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It is the process by which Republic of the Philippines


Department of Education
Region I
Division of La Union
DOÑA FRANCISCA LACSAMANA DE ORTEGA MEMORIAL
NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL – CASACRISTO ANNEX
Cadapli, Bangar, La Union

ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT


GRADE 11/12
FIRST SEMESTER
4 HOURS/WEEK
40 HRS/QUARTER
80 HOURS/ SEMESTER
Core Subject Description
 The development of listening and speaking skills and strategies for effective communication
in various situations
Content Standard/ Performance Standard
 The learner understands the nature and elements of oral communication in context.
 The learner designs and performs effective controlled and uncontrolled oral
communication activities based on context.

 In this course, you will learn that the key to becoming an effective communicator is to
reach out to others and really put all your efforts into transmitting your message as
accurately as possible for understanding to occur.
 To communicate is to reach out in order to share something in common
 The skills that you will learn today will be immediately useful in many areas of your life,
since communication is something we do practically all the time.

Nature and Elements of Communication


Objectives
 Define communication
 Identify the components of the communication process
 Explain communication and the communication process
 Distinguish the unique features of the communication models
 Cite examples of communication barriers that can cause communication breakdown
 Explain the essence of active listening
 Demonstrate ways to improve verbal and non verbal communication

DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
 Communication originated from the Latin word communis or communicare which means
“to share” or “to participate”.
 It is the process of using common system of words, sounds, symbols, signs, or behaviors to
exchange information or to express our ideas, thoughts, and feelings to someone else.
 Oral communication is the process by which a speaker transmits a message to a listener ( or
listeners), who, in turn , sends feedback to the former.
What are the most common ways we communicate?
1. spoken word 2. written words 3. visual images 4. body language
What is Communication?
 Communication is the transmission of an idea or feeling so that the sender and receiver share
the same understanding.
 Communication is not a mysterious process.
It takes place when the ideas from your mind are transferred to another’s and arrive intact,
complete, and coherent.
Types of Communication
 One-way communication
 Two-way communication
 One to many
Components of Communication
 Verbal Communication
 Vocal communication
 Non-verbal communication
Features of Effective Communication
 Active Listening
The process of recognizing, understanding, and
accurately interpreting communicated messages
and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal
messages.
Steps to Effective Listening:
 Hearing
Hearing Vs Listening
Hearing – Physical process, natural, passive
Listening – Physical as well as mental process, active, learned process, a skill
Listening is hard. You must choose to participate in the process of listening.
 Interpretation
 Evaluation
 Respond

 Eye contact
 Posture
 Simple language
 Questioning skills
Benefits of effective communication
 Quicker problem solving
 Better decision making
 Steady work flow
 Strong business relations
 Better professional image
Improving Verbal Communication-Tips
 Eliminate Noise
 Get Feedback – Verbal & Body Signals
 Speak Slowly & Rephrase your sentence
 Don’t Talk down to the other person
 Listen Carefully & Patiently
Improving Body Language – Tips
 Keep appropriate distance
 Touch only when appropriate
 Take care of your appearance
 Be aware - people may give false cues
 Maintain eye contact
 Smile genuinely
Reasons for Communication
 Discover and identify ( understand ) the self
 Provide self- satisfaction
 Facilitate adjustment to the environment
 Communicate and relate with others in the environment

KEYPOINT
 Communication plays a crucial part in your personal and professional lives and its mastery
will influence how effectively you live your lives. (De Vito, 1997)
 The consequence of communication is CHANGE

OUTPUT: The students will be asked to do communication rap and the teacher will provide instrumental
music for the beat of the rap.
Write a short essay on the value and relevance of communication in your life.

THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION

The Communication Process

SENDER Medium RECEIVER Feedback/Response


(encodes) (decodes )
Barriers to communication
 Noise
 Inappropriate medium
 Assumptions/Misconceptions
 Emotions
 Language differences
 Cultural differences
 Poor listening skills
 Use of jargon
 Distractions
Components of the Communication Process
 message (verbal and non-verbal clues)
 sender/source/encoder
 receiver/decoder
 medium/ channel (visual mode/auditory mode)
 VISUAL –light waves that carry non-verbal clues
 AUDITORY-sound waves that carry verbal symbols (tone, pitch,volume, rate)
 feedback / response (verbal and non-verbal clues)
 context-interrelated conditions of communication
 physical, social, psychological, cultural, historical, temporal
 noise
 physical, psychological, physiological, semantic
Socio-Psychological Context
 Status relationship among participants
 Roles that people play
 Cultural roles of the society
 Friendliness or unfriendliness
 Formality or informality
 Seriousness or humorousness of the situation
NOISE
 Physical – hum of the air conditioner, screeching of tires, ringing of cellphones
 Physiological – pains, illnesses, aches, dizzy spells, fever
 Psychological – worries, problems, fears, inner thoughts ( shut off )
 Semantic- choice of words
 too difficult, highly offensive, emotionally loaded, simply foreign to the
receiver

COMMUNICATION MODELS
 LINEAR COMMUNICATION MODEL- (Shannon & Weaver Model)
A one-way activity where information flows from sender to receive

 INTERACTIVE OR TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS (Schramm & Wood Model)


The sender formulates and transmits a message to a receiver, who in turn, formulates and sends
a response called feedback
 CIRCULAR COMMUNICATION MODEL (Osgood & Schramm)
The continuous flow of information/ communication between two interacting parties.

 HELICAL COMMUNICATION MODEL (Dance Model)


Communication that moves forward and upward. It is dynamic, non-stop, never stale, static, and
constant.
 SMCR ( Berlo’s Model
 SENDER- is the party that sends a message
 Communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, social system, culture
 MESSAGE - which is the information to be conveyed
 Context, elements, treatment, structure, code
 CHANNEL - which is the manner in which the message is sent. Channels of communication
include speaking, writing, video transmission, audio transmission, electronic transmission
through emails, text messages and faxes and even nonverbal communication, such as body
language
 Hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, touching
 RECEIVER
Communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, social system, culture
 Various factors that can either accomplish or break down effective
communication process

 TRANSACTIONAL (Barnlund Model)


To send and receive information simultaneously
KEYPOINT
 Whatever the focus or angle and whatever illustration ( linear, circular, interactional, helix,
transactional), it is always important to remember the main ingredients.
 Understanding the basic process of communication is the key to knowing what you can do
to achieve higher fidelity or to be more effective as a communicator.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
Verbal - Refers to symbols that have universal meaning for all involved in the process. These are written
and spoken symbols known as language.
 Meaning and Purpose
 Four stages of Voice Production
 IPA
 Vowel sounds in phrase
 Vowel sounds in sentences
Diphthongs in phrases
Non-verbal Communication- Refers to the use of symbols and signs other than language such as
gestures, bodily actions, facial expression, eye behavior
 Haptics - touch
 Paralanguage/ Vocalic - voice
 Facial expression -
 Oculesics/ Eye behavior - eyes
 Gustatory system -
 Proxemics – distance/ space
 Chronemics - time
 Physical Appearance
 Olfaction of your face - smell
 Kinesics – body language/gestures
 Colorics – color
IMPORTANCE OF NVC
 To express emotion
 To communicate interpersonal attitudes
 To support speech
 To present oneself
 To practice rituals
When does communication breakdown occur?
 It occurs when one person tends to control the conversation and the other communicator
is not having the chance to communicate.( Daniel Shapiro)
 Communication breakdown is the failure to put across or to deliver the correct message.
Barriers to Effective Communication
 Semantic- specific meanings of words
 Badly expressed messages, symbols or words with different meanings, faulty
translation, unclarified assumptions, technical jargons
 Psychological- disturbing mental and emotional condition of the communicators
 Emotional
 Lack of attention or poor listening
 Loss by transmission and poor retention
 Distrust
 Organizational
 Organizational policies, rules and regulations, status, organizational structure, facilities,
supplies, and materials
 Personal
 Fear of challenge of authority
 Lack of confidence in subordinates
 Unwillingness to communicate
 Lack of proper incentive
 Lack of initiative to respond
 Varying perceptions
 Faulty translation- wrong interpretation
 Unclarified assumptions-beliefs, expectations, guesses or speculations that may be accepted as
true or as certain to happen but without proof
 Technical jargon (BP, script, objection is overruled, justify, LOL, etc)
 Conflicting nonverbal signals
PSYCHOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL BARRIERS
 1. Lack of attention (poor listening)
 2. Loss by transmission or poor retention
 3. Distrust
ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS
 Organizational Policies
 2. Rules and regulations
 3. Status
 4. Organizational structure
 5. Facilities, supplies, and materials
PERSONAL BARRIERS
 1. Fear of challenge of authority
 2. Lack of confidence in subordinates
 3. Unwillingness to communicate
 4. Lack of proper incentive
 5. Lack of initiative to respond
 6. Varying perceptions
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS
 1. Interpersonal - the skills we use when we engage in a two-way communication using
words or non-verbal clues. (active listening)
 2. Presentation skills
 3. Writing skills- (grammar, organize ideas, lay-out)
 4. Personal skills- grooming, enhance self-esteem by asserting oneself, staying calm under
pressure, empathizing, smile to show positive vibes.
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
 The dynamic interaction between or among people from different cultures. It examines the
influence of culture on who people are, how they act, feel, think, and evidently, speak and listen
Intercultural Communication Barriers
 Anxiety – fear or nervousness about what might happen
 Assumptions about similarities and differences
 Ethnocentrism - belief in the inherent superiority of one’s own ethnic group
 Stereotypes and prejudice – Germans were once known as racists; not liking a person who
belongs to another religious sect
 Incompatible communication codes
 Incompatible norms and values- Catholics making the sign of the cross

STRATEGIES TO MANAGE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION


 Understand cultural sensitivities; avoid conflict due to differences in beliefs, values, and
traditions
 Build rapport in person, on the phone, and by email
 Create pro active not reactive communication
 Manage pre-existing cultural perceptions
 Increase self-awareness and adapt your style to the type of culture/ situation

FUNCTIONS
OF COMMUNICATION
OBJECTIVES:
 At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to:
Discusses the functions of communication (LC EN11/ 12OC-Ibe-8)
1. Define what functions of communication are
2. Identify the functions of communication
3. Demonstrate the functions of communication through a 2-minute skit.
 Functions of communication refer to the reasons for communicating with other
people such as regulation and control, social interaction, motivation, information
and emotional expression. (Flores, 2016)
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
 1. Regulation/ Control as a function of communication means being able to use language,
gestures and emotions to manage individual or group activities.
Example: Making an announcement that the community will segregate garbage.
 2. Social Interaction is the most familiar and the primary reason why people
communicate. This is because people do love to talk and love to talk with each other.
Example: A mother talking to her children while they are playing
 3. Motivation as a function of communication tries to persuade another person to
change his/ her opinion, attitude or behavior.
Example: An entrepreneur showing money as his motivation to succeed in his career.
 4. Information is the most useful function of communication that allows the speaker to
make others aware of certain data, concepts and processes.
Example: A pharmacist giving information to the elder about the medicine she purchased.
 5. Emotional Expression is used by a speaker for the purpose of moving another person to
act, to move in the particular direction the speaker wants that person to move.
Example: A scientist appealing to accept his research on hydroponics.

SPEECH
 is the vocalized form of human communication.
 based upon the syntactic combination of lexical and names that are
drawn from very large (usually >10,000 different words)
vocabularies
 Human speakers are often polyglot able to communicate in two or
more of them.
 The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also
provide humans with the ability to sing.
 A gesture form of human communication exists for the deaf in the
form of sign language
 is researched in terms of the speech production and speech
perception of the sounds used in spoken language. Several
academic disciplines study these including acoustics, psychology,
speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science, communication
studies, otolaryngology and computer science.
 It is controversial how far human speech is unique in that other
animals also communicate with vocalizations.

Problems involving speech

There are several biological and psychological factors that can affect speech. Among these are:

1. Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections,
vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat.
2. Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech
processing disorders, where impaired motor planning, nerve transmission, phonological
processing or perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech
production.
3. Hearing problems, such as otitis media effusion and auditory processing disorder can lead to
phonological problems.
4. Articulatory problems, such as stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to
problems in articulation. Tourette syndrome and tics can also affect speech. A lot of people also
have a slur in their voice
5. In addition to dysphasia, anomia and auditory processing disorder can impede the quality of
auditory perception, and therefore, expression. Those who are Hard of Hearing or deaf may be
considered to fall into this category.

In other words:

Speech:

 The faculty or act of speaking.


 The faculty or act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions
by the articulation of words.
 Something spoken; an utterance.
 Vocal communication; conversation.
 One's habitual manner or style of speaking.
 The sounding of a musical instrument.

A. TYPES OF SPEECH CONTEXT


1. Intrapersonal Discourse – communicating with oneself
a. Internal Discourse – plan, visualizing, problem-soling, internal Conflict, resolutions, evaluation,
judgement of one self and others, making reflections, internal conflict, praying
b. Solo vocal communication – speaking aloud to oneself, speak aloud
c. Solo Written communication – diary
2. Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also
an area of study. Communication skills are developed and may be enhanced or improved with increased
knowledge and practice. During interpersonal communication, there is message sending and message
receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal
communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message.
2. 1 DYAD - Sociology defines dyad (from Greek dýo, "two" or Sanskrit "Dayadaha") as a group
of two people, the smallest possible social group. As an adjective, "dyadic" describes their interaction.
2.2 . SMALL GROUP - The term 'small group teaching', or 'small group learning' as it is often
termed, means different things to different people. Some are familiar with the tutorial as being their
experience of small group teaching. The tutorial is usually linked with a series of lectures and its role is
to complement the lecture.
3. Public speaking (sometimes termed oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a
presentation (a speech) focused around an individual directly speaking to a live audience in a structured,
deliberate manner in order to inform, influence, or entertain them. Public speaking is commonly
understood as the formal, face-to-face talking of a single person to a group of listeners. It is closely allied
to "presenting", although the latter is more often associated with commercial activity. Most of the time,
public speaking is to persuade the audience.

4. Mass Communication – aired in television, radio, newspaper and the like


B. TYPES OF SPEECH STYLES
1.Informal or Casual  A casual form of information sharing typically used in personal conversations
with friends or family members.
Casual-group register is used in writing and speech with people in the same group, team.
Examples: include a team victory celebration, lunch with friends, a school dance, or dinner with friendly
coworkers.
2. Formal
 A type of verbal presentation intended to share information and which conforms to established
professional rules, standards and processes and avoids using slang terminology. Ex. Religious sermon,
judge’s pronouncement/verdict on a criminal case
3.Frozen  It is the most formal communicative style that is usually used in respectful situation or
formal ceremony. These are specific written or oral acts that never change, hence the name "frozen" or
"static." Because they don't change, they sometimes include old grammar or vocabulary. They are
cultural, usually related to the religions, laws, or customs of the community. They are usually
unidirectional (one direction). (They don't involve back-and-forth communication.)
Examples: the "golden rule, preamble of the Phil. constitution
4. Consultative  It is used in some group discussion, regular conversation at school, companies, trade,
speech conversation, etc. it was the most operational among the other styles. One of the characteristics
of consultative language is its tendency of average speed, which is higher than formal style. The
sentence tend to be shorter (resemble or indeed, phrase) and less well planned (tend to spontaneous).
Since it is spontaneous, people tend to repeat some unnecessary words, choose the wrong word choice
or use many slang.
5.Intimate  It is a style among intimate members of a family or friends that do not need a complete
language with clear articulation. It is enough to use short utterances.
Sometimes called "private" register, it is used in writing and speech with close family members and close
friends.
These communicative acts don't follow standard societal rules, but follow the "norms" of the people in
the relationships. They have various purposes and are usually bidirectional.
6.Aggressive  Aggressive communication is expressed in a forceful and hostile manner, and usually
involves alienating messages such as ‘you-statements’ (blaming the other person and accusing them of
being wrong or at fault) and labelling. In addition, the person’s tone of voice and facial expressions are
unfriendly.
7. Passive  Passive communication involves putting your needs last. You don’t express your thoughts
or feelings, or ask for what you want. Passive communication involves putting your needs last. You don’t
express your thoughts or feelings, or ask for what you want.

C. TYPES OF SPEECH ACTS

o Locution--the semantic or literal significance of the utterance;


o Illocution--the intention of the speaker; and
o Perlocution--how it was received by the listener.

D. TYPES OF COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGY

1. Strategic Nomination is the manipulation of an election through its candidate set (compare this
to tactical voting, where the manipulation comes from the voters). Strategic nomination is not to be
confused with campaign strategy, the methods candidates employ in political campaigns to win an
election after nomination.
2. Restriction an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation)
the act of keeping something within specified bounds (by force if necessary)
3. Turn-taking. Individuals involved in a conversation take turns speaking. Turn-taking refers to the
process by which people in a conversation decide who is to speak next. It depends on both cultural
factors and subtle cues.
4. Topic control - limiting conversations if it is not fruitful/productive
5. Topic shifting is a diversionary tactic in which one person in a discussion (the shifter) manages to
subtly change the discussion's topic to another, related but different topic, without explicitly announcing
the change of subject or reaching any kind of mutual agreement that such a change is appropriate.
Reasons this is done include:

 The shifter feels better able to defend their point of view on the second topic than on the first
(which is not a legitimate reason for changing the topic, but the shifter may be doing so without
realizing it)
 The shifter views "winning the argument", or even "not losing the argument" (e.g. allowing or
encouraging the argument to devolve in chaos, if a victory seems unlikely) as more important than
working towards a better understanding of the truth on the original topic
 The shifter truly sees the second topic as being at the heart of the disagreement about the first
topic (an honest and conscientious arguer will state this point specifically so that the change can be
discussed, in which case it isn't "shifting" but a legitimate change to the focus of the discussion)
6. Repair is an organization of practices of talk in which speakers deal with problems or troubles in
speaking, hearing or understanding talk.
7. Termination – ending up the conversation

TYPES OF SPEECHES
ACCORDING TO PURPOSE:
1. Informative – This speech serves to provide interesting and useful information to your
audience. Some examples of informative speeches:
 A teacher telling students about earthquakes
 A student talking about her research
 A travelogue about the Tower of London
 A computer programmer speaking about new software==
Informative Speeches
An informative speech is one in which the speaker relays knowledge to an audience on a specific topic.
There are four distinct types of informative speeches: speeches about objects, speeches about
processes, speeches about events, and speeches about concepts.
1. Speeches About Objects
Object speeches seek to impart knowledge about this object to the audience. Whether your object is
the human body or the most recent episode of Family Guy, informative object speeches provide a
comprehensive overview of your object as topic.
It's important that object speeches have a purpose: using our previous examples, you may discuss
the complex, myriad ways in which the endocrine system functions and how it regulates metabolism;
similarly, you may describe how Family Guy serves as a modern form of satire in pop culture. It's one
thing to spout off facts about an object, but there must be a purpose to those facts.

2.Speeches About Processes


A process is the manner in which something is created, made, done, or works. An informative speech
about a process then describes how something is made, done, or works. Processes could include
anything from how the modern electoral college works to how an ice cream sandwich is made on the
factory line. Informative process speeches work to help your audience both understand the process,
and possibly be able to replicate the process for themselves (if applicable).

3. Speeches About Events

Any occurrence that happens is regarded as an "event." A speech about an event then, describes the
occurrence in full: the time, date, location, and circumstances of that occurrence. Like all informative
speeches, event speeches must also serve a purpose. You may talk about how the Battles of
Lexington and Concord came to be known as the "shot heard 'round the world," or describe the
experience of your first week at college. In either case, your speech must have a purpose to it.

4. Speeches About Concepts


Concepts refer to ideas, beliefs, theories, attitudes, and/or principles. When speaking about
concepts, you may have to find concrete ideas in order to make abstract ideas more relatable and
tangible to your audience. Whether discussing the theory of the origins of the universe to whether
there's any truth to the phrase "love at first sight," concept speeches break down complex ideas into
manageable chunks of understanding for your audience.=

Crafting an Effective Informative Speech

1..A narrowly focused speech topic can really hone in on an object, process, event, or concept, thus
making it easier for the audience to understand that topic. A broadly chosen topic usually entails lots
of different kinds of information, which might complicate the informative quality of a speech and
confuse the audience members. A narrowed focus also makes researching more manageable for the
speech writer and increases his or her ability to understand that topic thoroughly before presenting
it to others.=
2. When writing an informative speech, pick out a small number of key points on your specific topic
that you want the audience to take away from your speech. Use these points to develop an
organizational structure to your speech, which should include an introduction, body, and conclusion.
This structure will provide a trajectory that guides your audience as you elaborate the key points of
information. Having a structure gives you, as the speaker, an opportunity to introduce the key points
in the introduction and revisit them in the conclusion, increasing the likelihood that the audience will
walk away with the key knowledge about your topic.

The Truth About Caffeine


How many of you here consider yourself caffeine addicts? How much coffee do you drink in a day? One
cup? Two cups? More? How about caffeinated sodas?
Caffeine is pervasive in our society these days and every few months we hear about how a study has
shown that it is bad for us or good for us. What are we to believe?
Today, I'd like to give you some of the facts about caffeine and its effects on your body. I may not cause
you to change your coffee consumption, but at least you'll be better informed about what you are
putting into your body.
I'm going to talk about the beneficial effects of caffeine, the negative effects and discuss what are
considered to be 'safe' levels of caffeine consumption.
Let's start with the good news. Caffeine, which comes from the leaves, seeds and fruits of about 63
different plants, is well known as a stimulant. That's why people drink it, right?
Caffeine does help you wake up and feel more alert and it has been shown to increase attention spans.
This is a beneficial effect for people who are driving long distances and for people who are doing tedious
work. Calling this a health benefit may be stretching it, though staying awake while you are driving a car
definitely contributes to your well-being!
Caffeine also contains antioxidants, which have been shown to have cancer prevention qualities.
The negative effects of caffeine are largely dependent on how much you consume.

2. Demonstrative Speeches – This has many similarities with an informative speech. A


demonstrative speech also teaches you something. The main difference lies in including a
demonstration of how to do the thing you’re teaching. Some examples of demonstrative speeches:
 How to start your own blog
 How to bake a cake
 How to write a speech
 How to… just about anything
3. Persuasive – A persuasive speech works to convince people to change in some way: they think,
the way they do something, or to start doing something that they are not currently doing. Some
examples of persuasive speeches:
 Become an organ donor
 Improve your health through better eating
 Television violence is negatively influencing our children
 Become a volunteer and change the world==
4. Entertaining — The after-dinner speech is a typical example of an entertaining speech. The
speaker provides pleasure and enjoyment that make the audience laugh or identify with
anecdotal information. Some examples of entertaining speeches:
 Excuses for any occasion
 Explaining cricket to an American
 How to buy a condom discreetly
 Things you wouldn’t know without the movies

ACCORDING TO DELIVERY:
Impromptu Speech. This is a speech that has no advanced planning or practice.

 Think for a second about what you are going to say.


 Keep your points brief and to the point.
 Take a few seconds between thoughts to compose yourself.
 . Memorized speech is reciting from memory a speech that has been prepared in advance..

Memorized speech is reciting from memory a speech that has been prepared in advance.

The Extemporaneous Speech is a perfect balance. This speech involves the speaker's use of notes and
some embellishment to deliver a speech. To clear this up, a speaker who uses this method would have
note cards or prompts that guide him from point to point, but he uses his own words as he goes along.
What makes this different than an impromptu speech is that he has a loose guideline for his speech. He
did not memorize anything; he just used cues to know where to go next.

In a Manuscript Speech, the speaker reads every word from a pre-written speech. This seems easy
enough. Well, if your audience enjoys a bedtime story, it may work. Reading directly from the pages of a
script has its benefits. You won't miss a single word or important fact. The downside? It can be boring.
Without eye contact, animation or movement on stage, the audience may become disinterested. This is
especially true if the speech is about a drab topic.

PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH WRITING

Writing For The Spoken Word: The Distinctive Task of The Speechwriter

Repetition and Variation

Repetition with variation is a basic speechwriting tool used by many of the greatest speakers to
emphasize key elements while avoiding monotony. Some examples follow. ! Martin Luther King’s “I have
a dream” speech was a striking example of this technique, using that phrase to introduce a series of his
visions for a better future. !

Lincoln at Gettysburg emphasized the significance of the day’s events by restating the solemnity of the
occasion in not fewer than three variations: “We cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot
hallow this ground, ...” !

Similarly, Winston Churchill’s World War II speeches used repetition with variation to build a powerful
climax: “We shall fight in France and on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and
growing strength in the air. We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be; we shall fight on the
beaches and landing grounds, in fields, in streets and on the hills, ... we shall never surrender.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1937 “One third of a Nation” speech imparted a sense of urgency by his
deliberate repetition of a “here are” construction to describe conditions in the country, followed again
and again with “now”:
Here is one-third of a nation ill-nourished, ill-clad, ill-housed — NOW.
Here are thousands upon thousands of farmers wondering whether next year’s prices will meet their
mortgage interest — NOW.
Here are thousands upon thousands of men and women laboring for long hours in factories for
inadequate pay — NOW

Cadence and Balance


Another venerable rhetorical device is the use of cadence and balance in the spoken word. This is a part
of speechwriting where the speaker and the writer need cooperation to ensure success. As one observer
noted, “the language of the speech should also be poetic — replete with alliteration, metaphor, and
other figures of speech

Rhythmic Triads.
The grouping of words into patterns of three can lead to a memorable effect, provided the device is not
overused. Some notable examples from classic oratory include “Veni, vidi, vici”; “Never ... was so much
owed by so many to so few”; “The kingdom, the power, and the glory ...”; “I have not sought, I do not
seek, I repudiate the support of ...”; “one third of a nation ill-clad, illnourished, ill-housed....”

Parallelism. The linkage of similar words or ideas in a balanced construction that repeatedly uses the
same grammatical form to convey parallel or coordinated ideas: “Bigotry has no head and cannot think;
no heart and cannot feel;” “Charity beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all
things.”

Alliteration.
The repetition of initial sounds in a series of words to give emphasis. For instance, “We need to return to
that old-fashioned notion of competition — where substance, not subsidies, determines the winner,” or,
“... the nattering nabobs of negativism....”

Anaphora. This is the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive clauses or
sentences. Churchill’s famous defiance of Hitler, “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the
landing grounds ...,” which has been previously cited, is one of the most famous examples. Antithesis. A
common form of parallel structure comparing and contrasting dissimilar elements. For instance, “... give
me liberty, or give me death.”; “Ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for
your country.”; “To some generations much is given; from others, much is demanded ...”; “A great
empire and little minds go ill together.”; “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times. It was the
age of wisdom, it was the age of folly.”; “If Puritanism was not the godfather to Capitalism, then it was
godson.”

Sentence Variation
This technique involves more than alternating longer sentences with short ones. The writer may employ
either periodic sentences, that is, those in which the main clause comes at the end, or loose sentences,
in which the main clause is presented at or near the beginning, to be followed by other main or
subordinate clauses. Sentence variation also includes the use of such devices as those described below.

Rhetorical Questions. “Is peace a rash system?” “Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at
the price of chains and slavery?” The speaker leads the audience to the conclusion he hopes they will
draw by asking a question that makes his point, and that he intends to answer himself, either
immediately, with a flourish, or at greater length during his remarks, through patient exposition.

Sentence Fragments.
“Dear money. Lower credit. Less enterprise in business and manufacture. A reduced home demand.
Therefore, reduced output to meet it.” The speaker dramatizes the situation by reducing it to a stark
declaration, which he renders more striking by pausing to let the facts sink in after each sentence
fragment.
Inverted Order. “With what dignity and courage they perished in that day.” This classic rhetorical
practice, once more widely used, seeks to embellish the general flow of words, much like an ornament
or a musical flourish. It also helps give a particular sentence special emphasis by causing it to stand out
from others by its unusual form.

Suspension for Climax.


With this device, the speaker comes to a complete stop in his remarks, using the ensuing moment of
silence to concentrate the listeners’ attention on his next phrase. “My obligation as President is historic;
it is clear; yes, it is inescapable.” Even periodic sentences, if used with care, repeating the “suspended”
subject or verb before modifying phrases or clauses can contribute to the effect: “Thus did he prove to
be a leader who — victorious in battle, magnanimous in victory, skilled in the arts of peace — was able,
in the face of his most determined foes ...” CRS-5 6 Jefferson Bates, Writing with Precision (Washington:
Acropolis Books, 1985), pp. 82-85.
Use of Conjunctions. Repeating key words and using simple connective conjunctions (and, for, because,
but) can make many complex sentences more easily intelligible to the ear by breaking them up into “bite
size” segments. For instance, “Be a craftsmen in speech that thou mayest be strong, for the strength of
one is the tongue, and speech is mightier than all fighting.”

Imagery No speech will sound fresh and vivid if it is not animated by imaginative imagery, by metaphor
in its many forms: “the hatred of entrenched greed”; “America will always stand for liberty”;
“Democracy is the healthful lifeblood which circulates through the veins and arteries of society ...”;
“Whether in chains or in laurels, liberty knows nothing but victories.”

Audience Analysis
Demographics
Age is obviously an important factor; high school students, young parents, and senior citizens have
different levels of life experience, different interests reflecting the challenges they face at their
particular stages of life, and, to some extent, they even speak different languages

Audience Size
The size of an audience is another important factor in preparing a speech. A large audience and a formal
occasion usually call for greater formality in language and delivery, lengthier remarks, and greater
reliance on some of the classical rhetorical practices cited in this report

Degree of Political Affiliation


Speechwriters must also condition their words to the degree of political affiliation, or lack thereof, in
the intended audience.

Occasion and Purpose


Information
These speeches seek to convey facts or information to the audience.

Persuasion
The persuasive speech is a two-edged sword: it can seek to instill in the listeners either the acceptance
of, or at least a more favorable opinion toward, a particular condition, fact, or concept.

Entertainment
A great percentage, perhaps a majority, of Member speeches will fall into this category.

Time and Length


How long should a Member speak?
Time of Day
Time of day should be considered by the writer. In the morning, people are relatively fresh, and are
generally better prepared physically to listen attentively.

How Many Words?


Finally comes the classic question: how many words should the speechwriter prepare? Once again, the
factors of audience, occasion, Member preference, and time of day should be considered. The question
of length of time, however, must be dealt with at some point. A number of classic speech authorities
suggest that in most cases 20 minutes should be the upward limit.

PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH DELIVERY

The primary aim of the training is to provide the participants with methodology of writing, performing
and arranging successful presentation delivery in English language. The lecturer will pay attention to the
cultural aspects and the influence of audience cultural composition on the effect of presentation.

A/ Drafting of presentation
The participants will learn how to draft the speech determined for a small and a large group of listeners,
how to draft presentation for members of a working group and negotiations at an international level.
They will learn the recommended structure, the procedures how to prepare for writing, how to proceed
with writing and how to process the feedback for their improvement. They will learn how to choose the
topic, collect information, attract the audience and use the setting to enhance the final impression of
speech delivery.

B/ Body language
The participants will be given the advice how to deliver messages using their body language effectively.
They will be video-taped and given the advice how to use their hands, gestures, keep eye contact to be
able to develop communication with their audience and highlight the purpose of their presentation.
They will be recommended how to enter the room of speech delivery, what place to occupy to keep eye
contact and how to move while delivering speech.

C/ Cultural aspects of speech delivery


The participants will study cross-cultural effects on the successful course of the presentation delivery.
They will learn what is recommended and what is prohibited while delivering messages to the audience
composed of the representatives of different cultures.

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF A SPEAKER

(a) Appearance - The speaker’s appearance should be appealing to the audience. The audience in
factlikes speakers who are similar to them.

(b) Movement - All the movements on the stage should be voluntary and warranted. Nervousness can
cause involuntary movements which can distress both the speaker and the audience. If the speaker gets
involved in the speech and trusts the audience, nervousness can go. No movement can happen on the
stage without reason. Movements driven by the speech can help the speaker maintain contact with all
the sections of the audience.

(c) Posture: A confident speaker stands straight with his arms well relaxed. Nervous speakers sprawl on the
podium and lean against the wall. There is always fear and tension.Great speakers on the other
hand take an informal posture and relax their audience too. Informal postures get the speaker a
positive reaction from the audience.

(d) Facial Expressions: The expression on the speaker’s face determines the audience’s closeness to
him. Warm smile and confident look take the audience close to the speaker. The expressions display
the degree of involvement, the speaker has in his speech. The involvement with the speech is all the
necessity and the rest will take care of itself.

The expressions and the tone used by the speaker should go hand in hand with the message and the
emotions that are delivered. For example, the expression and tone of the speaker should be serious
when he delivers a serious message and sad when he delivers something sad. Any deviation in this
would confuse the audience.
(e) Eye Contact: It is one of the most important gestures. It not only increases the speaker’s direct
contact with the audience but also increases their interest in their speech. Direct eye contact helps the
speaker understand audience reaction then and there and it makes the occasion less frightening.
(f) Volume: It is confirmed by the number of the audience but it should be loud enough for the speech to
reach everybody. The beginners who have stage fear are usually not loud enough and it is they who
should check it through rehearsals.

(g) Articulation: It is the right pronunciation of all the words. The people who suffer stage
fright commit the mistake of deletion, addition, adding extra parts towards slurring.Perfect articulation
and Standard English are a must for any public speaker.

(h) Time: Time is an important factor in Speech delivery. At the outset, the speaker should know
the amount of time given for his speech and prepare accordingly. Sticking to time can be achieved by
proper rehearsals.

(i) Language : The speaker should use the language well suited for the audience. Too much of scientific
terms may not go well with the common public. The words that the speak uses should be readily
understood by the audience. It is good to stoop to the level of the audience.

“Don’t use a big word where a small one could do.” – George Orwell.

(j) Use Short stories, Anecdotes and Quotations according to the need. It is always good to start the speech
with a small story as stories normally arouse interest. But remember, too much of anything is good for
nothing.

A good saying to follow in giving a speech is

“Tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them.”
REGIONAL MASS TRAINING FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADE 11 TEACHERS
( ACADEMIC TRACK )
May 24- June 11, 2016
RELC, San Vicente, SFC, La Union

1st Day – May 25, 2016 –ORAL CURRICULUM


Opening Program
FACILITATORS – Pangasinan State University
Dr. Luziminda Q. Ramos
Dr,. Mary Ann Macaranas
Dr. Salome Montemayor
Ma’am Tuesday De Leon
Ma’am Mary Ann Bullagay
Ma’am Ma.Theresa Macaltao
Ma’am Editha T. Geron – Regional Supervisor In-Charge Filipino
Ma’am Sol Jomaya
Ma’am Gina Amoyen
Sir Erick cariÑo
Dr. Dina Bunao
Dr. Raquel C . Pambid

Dr. Dina Bunao


 Your people are your most valuable asset.
Help them succeed and they help you succeed.
make them better and together you make the organization better.
 Teachers from the elementary/ tertiary can be an SHS Teacher.
 Why train?
develop and enhance professional skills of teachers to increase students’ knowledge, skill and
competencies.
give the much needed support to the teachers who are entering a responsibility or new field of
work especially the new teachers.
 don’t treat your colleagues as competitors
 Implementation of k-12 program is the greatest reform in the Philippines.
 Objectives of the Training
1. To build the capacity of teachers to conduct their classes.
2. To familiarize the tears with the curriculum guides, lesson plans and daily lesson
logs.
3. To demonstrate the conduct of different classes.
Will we have materials?
Learning materials are being produced for elementary to junior high school while textbooks for senior
high school which has specialized subjects are being bid out.
“ If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.”
Curriculum Guide
- summarizes what learning should be achieved in what grades or over certain grades spans. it
plots the roadmap that each learner must follow.
- where content standards ,performance standards and competencies are given examples.
- covers competencies where strategies and activities can be anchored on.
E.g
F11 – Filipino Grade 11
PN – kasanayang pampagkatuto
1 – Quarter I
a- Week

MESSAGE FROM BRO. ARMIN LUISTRO


- important element – teacher’s personality
learners’ feelings
no sweet fruits unless we help one another
open the door for the learners to see the great opportunities waiting for
them
MESSAGE FROM USEC DINA OCAMPO
- goal: all materials needed must be of quality
- quality of training programs – it is on what we give to the teachers
- what we can afford goes to trainings
- focal objective of k-3 help the children to learn and learn by themselves
- studied the data on the NAT, some are low, some are high- create a bottom up synergy first to
the 100 schools
- enhance the Math and Science curriculum through strong elementary schools
- On the training, go straight on the substance not so much with the yelling or singing.
- Engage more the student in: ( for them to be busy and a more vibrant school )
Science and technology arts
sports( academics and sports should go )
journalism
- so blessed to witness Divisions working for the implementation
- digital voucher program – money equivalent even not from the public
- permits from non-DepEd SHS

THE FRAMEWORK – COMMUNICATIVE cOMPETENcE AND MULTI LITERAcIES


- contextualization – construction- spiral progression - integration – interaction
MACROSKILLS – listening, speaking, writing, reading, viewing
- Language is a culture

The Domains of Literacy in the K-12 Language Arts Curriculum


1. Oral Language 8. Writing and composition
2. Phonological Awareness 9. Grammar Awareness
3. Book and Prior Knowledge 10. Vocabulary Development
4. Alphabet Knowledge 11. Listening comprehension
5. Phonics and Word Recognition 12. Reading comprehension
6. Spelling 13. Attitudes Towards Literacy, language and
Literature
7. Fluency 14. Study Strategies
content _- refers to the different topic
content Standards – identifies and set the essential understandings that should be learned
- describe the abilities and skills the learners are expected to demonstrate
in relation to the content standards
- integration of knowledge, understanding and skills is expressed through
relation, innovation and adding value.

2nd Day – May 26, 2016


DR. SALOME MONTEMAYOR
WALKTHROUGH ON THE cURRIcULUM GUIDE
1. Oral Communication in Context – 1st Semester , 2 quarters
LEARNING STANDARDS
Content Standard – Enduring understanding/essential understanding
Performance Standard - expected output/performance based, how well the students do
their work, evidence of their performance learning competencies
- students must be able to do and perform/produce in relation to the
content standard
RUBRIcS : analytical and holistic
Activity # 1 : Oral com.
cONTENT STANDARD PERFORMANcE STANDARD
Oc 11.1 – Nature and Elements of Design, perform ( verbs )
Communication Oral communication activities, context
Nouns- Nature, elements, oral communication ( nouns)
Assessment- Effective, controlled, uncontrolled
Oc 11.2- Functions of Communication vErbs - Writes, watch, listen
Nouns - Functions/purposes, oral communication Nouns – essay, observations, evaluation, speakers
Assessment – objective – 250 word-essay

EN11Oc – If- Communicative competence verbs – demonstrates


Strategies in various Speech Situations Nouns – communicative strategy , speech
Nouns –communicative competence, speech situations
context, speech style, speech act, communicative
strategy
Assessments – effective use , communicative,
variety
TYPES Of communicative Strategy verbs – demonstrates
Nouns –communicative competence, speech Nouns- communicative strategy, speech situations
context, speech style, speech act, communicative
strategy
Assessments- effective, variety
Oc11.4 – Types of Speech verbs – delivers, using the principles
Nouns –speech Nouns – speeches, speech delivery
Assessments – proficiently, various, effective

VIDEO WATCH
Asia Speakers Competition
Oprah Winfrey Commencement Speech At Harvard University 2013
“ When you learn , teach, when you get, give. “

Activity # 2 – Group 6
- Learning Plan -
Con Content Performan Learning Topics No.of Instructional Assess Refe
tent standard ce competency hours Delivery ment rences
B. Types of Recognizes Demonstr Observes the Types 3 effective
Speech Style that ates appropriate of Lecture/discu use of
1. intimate communicate effective language forms Speec ssion communi
2. casual competence use of in using a h Style Formal cative
3.consulta requires communit particular Speech - strategy
tive understanding y strategy speech style in a
4. Formal of speech in a arietta variety of
5. Frozen content, of speech speech
speech style, situations. situation
speech at and s.
communicative
strategy

3rd Day – Ma’am Salome Montemayor


Functions of communication
Film viewing – Nestle Philippines

Day 3 – May 27, 2016 – Dr. Luzviminda Q. Ramos


4A’s of Learning
1. Activity
2. Analysis
3. Abstraction
4. Applications
Objective – journeying with the student

Mode of Communication
1. Listening
2. Speaking
3. Writing
4. Reading
5. viewing

- 25% - retained listening – most neglected skill


- Speaking – most used /abused skill
REGION I tagline – “ Husay, Saysay at Sarili”

OC11.1 – Objective ( Specific Learning Outcomes )


1. Define and understand communication and the communication process.
2. Distinguish the models of speech communication.
3. List and overcome the filters/barriers in a Comm. process
4. Explain the essence of active listening.
5. Demonstrate ways to improve verbal and non verbal Comm.

Engage The Learners


- In this course , you will learn that the key to becoming an effective communicator is to reach out
to others and really put all your efforts into transmitting your message as accurately as possible
for understanding
- to communicate is to reach out in order to share something in common
- the skills that you will enhance
MARGINAL LISTENING – listening but not responding
Hearing – coming inside

KINDS OF NOISE
1. Physical – outside like hum of the air – on, screeches of train, ringing of cellphone
2. Psychological – disturbances inside like worries, problems fears
3. Physiological – sick/ hungry, pain, aches, dizzy
4. Semantic – sentences, confusion, misconception

WINNING Physical Appearance


1. authority 3. credibility
2. acceptance 4. respect

Winning Presentation
1. Plan well 2. prepare everything 3. organize yourself
“ To communicate is to reach out and share something in common.”

Ma’am Salome – functions of communication

Day 4 – May 28, 2016


Dr. Luzviminda Q. Ramos

THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION


1. verbal 2. non-verbal 3. para verbal

INTONATION PATTERNS
1. high 2. very high 3. normal 4. low
 POINT OF LINGUISTICS – actions are easier to manipulate than words
 TWO WORDS THAT Describe Actions
1. spontaneous
2. sincere

7 UNIVERSAL ELEMENTS/COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION


1. sender/encoder/speaker/writer/origination/source
2. receiver/pt. of destination/decoder
3. medium/channel ( face to face )/mass media/printed materials
4. feedback/response
5. Context
6. noise

Feedbacks – intentional/ unintentional, visible/invisible

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
1. noise
2. inappropriate medium
3. assumptions/misconceptions
4. emotions
5. language difference
6. cultural difference

SOCIO- PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTEXT


1. status relationship among participants
2. roles that people play
3. cultural roles of the society
4. friendliness or unfriendliness

NON- VERBAL COMMUNICATION


1. Haptics – touch 8. physical appearance
2. Paralanguage/vocalics – voice 9.oflactics/ olfaction of your face - smell
3. facial expression 10. kinesis – body language, gesture
4. oculesics/eye behavior – eyes 11. colorics - color
5. gustatory behavior
6. proxemics – space/distance
7. chronemics - time

3 GAZES
1. Alpha – eyes to forehead
2. Social – eyes to lips
3. Intimate – eyes to breast level

“ You could only touch one’s life if you are listening.”

DR. SOL JOMAYA (P.M.)


SPEECH STYLES, TYPES OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
1. INFORMAL / CASUAL
2. Formal
DAY 5 - Unpacking of CG

DAY 6 – FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION


Dr. Luzviminda Ramos
TYPES OF SPEECH CONTEXT
1. Intrapersonal Discourse – communicating with oneself
a. Internal Discourse – plan, visualizing, problem-soling, internal Conflict, resolutions, evaluation,
judgement of one self and others, making reflections, internal conflict, praying
2. Solo vocal communication – speaking aloud to oneself, speak aloud
3. Sola Written communication – diary

PM – Ma’am Sol Jomaya


TYPES OF SPEEH
1. Informative Speech

Ma’am Almira – Lesson Planning


Parts of LP DLL Template
1. objectives Weekly Objective
2. topics Topics
3. materials Materials
4. procedure procedure

Stages of a Lesson
1. Warm/Up/Review – encourage learners
2. Introduction/Motivation – attention
3. Presentation- introduce new information
4. Practice – provide opportunities to practice and apply to
5. Evaluation – enables the instructor & learner to assess hoe well they have grasped the lesson.

DAY 7 – DEMO TEACHING

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL PURPOSES

DAY 8 - DR. ROMEO DG RELOZA


NATION BUILDING: Develop Young Leaders
Preliminaries
Roll all
Congrats
House Rules
Divisions/Expectations
Queries
RATIONALE: English,
Academic Purposes (EAP ) – for further schooling
English, Professional Purposes (EPP) – for the labor force
Foundation
EAP and EPP are actually sprouts of ESP

What is ESP?
English for Specific Purposes
Birth: 1960’s ( after WWII /need meets intention)
Birthplace: West than East
Mission: To meet specific needs of learners ( EAP, EPP)
KIP ( Keep In Mind) “ All content and method are based on the learner’s reason for learning.”
video clip : My Dad is a Liar”

Dissection/Deconstruction
I. Anything goes style
- (bring it on: from the students/engagement
II. Guided Analysis Style
- use the plot line ( film, short story, et.
- take note of their participation, way of speaking, speech register, schematic depth
- adjust when needed
 4Ms + 2 – listening, speaking, writing, reading, viewing, evaluating/examining/editing

DAY 9 – Dr. Editha Geron/Dr. Romeo Relloza


3ps – Punctuality, Performance, Profitability
 Leave a legacy
 be careful with your behavior
 teachers are really heroes
3 types of of text
academic, literary, journalistic

Academic Texts
1. article 6. thesis
2. conference 7. dissertation
3. blogs
4. reports
5. reviews

DAY 10 – Dr. Romeo Relloza


- Demo Teaching on EAP

DAY 11 – Ma’am Tuesday De Leon


Ma’am Mary Ann Bullagay
READING AND WRITING
“ If you want to learn, you have to empty your cup.”
- Research demonstrates that R & W connection increases comprehension
- leads to a more authentic teaching, improved reading and writing.

R W

read aloud shared writing


shared integrative
guided
conferences
independent

Connecting Comprehension Strat


-predicting - inferring - retelling - literal - determining importance - reading within the line
- questioning - visualizing - synthesizing

Writing Influences reading


- we supports our comprehension
- opportunity for students to analyze & explore the meaning of texts read.
- writing an be used to discover meaning and to discover meaning and to understand,
communicate meaning to others.
Writing Tools
- reading logs , learning logs, graphic organizer, note taking , summarizing
Inferring-
- R – is the author saying something to us without really saying it?
- W –Can you say something without really saying it?
Hemingway – For sale: Baby socks never worn

visualize
- R – what words do authors use to help us pasture the story our minds
- W – what words will help you get a mind picture
GENRE OF LITERATURE– classification, category
1. prose 2. poetry 3. drama

PM – Mary Ann Bullagay


Well Written Text – organization, coherence, unity
all together – same time in - explicit
altogether – entirely, wholly into – getting into ,movement
legible- written, clear, enough
readable- interesting

Women without men are nothing.


Women, without men, are nothing
Women without, men are nothing.

Purpose of Writing: Perform, Inform, Entertain


Paragraph Development: description, classification, narration, cause and effect, persuasion
STRATEGIES: . sentence auctions, peer editing, K-W-L, fat or bluff, like or unlike
ATIITIES :
1. Using the name of the division in a retain situation in the conversation
2. hum the first syllable of the division in folk songs
3. animal sound – yell
4. sayings
5. singing/adapting a modern song using the division as lyrics

June 7, 2016 – DEMO TEACHING


Persuasion, Claims, Reading , Tips on Reading

June 8, 2016 – Dr. Raquel C . Pambid


Practical Research I
Skills: reading, observing, listening, watching, choosing, questioning, summarizing, organizing,
presenting/communicating

What is Research?
- Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem soling
- it means a problem was identified and it needs solution or improvement
- a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical instigations of hypothetical preposition
Why Conduct Research?
1. efficiency and effectivity in the profession – optimum care of life
2. worth and value of research to education/profession and to society/life
- knowledge is indispensable to men’s survival
3. identifying, implementing and evaluating effective decision and actions in life
- assess individuals or group plan of action
4. research has the potential or providing quality life as it is concerned with the following tasks:
a. systematic study of problems or phenomena
b. appropriateness of Technology use
c . identifying interventions
d. initiation & assessment of change as a result of new knowledge on technology application.

REASONS FOR CONDUCTING RESEARCH


1. gathers data or information on life situation or condition.
2. provides scientific knowledge from which theories emerge and develop
3. documents the social relevance & efficacy of scientific practices to people and environment.
4. describes the characters of the phenomenon/situation about which little knowledge is known.
5. defines the parameters of research and identifies its boundaries
6. predict probable outcome of scientific decisions in relation to life comfort & well-being.
7. provide knowledge for purpose of problem solving & decision making.
8. prevents undesirable human reactions.

Purposes:
description, exploration, explanation, predict or control

ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCHERS


1. Informal consent – participant must be fully informed about
2. Beneficence and Non maleficence
3. Respect for Human Dignity
4. Justice and Fairness
5. Intellectual Honesty and Respect
Poor – marginalized, rich – high end

PARTS OF A RESERH PAPER


I. Introduction ( Background of the Study )
- It is a brief statement of th origin of the problem. it is an amount describing the Circumstances
which suggested the research.
RESEARH PROESS:
I. Problem :