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POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION WITH POLICE PLANNING

POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION characteristic of all organizations arise through the
WITH POLICE PLANNING social interactions of individuals or through family
grouping.
The course deals with the study of principles
underlying police organization and management What is Organization?
with particular focus on the Constitutional mandate, It is a form of human association for the attainment
Republic Acts 6975 and 8551, and previous laws and of goal or objective.
issuances relating thereto.
It is the process of identifying and grouping the work
It includes the organizational structure and to be performed, defining and delegating
organization of the Philippine National Police, on the responsibility and authority establishing
national and local levels. relationships for the propose of enabling people
Emphasis is given on direction, supervision, work effectively.
coordination and control of all local police forces as What is Police Organization?
a homogeneous body under a single command.
Police organization is a group of trained personnel in
It also includes the basic management functions in the field of public safety administration engaged in
so far as these are applied to the police organization. the achievement of goals and objectives that
Police planning is integrated into this course, and it promotes the maintenance of crimes.
is designed to equip the students with knowledge on
the development of effective plans, particularly on Administration of Police Organization - It is the
strategies and tactics for effective operations. systematic structure of management of a police
organization.
The emphasis is on the special techniques and
procedure applicable to unusual needs like unusual What is Police?
criminal activities, civil disturbances, special
community events, disaster plans, and civil defense. Police is a branch of the criminal justice system that
has the specific responsibility of maintaining law and
Introduction: The organization with management order and combating crime within the society.
and administration is directed towards the
achievement of goals and objectives. The term police are derived from the word POLITIA,
meaning condition of a state, government and
Goals are broad statements of general and long term administration, POLITIA organization is from the
organizational purposes often used to define the Greek word POLITEIA which means government,
role of the police, for instance, to prevent crime, citizenship, or the entire activity of a POLIS, a city.
maintain order or help solve community problems.
Objectives are specific short term statements POLICE (broadest sense) means the internal
consistent with an organizations goal. organization or regulation of a state, the control and
regulation of a community or state through the
The organization guides members in its operation of exercise of the constitutions power of the
the assigned duties. It enhances better government.
administration of the department. Good
organization and administration would eventually POLICE (less broadest sense)it denotes the power of
mean effective and efficient police work. the government which concerns the tranquility,
Organization can also distinguished by their degree public order, peace, security of persons and property
of formality and structure: and the protection of the public health and moral.

1. Formal Organization-is defined as those In the very restricted sense, the word police refer
organizations that are formally established for exclusively to that body of armed men which as an
explicit purpose of achieving certain goals. (Stable institution is capable of exercising its duties by
social institutions.) armed physical forces in the preservation and
detection of crime and the execution of laws.
2. Informal Organization- are those sharing the basic

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responsibilities, either temporarily or permanently,


Police Activities: over officers of lower rank.
1. The prevention of Criminality.
2. Repression of Crime. 3. Commanding Officer- an officer who is in
3. Apprehending of offenders. command of the department, a bureau, a division,
4. Recovery of Property. an area, or a district.
5. Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct.
6. Performance of Related Miscellaneous Service. 4. Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior
rank in a team or group.
The organization of the police force commonly
requires the following organizational units: 5. Length of Service- the period of time that has
Functional Units: elapsed since the oath of office was administered.
1. Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within Previous active services may be included or added.
a large department. It comprises of numbers of
divisions: 6. On Duty - the period when an officer is actively
engaged in the performance of his duty.
2. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.
7. Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is
3. Section -functional unit within a division that is free from specific routine duty.
necessary for specialization.
8. Special Duty -the police service, its nature, which
4. Unit -functional group within a section; or the requires that the officer be excused from the
smallest functional group within an organization. performance of his active regular duty.

Territorial Units: 9. Leave of Absence- period, which an officer is


excused from active duty by any valid\acceptable
1. Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer reason, approved by higher authority.
is assigned for duty, such as a designated desk or
office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic 10. Sick leave -period which an officer is excused
duty.It is a spot location for general guard duty. from active duty by reason of illness or injury.

2. Route -a length of streets designated for patrol 11. Suspension - a consequence of an act which
purposes. It is also called LINE BEAT. temporarily deprives an officer from the privilege of
performing his duties as result of violating directives
3. Beat - an area assigned for patrol purposes, or other department regulations.
whether foot or motorized.
12. Department Rules- rules established by
4. Sector - an area containing two or more beats, department directors\superiors to control the
routes, or post. conduct of the members of the police force.

5. District-a geographical subdivision of a city for


patrol purposes, usually with its own station. 13. Duty Manual -describes the procedures and
defines the duties of officers assigned to specified
6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city post or position.
each comprised of designated districts.
14. Order – an instruction given by a ranking officer
Other Items and Terminologies to a subordinate, either:
a. General Order,
1. Sworn Officers-all personnel of the police b. Special, or
department who have oath and who posses the c. Personal
power to arrest.
15. Report - usually a written communication unless
2. Superior Officer- one having supervisory otherwise specifies to be verbal reports; verbal

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reports should be confirmed by written which, for many organizations, make its use
communication. impractical.

Nature of Police Organization Perhaps its greatest advantages it that, it is utterly


simple. It involves a division of the work into units of
The police department is truly a complex eight people with person in charge who has
bureaucracy. It is mostly a multi-level organization, complete control and who can be hold directly
organized in the form of a pyramid with the top-level responsible or accountable for result, or lack of
administrator being the chief of police. them.

At the bottom level of the organization, one finds Quick decisions can be made in the line organization
the patrolman or line officer. because of the direct lines authority.

The patrol officer is the backbone of the police Because of these direct lines, each member in the
department. chain of command knows to whom he is clearly
fixed.
The lowest level worker found in many, if not most,
complex organizations who usually performs the Discipline is administered in this type of the
routine, repetitive kind of work necessary to keep organization.
the organization functioning.
Responsibility for making decisions is well
The police department by its very nature places the identified. Singleness of purpose is fostered.
line officer in a position where he is a decision maker
and manager of his area o responsibility from the Coordination of effort is relatively easy to achieve
first time he is given a beat to patrol. because functional overlapping in between units, a
prime cause of friction in any organization can be
There are indeed few agencies in which the minimized.
efficiency and parameter of the law enforcement
functions are vested in those individuals quite likely Functional Organization
have the least amount of experience and expertise in
the organization. The functional organization in its pure form is rarely
found in present day organizations,except at or near
Types of Police Organizational Structures the top of the very large organizations.

An organizational structure is a mechanical means Unlike the type of structure, those establishment
of depicting, by an arrangement of symbols,the organized on a functional basis violate the prime rule
relationships that exist between individuals, groups, that men perform best when they have but one
and functional relationships between groups and superior.
individuals clearly defined to ensure accountability
and compliance. The functional responsibility of each functional
manager is limited to the particular activity over
Line Organization which he has control, regardless of who performs
The straight line organization, often called the the function.
individual, military or departmental types of
organization, is the simplest and perhaps the oldest Coordination of effort in this type of organization
types; but it is seldom encountered in its channels of becomes difficult since the employees responsible
authority and responsibility extends in a direct line for results may be subject to functional direction of
from top to bottom within the structures, authority several persons.
is definite and absolute.
Discipline is difficult to administer because of this
While the line type of organization has many multi-headed leadership.
advantages, it also has some inherent weaknesses
There may be considerable conflict among the

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functional administrators, resulting in much service of knowledge can be provided line personnel
conclusion among line personnel. by specialist.

Line of authority and responsibility are fragmented POLICE SERVICE


into many functional channels, making each superior
responsible to several superiors depending upon the Fundamental Theories of Police Service
function he happens to be performing.
1. The Continental Theory - police are servant of
The functional organization in its purest form is higher authorities and the people have little or no
rarely found in present-day organization except at or share at all in their duties, nor any direct connection
near the top level. with them.

Advantages 2. The Home Rule Theory - policemen are


considered as servants of the community who
1. divides responsibility and authority between defend for the effectiveness of their function upon
several specialists; the express wishes of the people.

2. Functional responsibility is limited to the Concepts of Police Service


particular activity over which he has control
regardless of who performs the functions. 1. Old Concepts -this old philosophy means throwing
more people in jail rather than keeping these out
Disadvantages jail. Punishment is the sole instrument of crime
control. The yardstick of efficiency of the police is
1. Coordination of effort becomes difficult; more on arrests.

2. Discipline is difficult to administer; 2. Modern Concept -police service today has


broadened its activities to include certain aspect of
3. Conflict among the functional administrators. social service for the welfare of the people. Their
yardstick of efficiency is the absence of crime.
Line and Staff Organization
All police function and activities can be categorized
The line and staff organization is a combination of as their line or non-line. Line functions are those
the line and functional types. tasks that directly facilitate the accomplishment of
organizational goals, whereas non-line functions are
It combines staff specialist such as the criminalists, those tasks that supplement the line its task
the training officers, the research and development performance.
specialists, etc. channels of responsibility is to think
and provide expertise for the line units.
Line activities are further broken into the sub-
The line supervisor must remember that he obtains categories: primary line and secondary line
advice from the staff specialist. functions, both of which are field service.

In normal operations, the staff supervisor has line 1. Line Function


commands but with recognized limitations such as
coordination between line and staff personnel can 1.1. Primary Line Function
be achieved without undue friction.
The primary line function is police patrol; that is the
Failure to recognize these line and staff relationship patrol activities of a police organization are
is the greatest and most frequent source of friction considered basic and the first priority.
and a barrier to effective coordination.
The patrol division has the initial responsibility for
The advantage of this kind would be- it combines crime prevention and dictation of the apprehension
staff specialistor units with line organization so that of offenders.

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It also assists in the preparation in the facts for 2.2. Auxiliary Services
presentation in a court of law.
All non-line not regarded as staff service are
Theoretically, if the patrol force were 100 percent classified as auxiliary services.
effective in the execution of its assigned tasks, the
need for specialized units (traffic and detective) Typically, they provide support service of both a
would be eliminated. technical and non-technical nature to both line and
non-line activities.
The patrol function is accurately called the backbone
of the police service. Polygraph examiner, photographer, fingerprint and
crime scene technicians, and the police laboratory
1.2. Secondary Function are technical auxiliary services that support the line
activities.
Historically, police department were established only
as police patrols, however as municipalities The jail and the communication system and non-line
increased in population, area, and technology (for (staff) activities.
example, the invention of the automobile), the
burden of this patrols was greatly increased. Some activities are extremely difficult to classify as
either the staff or auxiliary.
The department, were unable to provide additional
personnel because of budgetary limitations, were In many instances they perform a dual service. Police
unable to increase the number of the officers on the community relation units, although performing
patrol beat in proportion to the rising population secondary line service, may be designated as an
and rate of crime and was force to enlarge each auxiliary or even a staff function.
officers beat.
LINE FUNCTION
2. Non-Line Function
Primary Secondary Staff Auxiliary
Simply put, non-line functions are those services that -Patrol
support the line. -Criminal Investigation
Whereas the line provides services directly to the -Vice Investigation
citizens, non-line activities help the line to -Planning and Research
accomplish its primary task. -Inspection
-Police record System
Traditionally non-line or support activities consist of -Identification service
two major categories: staff and auxiliary services. -Traffic Regulation and control
-Crime Prevention
2.1. Staff Services -Personnel Administration
-Training
These activities that have the responsibility and -Budgeting Control
personal development and department -Purchasing
management are staff services. -Public Relation
-Property control
Personal development includes recruitment, -Communication
selection, training, and supervision. -Crime Laboratory
-Jail-Supply
Budget, planning and research, inspection, and -Transportation
similar activities fall under the heading of managerial -Maintenance
activities.

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PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION Because both levels are held responsible for various
aspects of patrol supervision, both must be aware of
To understand the organization and operation of such directives.
public departments certain general basic principles
of organization must be understood. If either supervisor is by-passed, that one cannot be
held accountable for the lack of knowledge.
These principles of organization were generated by
the experience of industry, business, and the military Further, performance of supervisory duties is
services. greatly hindered, and potentially serious problem is
created.
They have no absolute values, but they do provide a
check list against which an organization can be Delegation of Responsibility and Authority
structurally and functionally evaluated.
There must be a clear line of normal authority
This notion will become more defined as each running from the top to bottom of every
principle is considered. organization.

Division of Labor Ultimate authority and responsibility for a police


organization lies at the top of the chain of
For a police organization to be effective, work command-with the chief.
assignments must be designed so that similar tasks,
functions, and activities are given to an individual or However, if a subordinate is to be held responsible
group for accomplishment. for the accomplishment of a given task, he or she
must be given the authority to carryout those
Police functions are sub-divided into units that are responsibilities.
described as follows:
It is important, also the responsibility and the
1. Branch -usually the largest unit within station authority be clearly defined.

2. Division - partof the branch having a department- If the patrol officers are given the responsibility for
wide function evaluating police response time on a given day or in
a specific situation, the officer must be given the
3. Section -basically one of the several functional authority to procure the communication logs from
elements of a division the communication center.
Without this authority, the entire task cannot be
Unity of Command accomplished.

Unity of command requires that an individual be Delineation of Responsibility and Authority


directly accountable to only one superior. No person
can effectively serve twosuperiors at a given time. A clear-out delineation of responsibility and
authority is essential to prevent confusion of lines of
Chain of Command authority.
Primarily this principle provides for the vertical
movement of authority up and down established If responsibility and authority are not clearly defined,
channels in the organizational hierarchy. conflicts, duplication and overlaps of function lead to
confusion and inefficiency.
To illustrate this concept, consider a directives
originating in the office of the patrol chief intended Each officer and each organization segment of
for the patrol force (downward movement). authority delegated to accomplish the job.

Two levels of authority fall between the patrol chief


and the patrol officer inspector.

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Span of Control Watch or Shift


The number of officers or units reporting directly to
the supervisor should not exceed the number that A time division of the day to ensure proper
can be feasibly and effectively coordinate and allocation of personnel.
directed. Shifts are normally eight consecutive hours, five
days, giving an officer a forty-hour a week.
There are an innumerable factor that limits the span
control including distance, time, knowledge, However, longer working hours and work weeks are
personality, and the complexity of the work to be common.
performed. Further, shifts frequently overlaps to provide
additional personnel during peak period.
It is not unusual to fine fifty or sixty workers to
perform identification function reporting to one Territory
supervisor. Territorial distribution is necessary to ensure the
availability and general suitability of the patrol
On the other hand,as we ascend the chain of service throughout a jurisdiction. Geographical or
command and the diversity of functions increases, territorial divisions of the department can be
the number of individuals that a police executive described as follows:
supervises decreases rapidly.
1. Post - a fixed or stationary point location (e.g., a
Objective specified street intersection, surveillance site, or an
assigned desk or office).
All organizational elements must contribute, directly
or indirectly, to the accomplishment of the 2. Route or Lined Beat- a length of street normally
objectives of the enterprise. assigned to the traffic and patrol officers whether
foot or mobile. The rout has the characteristics of
Each organizational element should be formed for a being continuous, in a straight line, or the line sight.
definite purpose, and this purposes must be
accomplish the major objective. 3. Beat – a geographical area, once again assigned to
either foot or mobile patrol and traffic officer.
Any police function and organizational elements
that is not required in the accomplishment of the 4. Section – two or more beats, routes, posts, or any
overall objectives should be eliminated. combination thereof.

Coordination Clientele

The organizational structure must facilitate the The distribution of patrol services with respect to the
development of close, friendly, and co-operative characteristics of the population served must be
relations, especially between line and staff activities. recognized and dealt with in contemporary law
enforcement. The development of specialized
Effective coordination is dependent almost entirely functional units expresses the principle of the
upon adequate communication among all element organization by clientele.
of a police organization.
Nature of the Office of a Policeman
Time
A police man must have a mind of a lawyer the soul
The police service is among the few public services of a clergyman, the heart of the social worker,
that maintain a twenty-four hour schedule. discipline of an army sergeant, the integrity of a
It is necessary to the department to assigned officers saint. He must believe in a community of law, while
in sufficient number to meet the demands at any seeing little but lawlessness; believe in the goodness
given time. of man, while seeing the man most often at his
worst, depend on his faithfulness, know his

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jurisdictions like a sociologist, and he must


understand people like a psychologist. He must take 4. Juvenile Division\Section - shall be primarily
long view of life like a philosopher and yet never concerned with children and youth, the correction
losing his common touch. and rehabilitation of youth offenders.

POLICE OPERATIONS 5. Intelligence Division\Section - shall work for the


Police Operation detection of syndicated crimes andsubtle criminal
Another word in the large collection of police service activities, including subversion and threats to the
terminology is operations. For the most part, security ofthe state.
operation is synonymous with line function. In
accordance with previous definitions, operations are 6. Traffic Division\section - shall be responsible from
inclusive of both primary and secondary line the enforcement of traffic laws and regulation of
functions. traffic. This section is primarily concerned with the
motorist and pedestrians.
Subdivision of the Operation
7. Homicide Division\Section - shall be charged with
Area. the duty to investigate homicide and murder cases.

1. District - is a subdivision of a province and shall 8. Municipal Police Sub-station - shall be concerned
consist of a metropolitan city or a metropolitan city with the general maintenance of peace, order and
and adjacent municipalities\ small cities, or several public safety within their respective jurisdictions.
adjacent municipalities and small cities. The Municipal Police Sub-station shall consist of two
principal sections with corresponding functions as
2. Station -is a subdivision of a district and shall indicated below:
consist of a large municipality or a small city or
municipalities\small city and some adjacent smaller a. Patrol Section
municipalities or several adjacent municipalities.
1. Preservation of peace and order
3. Sub-station -is a subdivision of a station and shall
consist of a large municipality or small city or a 2. Suppression of criminal activities
municipality itself.
3. Crime prevention
Operating Unit of aPolice Station
4. Inspection activities
1. Patrol Division\Section - shall be responsible for
crime prevention; general preservation of peace and 5. Enforcement of traffic laws and regulations
order; crime suppression, and other public safety
services. 6. Fire prevention and control

2. Investigation Division\section - shall be charged b. Investigation section


with the duty of carrying on theobjectives of criminal
investigation, that is, to identify and locate theguilty 1. Crime investigation
party and provide evidence of his guilt through
criminal proceedings. 2. vice control

3. Vice Control Division\Section - shall be 3. Control of juvenile delinquency


responsible for the neutralization or suppression of
vices such as gambling, prostitution and drug abuse. 4. Custody of prisoners

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Peace Officer of Small Police Station Ancient Egypt

Peace officers of small Police stations are considered The early Egyptians established laws and court and a
as generalist. Most small police station within the rudimentary rule of law. The first account of a
limits of their capabilities, are responsible for all developing court system originated in Egypt in
activities in the fields of law enforcement and public approximately 1500 B.C. the court system was
safety. They provide routine patrol, conduct premise presided by judges who were appointed by the
inspection, make criminal and traffic investigations, pharaoh. They later organized marine patrols and
make arrest, and in other ways, provide for the customhouses to protect commerce.
community security. In such stations, its members
and officers are by and large generalist. Ancient Greece

Historical Background on Policing The Greeks had an impressive of law enforcement


called the Ephori. Each year at Sparta, a body of
Primitive Policing Law enforcement can be traced Ephors was elected and given almost unlimited
back to the cave dwellers, who were expected to powers as investigator, judge, jury and executioner.
follow certain rules or face banishment ordeath. The These five men also presided over the senate and
customs depicted in early cave dwelling may assembly, assuring that their rules and decrees were
represent the beginning of law and law followed. From the Greek philosopher PLATO, who
enforcement. The prehistoric social order consisted lived from 427 to347 B.C., was the idea that
of small family groups living together as tribes or punishment should serve the purpose rather
clans. Group living gave rise to customs everyone thansimple retaliation.
was expected to observe. The tribe’s chief had
executive, legislative and judicial powers and often Ancient Rome
appointed tribe members to perform special task to
include guarding the community against depredation The Romans had a high development system of
of lawless elements. administering justice. The 12Tabulae (12 tables)
were the first written laws of the Roman Empire. It
Ancient Law Enforcement deals with legal procedures, property ownership,
building codes, marriage customs and punishment
The Sumerians for crimes. At the reign of Emperor Augustus, he
created the Praetorian Guard, which consisted of
The earliest record of ancient peoples need to about 7000 men\soldiers to protect the palace and
standardize rules and methods of enforcement to the City of Rome, together with the Urban
control human behavior dates to approximately Cohorts to patrol the city. He created the so
2300 B.C., when the Sumerian rulers Lipithstar and called Vigiles who were assigned as firefighters and
Eshumma set standards on what constituted an eventually given law enforcement responsibilities. As
offense against society. the first civilian police force the Vigiles sometimes
kept the peace very ruthlessly, hence the
word vigilantes. Another important event was the
The Babylonians time of JustinianI, ruler of the Eastern Roman
Empire (527 to 265 A.D.) who collected all Roman
The Code of King Hammurabi (2100 B.C.) –during the laws and put it into his Justinian Code-they became
time of Babylonian King Hammurabi, he established known the Corpus Juris Civilis which means Body of
rules for his kingdom that designated not only Law.
offenses but punishment as well. The principle of the
code was that the strong shall not injure the week.
Hammurabi originated the legal principle of LEX
Talionis- the eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth
doctrine.

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The Early Policing System 3. Leges Henri -the law of King Henrie I. Duringthis
period:
The policing system is divided into different systems a. offenses were classified as against the king and
namely: individual
b. police men were considered public officials
The Anglo-Saxon Period c. police and the citizens have the broad power to
arrest
The Anglo-Saxons were influential in developing the d. a grand jury was created to inquire on the facts of
early police forces. The following are the features of the law.
this period:
4. The Magna-Carta- laws were enacted upon the
1. Tun Policing System- Tun is the forerunner of the demand of the Knights of the Round Table and
word town. Under this system all male residents are forced the king to sign the same. Examples of the
required to guard the town and to preserve the principles of law include the following:
peace and control,to protect life and property from a. no free men shall be taken or imprisoned,
harm or disturbance. disposed or outlawed except by legal judgment of
his peers
2. Hue and Cry - asystem of apprehending a criminal b. no person should be tried from murder unless
whereby a complaint goes to the middle of the there is proof the body of the victim
street and shouts to call all males to assemble. The c. Beginning of the national and local government as
victim reports his complaint to the assembly and well as legislation.
gives the whereabouts of the perpetrator. All male
residents would then proceed to locate and The Westminster Period of Policing (1285-1500)
apprehend the culprit. When apprehended, trialis
conducted giving the culprit a chance to depend 1. The Statute of 1295- this law prescribed the
himself. closing of the gates of London at sundown. Start
ofcurfew systems.
3. The Royal Jude -a person who conducts criminal
investigation and gives punishment. Punishment 2. Justice of the Peace - this was position which
usually fits the crime committed. gives a person the power to arrest, pursue and
impose imprisonment.
4. Trial by Ordeal- a system of determining guilt and
innocence in the ancient times which was based on 3. The Star Chambercourt - a special court which try
painful test of skills. It is usually accompanied by offenses against the state.
harsh punishment. For instance, suspects were
required to place their hands in boiling oil orwater. Modern policing System
When not hurt, it indicated guilt and the suspect
placed under punishment. This period came to the limelight when a bill creating
the Scotland Yard was passed by the parliament of
The Normal Period of Policing (1066-1285) England. It was sponsored and expanded by Sir
Robert Pell who was made to be the first head of the
1. Shire-Rieve System- England at the time police organization. He was referred as the Father of
of William Norman ,divided England into 55military Modern Policing system due to his contributions in
districts known as the Shire-Rieve. Shire was the the modernization of the police force. The following
district, Rieve was the ruler who makes laws, pass are the principles were considered in organizing and
judgment and impose punishment. He was assisted administering the Scotland Yard known as the Peels
by a constable (forerunner of the word Principles:
constabulary).
1. Stable and effective police force should be under
2. The Traveling Judge- one responsible in passing government control.
judgment which was taken from the Shire-Rieve in
view of some abuses by the Rieves. 2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency.

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riflemen in the history of the Philippine police


3. Fast distribution of new to the people is essential. system.
In 1852, the notoriously dreaded Guardia Civil took
4. Proper distribution of personnel according to shift over peacekeeping duties in the islands under a
and by hour. Royal Decree. Guardia Civil in the provinces was
composed mainly of Filipinos who worked under the
5. The best qualification of peace officers is control jurisdiction of the alcaldes or mayors. They followed
of temper. a military structure and received semi-military
training yet lacked other dimensions of today’s
6. Proper selection and training is the basis of police service.
efficiency.
The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo, president
7. Police cannot function properly without of theFirst Philippine Republic, signaled the start of
wholehearted support of the people. the American occupation of the Philippines.
Maintaining peace and order, particularly in the
8. Every police must sell himself to the people. countryside, remained the biggest problem of the
Americans.
9. Police officers must go out to their way to help or The Americans failed to subdue the followers of
assistthe people. Aguinaldo like Gen. Macario Sakay. Hostilities
continued in Batangas, Mindoro, Cebu, Bohol and
Philippine National Police Samar. A military solution to the peace and order
problem was ruled, hence, the birth of
The Philippine National Police or PNP is the national the Philippine Constabulary.
police force of the Republic of the Philippines with a
manpower strength of 113,928 as of end-July 2007. Pacification Campaigns
It provides law enforcement services through its
regional, provincial, municipal, district and local To fight rampant lawlessness, the Philippine
police units all over the islands. Created by virtue of Constabulary divided the entire country into
Republic Act 6975, otherwise known as the constabulary districts. Banditry was rampant in
“Department of the Interior and Local Government Southern Luzon. Records referred to the bandits as
Act of 1990", the PNP came into being on January tulisanes. The style of fighting of the early American
29, 1991, at Camp Crame, Quezon City, when the Constables and the bandits was “man-to-man,
Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National onfoot, and generally by arms and bolos.”
Police were retired as mandated by law. The American foot soldiers had a hard time repelling
the tulisanes in their fight in the mountains as their
History Early Policing enemies were familiar with the terrain. Malaria and
cholera were the diseases that the afflicted the
Organized policing started in 1500s when night men American troops whenever they conducted foot
or bantayans patrolled the streets of Manila. The patrol in the hinterlands.
night men were under the direction of
the alguacilmayor who provided them with muskets The Insular Force
as weapons and alarm bells as their means of
communication. In 1836, the Spanish colonial The Americans are credited for creating
authorities formed the Cuadrillo, a rural police force, the Philippine Constabulary, the principal
toenforce peace in the countryside. Six years later, instrument of the civil authorities for the
its general function was assumed by the Cuerpo de maintenance of peace and order. The PC began as a
Carabineros deSeguridad Publica. small unit—the Insular Force in 1901.

The Carabineros deSeguridad Publica was organized It was set up by virtue of Organic Act No. 175,
in 1712 for the purpose of carrying outlaws of the enacted by the Second Philippine Commission on
Spanish government. Native Filipinos served up to July 18, 1901.The Constabulary then was composed
the rank of sergeant under the command of Spanish of six thousand men led by American officers and
officers. It was the earlier version of mounted former members of the Spanish Guardia Civil. Under

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close American direction and control, it functioned The Japanese forces then began the siege of Bataan,
as a military organization. ordering four infantry regiments with artillery and
Since its formation, the Constabulary had been tank support to crush the American and Filipino
primarily discharging police law enforcement and soldiers.
public safety functions. Its officers and men had
served with distinction both in the field of law The Japanese then prepared to transfer the
enforcement and in combating violence and prisoners and surrendered troops to Camp o’ Donnel
lawlessness, and in various aspects of public service. inCapas, Tarlac in what has been known as the
“Death March.” Because of torture and
There was even a time in history when they starvation, 4,326 prisoners of war died in the
performed the duties of teachers, sanitary infamous march.
inspectors, midwives, doctors and foresters.
The Postwar Constabulary
The Philippine Constabulary was mandated as a
civilian organization on March 15, 1945 when it was The county was left in shambles after the Second
placed under the general supervision of the Interior World War .Manila was in ruins. Loose firearms and
then later transferred to the Secretary of National dead bodies littered the streets. This was also the
Defense on March 30, 1950. period when communist ideology had been
propagated in the countryside and hard-line
The Secretary of Interior had supervision over the supporters had been won.
Constabulary as early as January 13, 1939 until the
outbreak of World War II.As an insular police force, The Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan or Hukbalahap
the officers of the Constabulary carried the civilian became a force to reckon with in Central Luzon.
title of “inspector.” Its peacekeeping duty was
limited to areas where military rule had been lifted. The Hukbalahap was born in Pampanga and was
spawned by a feudal land system in the province
The Constabulary At War dominated by landlords. Pampanga was an “ideal
ground” for the agrarian unrest. It achieved legal
The participation of the Constabulary in the dark status during the Japanese occupation when it
years of the Second World War began upon merged with the guerilla forces in fighting the
President Roosevelt’s declaration of a state of Japanese.
emergency in the United States. Manila prepared for
war. The communist movement, meanwhile, capitalized
on the agrarian problems of the country to cement
The word had been sent: Japan, the Axis power’s ally its presence. Agrarian unrest was prevalent in
in Asia, would soon attack the Far East. Filipinos agricultural lands in Luzon as well as the sprawling
woke up on the morning of December 8, 1941 to the haciendas in the south.
news that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor.
Luis Taruc became a leader of the HMBs and
The first war casualties of the Constabulary came founded his own government in Central Luzon. It
from the bombing of Pan-American Airways was during this turbulent period that the Philippine
installation at San Pedro, Makati in the afternoon of Constabulary was reactivated into the Military Police
December 8. Six Constables from the Headquarters Command.
Company were wounded.
Faced with peace and order problems, the Military
The next days and months saw relentless Japanese Police Command was suffering from its own internal
bombings on the country’s landmarks, airfields and crises.
naval bases.
The last war had killed many Constables. There was a
The Death March dearth for trained personnel who would be utilized
to address the problems.
The Japanese had taken Manila but were surprised
that no defense forces were waiting to be captured. Constabulary records showed that there were about

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20,000Hukbalahaps in Luzon in 1946. The Military


Police Command, on the other hand,had 23,000 The PC Metropolitan Command
informal enlistees.
The upsurge of mass demonstrations and violence
Reorganization during the latter part of the 60s and the expansion
efforts of the communist movement triggered the
On January 1, 1944, the Military Police Command creation of the PC Metropolitan Command.
was dissolved by virtue of Executive Order No.
94 issued by President Manuel A. Roxas. The To quell the unrest, President Ferdinand Marcos
Command’s 12,000 officers and men were absorbed issued Executive Order Number 76 on July 14,
by the newly reorganized Philippine Constabulary. 1967establishing the PC Metrocom which became
The revitalized PC was in charge of the country’s the PC’s striking force as it was authorized to
peace and order “except those which were purely conduct 24/7 patrol in the entire Metro Manila and
military in nature.” was tasked to “supplement or complement local
police action in the repression and prevention of
Brig. Gen. Mariano Castañeda became chief of the crimes…”
PC and instituted reforms. On June 21, 1948,
President Elpidio Quirino offered general amnesty Martial Law and the PC
to the Huks. Taruc, who had been elected a member
of Congress representing Pampanga, returned to The Philippine Constabulary took on a pivotal role
Manila. ButTaruc had no plans to surrender. He only when President Marcos declared Martial Law
went to Manila to collect his back salaries and used on September21, 1972.
the money for his comrades’ operations in Central
Luzon. Marcos mobilized the Constabulary and other major
services of the military to dismantle the
President Ramon Magsaysay was credited for “unconstitutional opposition” and to prevent
crippling the Huk movement by mobilizing the widespread hooliganism and gangsterism. Convinced
Philippine Constabulary. Magsaysay used the that there was a need to restructure the social base
“friendly touch” for winning over the Huks, building that bred lawlessness, Marcos reorganized the
roads for them and giving them lands. government machinery to effect his desired changes
in the social, economic and political structures.
The Rise of theCommunist Party of the Philippines
On March 21, 1974, President Ferdinand E. Marcos
The Philippine Constabulary’s attempt to maintain signed Presidential Decree 421 unifying all the
peace andorder did not end with the decimation of police, fire and jail services in Metro Manila. The
the Huks. move was significant as it created an elite force,
the Metropolitan Police Force that was placed
On December 26, 1968, Jose Maria Sison, a Political under the aegis of the PCMetrocom. The decree was
Science student at the University of the Philippines, also the first step in fulfilling the constitutional
founded the Communist Party of the Philippines. mandate for an integrated national police force.

The communist ideology spread through a small The Metropolitan Police Force was tasked to carry
discussion group called Kabataan Makabayan out theintegration of all police units
organized by Sison and his colleagues in the middle nationwide. Brigadier General Prospero A. Olivas,
sixties. Sison then rose to become the leader of the commanding general of the Metrocom, was assigned
CPP and organized the military wing of the CPP, the the task of launching the pilot project under the
New People’s Army. supervision of Fidel V. Ramos and Brigadier General
Cicero C. Campos, deputy Chief for police matters.
But the communists suffered a crushing blow on
January 9,1969 in the hands of the Constabulary who General Olivas would have the power and direction
killed the most number of communist leaders in one over the Metrocom, including tactical, strategic
encounter in Orani, Bataan. movements, deployments, placements and

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POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION WITH POLICE PLANNING

utilization of the entire force and the training disciplines and requirements such as doctors,
thereof. engineers and other technical positions.

On August 8, 1975, Marcos issued The Philippine National Police Academy is located in
Presidential Decree No.765 establishing the Silang, Cavite and is the primary training school for
Integrated National Police with the Philippine the PNP.
Constabulary as the nucleus and all police officers as Recruitment and Training
components. The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs,
depending on annual budget allocations.
They were all placed under the supervision of the The entry level for non-commissioned officers is the
Ministry of National Defense. rank of Police Officer 1 or PO1, with a starting salary
of P14, 265.00 inclusive of allowances.
The Creation of the Philippine National Police The new recruits undergo Police Basic Recruit Course
for six months and a Field Training Program for
The People’s Revolution of 1986 saw the birth of the another six months prior to deployment to various
1987 Constitution that included a provision on the units.
PNP which was to be “national in scope and civilian Republic Act No. 6975 Approved: December 13,
in character.” 1990
In 1991, the Philippine National Police was created
with the passage of Republic Act No. 6975, -An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police
otherwise known as the “Department of the Interior under a Reorganized Department of the Interior and
and Local Government Act of 1990.” Local Government, and for other purposes.
The principal authors of the Republic Act 6975 PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE (PNP) The Philippine
were Senators Ernesto N. Maceda and Aquilino National Police (PNP) has been established initially
Pimentel, Congressmen Jose S. Cojuangco Jr. and consisting of the following:
Rodrigo Gutang. a. Members of the police force who were integrated
Upon its signing into law on December 13, 1990, the into the Integrated National Police (INP)pursuant
PNP underwent a transitory period;and on 31 March to PD 765;
1991, President Corazon Aquino named General b. Officers and enlisted personnel of the Philippine
Cesar Nazareno as the first Director General of the Constabulary (PC) which include:
Philippine National Police. •Those assigned with the Narcotics Command
(NARCOM);
On January 29, 1991,at Camp Crame, Quezon City, •Those assigned with the Criminal Investigation
the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated Service (CIS);
National Police were retired officially and •Those of the technical services of the AFP assigned
the Philippine NationalPolice was born. with the PC.
Like any new evolving organization, the PNP suffered •Civilian operatives of the CIS.
from birth pains. To address these
concerns, Republic Act 8551 or the PNP Reform and c. Regular operatives of the abolished NAPOLCOM
Reorganization Act of 1998 was enacted on February Inspection, Investigation and Intelligence Branch
17, 1998 to amend certain provisions of Republic Act may also be absorbed by the PNP. In addition, the
No. 6975. PNP shall absorb the Office of the National Action
This move was in response to the growing clamor to Committee on Anti-Hijacking (NACAH) of the DND,
transform the PNP “into a more responsive, effective all the functions of the Philippine Air Force Security
and relevant police organization.” Command (PAFSECOM), as well as the police
Under this Act, the PNP shall be strengthened and functions of the Coast Guard.
evolved into a highly efficient police force that is
community and service-oriented and fully
accountable in the performance of its action.
Officer “THE LORD IS WITH YOU”
Training Officers for the Philippine National Police THESSALONIANS 3:16
are sourced from the Philippine National Academy as
well as through lateral entry, for specialized

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