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15/08/2019 LTE Power Control in the Uplink .

How power control works in LTE

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LTE Power Control (Case of Uplink FREE Em


Channel : PUSCH)
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By Azar / 10 COMMENTS

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In wireless communications, one of the main challenge is to


adapt the transmitting signal to overcome the variations of
the wireless channel. Wireless channel can have varying
channel response under different conditions. ENRO

Your First Nam

Your Email:

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Related Art

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u Ov
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For a signal to be transmitted successfully from the
transmitter to the receiver, it should adapt to the variations of
the wireless channel. In order to overcome the variations and
channel response between the transmitter (BS) and the u Pa
Po
receiver (user). Different techniques can be used. Ca

 
u W
Ca
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  Dif
Ca
In order to adapt signal from the variations of the wireless channel,
prede ned procedures exist at Layer 2, and Layer 1 to prepare and massage
the signal from getting corrupted from these variations. We are not going
to list all of the ways and protection mechanisms done at these layers to
u W
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protect the signal.  However , some speci c ways to overcome these Ra
variations include. Su
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» Power control   (Today, we will be talking about this alone. )
- Share

» Modulation scheme

» Coding Rate etc.


u PL
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u Ho
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POWER CONTROL vs. RATE CONTROL
Ch

When it comes to Packet switched technologies such as LTE, we are mainly


concerned with Data rate, unless if you are supporting Voice Services  or
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Let’s keep our focus on to Data Services alone for a moment. In order to
provide data services, there can be two approaches to overcome channel
variations.
LTE in 1
1. Rate Control 25 Most Fre
Fundamen
2. Power Control

  GIMM

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In Power Control:    Transmitted power is varied in accordance with channel
quality as shown in the diagram.  Power is varied w.r.t. channel quality to
provide a xed data rate. Popular Art

 
LTE Pow
(Case o
Channe

What a
Classes
Barring
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How do
Starbu
The sam
UE nd
LTE ?

What is
TECHTRAINED 2 Shares = Share q Tweet w Share - Share in Abso
Relativ
Advanc

In Rate Control:  Transmitted power remains xed. However, in order to


cope with variation in channel quality. Modulation and coding schemes are
varied to compensate for channel variations.   In this case data rate is
variable, while transmitted power remains xed as shown in the picture
below.

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POWER CONTROL IN LTE 

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15/08/2019 LTE Power Control in the Uplink . How power control works in LTE

Let’s focus our discussion on Power Control in LTE for now.

In LTE , Power control takes place both in Downlink and Uplink. They way it
takes place in Downlink and Uplink will become evident in a little bit , as we
go further down the discussion.  However, a picture is worth thousand
words. Therefore the picture below should explain you on Which channels
in DL and UL , power control takes place.

 
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Downlink Power Control

In case of 4G DL, rather than varying power in the Downlink, full power is
distributed uniformly over the whole bandwidth. The same Power Spectral
Density (PSD) is used on all DL channels. For example, PDSCH, PHICH,
PDCCH etc.

How do we calculate PSD? We are offline


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PSD is the power of a signal divided by Bandwidth.

PSD = Power / Bandwidth.

In case of PSD, it is normalized to one resource block.

 
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Note: There are certain channels in DL, where power is varied accordingly.
We are not going to focus on how it is done and why in this topic for the
sake of discussion for now. If you have questions for power control in the
Downlink, leave them in the comments below.

Instead we will focus on UPLINK POWER CONTROL, with the detailed


discussion on Power control on one of the Uplink Channel as an example.

 
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Do we Still Perform Power Control on Uplink (UL)?


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As compared to Downlink. In case of Uplink in LTE, Power control is used. As


the battery of the phone(UE) is power limited compared to base station
power in the DL.

Uplink power control is used mainly for the following two reasons.

1. limit intracell and intercell interference

2. reduce UE power consumption


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How to Perform  Power Control  for the Uplink?

Usually in Uplink. Power control is done in two ways.  One is

» Conventional Power Control

» Fractional Power control.

Conventional Power control is used in attempt to maintain a constant


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Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) at the receiver. UE increases
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their transmit power to fully compensate any  increase in path loss. The
scheme  is shown in gure below.

Whereas for fractional Power Control scheme. It allows the received SINR
to decrease as the path loss increases, i.e., the received SINR decreases as
the UE moves towards cell edge. The UE transmit power at a reduced rate
as the path loss increases, when compared to conventional power control,
i.e, increase in path loss are only partially compensated.

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Both concepts are shown beautifully in the picture below
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What is the advantage of Fractional Power Control ?

Fractional power control scheme improves air-interface ef ciency and


increase average cell throughput by reducing intercell interference.

As an example and comparison among the two schemes. UE transmit


power and received power spectral density as a function of path loss are
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shown below. (The de
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nition of Alpha and possible values are explained in
- Share

the post further down below. )

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function of path loss (Fractional Power Control ) Leave us a Message 


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UE Transmit Power and Received Power Spectral Density (PSD) as a


function of path loss ( Conventional Power Control )

Open Loop and Closed Loop Power Control?

From the perspective of power control, it is important to understand the


difference between Open Loop and Close loop power control.
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Open Loop Power Control Diagram.

In case of Open Loop power control. UE will start with the objective to
compensate the path loss. Whether Open Loop Power control is done
using Fractional or Conventional Power Control scheme. It dependsShare
on the
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if they enable Fractional Power control or disable it.
w Share -

If fractional power scheme is used , it forms the Open Loop component of


power control.

Open loop power control can maintain target PSD as received by the
eNodeB. However a  disadvantage of Open Loop Power control is, it cannot
compensate for issues like slow fading. Therefore we need to introduce
closed loop component.

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Closed Loop Power Control:

Close Loop power control. In this case, the closed loop component is based
on feedback given by eNodeB to the UE.  The receiver in Uplink which is
eNodeB will issue Special Transmit power control command (TPC) to theWe are offline
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instructed to compensate for the path loss.  Closed loop can compensate
for issues such as slow fading.

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Why to have Open Loop and Closed Loop Power Control ? 

If you are asking , why to have two components i.e., open and close loop in
the rst place.

Well, a picture is wroth thousand words. Therefore take a look below.

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Enough Background to Accelerate for Power Control on UPLINK IN LTE

If you have read down so far,2 Shares


Congratulations!!!!
q Now
Tweet you
w are done
- with
Sharethe
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necessary perquisite and background needed to understand Power Control
and procedures in LTE Uplink.

Let’s dig a little deeper to perform power control on Physical Uplink


Shared Channel (PUSCH)  channel.

Keep in mind the function of this PUSCH channel is to

» Carry Data Traf c in the Uplink

» It can also carry signaling traf c in the Uplink, only when signaling and
data are being transmitted at the same time instant in the Uplink.

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Side Note : For those who don’t want to go through the gory details(for
your mind) of the Power control components and parameters for PUSCH.
Do yourself a favor, scroll all the way down on this article and read the
Quick Summary instead (4.4 mins read) .

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What factors in uence Power Control in Uplink on PUSCH
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Now you know, what is the functionality and usage of PUSCH channel.

Let’s start with this question. Intuitively think about it.

What factors are going to affect power control on the Uplink for PUSCH.

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Look at the picture above.  You know which channel we are talking about
here. We are talking about PUSCH only. PUSCH = Channel which carries
data traf c in the uplink and can also carry control signaling when
required/needed.

 
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For this PUSCH channel. Power control will depend upon mainly on the
following factors  (though a lot more shown in picture ) .

» Number of Resources

» MCS

» Path Loss

» UE Max Power
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The detailed number of parameters are listed below.

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If you feel confused to see a number parameters listed above. Don’t be.

Let’s deal with these parameters on one by one, to keep our attention span
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UE MAX POWER

As we know based on UE class category. It cannot transmit more than its


maximum UE power which is commonly 23 dBm for most LTE UEs in the
Uplink.

The objective of the eNOdeB is that UE should transmit only enough power
in the uplink in a range which is the minimum required amount. Neither
more, nor less than that.
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Transmitting more or less than the required amount causes trouble.

UE Power Max: 23 dBm

Accordingly, there are limits and thresholds speci ed for transmission in


the uplink to keep UE uplink power in the desired range.  UE power is
speci ed as Pcmax

 
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                PCMAX_L ≤ PCMAX ≤ PCMAX_H Leave us a Message 


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Where,

PCMAX_L = lower end of the maximum power UE is allowed to transmit

PCMAX_H       = higher end of the maximum power UE is allowed to transmit.

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As an example , if  23 dBm = PCMAX_H  

and 21 dBm = PCMAX_L

in this case UE would be permitted to de ne its maximum output power


using a value between 23 and 21 dBm.

(Note: If you have speci c questions on P_CMAX_L and P_CMAX_H . Put in


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Even though if we think intuitively, Higher uplink transmission Power can


solve the Uplink throughput and accessibility and retainability issues
problems related to Performance and Optimization.

However, the downside is,  it will not only drain UE battery,  plus it will result
increase in inter and intra cell interference as well.

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Therefore, you need to be careful with the parameters, and different factors
affecting power control. By understanding the big picture and factors
involved, you can always decide and optimum value.

MODELING THE POWER CONTROL on PUSCH

Now let’s come back to the part where we will model the power control
equation for PUSCH channel on LTE in Uplink.

We know that we need to model the power in the uplink to an optimal


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PUSCH Power Conrol 

We know the maximum value is

Pcmax = Pupper

And the minimum value will be equal


= to the one needed
w by the UE based
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on the calculations and including the factors affecting power control.

With this in mind, for a given subframe ‘i’ the power transmitted for PUSCH
can be a minimum of the two.

PUSCH Transmit Power (i) = min { PUPPER (i), PCALCULATED(i)}

Time to Break down, Pcalculated:


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Pcalculated is the sum of Open Loop and Close Loop.

Pcalculated (i) = P calculated_open_loop (i) + P calculated_closed_loop(i)

 
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Open Loop for PUSCH:

Open loop is dependent upon the factors which affect power control. Let’s
list the factors which only affect Open Loop Power control for PUSCH.
Mentioned in the diagram below.

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Therefore, arranging the open loop power control factors into an equation ,
to consolidate its effect.

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P calculated_open_loop = 10*LOG (# of Resource Blocks) + Power


needed at eNodeB +  (Path_Loss* Factor to Enable or Disable Fractional
Power Control )  + MCS

Let’s break down the factors discussed in the equation  above into
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reasonable expressions for Power Control on PUSCH.
w Share - Share

# of Resource Blocks for PUSCH = MPUSCH

MPUSCH is the PUSCH bandwidth during subframe ‘i’ expressed in terms of


Resource Blocks. This variable is used to increase the UE transmit power for
larger resource block allocations.

The UE transmit power is increased in direct proportion to the number of


allocated Resource Blocks.
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In other words, the transmit power per Resource Block remains constant if
other factors remain xed. This is also referred as maintaining a constant
power spectral density

Path Loss = PL

Path loss is the downlink path loss calculated by the UE as a combination of


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RSRP measurements and knowledge of the reference signal transmit
power

 PL = Reference Signal Transmit Power – RSRP measurements.

The Reference signal transmits power is broadcast within SIB 2 and can also
be signaled with an RRC Connection Recon guration message. Its value
range from -60 to 50 dBm.
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Power needed at eNodeB = Po_PUSCH

Po_PUSCH represents the eNodeB received power per Resource Block


assuming a path loss of 0 dB.

The received power per Resource Block is maintained as the path loss
TECHTRAINED
increases when using conventional
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= Sharecontrol alone.w Share
q Tweet - Share

The received power per Resource Block is decreased as the path loss
increases when using fractional power control.  (Details are below).

Factor to enable or disable Fractional Power Control   =   α

Alpha (α ) is used to con gure the use of fractional power control. This is the
same variable as that used by the eNodeB when calculating Po_PUSCH.
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A value of 1 disables fractional power control.

Alpha can have a range of values from

» 0,

» 0.4,

» 0.5,

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» 0.6,
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» 0.7,

» 0.8,

» 0.9,

» 1

Modulation and Coding scheme = ∆TF

It increases the UE transmit power when transferring a large number of We


bits
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per Resource Element. This links the UE transmit power to the Modulation
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and Coding Scheme (MCS). The number of bits per Resource Element is
high when using 64 QAM and a large transport block size. The number of
bits per Resource Element is low when using QPSK and a small transport
block size. Increasing the UE transmit power helps to achieve the SINR
requirements associated with higher order modulation schemes and high
coding rates.

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Now combining all the expressions listed above into the OPEN LOOP
Equation.

PCALCULATED_OPEN_LOOP = 10×LOG(MPUSCH) + PO_PUSCH + [PL × ɑ] + ∆TF

As for power control, if we want to include the factor to include power


control at subframe (basis)  level. Let’s call the subframe ‘i’. We are offline
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The above equation will become.

PCALCULATED_OPEN_LOOP(i) = 10×LOG(MPUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH(i) + [PL × ɑ(i)] +


∆TF(i)

 
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CLOSED LOOP PORTION

P calculated_closed_loop = f(i)

The closed loop component depends on eNodeB providing feedback to the


UE in the form of Transmit Power Control (TPC) commands.

The close loop portion of the power control depends on the following
factors.

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For those who have rm grip on LTE air interface and control channel
structure scheme of LTE, they will agree that TPC commands are signaled
to the UE within following Downlink Control Information (DCI) formats

 
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» DCI format 3

» DCI format 3A

» DCI format 4

Interpretation and application of TPC commands depends on if either


accumulation mode is enabled or not. UE can be instructed about setting it
TECHTRAINED
up or not in RRC messages.
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When TPC Accumulation Mode is Enabled:

If it is enabled then, closed loop portion is replaced as follows below.

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f(i) = f(i-1) + δPUSCH (i – KPUSCH)

δPUSCH (i – KPUSCH) is the TPC command received during subframe ‘i-


Kpusch’.

KPUSCH = 4 for FDD


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For TDD. Kpusch is dependent upon the UL-DL subframe con guration
and subframe number.

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When TPC Accumulation Mode is Disabled:

In case when TPC is disabled, then feedback close loop equation becomes.

f(i) = + δPUSCH (i – KPUSCH) 2 Shares


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This mode only uses TPC commands sent on DCI formats 0 and 4.

It has more range of commands compared to accumulation mode, to


compensate for not being able to sum multiple commands over time.

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TECHTRAINED
 
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What is the ROLE OF Po_PUSCH?

Let’s repeat the de nition of this Po_PUSCH once again.

“Po_PUSCH represents the eNodeB received power per Resource Block


assuming a path loss of 0 dB.

The received power per Resource Block is maintained as the path loss
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The received power per Resource Block is decreased as the path loss
increases when using fractional power control.”

eNodeB takes into account the following factor to receive a target power
from UE:

» Target SINR
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» Interference and noise per Resource Block at the eNB

» UE maximum power to transmit

» Number of allocated resource blocks

» Factor to enable / disable Fractional Power Control.

Keeping above factors in mind. The way to calculate Po_PUSCH is:

 
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Po_PUSCH Use Cases

For Alpha (ɑ) = 1:

TECHTRAINED
Value of Po_PUSCH is smallest
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For Alpha (ɑ)  < 1 :

Value of Po_PUSCH increases as value of Alpha. UE transmit power only


partially compensates the path loss when fractional power control is
enabled.

For Alpha (ɑ) = 0:


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Value of Po_PUSCH is maximum when alpha = 0. Corresponds to maximum


transmit capability of the UE, irrespective of the path loss.

Po_PUSCH Components:

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Po_PUSCH depends on two factors as listed in the equation above.

» Po_NOMINAL_PUSCH

» Po_UE_PUSCH

Therefore, Po_PUSCH is signaled to the UE as a combination of the above We


twoare offline

factors. In equation form, it can be written as shown below.


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PO_PUSCH(i) = PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(i) + PO_UE_PUSCH(i)

Nominal: Speci es the cell speci c factor / component. Its value can be
anywhere between – 126 to 24 dBm.

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Po_PUSCH (0) It can be signaled during RRC Connection Setup, RRC


Connection Recon guration and RRC Connection Re-establishment
messages.

Po_PUSCH(1): It is broadcast in SIB2 or can be signaled within RRC


con guration message.

Po_PUSCH (2): We will not discuss it in this post    

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Po_UE_PUSCH:  represents the UE speci c component.

Performance Engineers Note:  So far we have discussed about the ins and
out of Power control on PUSCH and the factors affecting it. Con guring and
changing any of the above mentioned parameters, will dramatically change
any of the following:

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»  power control on PUSCH,

» UE battery consumption,

» interference,

» Performance KPIs such Accessibility, Retainability etc.

In practice, usually the value of P0_NOMINAL is the only one available


parameter most Telecom vendors offer to operators in order to change or
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Increasing the value of P0_NOMINAL   avoid interference. It improves uplink


throughput and accessibility but will result in increase of inter cell
interference. Therefore, care should be taken while keeping an eye on
network performance when changing this value.  

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QUICK SUMMARY    (Approx. 4.4 Minutes Read )

Having said enough about PUSCH power control. Let’s go through the
quick summary now and

review what we have learned so far.

Ready let’s jump right in  !!!

In order to perform power control in the Uplink, keep in mind there are two
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» Open Loop Power control

» Closed Loop Power Control.

What factors Uplink Power for PUSCH depends on?

Thinking about, on what factors power control depends upon?

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To make your life easier. Power control in the uplink on PUSCH channel
depends on the following factors shown below in the picture.

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(In order to understand why power control in Uplink for PUSCH depends on
the factors listed below in the picture. Read the article from the start once
again )

Ideally, uplink power needs to be 0nly minimally required as needed to


avoid interference and decrease UE batter consumption. Therefore, Power
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among the UE max power and power computed taking factors into
account

Power on Uplink PUSCH =  Min (UE max power ,  Power computed through
dependency factors listed above on red canvas )

 
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Writing this mathematically , it becomes.

PPUSCH = min { Pcmax , 10×LOG(MPUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH(i) + [PL × ɑ(i)] +


∆TF(i) + f(i)}

Where,

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2. Po_PUSCH = Target Power Spectral Density

3. MPUSCH = Number of assigned resource blocks

4. PL = Estimated Downlink Path Loss

5. α = Factor to enable or disable Fractional Power Control (also termed as


Cell Speci c factor)

6. f(i) = Closed loop component of Power control (TPC commands)


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7. ∆     = Modulation and coding scheme (transport format-depending
TF
compensation) 

Open Loop Portion of the above Equation is Shown as:

POPEN_LOOP_PUSCH = min { Pcmax , 10×LOG(MPUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH(i) +


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Closed Loop Portion of the above Equation is Shown as:

PCLOSED_LOOP_PUSCH = f(i) 2 Shares


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MAIN OPERATION

First UE will set up the operating point of Target power to be received by


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In order to compensate for any effects such as slow fading etc. Close Loop
portions kicks in , once eNodeB gives feedback using TPC commands.

Taking that feedback into account, UE will increase or decrease its power in
the uplink.

 
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The procedure will run, based on the TPC commands being received. In
case of LTE for uplink. Power control command is received every 5th sub
frame, which means power control takes place 200 times a second, which is
much lesser than previous technologies, where power control can take
place up to 1500 times a second.

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Alright good deal.  This quick summary , gives you a high level idea on :

» How power control takes place on PUSCH channel.

» What factors are involved in power control.

» What can be con gured to improve performance and/or optimize the


network.

 
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If you have read all of the details above. Then , do the following.

1. Put your questions and comments below

2.  If you found it helpful reading this post. Do your friends and colleagues
a favor by sharing it with them.

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Sources:

TS 36.213, TS 36.101, LTE in Bullets, TS 36.331

 
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Related

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