermediate 2 10° - 11°
of language proficiency levels of English teachers and THE COLOMBIAN CONTEXT
INDEPENDENT USER B1
learners; teacher development both in language and
Pre-intermediate 1 8° - 9°
methodology provided by partner institutions; and In 1991, the Colombian Constitution as part of its
mentoring programs for Local Educational Authorities fundamental principles recognized Colombia as a
Basic 2 6° - 7°
and language institutes accreditation processes (PNB multicultural nation. Chapter 1, Article 7 and Article 10
socialization Document, 2004). confirms for the first time Colombia’s bilingual status BASIC USER A2
Basic 1 4° - 5°
by recognizing communities with their own linguistic
Then, the program was identified as Programa de traditions. Three years later, the General Education A1 Beginner 1° - 3°
fortalecimiento de competencias en Lenguas extranjeras​​ Law (1994) establishes the following specific objectives
(PFDCLE). This program offered 9,500 teachers for primary education: “The acquisition of conversation Table 1. Taken from Guía 22: Basic Standards of Competence. English, MEN, 2006

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foreign language throughout the educational cycle english kit. This tool was targeted at primary teachers
HOURS ASSIGNED VS. HOURS RECOMMENDED TO
“(MEN, 2014c). The MEN specifically proposes for lacking the linguistic and methodological skills
LEARN ENGLISH
primary schools, the design and implementation of necessary to teach English in the fourth and fifth grades.
methodology and use of resources workshops, as well The material included a methodological guide for lesson GRADE LANGUAGE LEVEL NUMBER OF
HOURS PER WEEK RECOMMENDED CUMULATIVE
as teacher development programs aimed at achieving planning, 50 models of class activities, thematic posters, AND PER YEAR
the A2 level. It also proposes increasing the number of student work guides, songs, stories, and more.
A1
English teaching hours in primary: between one and 6 3 Hours X 36 90 108

three hours for the first three grades and three to five Another educational tool is English, Please! This tool was
for the second group of grades (2014c). developed to strengthen English learning throughout 7 A2.1 3 Hours X 36 108
A2 200 216
the educational system rather than focusing exclusively
1.3. TEACHING TOOLS FOR TRANSITION AND on primary education. It includes a collection of books 8 A2.2 3 Hours X 36 108

PRIMARY for official institutions in the country and is intended for


9 B1.1 3 Hours X 36 108
use in grades ninth, tenth and eleventh. The series is
This section highlights certain educational tools developed aimed at developing the A1 and A2 levels to a final pre-
10 B1.2 B1 3 Hours X 36 375 108 324
by MEN, the first three of which were specifically aimed at intermediate level B1. In 2016, after a complete review
strengthening English in Primary. of the material, the English, Please! Fast Track version 11 B1.3 3 Hours X 36 108
was released.
The first educational tool, Learn English with Bunny Bonita,
Table 2. Taken from Suggested curriculum structure, MEN, 2016 p.32
was created in 2012 to develop the core competencies Recently, new documents were introduced in a kit that
of level A1 in Primary school according to the proposed includes the Basic Learning Rights (DBAs), pedagogical
standards. The material included a set of 15 videos and principles for teaching foreign languages, the standards
user guides for teachers (with lesson plans) and student booklet and the suggested curriculum for 6 to 11. This
books which told the adventures of a cute bunny and pedagogical tool provides teachers with a curricular Teacher, I have
her friends. This proposal included teacher training in reference that unifies topics and methodology in order to
a question.
different urban centers in the country for those who were help students achieve the expected B1 level. The DBAs
without prior training or who had received inadequate describe the knowledge and essential skills that students
foreign language or pedagogical training in the past; the must develop. With the suggested curriculum, teachers
proposal also included training materials. were provided with a unified approach to meet the proposed
language level at the end of the educational cycle.
A second educational tool developed by MEN was
English For Colombia (ECO), which focused on student It is necessary to mention that with the suggested
development through radio for first to third grade curriculum, a substantial transformation is made to the
teachers in rural schools. The material included 90 audio structure of the levels initially proposed by Guía 22. The new
lessons, 7 educational posters, a teacher’s guide with proposal starts with the development of the A1 level in sixth
lesson plans, a self-training teaching DVD, a student book grade (see table 2).
and a storybook. As a high-impact tool, the program as
mentioned before, mentored both teachers and students
through radio broadcasting.

A third educational tool developed by MEN which also


aimed to strengthen English in primary was My ABC

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2- WHAT REALITY DOES THIS CURRICULAR 2.1 LEGAL FRAMEWORK of children with special needs or those exceptionally
talented; and the ethnical, cultural, linguistic and
PROPOSAL CONSIDER FOR THE TEACHING OF In this section the Convención sobre los Derechos del environmental features of each region and community
Niño (UNICEF, 2006) was considered. This document (article 12). Furthermore, the same decree sets as
ENGLISH IN TRANSITION AND PRIMARY? establishes that every child has the right to, at least, curricular guidelines for preschool holistic growth,
receive a free primary education; this education participation, and ludic; it conceives assessment as
This section shows the national educational reality, social, geographical, and cultural characteristics were
must be oriented to develop his/her personality and a holistic, systematic, permanent, participatory and
specifically the English teaching process for Transition involved, to obtain a picture as heterogeneous and
competencies to prepare him/her for an active adult qualitative process. The curriculum proposed for
and Primary, the features of the target population and representative as possible of the multiple realities of the
life, respect for basic human rights and for national and transition must follow these curricular guidelines and
some other external factors that influence the teaching national population.
cultural values of his/her own culture and that of others at the same time consider them as the basis to design
and learning processes at these levels.
(artículo 29). The teaching of a foreign language plays the curriculum for primary schools.
This section is divided into the following subsections:
an important role since it helps children to strengthen
Having conducted a holistic and informed needs analysis, legal framework for child education, target population
values related to their cultural identity, while they learn Aware of the importance given to education in early
through the use of multiple data collection techniques characterization, challenges for teachers, and factors
about other cultures. childhood, Colombia has implemented the De Cero
and from different perspectives allows this curriculum that influence the English teaching and learning process
a Siempre strategy (See law 1804 of 2016), which
innovation to respond efficiently to the variety of national in transition and primary schools.
In the national scenario, an important document to focuses on assuring conditions that guarantee an ideal
contexts. For this process, institutions with diverse
analyze was the law 1098 of 2006, which introduced development for children ages 0 to 6. The name of this
the Código de la Infancia y Adolescencia in the country. strategy implies that raising children under a holistic
This document provides legal dispositions regarding approach, will set the basis for long-term human skills
compliance with the rights of children in Colombia. and abilities. Thus, teaching English at preschool will
With regard to the right to education, it emphasizes influence children’s ability to acquire the language
You should do
your homework! the right children have to receive free and compulsory when they start formal education. However, emphasis
quality education for a year of preschool and nine in should be placed in developing competences in their
Why?
basic education (article 28). In addition, the importance native language.
of early childhood (0 to 6 years-old) is recognized; an
It’s our age fundamental for cognitive, emotional and social 2.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDREN BETWEEN
responsibility!
development (artículo 29, p. 12). On the other hand, this THE AGES OF 5 AND 12
law emphasizes the right of children to rest, play, and
participate in activities typical of their age group, as Rice (1997) affirms that the life span between the ages
well as cultural and arts-related activities (artículo 20, of 3 and 5 corresponds to early childhood. At that age,
p. 12). As this right is considered essential for this age children begin to develop self- concept, identity and
group, it is an inherent aspect of the curriculum. they also acquire gender roles that determine their
games, likes and friends. Likewise, Papalia, Wendkos
For preschool education, the decree 2247 de 1997, offers & Duskin (2010) claim that early childhood represents
some guidelines on the principles that must be followed. that stage of life in which children increase their levels
The document states that the preschool curriculum of attention, the promptness to process information and
must be a project on permanent construction and the development of long-term memories.
pedagogical research developed through play and
integrating: the dimensions of human beings - corporal, Early childhood begins with the development of thinking
cognitive, affective, communicative, ethics, aesthetic, through images. Novoselova (1981) states that thinking
and behavioral; learning styles; the educational needs through images leads children towards the threshold of

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logic, since it lets them understand general schemes cultural interaction. Such a vision is the central tenet
that are the basis to build concepts. Similarly, of this curriculum proposal. Three!!!
Novoselova (1981) claims that once logical thinking is
dominated, thinking through images remains and does As can be seen, trying to understand children in school
not disappear, even complex and abstract activities age is a daunting task. Children are unique and their
Two!!!!
that apparently require only logical thinking, involve nature requires ludic and discovery but above all it
the use of images. requires their willingness to learn and feel empowered
about everything that surrounds them. Children are Let’s count to three,
one...
On the other hand, Rice (1997) mentions that body and mind, they feel and communicate, they are
intermediate childhood corresponds to ages 6 to 11, also spirit and as humans that they are, their growth
in which the child demonstrates advances in reading, is permanent and holistic mediated by adults, other
writing and arithmetic. At this stage, children start to children and the environment.
understand their world, to think logically, and their
moral and psychosocial development becomes more 2.3. TEACHERS’ CHALLENGES
important influencing their emotional and social
selves. The purpose of a teacher should be to guarantee
holistic education. That is why he/she should
To support the previous idea, Craig (1997) claims be an agent of change, a guide but above all, a
that at this stage, children are more flexible with mediator. The work of a teacher requires permanent needs to understand and appreciate the (maturative, systematic, participatory, qualitative and permanent.
their thoughts, they learn to correct themselves after transformation as situations inside the classroom motor, affective, cognitive, social and spiritual) As Borjas (2013) states, the main objective every
making mistakes and to start again, furthermore, they vary or increase and therefore the challenges he/she processes of children; and he/she needs to listen to teacher needs to achieve is to know and understand the
learn how to analyze different situations, objects or has to face. Creating an appropriate environment children respectfully. holistic development of children, their achievements
problems from several perspectives. for each experience, using strategies that facilitate and difficulties, while stimulating the development of
learning processes and proper assessment are the A second challenge for the teacher is to implement positive attitudes, values and behavior.
On the other hand, Vygotsky (1981) contributes to this main challenges the new millennium teacher faces methodological strategies that can mediate between
conceptualization with very important theories that and which are discussed below. children and learning. In order to do this, the teacher 2.4. FACTORS TO CONSIDER FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION
are based on the influence of the context in children’s needs to know students’ needs, interests, and OF THE SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM
development. As for the development stages, Vygotsky Trilla, J. et al (2011) claim that the learning environment motivations, as well as to count on multidimensional FOR TRANSITION AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS
(1981) claims that between the ages of 6 and 11 years does not only refer to the physical space, but also to the skills that allow him/her to have an array of strategies IN COLOMBIA
old, children are in a categorial stage, in which their content and the didactic materials used to potentialize that can function in different contexts and to tackle
thought becomes more organized, based on more self- learning and metacognition. Fostering a learning different learning needs. English teaching and learning in Transition and Primary
significant knowledge of their surrounding reality. atmosphere is related to dedicating some time to schools in Colombia is, without any doubt, a complex
organize every detail to help children grow in autonomy, Finally, every teacher has the challenge to assess context. This is mainly due to the fact that the educational
This theory also recognizes that the human being freedom and participation, since an attractive students’ learning. Initially, traditional education was system in these levels is implemented by all-subjects
is first a social being, and then an individual being. environment motivates children to develop their skills centered on the results of learning only as a mean to teachers. That is, one single teacher, the headteacher, is
All learning is first built in collectivity, as a social at a higher level (Trilla, J. et al, 2011). give a value to the knowledge achieved by students at generally in charge of teaching all basic subjects in the
phenomenon, to be then interiorized and systematized a certain time. Nowadays, talking about assessment curriculum. On the other hand, there is not a sufficient
by the child at a psychological level. Therefore, all The ability to manage a learning environment implies means considering it as a vital part of a child’s learning number of English teachers to supply the growing need
teaching and learning processes will need to happen having a real pedagogical intention. The teacher process. The teacher provides close, constant and in the country. Therefore, primary teachers are the
in a social and cultural situation, being language the needs to know how to observe, mediate the processes timely monitoring and revision through observation, ones who massively have the daunting task of teaching
most important mediation element of such socio- proposed and co- built with children. The teacher questioning, and listening. Assessment must be English. Most of them, however, do not have the language

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proficiency needed, nor the methodological resources


for this job. This, and other realities, such as the time
be more efficient, participation to be democratized,
and discipline to be improved.
3- WHAT ARE THE CURRICULUM PROPOSAL
(or lack of) dedicated to English teaching per week, and • Establishment of flexible institutional policies PRINCIPLES FOR TRANSITION AND PRIMARY?
the high number of students per class in some contexts, regarding teaching load is necessary. This can be
were clearly evident during the needs analysis. done by school principals, and supported by Local This section describes the underlying principles for the education. Pre-A1 level is considered, in this proposal,
Education Authorities. For example, allowing a curriculum, including: the adopted curriculum approach, as a platform for preparing and familiarizing students
There are, then, a lot of opportunities for this context, teacher with some language skills or language the curriculum themes, curriculum characteristics, and with language foundations, that will give them initial
among them: education to teach English in several groups in the purpose of the curriculum proposal. communicative tools to face English learning when they
Transition and Primary. enter secondary education.
• Constant and continuous teacher education is a • Allocation of didactic and audiovisual resources 3.1. WHY IS AN ENGLISH CURRICULUM Hence, it is fundamental to set off from the initial
pressing need. Educational processes are needed for English teaching and learning is paramount to NECESSARY FOR TRANSITION AND secondary curriculum proposal and offer teachers in the
to improve language levels, as well as innovate support curriculum implementation and innovative PRIMARY? country a Suggested Curriculum design that responds
English teaching practices in order to acquire the methodological strategies. This initiative needs to to both the needs of a globalized world, as well as
necessary tools for the implementation of the come from the Local Education Authorities and the The National Ministry of Education has been making an the contextual particularities of institutions in urban
English curriculum in educational institutions. National Ministry of Education. effort to assure the equity and quality of education in and rural environments. The curriculum can provide
This curriculum can constitute an educational • Promotion of school administrators leadership all the regions of the country. Every day, the need for a teachers a route to guide their pedagogical practice, as
and updating tool, through its methodological and skills is essential. They can ensure, for example, the national curriculum to guide all schools, respecting the well as becoming an educational tool for them, adjusted
assessment suggestions, but can not fulfill the need allocation and compliance of at least one hour for socio- cultural diversity of the country and the institutional to their reality.
for the development of teachers’ communicative English teaching a week in all grades in transition autonomy that schools have, is more evident. The
competence in English. and primary. They can also mobilize resources and objective is to create high quality, flexible, and inclusive 3.2. WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF THE
• Implementation of classroom management processes towards English teaching and learning in curriculums able to support and accompany the work CURRICULUM PROPOSAL?
strategies is also important. These strategies can be their schools. done by the teachers of the country, regardless of social
implemented in large classes for English learning to status, economic status, or geographic location, and that This curricular proposal has several purposes:
can be adapted to the specific conditions of every context.
The development of a national curriculum in key aspects • Provide an open document that works as input for
like Language, Math, and English will allow schools to the discussion of educational communities around
There was a farmer who
had a dog and BINGO formulate clear teaching and learning expectations, common aspects that must guide the development
was his name which may support the setting of goals, learning areas, of communicative competences in English in the
B - I - N - G - O...
and competences that all children in Colombia have to regions, cities and municipalities.
achieve at the different levels of schooling. In this way,
equity and quality education are promoted. • Make the curricular components and basic contents
or minimum learning objectives that Colombian
Taking into consideration the existence and current students have the right to have, visible. The intention
implementation of the Suggested English Curriculum for is to stimulate discussion on the possibilities of
secondary schools, it is necessary to develop a Suggested restructuring and adapting them to the context.
English Curriculum for Transition and Primary with
its corresponding Basic Learning Rights. These will • Suggest a structure of general progression by levels
direct efforts towards the preparation of students in a of language, grades, number of hours and macro
Pre-A1 and starting A1 level, in order to guarantee the competences that must be available to all students
best possible performance, once they enter secondary during their school life.

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• Raise awareness in quality coordinators, bilingualism roles as designers and mediators of important, relevant To summarize, this curriculum proposal as a guiding, 3.4. WHAT WAS THE ADOPTED CURRICULUM
leaders, school administrative staff, teachers, students, and changing learning scenarios. suggesting, open and flexible document, puts in the APPROACH FOR THIS PROPOSAL?
and parents of the need to approach English learning hands of schools, administrative staff, and teachers, the
as a dynamic, continuous, progressive and planned • Generate feedback processes in which understanding, responsibility of making specific curricular decisions A curriculum approach, in the words of Sacristán (1988),
process that requires ensuring resources and the success and difficulties feed the proposal to that condition it to their particular educational reality. corresponds to the “classifications that systematize the
commitment of each of the stakeholders. continuously reconfigure it and adapt it. Such a curriculum is an invitation to integrate it to different theoretical orientations present in the curricular
the educational community context, the Institutional field, turning into organized frameworks of the conceptions
• Offer a curriculum structure and suggestions • Ensure, by means of this general curriculum Educational Project and other existing initiatives. about the reality they cover and become” (p. 44). Selecting
for implementation, in order to provide coherent proposal, an equitable treatment for all the an approach for the design of the Suggested Curriculum is a
ways to bring theory to practice. The aim is to population, with special emphasis on the 3.3. WHAT IS UNDERSTOOD BY CURRICULUM fundamental step in the process since it helps to consolidate
illustrate the internal coherence of the proposal, population “ at risk of social exclusion, poverty and IN THIS PROPOSAL? the structure that will help visualize the elements of the
by evidencing how each component reflects the the effects of inequality and all types of violence” curriculum and their interaction. Having clear conceptions
theoretical principles chosen. (MEN, 2006, p. 10). Law 115 of 1994 defines a curriculum as a “set of of education, learning, language learning, and competencies
criteria, curricula, programs, methodology, and that need to be fostered is crucial to define such approach.
• Stimulate creativity and critical and reflective processes that contribute to a holistic education and
positioning of schools and teachers, by giving them the construction of a cultural identity, that includes Taking into consideration the results obtained from the
human, academic and physical resources to put into needs analysis, the decision for this suggested curriculum
practice educational policies and implement the was to integrate two approaches: the action-oriented
Institutional Educational Project” (Art. 76). In addition, curriculum (CEFR, 2002), and the contextual (or ecological)
This is my sister Elena.
This is the Suggested Curriculum for secondary (MEN, curriculum (Bronfenbrenner, 1979).
She’s five years old.
my family! 2016) views the curriculum as a system integrated
by interrelated components also linked to the context 3.4.1. Action-oriented curriculum approach
where it is implemented. On that train of thought, the
curriculum is an element that integrates cultures, Language teaching and learning around the world has
knowledge, skills, and practices and guarantees the experienced important advances since the publication of
development of the individual and the transformation the Common European Framework of Reference (Council of
of society. Europe, 2001). The document suggests an Action-oriented
Curriculum Approach, that is, the development of certain
The present curriculum proposal is based on that tasks through which learners can develop the necessary
integrating vision of curriculum, starting with the need competences to perform effectively in communicative
to strengthen the interaction among its components, contexts different from their own. In other words, learning
teachers and students. In fact, the curriculum is the result of specific actions that can include linguistic,
proposal for secondary equally establishes that vision sociolinguistic, and pragmatic aspects, necessary and
in which contents, and pedagogical processes are comprehensible to all individuals.
transformed from the understanding that learning is
an active and continuous process, product of social This conception of curriculum highlights the active and
interaction with others and whose aim is the integral participative nature of the speaker in the process of foreign
development of the human being and consequently language learning. That is to say that communicative
the transformation of society and intercultural growth processes happen through the development of specific
(Scott, 2008). tasks, based on the particular social interaction contexts

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where they occur. Thus, general and communicative can lead him/her to use the language appropriately in a daily life” (Blanco, 2006, p. 124). Thus, meaningful learning In this curriculum, the interrelation among these systems
competences are fostered in order to perform actions given social situation. is guaranteed by addressing students’ needs and interests takes central role, due to the articulation of suggested
(tasks) through which new volitional and cognitive skills and This action-oriented conception transcends the (Coll, 1987). This model suggests an active classroom tasks and projects, which aims at helping students position
abilities are strengthened. This approach is based on two communicative approach as it encourages and engages experience that mobilizes interrelations among the diverse themselves as a participative and conscious subject, inside
fundamental principles, which are presented below: learners in meaningful, clear-directed learning. In this systems involved in educational processes. and outside of their contextual systems, with the objective
regard, it is crucial to face language learners to clear and of potentializing their learning opportunities.
Learning happens through social interaction concrete tasks, which are based on real-life, authentic, Brofenbrenner (1979) made a distinction of the contextual
In a given task or action, the student’s role shifts to become language use. systems that can interact with individuals and classified 3.4.3. How are these two curriculum approaches
an active participant of his/her learning process by means them into micro, meso, exo, and macro system. The articulated in the Suggested Curriculum for Transition and
of interaction with others. According to Vygotsky (1978) 3.4.2. Contextual or ecological curriculum approach microsystem refers to the level that is closest to the child, Primary?
knowledge construction is a genuinely social process, and which is generally represented by the family. The
which, from this approach, depends not only on the The Contextual or Ecological curriculum approach mesosystem forms from the interrelation between two Selecting the approaches that underlie the curriculum
type of task assigned but also on the quality of the social suggests that participants and their environment interact in or more contexts where the child moves, in this case it design of the present Suggested Curriculum for Transition
exchange that occurs in the development of that task. The order to construct, complement, and transform knowledge can be the school or the groups of friends. The exosystem and Primary, depends on the pertinence and relevance of
grammatical and lexical elements that are involved in this (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). This vision acknowledges that is represented by contexts or organizations outside the the approaches discussed, and the national contextual
task, more than learning objectives, constitute the tools to there is no absolute truth, and that reality is shaped and experience of the child, but which has an impact on his/ needs. Table 3 below shows the most relevant aspects of
achieve the communicative objectives proposed. transformed in the classroom. Hence, the classroom is her development, for example, the health system or public the two approaches presented previously.
perceived as an interaction site, an epicenter of educational policies. Finally, the macrosystem is the most external level
Learning happens through action processes that brings about knowledge, opinions, and in which all previous systems are immersed and which
Language learning, according to this approach, is a feelings from the context that are finally transformed relates to the relationships and social classes, cultures and
product of social interaction, that is, through action or complemented. This interaction constitutes the subcultures that revolve around the child’s world.
in defined social contexts in which speakers exchange fundamental principle of this approach.
knowledge, opinions, emotions, while they strengthen
ASPECT ACTION ORIENTED CONTEXTUAL - ECOLOGICAL
skills and abilities that go beyond communication. Learning happens through interaction with others, and
Here, the action or ‘social’ task, replaces the concept the context.
Is a “social agent”, which means he or she Is a subject that actively participates in his/
of speech act (Puren, 2004), and it is developed through Learning in this approach is a social construction that The Student her learning process, which allows him/her
is also a learner-user of the language.
communicative or social strategies or competences. starts in the context and moves towards the configuration to transform his/her social environment.
In other words, the speaker needs to make informed of theories and models, by means of “participative and
decisions during the development of the tasks, which interactive teaching, which focuses on what happens in Creates communicative tasks. The
teacher becomes a person-resource, to
Is a mediator of social and institutional
The Teacher which students turn to with the aim of
culture, as well as a mediator of learning.
producing texts that are appropriate for
I’m sick. their social interaction.
Oh, I’m sorry!

Develop general and communicative Objectives are identified as skills and


Objectives competences, by fostering participation in values that can be used in concrete, real life
authentic and concrete contexts. contexts through meaningful language use.

Happens in two ways:


• Through activities related to
Happens through social interaction in
Learning sociocultural context.
concrete tasks.
• Through interaction with peers and
development of cognitive skills.

Table 3. Comparative table. Action-oriented and contextual/ecological approaches.

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In general terms, both approaches view the student’s Learning processes are conceived as the ability to and secondly in children’s self, on an intrapsychological that allows a natural behavior to be transformed into a
role as highly active in his/her learning process. Learning act and participate in a community of practice. This is field. The sociocultural approach for language learning, higher mental process, by means of significant social
occurs through interactions or social exchanges, coherent with the methodological approaches of tasks in this curriculum, aims at promoting language activities (Minick, 1987). In other words, this curriculum
through games and through the development of social and projects. Students take the role of agents of action, development in collaborative scenarios that favor suggest mediating activities that can mobilize significant
and affective dimensions, which are equally fostered in who can engage actively in the contextual processes students’ interaction with their peers in contexts that learning from social interactions that are relevant for
early childhood education systems. around them. are familiar to them, and that can be expanded to reach children. The second notion, that of meaning, has to do
interaction with the world. with the natural and unique capacity that human beings
On the other hand, the teacher is a resource that In sum, the Action-oriented Approach offers students have to communicate with a specific sense of function.
supports social and cultural growth, an agent that an authentic and motivating character, while the Hence, Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory is Meaning-making should prevail over symbols. In the
manages interaction and learning spaces, based on the Contextual Approach situates students in their own fundamented on the influence of the context in children’s case of English learning in this Suggested Curriculum,
surrounding contexts, and on the knowledge and skills contexts in order to know it deeply and transform it. In development. Vygotsky recognizes that learning and meaning is more important that form (grammar,
students already possess and need to complement other words, it starts from students’ reality and helps development are interdependent. One of his most vocabulary, etc.) to promote communication that has
or transform. However, these approaches require the them understand it and perform well in it, through significant contributions is the notion of Zone of Proximal real meaning in a real speech situation.
teacher to be an engaged professional, aware of his/ her interaction with peers, and the promotion of autonomy Development, which refers to the distance between the
vital role in this process. The teacher needs to possess and cooperation towards learning. child’s current developmental level, which is determined In this Curriculum proposal, it is expected that, through
the methodological and communicative competences by how he or she solves a problem independently, and teachers’ mediation, children in Transition and Primary
necessary to guide and facilitate students’ foreign 3.5. WHAT ARE THE CURRICULUM THEMES the potential developmental level, which is achieved can be in touch with the foreign language, through
language learning, as well as their integral education as THAT SUPPORT THIS PROPOSAL FOR by solving a problem with the guidance of an adult active observation, and can begin to integrate learned
human beings, ultimate goal of any educational process. ENGLISH TEACHING AND LEARNING IN or a more capable peer. That is to say, that a child’s elements in their own interactions.
The teacher is conceived, based on the articulation of TRANSITION AND PRIMARY? learning can be stimulated through the interaction he/
these two approaches, as a reflexive professional with she has with his/her peers or teacher. This is where the 3.5.2. Cross-curricularity
transforming potential (Kumaravadivelu, 2003), who, This section presents a description of each one of the notion of scaffolding comes into play (Bruner, 1978).
commencing from the recognition of his/her areas to curriculum themes selected for the Suggested English Scaffolding refers to the support or help that a more Cross-curricularity is conceived as “the construction of
improve, which in this case have to do mostly with the Curriculum for Transition and Primary: sociocultural capable peer, or adult, can give to the child so that he/ dialogues among disciplines, which is specified in the
language level, can exercise his/her power facing the approach, cross-curricularity, diversity and equity, and she can overcome his/her current developmental level. different subjects in a holistic way. By fostering cross
implementation of this curriculum, making important value education. Both concepts are vital in this Suggested Curriculum in curricularity, addressing multidisciplinary social, ethic,
decisions for choosing and adapting the suggestions in regards to English learning, as teachers are entitled to and moral issues, present in students’ environment is
his/her teaching context. The teacher is also the one who 3.5.1. The sociocultural approach to language learning mediate between what students are (or are not) capable also promoted. This dynamically links schools, family
mediates in the interaction between the curriculum and of doing with the language, and what they will need to and sociocultural contexts towards understanding
the students, in order to encourage transformational The Suggested Curriculum is based on the conception be able to do by the end of their primary education. those dilemmas” (MEN, 1998b). Cross-curricularity
processes suggested in this proposal. of English learning as a social phenomenon that is, per se, an integral education tool that, along with
In relation to their objectives, both approaches promote involves cognitive, affective, and interactional processes Similarly, the teacher has the responsibility to generate motivation, aims at consolidating children’s knowledge,
the development of skills and competences that have (Bandura, 1992; Halliday & Hassan, 1989; Hymes, 1972; contents, materials, activities, and opportunities that skills, attitudes and values allowing them to become
linguistic and sociocultural scopes. It is evident that Vygotsky, 1978). Bearing this in mind, one of the central will act as the “scaffold” for the development of students human beings capable of addressing phenomena from
context plays a fundamental role in both approaches. axes of this proposal is the sociocultural approach, which communicative and sociocultural competence. different perspectives, moving away from knowledge
In this curriculum proposal, these aspects require emerges from Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory. fragmentation. Besides, this theme helps the
clear knowledge of the contexts where children operate This theory recognizes the human being as first a social Other two important notions from Vygotsky (1978), curriculum approach reality and to have practical and
in order to plan and propose clear, measurable, and being, and then as an individual. As Wertsch (1988) especially relevant for language learning are mediation social real-life application (Magendzo, 1998; 2001).
coherent objectives, which go in line with their reality puts it, children’s cultural development is evidenced and meaning. The first one relates to the idea of
as well as with their educational needs. firstly around others, on an interpsychological field, ‘scaffolding’ presented before and refers to the process

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Cross-curricularity in this Suggested Curriculum for offering some elements with which every teacher Children are different in gender, culture, learning styles, in a relevant, flexible and adaptable way. Each school
Transition and Primary is coherent with two factors can identify, and which transcend English teaching train of thought, physical and cognitive limitations and can, therefore, make use of the curriculum to ensure
that are fundamental for this context. Firstly, this as a communicative instrument, and point to the possibilities. This curriculum respects those differences that all Transition to fifth grade children in the country
theme addresses the fact that transition is a cycle educational field. That is, it aims at educating holistic and considers them valuable. achieve the learning objectives.
that inherently favors cross-curricular work through citizens, aware of their role as agents of change in their
the dimensions that it aims to develop, as well as the society. The objective is for teachers to perceive the In English learning, the theme of diversity plays a 3.5.4. Values-based Education
multidisciplinary projects that are the methodological English class as another scenario for the achievement fundamental role by promoting teaching that is not
foundation of this level (MEN, 1998a), and which bring of their educational goals in each grade. Each rigid nor homogenizing; on the contrary, it expands its The development of values, attitudes, and personality
children closer to their surrounding reality and help module suggested in the curriculum structure is an methodology and assessment paths so that they take are critical during childhood. It is therefore crucial to
them discover the world. Cross-curricularity is therefore example of how English learning can contribute to into account students’ individualities and differences. emphasize values-based education between the ages
a logical action for transition, but additionally, it is a the achievement of cross-curricular objectives that Besides, a diverse English classroom contemplates of 5 to 12. According to UNESCO (2010) “values and
theme that shows to be effective for children in primary involve knowledge and abilities from other areas of the recognition of the legitimate other (Magendzo, attitudes through which we live, affect how we relate to
education by giving them the opportunity to use English the institutional curriculum. Module 3 in transition, 2014), with their identities and particularities, which other people and to all our activities in the environment,
to practice, learn or reinforce their knowledge about for example, suggests the goal of “establishing simple converge in the classroom and open space for yet and therefore, are a primary influence in our prospects
the world that surrounds them, and about topics that actions for environmental care at home and at school”. another, the foreign other. Diversity in this Suggested for reaching a sustainable future”. In this sense, values-
are being studied in other subjects. This will hopefully In this module, the syllabus and methodological and Curriculum strengthens children’s intercultural relations, based education relates to the affective or emotional
have an impact on children’s motivation for learning assessment suggestions point to the achievement and promotes their own culture recognition, as well as dimension of human behavior, and can not be separated
(Piaget, 1975, as cited in Torres, 2006), as they see how of that goal, while they also propose English use respect for differences. from cognitive understanding. This curriculum
foreign language learning can have an application and for specific tasks related to the topic. This goal is proposal favors cross-curricular work, which conceives
be transferred to other disciplines. coherent for the primary teacher since it can be easily Equity, on the other hand, has been established as one the English classroom as a space where values are
articulated with environmental protection processes of the pillars in the National Development Plan 2014- promoted and articulated, so that they can contribute to
Secondly, the needs analysis results show that, in the carried out at the institution. Also, the teacher will 2018, which “contemplates a vision of integral human the improvement of education. The values that promote
context of English teaching in Transition and Primary have knowledge of the discipline that will enhance the development in a society with opportunities for all” (p. cross-curricularly are dialogue, peace, responsibility and
in Colombia, most teachers are professionals in development of the module. 1). Following that train of thought, equity, within this accountability, determination, and criticality (Blanquet,
elementary education, or in other subjects, such as proposal, parts from a vision of education from a rights 2013).
Spanish, Science, Social Studies, and Maths. This 3.5.3. Diversity and Equity approach. In order for this curriculum to be equitable,
gives them a cultural background, a knowledge of it has to establish what learning is valuable for all The importance of values-based education in this
their discipline, that can be used in the English class. Diversity and equity are important themes in this students, and what learning they all have the right to. curriculum comes from a vision of education as an
Teachers have knowledge, skills, attitudes, and proposal as they configure children’s position in This is done as a way to ensure that each student has ethical event (Bárcena & Mèlich, 2000; Mèlich, 2011).
values that are very valuable, as well as experience the world, in relation to themselves and others. the same opportunity to develop the necessary skills Any educational activity, and in this case, any kind
to teach in these levels. These tools can help them Given that, and in coherence with the Suggested and abilities to help build a better country, as well as to of learning occurs in a social scenario with others.
face the challenge of teaching English, by using their Curriculum for secondary, this proposal encourages face the challenges of the modern world. And, according to Mèlich (2011), “if the relationship
potentialities and articulate them cross-curricularly Local Education Authorities, schools, school teachers that is established with the other is a relationship of
with the English subject, as this curriculum proposal and administrative staff, to safeguard the rights of Thus, the Suggested English Curriculum for Transition responsibility, compassion, care, in which it is the other
suggests. Thus, English learning can really become a all children in the country. They have to assure all and Primary originated with knowledge from the who is important, then that relationship is said to be
vehicle to acquire knowledge of the world and not just children have access to the same opportunities and particular needs of these levels in relation to English ethical (p. 49, our translation).
about the language itself. live meaningful experiences, oriented to achieve the learning, in the diverse national contexts. Based on Values-based education in this curriculum will also
learning objectives that have been established in their those needs, the proposal established goals and be observed through citizenship education which
The suggested curriculum structure pretends to be path towards holistic human development. learning objectives, basic learning rights, and a constitutes a fundamental characteristic in this
a guide of how to achieve this cross-curricularity by curricular structure that aims at fulfilling those needs curriculum, and will be discussed in the next section.

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3.6. WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF of the target population. It is necessary to highlight reference framework for the development of these
THE SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM that this flexibility is concretized in the suggested skills. This rainbow includes, besides traditional
FOR TRANSITION AND PRIMARY? curriculum structure (mallas de aprendizaje) for each disciplines, topics of modern content, such as global
grade, in a way that teachers can make decisions and environmental awareness, financial, health, and
The previous curriculum themes unfold some about its implementation within each suggested civic competencies. All of the above, surrounded
curriculum characteristics that are closely related module and its components. However, with the by three sets of fundamental skills for the present
to them. These characteristics are flexibility and aim of ensuring the progression of the established century:
adaptability, XXI century skills, games and discovery, competences and the achievement of the learning 3.6.3. Games and discovery
inclusion, and global citizenship education.They will be goals, the recommendation is not to alter the order • Learning and innovation skills: within this category,
discussed in this section. of the modules within a specific grade. one can find critical thinking, problem-solving, The child is a unique being, whose nature favors
communication and collaboration, and creativity game-oriented, and discovery activities. It especially
Adaptability has to do with the ability of this curriculum and innovation. targets the child’s desire to learn and make his/
to adapt to the bilingual projects that can be in place, her surrounding context his/her own. Both notions
within schools’ autonomy in Transition and Primary. • Information, media, and technology skills: In have been considered as pillars of early education
Aspects such as number of hours a week, institutional this second category, they include information by the MEN (2014). They also have great influence in
resources, number of students and teachers, among literacy (which allows to access, evaluate and use this curriculum proposal as it recognizes that these
others, were considered in this proposal to make it information efficiently), media literacy (which are also pillars for learning, and may have positive
easily adaptable. contributes to understand, critique, and use results for English learning in particular.
diverse media resources to transmit messages),
3.6.1. Flexibility and adaptability and ICT literacy (which refers to knowing how to Through game-oriented activities, children discover
use these tools for better learning). their body and start their interpersonal relationships
With the aim of making this curriculum viable in our with others. Play is, then, an inherent part of learning
country’s diverse contexts, this proposal has been • Life and work skills: the last category includes and human development.
conceived from the idea of flexibility and adaptability. flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-
Two interdependent characteristics that allow each direction, social and cross-cultural interaction, Games are a synonym of comfort, well-being,
element of the curriculum proposal to be adapted, by productivity and accountability, and leadership enjoyment, happiness, and learning; even when the
teachers and schools, to an Institutional Educational 3.6.2. 21st Century Skills and responsibility. former occur accidentally. According to Benítez (2009),
Project (PEI in Spanish), and help them achieve the children acquire multiple learning when they play,
established language learning objectives. Education in the XXI century demands that, along The previously mentioned skills permeate the since games stimulate their intellectual development, by
with disciplinary knowledge, students develop skills learning objectives in this curriculum proposal; taking allowing them to make judgments and solve problems.
Flexibility refers to the characteristics that this that allow them to perform successfully in a changing, into account students’ cognitive and socioemotional This develops their creativity, imagination and curiosity
curriculum has, even on concrete pedagogical globalized world. Students in Transition and Primary development, as well as the development of their to discover the world around them. It also offers them
principles and foundations, to be evaluated and should start developing competencies that prepare communicative competence. In order to do this, a a scenario to put into practice the acquired learning.
appropriated in different ways to adjust to real, them to perform jobs that have not been created, as revision of the XXI century skills proposed in the above
dynamic and changing contexts of schools in the well as to understand situations and solve problems framework was carried out, and its adaptability and Children also learn through the experiences that
country (Lemke, 1978; Magendzo, 1991, 1996). This in a critical and innovative way. application in this context were evaluated. These their environment offers them. Exploration of their
Suggested Curriculum is flexible, with a spiral and skills are represented as performance indicators that surroundings allows children to construct knowledge
cyclical structure, and with methodological and Trilling and Fadel (2009) have suggested a ‘XXI century target the “know how to learn” within the syllabus of about the world that surrounds them, by means
assessment paths that can be adjusted to the needs knowledge and skills rainbow’, which constitutes a each of the grades in the curriculum structure. of processes such as “manipulation, observation,

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experimentation, verbal expression, and expression suggests that an inclusive school needs to: value The main objectives of Global Citizenship Education are, about local, national, regional, and global issues,
of artistic languages” (MEN, 2014, p. 21). diversity as an element that uplifts, not that hinders, according to UNESCO (2014): and the interconnection and interdependence of
learning; have an educational project that appropriately countries and populations.
Within the exploration of their surrounding is, of addresses differences; create a flexible curriculum; • Encourage learners to analyse real-life issues • Socioemotional dimension, which refers to the
course, nature. Being in contact with nature puts make use of methodologies and strategies that critically and to identify possible solutions sense of belonging to a common humanity, sharing
the child close to his/her purest instincts, and also effectively respond to children’s learning pace, needs, creatively and innovatively. values and responsibilities, empathy, solidarity,
empowers his/her learning processes. By bringing and interests. • Support learners to revisit assumptions, and respect for differences and diversity.
children closer to nature, diverse developmental, worldviews and power relations in mainstream • Behavioral dimension, which involves effective
sensorial, and learning processes are favored. In terms of inclusion, no laws have been created in discourses and consider people/groups that are and responsible actions which can occur in a
Sánchez (2014) affirms that through contact with Colombia that exclusively address students with systematically underrepresented/ marginalised. local, national or global level to construct a more
nature, children do not only develop psychomotor, special educational needs. Instead, these needs are • Focus on engagement in individual and collective peaceful and sustainable world.
cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional aspects, but dealt with cross-curricularly (Vásquez-Orjuela, 2015). action to bring about desired changes.
also, favor understanding of knowledge as a means to Often times, special educational needs put children • Involve multiple stakeholders, including those English classrooms can become an ideal place to
achieve perfection of soul, and not as an instrument in situations that represent “a clear disadvantage in outside the learning environment, in the promote the development of the previous dimensions,
to dominate nature. the face of others, due to physical, environmental, community and in wider society. due to their intercultural nature. The English lesson
cultural, communicative, linguistic, and social is a place where the ‘I’, the ‘other’, and ‘the world’
Both, play and discovery of surroundings, are barriers that are found in such contexts” (MEN, 2009, On the other hand, Global Citizenship Education converge (Guilherme, 2002), therefore, this curriculum
fundamental characteristics in this proposal that article 2). This disadvantage is even more observable involves the following three central dimensions proposal suggests that the interaction of these selves
permeate the methodology and assessment of the when learning a foreign language. Bearing that (UNESCO, 2015): occurs through a critical vision, that allows social and
suggested curriculum. in mind, this Curriculum must be inclusive. This cross-cultural boundaries to expand by encouraging
proposal provides teachers with guidelines that • Cognitive dimension, which seeks to promote students and teachers to become active members of
aim at fulfilling the needs of students with learning knowledge, understanding and critical thinking more participative and democratic societies.
disabilities, as well as those with special conditions
such as physical disabilities when learning the
English language.

Look! There is a
dinosaur in this
3.6.4. Inclusion story.

Colombian educational policy aims to give all children


better and equal access to learning environments. An
inclusive educational system, by nature, contributes
to social justice. 3.6.5. Global Citizenship

In order to help schools to become inclusive One of the priorities of the UNESCO Education Let me see!
scenarios, it is necessary to restructure and redefine Strategy 2014-2021 is that of “empowering learners
the assumptions that orient learning, as well as a to be creative and responsible global citizens”
change in perspective and the implementation of (webpage). This curriculum proposal includes a very
actions that target inclusion. important characteristic that precisely addresses this
In accordance with the previous idea, Bertrán (2010) multinational goal.

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Today, we talk about learning as an enjoyable process learning prevailed. This theory though was considered

4- WHAT CONCEPTIONS UNDERLIE THE where children construct their own knowledge, while
developing age-related dimensions, capacities and skills.
for the selection and sequencing of learning goals and
proposed curricular performance.
REFERENCE FRAMEWORK FOR THE SUGGESTED
ENGLISH CURRICULUM FOR TRANSITION AND PRIMARY? The term learning can be designed in many ways. Finally, Florez (2009, as cited in Sandoval et al. (2015)
Ausubel in Carter (1997) argues that “learning is states that there is a holistic principle in the construction
synonymous to understanding. Therefore, what is of learning that forces us to contemplate the person in
The Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014 – 2018 considers that contribute to the development of knowledge from understood is what you learn and remember better, all its aspects, to achieve greater comprehensiveness
education the most influential instrument in the country practice and the plurality of points of view help to answer because it will be integrated into your structure of and effectiveness in learning at any level. In this sense,
in terms of social equity and economic growth. Hence, the complexity of problems (Aldridge & Goldman, 2007). knowledge “(p. 27). This view is consistent with new it is possible to understand that learning must be
the reference framework states that one of the most learning trends that define learning as: to understand, synonymous with integrity. Likewise, it is understood
important goals of education is to improve quality and In regard to the vision of education for children, early among other things, the world and the surrounding that its ultimate goal is to develop in a balanced,
accessibility that mirror international standards and education is understood as the basis on which all human reality to take active roles (action) in our society. Such is harmonious manner the various dimensions that allow
provide equal opportunity to all citizens. Since education processes are developed - cognitive, psycho- social, the case of the approach of teaching for understanding the child to be potentiated intellectually, humanly,
is considered one of the pillars for the development of affective and emotional, psychological, and physical. In (Perkins, 1992), whose principles were taken into socially and professionally. This comprehensive view of
the country, designing a Suggested English Curriculum Colombia, decree 2247 of 1997 establishes a pedagogical account in the design of this curriculum. Teaching for learning is favored in this Curriculum Suggested from
for Transition to Primary becomes an essential element proposal for early childhood starting from human understanding is based on the idea that all learning transition to fifth grade.
for quality and equality. A clear definition of the concepts dimensions, namely: corporal, communicative, personal is situated and meaningful to the learner. Perkins’
of education, learning, language, learning a foreign and social, cognitive and aesthetic. A pedagogical extensive research (1992) on learning, more specifically 4.2.1. Language Learning
language and the reference framework for methodology framework is then proposed based on four principles: on understanding, offered ideas on four dimensions of
and assessment was necessary for the design of this games, literature, discovery of the world, and arts. Even reality which include: conceptual networks (what the Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory establishes that
curricular proposal. These are referenced below. though this pedagogical framework corresponds to initial student is expected to learn); methods for production of learning must be done under a social approach that
education which in Colombia represents ages 0 to 6, it is knowledge (involves what is valid, convincing, just, and optimizes exchange, construction and modification of
4.1. WHAT IS THE VISION OF EDUCATION IN THIS considered that these principles have infinite potential beautiful); practice (and how it informs construction of learning. Likewise, Halliday and Hasan (1985), conceive
PROPOSAL? from ages 6 to 12 which is the target population of this knowledge); and communication (taking into account language as a “meaning system” that happens in a
curricular proposal. the construction of knowledge based on the audience). social context and that is compound by functional
The design of a Suggested English Curriculum from These dimensions gave way to a teaching model that: texts which means having a specific purpose in a
Transition to Primary becomes an example of how 4.2. WHAT IS THE VISION OF LEARNING IN THIS takes into account generator topics or issues of interest determined context. This vision of language connects
education is connected to a cultural transmission PROPOSAL? to students to develop learning based on real life to the one envisioned in this proposal which refers
process that involves, not only the development of each problems; proposes comprehension goals that define to the concept that defines it as “oral and written
individual, but also the expression and the historical The proposal is based on the idea that learning and the mentioned topics and guide learning processes; expressions with describable relations, of form and
growth of mankind that starts from each human being language learning in particular occur when individuals suggests comprehension performance indicators that meaning, that coherently relate to a communicative
(Vygotsky en Moll, 1993). Consequently, Nuñez et al. interact with each other through cooperation with represent students´ skills, in other words, how they function or purpose addressed to a conversational
(2006) envisions education as a permanent process others. Through this interaction, people internalize can use knowledge in real situations; and provides partner or audience” (Celce-Murcia and Olshtain cited
that fosters lifelong learning. To achieve this goal, it is models and patterns in culture, specifically in the continuous and final assessment to the learning by Kumaravadivelu, 2008, pp. 7-8). Hence, this vision of
important to use a variety of strategies and methods culture of the foreign language to be studied. process. The principles of this theory converge with language is coherent with the vision of curriculum since
starting from a holistic approach (Bilmaria, 1995). This This century is defined by an information society which the Suggested Curriculum. Although in the curriculum, both are based on a communicative purpose.
curricular proposal is based on the concepts derived not challenges school systems to develop competencies the terms mentioned are not evident in the approach
only from pragmatic thinking but from postmodernist and transferable skills which are the most prominent to teaching for understanding, as the elements and On the other hand, Muñoz and others (2002) carried
thinking which suggest that learning experiences strategies to achieve the established goal of learning principles addressed more specifically to language out studies about learning a foreign language at school
planned through systematic exploration processes to learn ( Pozo & Monereo, 2001).

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age and concluded that older children, adolescents mediator of thought should be allowed to help
and adults are faster in the early stages of learning students internalize the foreign language. 4.3.1 The communicative competence This curricular proposal favors the explicit integration
that younger children . However, it has been observed • “Language is used to communicate” and therefore of the use of strategies in the learning process,
in circumstances of acquisition in natural environment allows students to express ideas, identities and Hymes (1972) defines the communicative competence as highlighting that each individual uses different tactics
that children who start early on learning a foreign emotions, which can mean and be interpreted the ability a person has to make use of his/ her knowledge to reach the same goal.
language are more likely, to reach higher levels of in different ways in different languages. This in real communicative situations. Communicative
mastery performance. So this curricular proposal differentiation should be recognized in the competence incorporates other competencies in itself. In conclusion, this proposal looks to promote transversal
would be taking advantage of one of the ideal stages classroom. It is necessary to discuss linguistic competence, which competencies applicable in different contexts, that are
in the language learning process as children’s early makes reference to the knowledge of lexical, syntactic obtained through the development of communicative
exposure to language may increase the possibilities of The important thing in this proposed model is the fact and phonological aspects of language. Knowledge of competence, such that the user of the language has the
achieving better results in the future. that the use of Spanish should be done in a planned these aspects must be obtained within different social capacity to interact effectively in different contexts and
way, having clear purposes, and at the right times so contexts developing the sociolinguistic competence taking on different situations and realities. However,
4.2.2. Relation between the mother tongue and the that, instead of becoming an interference, can be an (Hymes, 1972) which “refers to the knowledge of social communicative competence may not be developed in
foreign language element that favors (Brown, 1994) learning English and cultural conditions that are implicit in the use of isolation but must be integrated to other aspects that
inside the Transition and Primary classrooms. the language” (MEN, 2006, p.12). Likewise, for Hymes transcend the school environment and affect the capacity
In this curriculum it is important to reinforce the (1972), communicative competence includes others of interacting in a foreign language.
teaching of the mother tongue to be more effective The Suggested Curriculum for Transition and Primary such as the discourse and functional competencies that
when teaching the foreign language. Exposure to a welcomes these ideas, and the importance of the relate to the knowledge “both of the linguistic forms 4.3.2. The intercultural competence
second language, requires development of skills in the mother tongue for learning English, also considering and their functions and the way in which they are linked
mother tongue. Maturana (2011) considers that “the the characteristics of many of the teachers currently together in real communicative situations” (MEN, Given the intercultural nature of learning languages,
knowledge of the mother tongue facilitates the foreign teaching English in primary schools. 2006, p.12). Together, these two are called pragmatic it is necessary to approach, from this curricular
language process and that in some situations the competence because they correspond “to the functional proposal, a competence that gains ground in the
mother tongue may be used as a resource for teaching 4.3 WHAT COMPETENCES ARE AIMED use of linguistic resources” (MEN, 2006, p.12). educational field everyday: intercultural competence
English” (p. 80). AT THROUGH THIS CURRICULUM which in addition to constitutionally (acknowledged
Swain, Kirkpatrick, and Cummins (2011) recognize the PROPOSAL? Another important competence, which some in Colombia since 1991) being related to education
importance of L1 for learning a foreign language when authors such as Canale (1980) consider part of for ethnical and cultural diversity; also involves a
they say that “the planned use of L1 when English is The MEN defines competence as “the knowledge, the communicative competence, is the strategic dialogical relation between the culture inherent to the
taught supports and enhances learning English” (p. abilities and skills a person develops to understand, competence. This makes reference to the capacity language being learned and the individual culture, an
4) . This is an interesting argument, especially in our transform and participate in the world in which he/ of using different resources to try to communicate aspect that should be considered in teaching-learning
context, where the use of Spanish in English class is she lives” (MEN, 2009, 1) Likewise, it specifies successfully with the intention of overcoming possible processes of a foreign language.
perceived as inappropriate and there is a belief that a comprehensive vision of a competent student limitations that are derived from the level of knowledge
a policy of “English only” should be promoted. Swain, establishing what he/she must know, know how of the language. Malik (2003) defines it as “the knowledge, abilities
Kirkpatrick and Cummins’ assertion is supported, to be, know how to do and know how to relate, “in or skills and attitudes a conversational partner /
among others, with the following precepts: specific situations that require creative, flexible This competence is developed in different dimensions: intercultural mediator must have, supplemented by
and responsible applications of knowledge, abilities the cognitive that refers to the capacity of integrating the values that make part of a certain society and the
• “Language is a cognitive tool” that allows students and attitudes” (MEN, 2006a, p. 12). For this specific new knowledge on the topic; the metacognitive that numerous social groups to which we belong” (p. 15).
to reflect on problems, evaluate solutions and document, it is necessary to approach two types of relates to the individual ability of monitoring and The development of this competence is not approached
interpret and internalize new concepts. The competences inherent to learning languages: the self- directing learning, and the socio-affective that from a point of view that considers the other culture
authors propose, then, that the use of L1 as a communicative and the intercultural. includes perceptions of the students on their process, as superior or better. It is focused from a vision of
language and motivation, among others. familiarity with the new culture to encourage processes

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of respect and value of diversity, in which similarities and


differences with one’s own culture are acknowledged.
or communicative situation and the relevant vocabulary,
for example. The during stage, generally includes a
5- WHAT METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
series of more detailed tasks and activities that activate GUIDE THE SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM FOR
In this proposal, development of the intercultural
competence is proposed as the experience of students,
linguistic, pragmatic and intercultural aspects and the
way they affect understanding and the communicative
TRANSITION AND PRIMARY?
and teacher mediation in the sociocultural reality in situation in question. In this stage, opportunities
which they live, including internal, inter and intragroup to practice and use the abilities in a mediated and The methodological principles that underlie this curricularity as an element that enriches and mediates
conflicts, agreements and disagreements at the social structured way are provided. Finally, in the after stage (or proposal are based on the conception that teaching the English language learning process.
and cultural level that they face. post-) students reflect and discuss the implications of requires focusing on the needs of the students in all
the situations for their context, they make connections their dimensions (cognitive, affective, aesthetic, ethics, 5.1. TASK-BASED LEARNING
The communicative competence as well as the with other abilities and expand their opportunities to etc) and their linguistic, psychological and social fields
intercultural one are pertinent in this curriculum, practice them. to be effective. Therefore, the role of the teacher as This approach is based on the development of meaningful
their development considers the cognitive and socio- a professional who knows the elements of human tasks that allow students to use the language in context
affective particularities of students ages 5 to 12. These This curriculum emphasizes the development of oral development is fundamental for the implementation and with specific communicative purposes. In this
competences are even more important if it is considered skills, listening and speaking, aware that children are of this proposal. sense, the task becomes the most important part of the
that at these ages children are consolidating their just starting to read and write in their mother tongue. pedagogical practice as they are exactly the result of the
abilities and incorporate knowledge easily (MEN, The written skills, comprehension and production, will On the other hand, the proposed methodological interaction of communicative senses and not of forms or
2014). All these competences are based on the use be introduced gradually. framework takes into consideration the fact that the language structures.
of language and they are at the same time developed difference in ages, even from one year to the next, is
through the language skills, thus, it is necessary to a determining factor in the holistic development of Bygate, Skehan and Swain (2001) define task as an activity
know how those skills are understood in this proposal. students. Consequently, the population of Transition that requires students use of the language emphasizing
and Primary is subdivided in three stages: transition, meaning to achieve an objective. Task-based teaching
4.4. HOW DO LANGUAGE SKILLS DEVELOP first to third and fourth and fifth grade. Different and learning requires students´ participation to build
IN THE SUGGESTED ENGLISH methodological approaches are established from this their own knowledge through the completion of the tasks.
CURRICULUM FOR TRANSITION AND division and they point to a progression of language skills As for teachers, they need to prepare and organize all
PRIMARY? and activities and materials proposed in order to respond the elements necessary to implement the task, as well
to the different needs of students in those stages. as provide the tools, examples, guidance and support
Language abilities are at the core of developing necessary for students to carry it out. However, when
communicative competence in English. Competence The methodological principles described in this section implementing, students are at the center of the activity.
is evidenced through these skills. In this proposal, aim to achieve communicative language learning Nunan and Carter (2010) determined the three stages a
the abilities are understood in an integrated way and goals. This means that they favor the use of English task needs to have:
mutually support each other, privileging the use for in a determined context using language functions that
purposes of authentic communication. promote communication with others. Hence, it has been a. Pre-task: The topic and the task itself are presented.
determined that for Transition, the methodology will be At this stage, students must consider everything
In the before or pre- stage students are engaged and based on learning experiences, task- based learning required for the development of their work: knowledge,
their prior knowledge of the communicative context will be the basis for first, second and third grade; while strategies, and activities.
is activated. In this stage, several types of activities project-based learning has been considered for fourth
are carried out such as: presenting the topic to be and fifth. Additionally, it proposes for all grades the b. Task cycle: at this stage, students can work individually,
discussed, establishing the communicative goals, the integration of some elements of Content and Language in pairs or groups and propose new ideas to perform
audience, the characteristics of the type of interaction Integrated Learning (CLIL) in order to have cross- the task. The teacher mediates and supports students’

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What do you aim is to have students increase their knowledge as the 5.3. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
want to do? projects must be connected to their real context. This
will help students learn a foreign language meaningfully As it was mentioned before, cross-curricularity
I prefer to read.
since authentic language must be used, and students constitutes a conciliatory aspect between the
should use their knowledge to answer a question or foreign language class and some other fields. This
solve a problem. consideration and the results obtained from the needs
analysis that indicate that teachers tend to feel more
I want to color.
Additionally, this approach will become a tool for students comfortable teaching contents strongly related to their
when solving or managing different situations they will face disciplines, directed the curriculum design towards
in real life and for the development of 21st century skills. the CLIL methodology. CLIL is an acronym that stands
for Content and Language Integrated Learning. The
Some of the features for the implementation of this purpose of this method is to approach disciplinary
approach are as follows: the topics to be selected and content as a medium of learning a foreign language.
developed through the projects, the tasks within the This way, students will not only learn the content to
projects, the students’ roles, cooperative work, the specific be developed from grade to grade but also they will
context where the projects will be developed, the expected be able to acquire the target language skills. This
products, and the criteria for assessment based on the method features the four C’s which are: Content, which
participation and autonomy. During this stage, the later by the students to reinforce pronunciation. After learning objectives to be achieved (Thomas, 2000). involves the subject to be developed; Communication,
group creates an action plan to complete the task; having the text transcribed by students on their cards, based on the language that will take place during the
thought needs to be given to the required resources and students can decorate them. Finally, children will An example of how to implement it inside the classroom is activities; Cognition, which involves the development of
the end result: a clear, organized and precise product present their final product to their peers before taking with a project about the process of plant growth. Students thinking skills during the activities and Culture, which
that responds to the learning outcome. them home. will learn the required vocabulary to explain the stages is linked to the civic culture and gives classroom work
that will occur during the process of plant growth. This an interdisciplinary touch (Coyle, 1999).
c. Post-task: finally, the product of the task is delivered 5.2. PROJECT-BASED LEARNING includes bringing a seed to school to plant it, its blossoming
and students can share their outcomes, compare and the stage of bearing fruits. All activities carried out It is important to emphasize that the principles of the
results or exchange information with other peers. An Project-based learning is an approach that seeks to within the class should be focused on the development of CLIL methodology were used as a reference to design the
extension of the task may include making it available stimulate students’ learning through the implementation the project before reaching its final product. Students can tasks and projects based on other areas of knowledge
to the community or family, as well as self-evaluating of projects (more complex tasks) that encourage them work individually or in pairs or groups and they will require and supports the consolidation of cross-curricularity as
the process. to research and make autonomous decisions over their time to research, collect, analyze and use the information. an important element of this curricular proposal, even
learning. The work is done in a certain period of time Meanwhile, the teacher should be aware of the progress though CLIL is not the most important approach from the
A concrete way to illustrate this methodology is the and after being completed, the final product is shared and difficulties of each of his/her students and be willing methodological principles considered for this curriculum.
design of Mother’s Day cards in class. Students can with others (Jones, Rasmussen, & Moffitt, 1997). For to give the necessary guidance whenever requested. The
explore different ways to congratulate mothers on this particular proposal, the intention is that students most important thing is that the teacher should monitor For instance, in the project-based learning activity
their day, with the support of the teacher. The teacher from fourth and fifth grade learn elements of the foreign the correct use of language during the project or at about plant growth, principles of CLIL are present as
presents the vocabulary that could be used for making language that will help them complete their project least encourage children to use it in accordance with the students not only reinforce language through learning
cards and messages or rhymes that might be included. and at the same time, present it to others using level learning objectives outlined, even if the mother tongue single words but are expected to report the process in
Once they have the necessary materials to work, appropriate language. needs to be used in some occasions. In the final stage each of the phases in English. This is an example of how
the teacher may suggest a great variety of images to of the project, students can make a presentation of the learning a language takes an objective that goes beyond
stimulate the children’s creativity. Then, teachers could Teachers and students require more time for the findings after applying the same experience at home and the simple acquisition of linguistic tools and integrates
write a message on the board to be read by him/her and preparation and the development of the class, and the observing different outcomes. the process of learning functions that belong to real life.

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5.4. HOW ARE THE ARTICULATION AND


PROGRESSION OF METHODOLOGICAL
of all dimensions from different areas. In this way, children
are prepared from the beginning of their school life for the
6- WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLES THAT GUIDE
PRINCIPLES EVIDENCED IN THE challenges they will face once they complete the elementary ASSESSMENT IN THIS CURRICULUM PROPOSAL?
SUGGESTED CURRICULUM STRUCTURE? levels to start the cycle which continues into high school.

Once the approaches are introduced, a sequential and The scheme of progression is consistent with what was Assessment is conceived as a global, continuous, competence as “the set of knowledge, skills, and
gradual implementation structure is proposed starting with established with the Suggested Curriculum Structure constant and educational process, which needs to individual characteristics that allow a person to carry
tasks in first, second and third grades and then moving from 6th to 11th grades, as it adapts the task-based be comprised of an element that supports learning out actions in a given context” (p. 11). The standards
towards learning projects in fourth and fifth grades as seen and project-based learning to lower levels of cognitive processes, and as more than a measuring tool of for foreign language emphasize the development of
in Figure 1. As for children in preschool, methodology is and linguistic complexity with the purpose of fitting the students’ learning results. In this sense, this proposal the communicative competence. Additionally, the
guided by learning experiences, integrated with the current needs of the population that will be addressed. promotes the vision that teaching, learning, and Suggested Curriculum promotes the development
curriculum guidelines for this level. That is, focusing on assessment processes need to coexist in the classroom and therefore the assessment of the intercultural
integrated activities that are articulated for the development and complement each other. competence, which, as explained in the reference
framework section, results in children’s ability to
The assessment model proposed is democratic and recognize their own values and cultural identity and

11
participative. It favors interaction and authentic make them interact with those of others, to strengthen
Project-based

10
language use, providing information about what their acceptance and value of diversity.
Project-based

9
students can do with the language in a real life
learning

6.2. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING


8
Task-based

situation of communication. In other words, the


learning

7
Task-based

Problem-based
learning
learning

assessment proposal follows a model of competence-

6
learning

Problem-based
learning
based assessment. Besides, the assessment that is This is the vision of assessment that predominates
Task-based

5
Development

Project-based
learning
learning

offered is comprehensive, considering the evidence of in this curriculum proposal. This type of assessment

4
Project-based
learning

3
Holistic

students’ performance (assessment of learning), as is formative in nature and occurs, generally,


Task-based
learning

2
Task-based
learning

well as the processes that occur in the classroom and simultaneously, or through the teaching and learning

Tr 1 how they contribute to improve teaching and learning


(assessment for learning). These perspectives are
presented and explained in this section.
process. The information that this type of assessment
provides contributes to the making of decisions that
can have direct effects and mobilize changes in aspects
  such as teaching methodology, materials, objectives,
Preschool Primary Education Secondary Education teachers’ role, among others. These changes can be
6.1. COMPETENCE-BASED ASSESSMENT implemented in the short term and can positively impact

CLIL
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING
Figure 1. Methodology Progression for the Suggested English
Curriculum for Transition and Primary
The assessment of learning and for learning in this
children’s learning (Black & William, 1998; McTighe &
O’Connor, 2005; Yorke, 2001).
proposal have competencies as its core component.
The purpose of implementing this order is consistent The flexible nature of this curriculum proposal consists Competence is understood as the ability that children In this Curriculum, the suggested formative assessment
with how the different stages of cognitive development on the fact that each institution, based on the suggested have to perform specific tasks in real communication paths articulate with the proposed tasks and projects,
of children mature and their learning in relation to its guidelines in the curriculum structure, has the freedom contexts. Language use is framed in a social and and occur simultaneously. The teacher’s role is to
social dimension. With maturity, children are learning to determine how they will implement it and how each cultural contexts that gives it communicative meaning. monitor children’s learning process, and give effective
to relate to others, to work with them, to accept their institution will integrate it with the methodological feedback to contribute to improve their learning.
differences and solve their own situations for living approaches proposed in a way that is consistent with Competence-based assessment is also coherent with
together with others. their particular needs. the Basic Standards of Competence, which define

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6.3. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING even though the highlighted principle are games, be assessed based on clear and well defined criteria. It
game-oriented assessment is a very serious process is evident, that in this approach, assessment is formative TYPE OF
FORMATIVE SUMMATIVE
ASSESSMENT
This type of assessment serves an instrumental which deserves respect. Ludoevaluación is pertinent since it is focused on describing the performance related
purpose, which allows to collect data to verify children’s in this curriculum due to the fundamental role that to specific learning objectives that show what the student
achievement of learning objectives. This assessment games and interaction have in the established teaching is able to do with the language while providing continuous Moment Task cycle Post-task

occurs at specific moments, for example, at the end of model. Besides, this assessment experience is easily feedback throughout the process (Norris, 2009).
Function Orient, regulate Verify, value
a unit or academic term, and is summative in nature. articulated with the methodological principles of this
curriculum proposal. For this Suggested English Curriculum for Transition and
Addressed to Process Product
In this proposal, some suggestions are given that Primary, simple tasks have been recommended, which
integrate the assessment of learning at certain points 6.5. HOW IS ASSESSMENT CARRIED OUT are generally related to family and school contexts, and Table 4. Articulation of formative and summative assessment in the
in the implementation of the curriculum, with the aim of ACCORDING TO THE SUGGESTED which allow teachers to formatively assess students Suggested Curriculum.
verifying students learning in specific moments of the METHODOLOGIES? learning and achieved performance.
school year. For example, in the suggested curriculum
structure, the teacher will find suggestions for tasks Casanova (1999), states that assessment is a complex 6.5.2. Assessment in project-based learning The suggested formative assessment process
that will allow him or her to implement summative but essential process that allows teachers and seeks to define if task instructions are understood
assessments, such as: an oral presentation about their students to reflect on the achievements and difficulties According to Nunan (2004), project-based learning by children, if task complexity is appropriate to
family, or an objective test to verify the acquisition of presented and from there, reorient the teaching and allows students to develop “sequenced and integrated children’s level or interest, and how students develop
certain vocabulary. Similarly, some standardization learning process. tasks that together add to a project in the end (p. 133). each of the stages and reach objectives progressively.
processes of assessment tasks will be suggested, such Taking as a starting point the principles of teaching This is the main reason for suggesting this approach On the other hand, for summative assessments, at
as the use of summative assessment tools like rubrics. and learning on which this curricular proposal is for fourth and fifth grade, bearing in mind the levels the end of the process, the expected products will
based, this section introduces the concept of implicit of comprehension and the complexity of the assigned be graded according to pre-established assessment
6.4. GAME-ORIENTED ASSESSMENT assessment and its functionality based on the chosen tasks. Unlike task-based learning, this approach criteria based on the expected competences.
methodological principles. suggests the development of a more complex work On that train of thought, some strategies can be included
Game-oriented assessment (Ludoevaluación) is sequence, which is targeted towards the attainment of in the formative (portfolios or progress reports), and
considered by Borjas (2013) as a formative experience 6.5.1. Assessment in task-based learning a product. As a result, assessment needs to target both summative (rubrics, tests, or presentations) assessment
which includes practical and emancipating approaches, process (formative) and product (summative). processes in order to confirm students’ progress both
becoming a strategy that favors the development of Assessment under this methodology is based on the in language use and in the understanding of content
meta-cognitive, self-consciousness and self-evaluation performance levels developed and evidenced in students 6.5.3. Articulation of formative and summative assessment immersed in the proposed tasks and projects.
processes in children. Borjas (2013) suggests that from the start of the suggested tasks and through in this curriculum proposal
game-oriented assessment is founded on dialogue, in completion of the final product. In this assessment process, Self-evaluation is another process that takes central
which the sharing of emotions, actions, and experiences, the different levels in which the linguistic, sociolinguistic, According to its function, assessment can be summative place in this Suggested Curriculum. Self-evaluation
generate an activity where the sharing of ideas and and pragmatic sub competences are manifested in the or formative. The former refers to the evaluation of a is centered on students and their learning process,
active participation is pivotal for both, teachers and suggested task, have to be noticed. That is, it entails not finished process and its correspondence to the established therefore, it becomes a tool for students to reflect on
learners, through non-conventional activities. only the assessment of the language use performance, objectives. Formative assessment, on the other hand, their strengths and achievements. Teachers can use
but also the relevance of the language used in relation to refers to the processes developed throughout the tasks, the information resulting from self-evaluations as input
Finally, Borjas (2013) considers that ludoevaluación the context and linguistic registers needed. based on the collection of data that allow teachers to to follow-up on students learning processes, as well
refers to the opportunity to generate an environment Tasks have to be authentic. In other words, they have to reorient or modify teaching to benefit students’ learning as to generate action plans, together with students, in
where games come first, triggering scenarios where emulate real life activities. Similarly, tasks need to be (Casanova, 1999). This section presents how to articulate order to overcome their difficulties. Similarly, this self-
learning is social and dynamic, as they give children assessed throughout the process with the purpose of this dual character of assessment under a task-based evaluation can inform teachers about possible changes
control of what and how they want to learn. However, improving and reorienting teaching. Finally, they need to and project-based approach (see table 4). that can be made in teaching methodology.

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6.6. HOW ARE THE ARTICULATION AND development of children’s skills and competences, and which measure students’ actions about aspects of the its implementation taking into consideration students’
PROGRESSION OF ASSESSMENT also summative assessment that targets final products assessed task or activity”. potential and needs. These decisions include how to
PRACTICES EVIDENCED IN THE of tasks and projects. This assessment includes the c. Oral and written tests based on tasks: These instruments address the content according to the number of hours. The
SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM development of individual as well as group activities. are related to the purposes of summative assessment. curriculum has been designed for a proposed average of
FOR TRANSITION AND PRIMARY? The monitoring of the activities proposed and developed The tests need to respond to children’s needs and 2 hours a week nationwide; but, according to the proposed
by children throughout the modules can be evaluated educational levels and verify their learning. scheme they will also offer two alternative routes, one
Table 5 below shows a proposal connecting the most through rubrics and also, the final products of the for those institutions that only have one hour a week and
relevant assessment principles that have been suggested projects proposed for fourth and fifth grade. The instruments and rubrics proposed in this section can another for those who have three hours a week. Table 6
for this suggested curriculum. This curriculum suggests be adapted by teachers taking into account learning needs shows a suggestion of implementation of the assessment,
fundamentally formative assessment that favors the and the contexts. according to the number of hours of each institution.

6.7. WHAT ARE THE ALTERNATIVES FOR Each school can finally adapt this curriculum proposal,
Project-based
Task-based learning
learning
Final decisions ADAPTATION OF THE METHODOLOGICAL making the necessary adjustments, nurturing the
AND ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES contents and implementing routes that better align to
Formative (assessment for Formative (assessment for Formative CONSIDERING THE DIVERSE NATIONAL the particular context of each school, in order to prepare
Vision, use learning) learning)(process) (promoting meaningful and CONTEXT? students from primary school to eventually achieve the
and charac- Summative Based on Summative (product) comprehensive learning)
expected levels of language.
teristics students performance Comprehensive Summative (assessment of
Direct, Authentic Authentic / real-world final products) The flexibility of the curriculum gives teachers the
possibility to review and make decisions concerning
What is Tasks Process and product.
The Task Evidence of students’
assessed? Evidences of learning
learning
#hours proposed for
Procedure Pair and group work
Favors pair and group teaching per term #hours proposed for
Self- and coevaluation work.
and Self, co-, and teacher’s (Teaching/Formative assessment per term
Collection of evidences Includes self- and coeva-
techniques assessment
luation mechanisms. assessment/ game-oriented (Summative assesment)
assessment)
Portfolio of learning
Portfolio (includes process evidences (tasks, products)
Assessment Assessment criteria and learning evidences)
instruments (rubrics) Assessment criteria
Assessment criteria (rubrics) 1 HOUR PER WEEK 8 2
Written and oral tests based
(rubrics) on tasks
2 HOURS PER WEEK 16 4
Table 5. Articulation of assessment principles in the Suggested English Curriculum for Transition and Primary.

3 HOURS PER WEEK 24 6


Based on children’s levels of understanding and favors metacognition. As an instrument to follow-up
complexity, some self-, co-operative, and hetero learning, portfolios favor students’ active role in their Table 6. Distribution of hours for formative and summative assessment in the Suggested Curriculum for
Primary and Transition.
evaluation mechanisms are considered. These can learning process, while the teacher assumes a mediator
guarantee a clear and more objective vision of achieved and facilitator position. This instrument presents
performance levels. Additionally, the following selected products, based on previously agreed criteria,
assessment instruments are suggested: and promotes students’ reflection about their learning.
a. Portfolio: A portfolio is viewed as a collection of b. Rubrics: A rubric is defined as a “quantitative and/
learning evidences within a formative process, which or qualitative associated to pre established criteria

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7- WHAT PARTICIPANTS PLAY A PIVOTAL Likewise, this curricular proposal considers schools as
entities that must center on the needs and demands of
The principal is directly in charge of leading the inclusion
of bilingualism projects in the PEI, as well as obtaining
ROLE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE children and adolescents of this century, offering them the and maintaining the resources and materials that can
CURRICULAR PROPOSAL? opportunity to relate to a coherent learning with the world
and its dynamic differences and evolution. They must,
support English learning. Likewise, the principal should
promote and support teacher participation in institutional
The design of a suggested English curriculum from 7.2. TEACHERS therefore, ensure spaces of integration between English bilingualism projects, as well as the different initiatives that
transition to fifth grade requires the participation of teachers and the other areas of knowledge to strengthen could emerge from the Local Education Authorities and the
students, teachers, schools, parents, local education This proposal requires teachers to be open-minded and the curriculum’s transversality and comprehension and National Ministry of Education.
authorities, bilingualism leaders and quality coordinators. to understand this is an opportunity for personal growth interdisciplinary treatment of current issues.
and learning. It also requires teachers with the following Coordinators, as a support for the principal, should
7.1. STUDENTS characteristics who are ready to face new challenges: The national government also sees the school as accompany teachers in the planning and implementation
an autonomous organization, capable of adapting, of bilingualism projects. Besides, their job will include
This curricular proposal sees students as humans who • The ability to accept that the English learning transforming and improving. An institution in which this following up on the observance of the established number of
deserve equal opportunity education during their stages process is an opportunity to learn something new type of curricular proposal essentially becomes a path hours for English teaching and learning, so that a minimum
of growth and development. Therefore, this curricular for both teachers and students. Each class should for the design and construction of their own curriculum weekly dedication can be ensured at schools.
proposal should be implemented in all Colombian be seen as an opportunity for all participants to considering not only its specific characteristics, but also the
institutions to assure that all children have equal access to interact with the world and shorten the linguistic general characteristics of education in Colombia. 7.4. PARENTS
quality English language education. and cultural differences.
It is expected that through the English learning process, the • A disposition to enrich their capacity for innovation, to It is suggested that each school undertakes actions to The role of parents in the development and implementation
student can: grow professionally and to look for new strategies and articulate the relevant parts of this proposal in their PEI in of this curricular proposal is essential. Parents have the
tools that could help improve pedagogical practice. its four components: foundation, administration, pedagogy right to know what their children are learning in school. They
• Build his/ her own knowledge starting from a personal • A leadership attitude that enables them to take charge and curriculum, and community. Thus, the entire institution also have the duty to provide necessary accompaniment
dimension and interaction with others. The student of this proposal, adjust it and make it theirs with the aid is tied to the English teaching and learning process ensuring to their children’s educational process; as to reinforce the
should become part of his/her holistic learning of years of teaching experience. Decisions made while that the decisions taken are agreed on and contextualized to work done by teachers and schools.
processes (cognitive, socio- affective, ethics, aesthetics, implementing the curriculum will enrich the proposal the needs of the institution (MEN, 2013, p.37). The process
psycho- social, etc), actively participating in all activities with meaningful knowledge of particular context and should start with some diagnostic questions on the situation Given that the main objective of education is
implemented and assuming a motivating attitude that individual strengths and weaknesses. of students, teachers, the English program implemented comprehensive education of students, parents become
characterizes this stage of life. • A passion for teaching and working with human and progress of the developing program, in order to later the axis of this mission’s development, as people lay the
• Develop critical and creative thinking skills and beings. Teachers that enjoy discovering the world with set goals, objectives and strategies in accordance with foundations of their values, personality and customs
autonomy through opportunities provided in the their students, and are always there to answer their the institutional context. The Guidelines Document for the inside the nuclear family.
English classroom. Discover that the English class is questions, helping them to learn through failure and implementation of developing English programs in the
not only about learning but also about creating and overcome hardships. regional entities provides very pertinent suggestions for Likewise, they must be aware of the importance of learning
through games, art, literature, the environment and schools. English in terms of opportunities for personal, cultural,
learning a new language he/she can become part of 7.3. SCHOOLS social and intellectual development of their children. This
the globalized world. Principals and coordinators curricular proposal helps them obtain greater clarity of the
• Discover that using English as a tool of communication, This proposal considers schools as autonomous, flexible teaching-learning process of the institution. Thus, they may
gives him/her the opportunity to meet people and and holistic educational spaces comprised of individuals Without a doubt, one of the fundamental roles in schools exercise their role as promoters of integration of this new
enrich his/her linguistic and cultural background. capable of transforming their environment. This makes is that of principals and coordinators. They are the ones in learning process and offer spaces outside the classroom to
Students will find in this language an alternative for them micro-worlds where students develop the necessary charge of the management, supervision and support of the use it and enjoy it.
personal growth that offers more social opportunities competences for their current and future lives, projects whose aim is the strengthening of English teaching
and help them become tolerant and open to the contributing to the construction of an equitable and and learning at their schools.
diversity that characterizes this globalized world. inclusive society respectful of differences.

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7.5. LOCAL EDUCATION AUTHORITIES 7.6. OTHER STRATEGIC ALLIES


8- WHAT CRITERIA CAN BE USED TO SELECT
To achieve the goals proposed by the Program Colombia Besides the participants described above, there are SUPPORTING MATERIALS AND RESOURCES FOR THE
Bilingüe, the local education authorities must strengthen important allies around educational projects, in the IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS CURRICULUM PROPOSAL?
their efforts in the definition and implementation of relevant community, whose role can make a difference and generate
and sustainable actions aimed at the improvement of mobilization of projects, resources, and initiatives to support
English teaching and learning conditions in the regions. English teaching and learning. Some of them are included The materials to support the development and The general topics, proposed are:
below: implementation of this curriculum proposal for
We suggest thorough planning that includes the transition and primary schools should be directed • Health and life
characterization of the current situation related to teaching • Institutions for Higher Education, which can promote towards the pedagogical, methodological and • Peace and coexistence.
and learning English in the region, the definition of goals strategies for articulating school and higher education conceptual objectives therein expressed. Such • Environment and society
and challenging but attainable objectives, the formulation regarding English learning. Their successful experience constructs and theoretical references constitute the • Global village
of strategies and lines of action, the mobilization of can help nourish the bilingualism projects at schools. basis for their selection depending on the needs of
participants from different sectors in the community and On the other hand, universities with language teaching each institution, the vision of language and of learning. These general topics are consistent with the
the establishment of mechanisms that monitor, evaluate majors become a strategic ally for schools. They can Similarly, they should be considered as methodological development of communication skills initially
and adjust the project that must be led by each local provide pre-service teachers that can help develop principles that underpin it and serve as a model to suggested in the proposed English curriculum for
education authority (MEN, 2013, p. 26). English learning processes and supply the need for work based on tasks and projects and supported by 6 to 11, which are the result of a needs analysis in
English teachers in Transition and Primary. Schools, the interdisciplinary curricular principles of diversity. Colombia’s educational context.
A key participant in the local education authority is the on the other hand, become scenarios for practice and
leader of bilingualism. He/she must know the area, have the education for future teachers. This section provides some guidelines and suggestions This proposal is open to the particular needs of
capacity to create scenarios of discussion and consensus, • Private companies that have surround the school that should be considered when selecting these each context and can be seen as a suggestion for
and manage resources that support teacher professional community, which can support the development of materials, as well as the role of these textbooks in the every institution. This implies that such proposals or
development. This leader must be a manager of alliances bilingualism projects that can have positive impact on learning process. suggestions can be addressed in different perspectives
with the private and trade sector, and parents, in order to school, and therefore, on society. and according to schools’ characteristics, the type of
work together towards the construction and consolidation • Public-private alliances, which can materialize through The use of materials that promote language in population and the community in which it is embedded.
of projects that articulate, in a transversal way, learning strategies such as the local and regional bilingualism specific communicative contexts and in situations that
English to the life of the community, beyond the classroom. forums. These initiatives gather different actors in resemble students´ daily life is suggested; allowing It is recommended to start with a continuous process
society such as Local Education Authorities, Chamber them to assume a critical position against possible of evaluation of the supporting material and then,
The representative of the Local Education Authority is of Commerce. schools, and bilingualism leaders, conflicts and challenges of everyday life. select the most appropriate and suitable materials
responsible for providing opportunities of education and among others, around topics related to the development for the development of learning processes within the
accompaniment for teaching directors and teachers of English competences in the regions, with the aim Similarly, these materials must conceive language institution, based on the characteristics of the context,
regarding the challenges that arise with this proposal and of strengthening processes of competitiveness and as a complex system of structures and signs to learning styles, the interest of the children, their
its pedagogical appropriation. In addition, it is required human development in their population. be developed within certain contexts and allowing language level, among others.
that the local education authorities consider seriously the • Schools and teacher networks, which can include children to construct their own knowledge.
possibility of including in the schools’ staff, teachers who peers in other schools nearby or in the same The categories may refer to general aspects such as:
have been trained in the teaching of English to guarantee town which, together, can plan and implement Materials with stimulating and meaningful activities
an appropriate English teaching process to students from bilingualism projects. for all students around the country. Materials that • Whether the textbook helps to obtain the objectives
Transition to fifth grade. Likewise, he/she must establish address the proposed themes and challenges of a proposed for each of the grades
revision of measurable strategies of the school’s progress society that is part of a globalized world and expects • Whether the language level used in the material
related to decision-making and implementation of changes the development of skills to meet the challenges of the and adjusts to the linguistic level of the students
in order to make this proposal a reality in the institution. XXI century.

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

• Whether the visual design and diagramming is


attractive and stimulates students learning of a
• Use of games, etc
• Authenticity of materials 9- HOW CAN TRANSITION AND PRIMARY TEACHERS
foreign language • Balance in the implementation of abilities (MEN, ORGANIZE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS SUGGESTED
• Whether the tasks have an adequate level of 2015, p.4)
CURRICULUM?
difficulty for each grade
• Whether the activities are practical and if they To adopt a curriculum proposal for preschool and The decision to implement this suggested curriculum in They require a long-term gaze. Bearing this in mind, this
promote the active participation of students primary levels requires teachers and institutions schools will generate questions such as: what are we going implementation process will contain several stages, which
• Whether the design of the activities allows to organize resource centers with different types of to do?, how are we going to do it? Therefore, this section should be carried out in significant time periods, in order
satisfactory completion materials, games, resources, etc. The selection of offers some orientations in order to explore the different to show real results of the innovation impact in school life
• Whether activities generate motivation in students materials according to the previous criteria and their forms of comprehension, adaptation and implementation and learners.
(MEN, 2015, p.4) implementation in the proposed curriculum, are the of the proposal in the diverse colombian school contexts. With the purpose of having a clear route to implement
best validation options for the development of the The purpose is to encourage teachers to take the necessary this proposal, teachers are expected to take actions
The categories may also allow further evaluation of teaching-learning process within every primary public actions, based on the particularities of their institution, related to the following four fundamental phases: analysis
particular aspects such as: institution of the country. to start a structured process of analysis, planning, of the suggested curriculum, planning for adaptation,
implementation, and evaluation. implementation, and evaluation. Graph 2 illustrates the
• The content: themes, grammar, vocabulary, reading It is important to mention that this curricular proposal It is important to highlight that in every innovation phases mentioned above, with a summary of each and the
skills, writing, listening and speaking abilities includes recommendations for teachers about the use implementation process, time is a key factor, given that in suggested time for execution. The following section will
• Graduality and sequencing of the contents of didactic materials such as Bunny Bonita, My ABC these type of activities, results are not shown immediately. provide more information about each of them.
• Presence of learning strategies English kit and English for Colombia, as well as a list
• Use of deductive and inductive techniques of resources available in the Suggested Curriculum
• Contextualization, personalization, Structure booklet.
ANALYSIS AND ADAPTATION
• Implementation of communication
OF THE SUGGESTED PLANNING FOR THE
EVALUATION
CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION (Continuous during implementation/
(6 Months) (1 Month) (1 School year) end of school year)

Once upon a time...

Familiarization Starts on the last Execution of actions Analysis of results


with the curriculum month of phase 1. planned in previous from initial
proposal principles. phase. implementation.
Planning of actions for
Analysis of interaction initial implementation Implementation of Planning of actions
points between the of the proposal. curriculum proposal for improvement and
suggested curriculum in classrooms. adjustments to the
at the current school curriculum, based
English curriculum for Establishment of on the results of the
Transition and Primary. implementation Permanent data
evaluation process,
schedule. collection to
as well as students
evaluate the impact
learning.
and results of
implementation.

Figure 3. Implementation cycle for the Suggested English Curriculum for Transition and Primary

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

graph (graph 3).


9.1. PHASE 1: ANALYSIS AND ADAPTATION OF • Clarity about the relation between the suggested
THE SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM curriculum and the standards and Basic Learning ASPECT TO CONSIDER YES NO COMMENTS
FOR TRANSITION AND PRIMARY Rights (BLRs), and how these are reflected in the
syllabi. This shows the logical progression in the PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES BOOKLET
In this phase, Transition and Primary school teachers in development of language skills.
each institution should start a process of careful study
of the document that aims at: • Identification of specific needs to carry out the I. Curriculum Proposal Principles
• Deep knowledge and comprehension of the proposal implementation. In this sense, aspects
proposal in terms of its objectives, what needs to such as number of teaching hours, available
be implemented, and how it can be adapted to their resources, teachers’ English level, pedagogical 1. I understand the purposes of this curriculum
proposal.
context. This refers, specifically to the knowledge strategies used, and time needed to develop this
of the curriculum, methodological, and assessment proposal need to be reviewed.
principles, that are summarized in the following
2. I have read and understood the conception of
• Production of the documents resulting from the curriculum with which this proposal was created.
DISTINCTIVE articulation of the Suggested English Curriculum
ASPECT
FEATURE for Transition and Primary and the school’s existing
curriculum. 3. I understand the curriculum approach adopted in
this proposal and the articulation between action-
• Contextual/ecological oriented approach and contextual or ecological
CURRICULUM curriculum approach.
APPROACH • Action-oriented curriculum • Definition of strategies and lines of action in terms
of time, resources, and teachers’ roles to face the
next phase, which is planning. II. Curriculum Themes and Characteristics
• Early education guidelines
METHODOLOGICAL • Tasks
PRINCIPLES
• Projects In order to carry out the study mentioned above,
Transition and Primary teachers are given the following 4. I understand the established curriculum themes.
• Assessment for learning recommendations:
ASSESSMENT • Assessment of learning
PRINCIPLES • Game-oriented assessment
• Organizing work sessions at their schools to get 5. I know and understand the curriculum
• Sociocultural approach familiar with the curriculum proposal principles. It characteristics, which articulate throughout the
CURRICULUM • Cross-curricularity curriculum structure.
is suggested teachers have, at least, 3 sessions of
THEMES • Diversity and equity
• Value education 3 hours each (9 hours in total), during a month, in
order to carry out a careful read of the curriculum III. Reference Framework
• Flexibility and adaptability products: Pedagogical principles and guidelines,
• 21st century skills
CURRICULUM • Games and discovery curriculum structure, Basic Learning Rights. During
CHARACTERISTICS • Inclusion these sessions, teachers will be able to share their 6. I have read and understood the vision of education
• Global citizenship perception about the curriculum and brainstorm and learning that underlie this curriculum proposal.
the possible strategies for its implementation in
• Health and life
CROSS- • Peace and living together their particular context.
CURRICULAR • Environment and society 7. I recognize the vision of language learning that
TOPICS • A global village guides this Suggested Curriculum.
The following checklist can guide the study of the
Graph 3. Summary of pedagogical principles for the
Suggested English Curriculum for Transition and Primary.

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

ASPECT TO CONSIDER YES NO COMMENTS ASPECT TO CONSIDER YES NO COMMENTS

8. I understand the role of the mother tongue that SUGGESTED CURRICULUM STRUCTURE BOOKLET
this curriculum promotes in the learning of English
as a foreign language.
VI. Curriculum structure
9. I have identified and understood the
competences and abilities that this proposal seeks
to develop in Transition and Primary students.
17. I have read and understood the instructions for
using the curriculum structure.

IV. Methodological Principles

18. I have understood how the curriculum structure


is organized for the grade or grades I teach.
10. I have read and understood the methodological
principles section.

19. I understand the objective of the “scope and


sequence” section, presented at the beginning of
11. I recognize the principles of task-based and each grade.
project-based learning and their usefulness in the
classroom.
20. I understand the purpose of the “Syllabus”
section for each module of each grade in the
12. I understand the progression of these curriculum structure.
approaches in the curriculum structure.

21. I recognize the articulation between the Scope


and Sequence and the Syllabus of each grade.
V. Assessment principles

VII. Methodological and Assessment Suggestions


13. I have read and understood the assessment
principles section.

22. I understand the usefulness of the Methodological


and Assessment Suggestions section of each module
14. I understand the difference between assessment of each grade in the curriculum structure.
for learning and of learning and their use in the
classroom.
23. I understand that these are suggestions that I
can use and adapt based on my needs.
15. I recognize the concept of game-oriented
assessment (ludoevaluación)

24. I recognize the articulation between ‘Scope


and sequence’, ‘syllabi’, and ‘methodological and
16. I understand the articulation between assessment suggestions’.
assessment and methodological principles in the
curriculum structure.

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

ASPECT TO CONSIDER YES NO COMMENTS STATE OF BILINGUALISM POSSIBLE ACTIONS


PROCESSES
25. I have identified the recommendations that are
included in the methodological suggestions in terms • Inclusion of objectives regarding bilingualism in the Institutional
of: didactic idea, inclusion, use of materials such as Lack of school English curriculum. Educational Project (PEI in Spanish) and Institutional
Bunny Bonita, My Abc English Kit, and ECO. Improvement Plan (PMI in Spanish).
• Evaluation and adaptation of the Suggested Curriculum to the
particular needs of the school.
• Curricular decision making (need for teachers, increase in
VIII. Appendix number of hours per week, etc.) for curriculum implementation.
• Piloting of established school’s curriculum.
• Data collection for evaluating implementation.
• Piloting results.
26. I know the sample lesson plans presented in the • Action plan for curriculum implementation.
curriculum structure booklet.
English curriculum in construction / • Evaluation, adaptation and articulation of the Suggested
English curriculum with some areas of Curriculum to the school’s English curriculum (Plan de Área).
improvement. • Curriculum redesign process.
27. I recognize the usefulness and adaptability of the • Piloting of established school’s curriculum.
sample lesson plans. • Data collection for evaluating implementation.
• Piloting results.
• Action plan for curriculum implementation.

28. I have identified the sample assessment


instruments that are presented in the Curriculum • Evaluation of Suggested Curriculum.
Structure booklet. English curriculum in place, with high • Collective decision making about possible alternatives of
satisfaction levels. articulation between the Suggested Curriculum and the
current English school’s curriculum (Plan de Área).
• Comparative analysis of the vision of language and learning
29. I recognize the usefulness and adaptability proposed by the Suggested Curriculum and the possible
of the assessment instruments presented in the convergent points with the vision suggested in the current
Curriculum Structure booklet. school’s curriculum. This analysis will help to ensure the
achievement of the established learning goals.

Table 7. Possibilities for action based on state of bilingualism processes at the schools
30. I know the suggestions for materials and
resources presented in the Curriculum Structure
booklet.

31. I recognize the usefulness of these materials


and resources for both English teaching and my
professional development. Suggested Curriculum principles: 9.2. PHASE 2: PLANNING OF THE
• Creating learning communities with their IMPLEMENTATION
colleagues in nearby schools, with the support of
• Organizing weekly work sessions during the six state of the process for English teaching and
the Local Education Authorities, in which they can After rigorous study of the proposal, and its articulation
months of this phase, in order to consolidate learning in each context. Table 7 below shows some
work on the socialization and comprehension of the of the Suggested Curriculum with the school’s English
the “Plan de Área” (English school curriculum) possibilities for action, depending on the state of
curriculum proposal. curriculum, this phase will determine the actions to
document, already articulated with the aspects the bilingualism processes at the school.
• For this process, it is recommended that Transition define how the proposal will be implemented. In order
from the Suggested Curriculum that have been
and Primary teacher be accompanied by secondary to do this, it is recommended to define:
considered relevant, and the particular needs
English teachers. They can support the process
of each school’s context. The actions planned to
of familiarization and comprehension of the
achieve such articulation will depend on the current
curriculum proposal principles.

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

a. An action plan for implementation, indicating which can be planned and executed by the Local Education
Camila, Felipe; What can
participants and expected results or products. Among Authorities so that teachers can share significant ideas, these animals do?
the actions for this plan, teachers can consider: worries, and implementation alternatives.
The previous action plan can be structured in 3 or 4
• Choosing some grades for piloting¹ or implementing work sessions of 3 hours each (9-12 hours), which FISH BIRD
the new ‘Plan de Área’² . can happen during the last month of Phase 1. English
teachers will need the support from coordinators,
• Choosing some teachers to start the piloting or especially for decision making that can have institutional
implementation process of the new Plan de Área. implications. Besides, secondary English teachers will
need to accompany this process in order to facilitate
• Actions for the execution of the piloting or the planning and analysis of the curriculum proposal,
implementation process (managing resources and as well as its articulation with the Suggested English
materials, increasing the number of hours per Curriculum for Secondary, which should be in the
week, etc.). process of implementation by the time this document
comes to the school. The bird can fly. The fish can swim.
b. An implementation timetable for each of the actions
established. This needs to have close follow-up to 9.3. PHASE 3: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
ensure its observance. CURRICULUM PROPOSAL

c. A data collection plan to be carried out during the Once the planning is ready, the next step is to implement
implementation process. This will allow to carry out the actions that were planned. In order to do this, teachers
a permanent and multiperspective evaluation of the will need to engage in completing the actions established
results of curriculum implementation in the classroom. in the planning stage, following the timetable; as well as
This plan needs to include the design of data collection in dealing with the data collection instruments designed,
instruments including different actors and users of the so that, by the end of the implementation (or piloting),
curriculum proposal. Phase 4 in this section will provide they can have the necessary information to evaluate the • Planning lessons that will help to achieve the materials and resources included in the Suggested
more details about this process. positive aspects, as well as the areas of improvement of learning goals included in the new Plan de Área, Curriculum Structure booklet.
the curriculum proposal. and which include the methodological principles • Planning strategies and designing instruments for
d. Inclusion of spaces for reflection in which teachers can of the Suggested Curriculum. Teachers may follow assessing students’ learning. Teachers may follow
identify their strengths and areas of improvement. This During the implementation stage, teachers will be the lesson plan format included in the Suggested the recommendations given in the assessment
will serve as input for the establishment of a teachers’ dedicated, as it has been mentioned, to the following Curriculum Structure booklet. The lesson plans suggestions, as well as the sample assessment
professional development plan that will need to be supported main tasks: can be put together in a bank that teachers can instruments included in the Suggested Curriculum
by the school’s principal, the Local Education Authority include in their didactic resources, and as input for Structure booklet.
and other possible strategic allies. These spaces can be a. Implementation of the Suggested Curriculum: This task the evaluation of the curriculum implementation.
integrated to other scenarios for exchanging experiences, can include, among others, the following activities: b. Data collection for the evaluation stage (Phase 4
• Planning learning activities, considering the below): It is very important that teachers keep track
¹ Piloting is understood, in this document, as the process of ‘testing’ ² Hereon, the term ‘Plan de Área’ will be used to refer to the document number of hours proposed in each of the modules, of the achievements and difficulties found during the
the curriculum. In this process, the school can choose some groups resulting from the adaptation and articulation of the Suggested English
the materials and resources suggested and/ planning and execution of the activities described
to evaluate the results of a possible implementation of the curriculum Curriculum for Transition and Primary to the particular needs of each
proposal at the school. It is necessary to mention that a school can school. This document should be the product of the stage of analysis or others that the teacher considers pertinent above. In order to do this, teachers will need to fill
decide to implement the curriculum without carrying out a piloting and adaptation of the curriculum proposal (See Phase 1). to design or adapt. The teacher may use the in, systematically (class by class or week by week),
stage first.

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

USER DESIRED INFORMATION DATA COLLECTION


some instruments that will feed the following phase 9.4. PHASE 4: EVALUATION INSTRUMENT
(see phase 4 for further details). Some of the aspects
to consider during the implementation of the ‘Plan de Every process needs to be evaluated in order to measure • Results of the process of curriculum analysis
Área’ and the data collection are, among others: its impact and identify strengths and areas to improve. and implementation planning (Phase 1 Y 2)
The data collected during the implementation phase PRINCIPALS esultados del proceso de análisis del currículo SURVEYS
• Pertinence and relevance of learning goals and need to be analyzed systematically in order to propose COORDINATORS y planeación de la implementación (Phase3) (QUESTIONNAIRES)
objectives. new actions and define specific improvement plans for • Type of follow up done to the curriculum
continuous implementation. implementation
• Relevance of syllabi.
As it was mentioned in the previous phases, teachers
• Effectiveness of activities and materials suggested will need to make systematic use of different data
• Level of clarity of curriculum products, and SURVEYS
their actual support to the curriculum proposal TEACHER-
for promoting English learning. collection instruments that can feed this evaluation
TEACHERS implementation process NARRATIVES
stage. Table 8 below shows possible data collection
• Adequacy of suggested number of hours regarding instruments, depending on the desired information and
• Level of acceptance of the proposal by students JOURNALS
the number of activities planned. the user that it is addressed to. Transition and Primary
• Level of support provided by the curriculum STUDENTS RESULTS
proposal to the improvement of students’ TEACHER MEETINGS
English teachers, accompanied by secondary English
learning MINUTES
• Validity of lesson plans and pedagogical sequences teachers and coordinators, with the support and follow-
to support the achievement of learning goals and up of the Local Education Authorities, will be in charge
• Comparative results of students’ performance DISCUSSION
regarding previous years when the curriculum BOARDS THROUGH
language level. of applying the data collection instruments, especially
was not in place THE COLOMBIA
because they are the most important source of
• Perception and reactions of students towards the information that will allow to evaluate and validate the
• Positive aspects and areas of improvement APRENDE WEBPAGE
of the planning and implementation process VIDEO LESSONS /
different elements of the Plan de Área. implementation process for the Suggested Curriculum.
(Phase 2 y 3) LESSON PLANS
Note: Special attention should be paid to the
• Level of satisfaction with the teacher
development and support program provided
implementation of the Suggested Curriculum in
before and during curriculum implementation
Transition, due to the fact that this is the starting point
for the process of familiarization and stimulation of
language learning. Similarly, close follow-up needs • Level of satisfaction with the innovation and
to be done to students’ progression from Transition to implementation of the curriculum proposal FOCUS
First grade, and in general to the transition between STUDENTS • Perception of the curriculum (contents, GROUPS
one grade and the next, so that this can happen materials, etc.) and of possible impact in their
smoothly and does not cause students’ frustration or learning.
lack of motivation towards English learning.

SURVEYS
In order to ensure systematic data collection, teachers • Perception of the implementation of the
should use the instruments designed during the DISCUSSION
PARENTS curriculum proposal
BOARDS THROUGH
planning stage (See Phase 1), which are described in • Level of articulation between the proposal and
the following phase. THE COLOMBIA
parents’ follow-up at home.
APRENDE WEBPAGE

Table 8. Data collection instruments based on the user of the Suggested Curriculum.

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PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

This information needs to be collected at different Graph 4 below summarizes the information presented
points during the implementation (1 school year). The in each phase, and provides additional information
recommendation is to conduct evaluation processes every about strategies, participants, and suggested timings in
academic term so that adjustments can be gradually reference to a school year.
made. At the end of the school year, a global evaluation
needs to be conducted in order to include actions in the
improvement plan for the next academic year.

STRATEGIES PARTICIPANTS
PHASE 1: ANALYSIS AND
ADAPTATION OF THE • Sessions for familiarization
CURRICULUM PROPOSAL with the curriculum principles:
3 sessions x 3 hours each (9 • English Teachers in Transition
hours) and primary.
• Work sessions to articulate • School principal and
(Year 1)
the suggested curriculum coordinators.
with the English plan de área • Secondary English teachers
for transition and primary (1 support.
weekly sessions x6 months)

PHASE 2: PLANNING OF
IMPLEMENTATION
• English Teachers in Transition
• Action plan and timetable and Primary.
• 3 or 4 work sessions, 3 hours • School principal and
(Year 1)
each (9-12 hours) coordinators.
• Secondary English teachers
support.
What happened to
the caterpillar?
The caterpillar
became a butterfly.
PHASE 3: IMPLEMENTATION OF
THE CURRICULUM PROPOSAL
• Lesson planning and
implementation
1 School Year • English Teachers in
• Data collection for evaluation
(Year 2) Transition and primary.
• Option: Piloting before full
implementation

PHASE 4: EVALUATION

• Online interaction: • English Teachers in Transition


1 School Year (Year 2) Colombia Aprende. and primary.
(Data Collection) • Application of evaluation • School principal and
Results consolidation - instruments (See table 8) coordinators.
(Year 2) • Exchange of experiences. • Parents
• Local education authorities.

Graph 4. Summary of implementation phases, strategies, participants


and timeline.

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ve
PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES SUGGESTED ENGLISH CURRICULUM

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