Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 66





Module 1

Module 2

Module 3

Sample Essays
CAPE Communication Studies


The purpose of making this compilation is to help students preparing for the

CAPE Communication Studies Examination gain a broader perspective and deeper un-

derstanding. Mainly, it is set to help the self-studying student. I have used these notes

during my time studying CAPE and they has helped me tremendously. This book con-

tains most of the theory which I believe to be of necessity to know for the exam. Do en-

sure to learn material outside this book but be wary of skipping theory within this book.

Additionally, I recommend that you do a minimum of twenty essays ( approximately 6

years ) of past examination papers during your one year of preparation for this exam.

This book contains theory for all three modules of the CAPE Syllabus, and some

essays that i have written.

If you have any other questions, require help, or any questions answered,

please feel free to contact me at: saisrinath2001@hotmail.com .

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Communication Studies

Module 1 - Gathering and Processing Information


For a module one - paper two - question, the following composites listed below are

• Main Idea of the extract

• Main Purpose of the Extract

• Identify Organisational Strategies Used

• Identify Language Techniques Used

Comment on the effectiveness in achieving the writer’s purpose.


• Determine the topic of a passage

• What did I learn about the topic ?

• Thesis Statement: Located in the Introduction, usually the last sentence in the

• Main Idea of Each Paragraph: Topic Sentences

• Summary Statement in the Conclusion: Statement that reiterates the thesis.

Follow this formulaic approach in obtaining the main idea of the question

The main idea is that …….

The main idea deals with ………

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Writer’s Purpose

Purpose / Intention refers to what the writer hopes to achieve through the writing.

Narrative - to relate an event

Argument - to persuade / convince

Description - To create a picture

Exposition - To highlight / inform / educate


• Identify the type of writing

• Methods of organization/ strategies used by writing

• Language Techniques employed

The purpose is always written as something to do.

The writer’s purpose is to ___________ (verb) and link to main idea


To sensitise To explain

To create awareness To Argue

To alert To Persuade

To express To Evaluate

To explore To Illustrate

To entertain

To amuse

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Language Techniques

• Figurative Devices - Simile, Metaphor, Onomatopeia, Oxymoron (loudly silent),

Personification, Hyperbole, Allusion, Idiom.

• Emotive Language and Choice of Vocabulary

• Connotative Language - signifying or suggestive of an associative or secondary meaning in

addition to the primary meaning.

• Denotative Language - the explicit usage of words as described within a dictionary.

• Use of Jargon - use of terms specific to a subject or context.

Connotative Language - has an emotion or feeling attached to it.

Denotative Language - The literal definition - has no sort of feeling attached to it.

Use of Jargon - use of technical language specific to a certain field.

Devices of Comparison

Simile - like or as

Metaphor - states that one thing is another. Comparison without use of as or like

Personification - compares an object to a person. Inanimate objects are given human


Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Devices of Contrast

Contrast - Differences.

Paradox - making a contrary statement which has truth.

Oxymoron - two contrasting terms placed together.

Irony - something is said where the opposite is meant.

Pun, litotes, sarcasm ( Litotes - she’s not ugly, not bad, you are not wrong )

Pun - Play on words

Litotes - Understatement


Devices of Sound
Onomatopoeia - words that mimic the sound

Alliteration - repetition of initial consonant sounds

Consonance - repetition of consonant sounds close together

Assonance - repetition of vowel sounds close together

Hyperbole - deliberate exaggeration


Direct Appeal - directly addressing the audience

Inclusive Language - we

Rhetorical Question


Wednesday, March 6, 2019
Conversational Tone

Group of Three

Organisational Strategies

• What is the strategy ?

• How is the strategy working in your specific example ?

• Do not say how this strategy works usually

• Do not use ‘to get his or her point across’

Ask yourself, “What is going on in the audience’s head when they read the
strategy? Remember the writer is using this strategy on purpose to manipulate

• Cause and Effect - Make the connection between action and consequence or
understand the relationship between things.

• Classification - Shared Characteristics and Similarities

• Compare and Contrast - highlight similarities and differences

Wednesday, March 6, 2019
• Concession and Rebuttal
A. Acknowledges, then proves an alternative claim wrong.

B. Highlights the weakness of the opposing argument

C. Undermines the opposing point, then makes the writer more acceptable.

• Counterargument - similar to concession and rebuttal.

- an objection to an objection
- has 2 parts: objection and rejection
- contradicts: support with reasoning
- shows another point is invalid.

• Definition - Provides Clarification

• Evidence -
- Statistics
- Facts
- Historical Data
- Testimony
- quote from Reputable Sources
- adds credibility to the piece
- appeals to logic and reasoning

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

• Listing- A series of Details

- brings about factual information clearly and succinctly
- brings clarity and allows the audience to see the writer’s line of reasoning

• Order of Importance
- Most important to least important
- Further strengthens a point

• Problem and Solution

- Presents a problem and offers a solution
- appeals to logic and reasoning

• Anecdotes / Narrative Discourse / Story

- Short Amusing Story or incident about a real person
- makes the reader think deeply - reflect
- adds humor

• Expert Authority
- lends credibility and reliability

• Inductive Reasoning
- Starts from something specific, uses deduction to prove something is right or wrong.
- appeals to logic and reasoning

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

• Use of Analogy
- A comparison is made to something factual to clarify in a simplistic way for the reader.

• Humour
- Engages the reader by making the piece seem lighter, however still clarifying the writer’s

• Short Paragraphs
- Highlights critical point so that the reader can focus on that only.

Strategies Exemplified in Description / Narration

• Time Sequencing

• Chronological Ordering

• Flashback

• Flash-forward

• Foreshadowing

• Point of View - 1st person (I, we ), 3rd Person ( He, she, them ), narrator

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

• Imagery - AVT KOGT - appeals to senses based on sensory details revealed by the

1. Auditory - This is the use of words to appeal to the sense of hearing, especially
through the use of onomatopoeia.

2. Visual - This creates an appeal to sight by using certain words such as color, as well
as describing the characteristics of someone or something.

3. Tactile - Words that appeal to the sense of touch, example: sharp, coarse, smooth.

4. Olfactory - Words that appeal to smell

5. Gustatory - words that appeal to taste

6. Thermal - words that appeal to temperature

7. Kinesthetic - Imagery that refers to movement

• Dialogue - gives differing perspectives

• Spatial Ordering - Moving Perspective - top to bottom, foreground to background.

Wednesday, March 6, 2019


Tone is referred to the writer’s attitude with regards to what they say.
- How is the writer saying what is being conveyed
- Word Choice: Denotative Vocabulary, Connotative Vocabulary, Allusion, jargon,
Loaded Words

- Attitude: Neutral, bias, positive, negative ( Tone ).

Monday, March 4, 2019

Communication Studies

Module Two - Language and Community

Firstly, a few major things we are required to consider are listed below:

1) What is Language?

2) What is a Language?

3) Characteristics of Language

4) Functions of Language

To understand the answers to these questions, please refer to the first handout given
during the class.

When compared to other animals, humans possess a much more complex system of
communication. We possess a Language, whilst other organisms only possess a
system of communication. It is not over-the-top to state that man have accomplished a
plethora of their works due to their use of Language.

It is true that other animals have a system of communication associated with their
mates, but it is far simpler and lacks the complexity of the human communication
system. Animal Communication ( other than humans ) is neither reflective nor
descriptive. A fish entangled in a net can show distress by movement and sounds but
should it escape, can it detail the horrifying experience to other fishes - NO.
Furthermore, animal communication is not vocal. Animals predominantly communicate
with gestures, sounds, facial expressions, colors, and movement. In the final analysis,
animals are unable to transfer abstract thought as humans do.

To sum up, animal communication is Instinctive. Animals easily adapt to their

communication. Hens and baby chicks- once a hen gives the signal of danger, all the
baby chicks automatically remain quiet.

Monday, March 4, 2019


It is observed that language facilitates communication but communication is not

synonymous with language. There are many different forms of communication and
animal communication may not even be considered a language.

Linguists have highlighted a number of features of human language. Animal

communication shares some features but the two main offsetting features are: (NF)

Nature of Language

Function of Language

Animals are not considered to possess a language due to: nature of language and
function of language.


- It is Uniquely Human. It is used within human societies for communicating. There is

no active conversion of thought into speech.
- Non Instinctive - Humans are not born with a knowledge of a language. They learn it
through socialization in a particular group that speak a particular language. These are
known as language/ speech communities.
- Verbal - Sound is very important in producing a language. Language is based around
recognizable sounds.
- Systematic - Language has a specific set of rules and regulations that regulate its
structure, pronunciation and order. It provides the framework for forever allows to
speak speech never before spoken.
- Symbolic - There is hardly any association between fixed and inherent association
between words in the language and the objects they signify. The association is
determined by the speakers in the speech community. The association must be
assigned so that translations in other languages can easily take place.
- Dynamic - Language is always changing as new words are always being added to its
vocabulary/ lexicon or words that have become archaic are dropped. Also, as time
passes, the meaning of verbs change.

Monday, March 4, 2019

- Maturational - As a human being grows older, he/she will begin to use more complex
sentence structure or lexicons. In addition, they can use old words in new ways. This
also keeps language dynamic.


A language is a system made up of arbitrary symbols and rules ( grammar ) that

humans use to communicate with each other. ( individual )

Language, on the other hand, is used to refer to the thousands of such systems as a
general phenomenon. ( generic ).


Although all individuals do not speak the same way- eg. vocalics, lexicons - the
purposes associated with the speech remains the same. Language allows human
beings to communicate anything they want. ( IECPPM )
- Expressive Purposes - This is when language is used to express one’s feelings,
ideas, and attitudes. This is indeed the purpose of diaries, journals etc. The reason for
doing this is not to effect change in an individual but to vent out emotions and relax.
- Informative Purposes - In this instance, language is used to convey information to a
person, group, school, office etc. For this purpose, a plethora of instruments can be
used eg. News bulletin board, flyers, signs.
- Cognitive Purposes - Language is commonly used cognitive with the intention of
affecting the audience in some way and evoking a certain response. When one is
arguing, telling a joke, teaching etc, one is using language cognitively.

- Poetic Purposes - Language used in literary, stylistic and imaginative ways is using
language in a poetic manner. The sole purpose of using language in a creative way is
a poetic purpose. It is the way in which language is used, not its form.

Monday, March 4, 2019

- Phatic Purposes- Using language for the sole purpose of establishing or maintaining
contact is a phatic purpose. Phatic Communication is when a person uses common
everyday language such as, “ Hello!” or “ Good Morning!”. This is called using
language to maintain social customs. Although written communication often does not
include phatic lines, informal letters or email might include a bit.
- Metalinguistic Purposes - The use of language to critique other language, such as
to comment on, refer, or discuss language is a metalinguistic purpose.

Other functions to keep in mind:

Imprecatory - to call down on someone, curse.

Ritualistic - used in specific rituals.

A native language, or mother tongue, is a language that a government recognizes as

having significance in the social life of a nation.

A language used in official situations like schooling, legal affairs, and government affairs
is known as an official language.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Varieties of Language

There are many varieties of language. Different languages are spoken in different
geographic regions of the world. The same language may be spoken in countries that
are far away from each other.

Internal Variation: Individuals from varying countries including Spain, Mexico,

Argentina, and Venezuela who all speak the same language can communicate with
each other. However, the Spanish spoken in each country is somewhat different. We
can distinguish between varieties of the same language.

A particular variety of a language spoken by one group that differs noticeably from
another variety of language spoken by another group is known as Dialect.

The dialect spoken by a group of people that have economic power or social influence
in a particular society is known as Standard Variety. It evolves as one dialect becomes
more prominent. It is usually the dialect spoken by ones who have economic power or
ones with the greatest social influence. This dialect is used for writing and formal
purposes. It is given prestige over other varieties in a particular society.

Standard English:

British Standard English (BSE)

American Standard English (ASE)

Caribbean Standard English (CSE)

All these standard share the same structure and are internationally accepted. They are
accepted by all speakers of English. The difference lies in the pronunciation, vocabulary,
and spelling.

Monday, March 4, 2019


An accent is defined as a variation in pronunciation. It is not a variation of pronunciation.

Accents can make it hard for two people who speak the same language to understand
each other. A person’s accent is the way he/she sounds.


This is defined as being able to switch the dialect spoken in relation to the context of


The use of two different languages interchangeably during speech.


The variety of Language that you use at any given point in time is considered to be your
register. The choice of register generally reflects the communicator’s relationship with
the audience.

Informal: 1) Casual - friends etc 2) Intimate - family 3) Private*

Formal: 1) Frozen -wedding vows 2) Formal - meeting room 3) Consultative - doctor

and patient


These are the relevant constraints in the communicative situation that influences
language use and variation. As context changes, variation in code or speech style
involves changes in syntax and vocabulary.

Syntax: The study of the principles and rules for constricting sentences. In informal
speech, we may use many contractions and drop word endings.

Monday, March 4, 2019


Choice of Vocabulary is a major determinant of your register. There are words that are
not acceptable in most contexts. There are words that we use to impress. Vocabulary
can also be specific to a particular group.


Sometimes, people use a particular register or style of speech to fit in with a group.


In most societies, young people often use vocabulary that is unique to them and
sometimes baffling to the adult population. Most slang terms have a short lifespan.

Colloquial Language

This is language related to conversational. Colloquial terms are used commonly

informally, ie, accepted in a general informal conversation but are not accepted in formal
language. If they are used in formal writing, they are placed in commas to highlight that
they are using colloquial.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Non-Standard Dialects

Any dialect of language which contrasts its status with a standard language is referred
to by linguists as non-standard.

In the West Indies, standard english stands in contrast with the variety of language
which most people grow up speaking ( the vernacular ). This native speech is called
‘dialect’. It results from the circumstances in which European languages were learnt in
the West Indies. Many think of this native speech as ‘broken english’. Such beliefs are
hard to eradicate because they are part of human prejudice and ignorance. In fact, there
are non-standard dialects in all countries. Hence, one of the major functions of school
systems is to teach the standard version of the language.


The system of communication used by speakers who do not share a common language.

It has limited vocabulary and often uses several languages. Has a short life span

contact language, a first language.


In the West Indies, Patois means the non-standard vernacular of the people.
Specifically, it refers 2 different languages or language varieties.

In Jamaica, it is an alternative to the variety of language which most people grow up

speaking. This is the english based creole varieties which are typical in everyday

In St. Lucia and Dominica, it refers to the language which most people speak. Here,
Patois has the same social history as the vernacular of Jamaica. The exception,
however, is it refers to French Creole. This also occurs in Martinique, Guadeloupe and
Haiti, where speakers can understand each other without much difficulty, even though
each patois differs. Trinidad and Grenada also had many french speakers ;however,
very few exist today. When St. Lucia and Dominica were overtaken by the British,
French Patois was well established and it has remained the language of the people.
Today, in St. Lucia, french patois is accepted at national and official ceremonies.
English, however, is the official language of education in St. Lucia and Dominica.

Monday, March 4, 2019


There is no single generally accepted definition of a creole language, but there are
basic aspects linguists adopt in defining it: (SL)

I. Social

II. Linguistic

Social: Socially, creole languages emerged out of situations of social dominance. In

most of the early cases; slavery, the majority group had to learn the language of the
dominant minority.

Linguistic: Creole Languages exhibit features of the main languages in contact in the
social situation, and presumably, some others. Therefore, creole languages across the
Caribbean, in Jamaica and Haiti, for example, are seen to exhibit certain similarities.
Creole languages always co-existed with European languages, since they were spoken
by the powerless masses who originally were slaves, and later continued to be
dominated by the upper class. They had little or no prestige. They suffered, also
because it was the European language that was used for the literate and formal
purposes. Creole speakers, as a result of social and educational pressure, have always
been forced to modify their speech in the direction of the standard language. ( Mainly
the European Language )

This process of decreolization, has produced a spectrum or continuum of varieties,

ranging from the creole or most non-standard variety, at one pole (basilect) to the
standard at the other (acrolect). In the middle of this range is the mesolect.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Linguistic Heritage of the Caribbean and the factors

that have influenced the Language of the Caribbean.

1) Pre-Columbian Situation - The Arawakan and Caliban Languages spoken in

mainland territories spread into island territories. Contact and conflict between the
island Caribs and Arawaks resulted in an Arawak Language, which has incorporated
Carib Elements.

2) Effect of European Colonization on this Situation - The demise of indigenous

languages: Black Caribs deported to Belize, The introduction of European, African
and Asian Languages.

3) The Development of the Caribbean Identity - Caribbean varieties of the European

Languages (Creole), Caribbean variety of Asian Languages, the emergence of
Creole Languages.

Languages of the Caribbean Today

• Indigenous Languages survived in Mainland territories, but are under threat.

• The Caribbean is divided into: Spanish Speaking, English Speaking, French

Speaking, and Dutch Speaking.

• Papiamento ( Vernacular in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao)

• Palenquero ( maroon creole in Colombia )

• In several caribbean territories, creole languages are majority languages.

• In several caribbean countries, change in colonial ownership has resulted in a modern

situation where the official language and the creole language do not match.

• Dutch creole, once spoken in Guyana, and St. Thomas and St. John have not
survived the 20th century. English-lexifier creole has spread at their expense.

• In Dutch Caribbean Territories, creole languages are spoken mainly of english base.
Eg. in Suriname, mixed English-Portuguese creole is also spoken in Suriname. Mixed
Spanish Portuguese creole in the ABC islands.

• Spanish and Dutch show that colonial and linguistic dominance are not necessarily

Monday, March 4, 2019

• In Suriname, asian languages have viable speech communities, eg. Javanese and


Country Official Language Majority Language Minority Language

Cuba Spanish Spanish

D. Republic Spanish Spanish

Puerto Rico Spanish Spanish English

Barbadoes English English

Jamaica English English Creole Maroon Creole


Guyana English English Creole BhojPuri

Amerindian Languages

Antigua English English Creole

St. Kitts English English Creole

Monsterrat English English Creole

St. Vincent English English Creole

Belize English English Creole Spanish

Amerindian Languages

Trinidad English English Creole Spanish

French Creole
Bhoj Puri

Greneda English English ( Influenced by French Creole

French Creole )

St Lucia English French Creole

Dominica French French Creole

Haiti French Creole French Creole


Martinique French French Creole

Guadelope French French Creole

Monday, March 4, 2019
Country Official Language Majority Language Minority Language

Suriname Dutch Suriname Hindi Javanese Malay

Amerindian Languages
Maroon Creole

Netherland Antilles Dutch Papiamento/ English Spanish


Aruba Dutch Papiamento/ English Spanish



• Pejorative ( Contempt, Disapproval ) —> Negative

Shame ( Uneducated, lower economic status, backwards )

• Positive

• Pride (Mutually Intelligible)

• Sense of Nationalism

• A sense of Personal Dignity, reflection of who you are

• A reflection of your status and values

• Reflects Prestige

• Language is personal and signifies sensible information such as social class,

educational background, and financial status.

Some quotes have come to be historically associated with power or oppression.

Individuals may be contentious or insecure about their language. Some speakers may
be insecure about their ow language or protective of it.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Characteristics of Caribbean Creole

Like all languages, creole can be described according to the typical features of a
language. (SVGS)

• Sounds (phonology)

• Vocabulary (lexicons)

• Grammar (syntax)

• semantics ( use of words from english, but used in a different manner )

Caribbean creole languages, regardless of their lexicon base, exhibit consistent

features that are easily recognizable. These characteristics make them distinct from
Standard English or Standard French.

Phonology in Creole

The sound represented by ‘th’ is replaced by t, d, and f.


Think - tink

Then - den

thin - tin

Monday, March 4, 2019

The sound of v is replaced by b


gloves - glubs

vex - bex

r changes to l in Suriname


rasta - lasta

There is often a reduction in word initial consonant clusters and word final consonant


world - worl

left - lef

rest - res

In some creoles, h is not a significant sound and is added or dropped at the beginning
of the word.


ham - am

egg - hegg

happy - appy

Monday, March 4, 2019

Some creoles dispense with the final consonant in the words that end in ‘ing’ or with a


dancing - dancin

playing - playin

blind - bline

band - ban

In some cases, an English sound combination is reversed.


Ask - aks

film - flim

Restructuring of English words by inserting a vowel between consonants


Public - pubilic

Students - studients

English - Engelish

Creole has a palatal y after consonants k and g.


car - Kyar

gamble - gyamble

Monday, March 4, 2019

Lexicon of Creole

Derived primarily from standard english, however, a number of words used in creole
speech are related to cultural influences from other European, African, East Indian, and
Chinese Languages.

East Indian Amerindian Chinese French Spanish

Dhal BBQ Chow Mein Ponche de Cre’me Pelau

Aloo Hammock Corbeaux Pastelle

Baigan Maize Pommecythere Parang



Rastafarian Influences: ital, irie, I an I

Monday, March 4, 2019

The Creole Grammar System

The structure of creole are often similar to those of African languages. Creole shows
less dependance on morphology.

1) Number: Creole nouns carry no sign of plurality and the utterance makes it clear
that the reference is more than one.

a) Use of ‘dem’

Standard English: Girl Girls

Creole: Girl de girl dem.

b) The creole may use some words ( the actual number or plenty).

Standard English: a mango 4 mango

Creole: ah mango plenty mango

2) Possession: Creole shows possession by juxtaposition, by following one noun

immediately after another, the first being the possessor and the second, the possessed.

SE: Tim’s book Boys’ books

Creole: Tim book dem book/ dey book

3) Comparison: Creole engages in the use of double comparatives.

Dis more bigger.

Tim more taller.

Monday, March 4, 2019

4) Verb Function and meaning :

Creole: Tim tired / He lazy / I in big trouble ( Adjective as predicate )

5) Negation

In Creole, there is doubling of negatives for emphasis:

Example: I didn’t do anything. Ah not giving you none.

6) Verb and Sequence of Time

In Standard English, verbs show tense, time of action etc. by adding endings such as


Eg. The snake glided away.

In creole, no such suffixes are added. An extra word may be added.

Eg. The rock did fall. All day, dey making noise.

In addition, no subject agreement is required for creole.

It drop.

She laugh loud.

7) Mood

Monday, March 4, 2019
8) Voice

For creole, the passive voice is used unlike standard english where the active voice is

Eg. The school get paint.

9) Calques

Compound nouns are translated literally from one noun to another.

10) Front-focusing

Some creoles structures are used to create particular emphasis.


Tired, I tired ( I am very tired ).

Is John she marry ( She married John )

11) Serial Verbs

Verbs often used in series without ‘to’ , ‘or’, and ‘and’.


Run, go tell him

I go carry it.

Bring she, lehme see she.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Lexicon of the Creole

Subject Pronouns

I it

You we

He alyu

She dem/dey

1)Dem mad as hell

2) me eh know what going on - me is used as subject in only -ve sentences.

Creole has a plural for the second person pronoun - alyuh.

Object Pronouns

Me it

You we/us

he/ him allyu

She/ her dem


Well i pass she straight

Doh hit she, you know

Dem fooling we

Monday, March 4, 2019
Possessive Pronouns

My Alyuh

Your We

He Dey/dem



He book

Alyuh school

dem yard


Some creole uses standard English words but in different parts of speech or words have
different meanings.

Eg. But you rel fast.

Refer to Question after Semantics in iPad for Further Revision.

Template to start Essay is in school book and iPad for reference.

The rest are from my notes.

Monday, March 4, 2019

How can Film or Video enhance written or Spoken


In a presentation, props can be employed. This visualizes a setting and creates


Communicative Behaviors can be highlighted to enhance Meaning.

A variety of voices, accents and situations can be presented.

Readers and Listeners can now become viewers who can see the presentation instead
of visualizing. Information is now graphically represented.

Monday, March 4, 2019




Different grammatical rules govern sentence structure, tense marking and usage in


Differences in low sounds are pronounced in the mother tongue and the language being

Vocabulary/ Semantics

Because the lexicon base is the same for creole and CSE, it is somewhat difficult for
learner to recognize and use correctly the shared words with different meanings or
different parts of speech.

Sociocultural Challenges

Caribbean English Creole is the vernacular of the majority. This means that for creole
speakers who are learning standard english, there is not much of an opportunity for
practice and reinforcement outside of formal educational settings. This impedes their
progress in learning Caribbean Standard English.

Educational Methods

Being taught CSE as though it is a first language is a challenge in itself as the learner
must understand the the creole expressions has a lot of errors contained in it and
conflicting grammar rules arise.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Oral Nature of English Creole

Because English Creole is largely oral, many creole speakers have no written frame or
reference for writing CSE. The speech patterns of creole can interfere with the writing of

Monday, March 4, 2019

Role of Language in Society (SPEP)

Social, Political, Ethical, and Psychological. Language can signal position in society, educational
background, and geographical origins. ( PEG). It can be used to show solidarity with others or a
social distance from them. It can express identity. In the Caribbean, these functions are possible
through the choice of language variety. ( DASF SISC )

- To discriminate against others - Speakers of non-standard variety may be treated unfairly

because of their use of language. This could include not just using a non-standard form but
also having a limited vocabulary or using the accent of a minority group. Eg. being turned
away from a job or made to feel inferior or judged as being uneducated.

- To alienate - people can use language both standard and non-standard forms to exclude a
person. Eg. In a Chinese restaurant, where they may opt to speak mandarin excluding others.
Also members of the social elite may use the standard language to distance themselves from
the hired help.

- To make face threats - A face threat is a vocalized act that threatens someone’s reputation.
- To make social biases - Language is used to demonstrate speaker’s attitudes towards
particular groups or individuals because of their race, gender, religion, sexual orientation or
even the language they speak.

Eg. Code-switching to creole to address someone unkempt but uses standard english to
address someone well groomed. To assert authority, language can be a tool with which people
in positions of power assess their authority. Where they are two language forms, one of higher
prestige, and then another in certain situations, speakers may switch to maintain use of the
language of the higher prestige to show they have control or are the ones in charge.

- To mark Identity - Language is used to provide or reinforce an individual’s sense of identity in

rotation to his membership of a particular group or nationality. Using language that is similar
creates a greater ethnic, regional, communal or national bond. Language also allows an
individual speaker to maintain his uniqueness. This is because each individual has his own
idiolect - particular words and phrases he/ she always uses.

- To Make Solidarity - Language can be used to show solidarity within a community. When
people speak, their words show camaraderie, sympathy, concern and affection. This helps to
create a sense of support and unity.

- To Make Social Linkages - This is done by establishing connections through other people.
- To Make Cultural Awareness - Language creates avenues for people to learn about beliefs
in customs and practices of another culture.

Monday, March 4, 2019

The creole languages and Caribbean standard English distinguish and unite citizens residing in
the Caribbean and people of the Caribbean Diaspora. Language helps to form a connection in
• speakers form a connection
• it sets us apart when living or studying outside the region
• it creates a sense of belonging
• it can be used to exclude non-speakers
• Cross Cultural References add pride
• It is expressive. It has phrases that have no equivalent in Standard English.

Factors affecting Language in the Caribbean ( PICS)

1) Influence of History - The region has evolved from the influx of the 17th and 18th century
European Colonists and enslaved population from Africa. The language that were evolved
were based on the dominant colonial master. In the late 19th century, the arrival of
population from India, especially to Guyana and Trinidad, added to the lexicon and speech
patterns of the region. Chinese also came in the 20th century.

2) Social Factors - Language is one of the key factors in stratifying society. The language
variation of the population of power becomes the standard language. Historically, the Europeans
in the Caribbean, the Standard Language is seen as the the language of the upper class and
the educated. The prestige associated with SE ensures that it is one of the main vehicles of
upward social mobility. The non-standard forms ( creole ) are associated with the lower
stratums of society, ie, those who are uneducated or not very well educated. Some view creole
as bad English although it is the vernacular. It is inappropriate for formal occasions for
appropriate for informal occasions.

3) Political Factors - Many people do not support the standardization of English Creole
because of the negative perceptions of many in society. Politics is one of the main engines for
the maintenance of minority laws and the deviations of non-standard Languages. Haiti is one of
the only islands that has made creole one of its official languages. Some politicians believe that
non- SL have any place for formal occasions, others use creole for campaigns and whilst
bartering in parliament. This improves acceptability of non-SLs.

4) Cultural - Cultural factors have contributed to non-Sl’s being more accepted today than they
were in the past. Social columns and cartoons published in the newspapers are creole. Social
commentaries and talkshows in Radio are in Creole. These are supporting evidence that non-
SL’s are supporting/ functioning in society if just being used for smalltalk. It is also being used in
published literature such as novels, poems, and plays as well as music. While creole has its
origins an oral language, it is increasingly being seen in written form, thus promoting the
acceptability of the language.

Monday, March 4, 2019

Implications of the Wider Acceptability

• Eliminates prejudice and ignorance

• Shows greater creativity
• gives status
• shows use of creole as a written medium despite orthographic problems posed.
• Advocates argue that proposition of the use of Creole in education especially for students in
areas where creole is widely used.

Evaluating Attitudes to Language

A person’s attitude to Language is how he/ she feels about their own Language and the
language of others. There is no set attitude as attitudes vary. It can be revealed through actual

Behaviors that reveal a person’s Attitude to Language.

• what he says about language

• what languages he uses in different context with different people
• how he reacts to another person’s use of language
• whether he desires to learn another language or not
• whether he objects to use of a language in a particular setting
• whether he expresses a preference for 1 language to be used over another
• whether he engages in converges ( same lang as audience when speaking with other
• whether he engages in divergence ( speaks different from audience when addressing other

Words that Demonstrate Attitudes to Language.

Attitudes may be positive, or neutral, or negative.

Positive: Pride, Loyalty, Acceptance

Negative: Contempt, disgust, pragmatic, shame.

Last Chapter is detailed in a handout miss boodoo gave out.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Communication Studies

Module 3 - Speaking and Writing

Expository Writing

Strategies Employed to organize a writer’s piece

- Sequencing: Making Tea

Introduction for Exposition


• Question

• Definition

• State Fact / Give Statistics

• Quotation

• Anecdotal Story
General Comments: Background Information of a subject matter. Link between topic
and Caribbean Society.


Research is defined as the gathering and collecting of data in order to an investigation.

Research may also be defined as a systematic way for finding and gathering
knowledge. It is considered a scientific way of investigating and studying a

• systematic

• methodical

• disciplined

Sunday, March 10, 2019
Methods of Data Collection

• Interviews

• Case Studies

• Questionnaires

Unbiased Primary Data


Answers to direct questions

• Unable to capture all data

• compromises confidentiality

• opinions may be biased

Case Studies

Data from Examples

Past Events

Statistical data received

• Biased to a specific case

• can be from old times, so does not represent present

• can be researcher biased


Gives Statistical Data

Gives Qualitative Data

Easy and Convenient

• Limited to specific questions

• questions may offend certain individuals/ groups

• time consuming to tabulate data

Sunday, March 10, 2019
Primary Sources

Original Material from original sources from the time period involved, that has not been
filtered through, interpreted or evaluated. Primary sources are original materials on
which other research is based. There are usually the first formal appearance of results
in physical, print or electronic format. They present original thinking, report a discovery,
or share new information eg. artifacts, which may include wins, plant specimen, fossils,
furniture, tools, clothing, etc. all from the time under study; Audio recordings, diaries,
interviews, journal articles, letters, newspaper articles written at the time, original
documents, etc.

Secondary Sources

Accounts written after the fact or event with the benefit of the eye in the sight. They
comment on the primary sources, offering explanations, evaluation and interpretation of
them, eg. bibliographies, biographical works, commentaries, criticism, histories etc.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Data Collection Methods

• Questionnaires
• Focus Groups
• Interviews
• Document Analysis
• Observation
• Case Studies: To provide a deeper understanding of individual circumstances


- Responses are gathered in a standardized format so are more objective than interviews -
reduced bias
- Relatively quick in collecting data ( less time consuming )
- Potential data can be collected or gathered from a large group or sample
- Cost Effective compared to face-to-face interviews, especially for large sample sizes and
large geographical areas.
- Easy to Calculate and Analyze.
- less intrusive as respondent can complete it on his/her own time.

- Because it is standardized, it is not possible to explain points, so this may lead to
misinterpretations by participants
- Open ended questions can generate large amounts of data, which may take a long time to
- Respondents may answer questions superficially therefore there is no way to tell how truthful
they are being.
- Unwillingness to answer questions, reveal information, and not see the benefit in them
- Inadequate information makes it difficult to understand. It may result in changes of emotion,
behavior, and feelings.
- Research imposition
- When developing the questionnaire, the researcher is making his own decisions and
assumptions as to what is and what is not important.

Sunday, March 10, 2019


- Researcher can adapt questions to clarify doubt and ensure understanding.
- Researcher can pick up on non-verbal queues.
- Useful to obtain detailed information on personal feelings, perceptions, and opinions.
- Allows for more detailed questions
- Achieves a high response rate
- Respondents own words can be recorded
- Ambiguity is clarified and incomplete answers are followed up
- Interviewees are not influenced by others in his/her group.

- Geographical Limitations
- Costly in some cases
- Interviewer biased as they may understand and transcribe interviews in different ways
- Respondents may feel uneasy about the anonymity of their responses
- Time Consuming

Focus Groups

- Detailed information is obtained about personal and group feelings, perceptions and opinions.
- Saves time and money compared to individual interviews
- Provides a broader range of information
- offers opportunities to see clarification
- provides useful information for quotations, publications, and presentations.

- There can be disagreements and irrelevant discussions which distract from the main focus
- Difficult to control and manage
- Difficult to encourage a range of people to participate
- It can be intimidating and participants may be obliged to agree with the dominant view.
- Because they are self selecting, they may not be representative of the population.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Document Analysis

- Decreases difficulty of encouraging participation by uses
- Fewer costs involved

- Time Consuming
- Some documents may be sensitive and not publicly available


Reliability relates to consistency, trustworthiness, and dependability.

Factors to consider when determining Reliability:

• The Author
Is he or she an expert in the field ?
What are his/her qualifications ?

• Professional Standards
Most professions are governed by professional standards eg. academic authors who are
published in academic journals, or books have to conform to standards. Also, articles published
in academic journals are peer-reviewed. Additionally, many newspapers, especially large
international ones, expect their journalists to operate within a professional approach.

• Publisher
Academic publishers need to maintain their reputation for accurate factual information,
therefore, they have editors to ensure a high standard, and articles are peer-reviewed. Similarly,
publishers of newspapers and magazines try to avoid legal action for libel (written), and so print
the truth.

• Organization and Institution.

Evaluation of Data obtained from an organization or institution that is reputable and understands
their role or responsibilities are important. Examples of Reputable organizations: United
Nations, World Bank etc.

• Research Method
Whether the research method chosen is suitable to generate the data.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Validity refers to the cogency ( how convincing ) of sources.

1) Is the information based on sound reasoning ?

2) Does it have logical structure ?
3) Is it supported by evidence
4) can the information be considered as incontestable?

Factors to consider when determining Validity

• Accuracy
The currency of the sources and the information.
When was the data published or gathered?
Could the information be out of date ?

• Relevance
Does the information relate to circumstances you are applying it to?
Eg. Will research carries out in the US apply to the Caribbean ?

• Data Collection
Was the data collected by reliable methods?
Was it accurately collected ?

• Sample Size
Was the sample size large enough for generalization to be accurate ?
With any social research, the sample size is vital in judging whether the data is representative of
the population as a whole.

• Replicable
Do other sources have similar information?
Would another similar piece of research have the same result?

• Biased

- Representation: Does the sample include all the variables within the population, such as:
gender, age, social class, religion, educational level ( which may affect responses ). Are the
proportions in the sample the same as that of the population. Therefore, even with large
samples, if the data is not represented, bias in the data will occur.
- Biased: Has the data been collected by someone of the same or different culture, eg. a
Western researcher may misinterpret a non-western culture and be biased due to racism, lack
of understanding or the factors.
- Political Biased: Is the data being presented from a right wing or a left wing perspective? Eg.
A conservative agenda will differ from a liberal agenda.
- Social Bias: Aspects such as gender, race, age, and social classes may affect presentation of

Sunday, March 10, 2019
- Research Methods: Mistakes within the research method inadvertently cause bias, hence
academic research is reviewed by either academics to evaluate methodology and avoid bias
in the conclusions.
- Aim of source is presenting data (purpose): The reason for data being presented may cause
bias if the sources aim is persuasive. There may be bias or advertisement.

The Communication Process

Communication is the ability of one to interact and convey their point of view by way of
speech, writing, drawings, body language, gestures and facial expressions. It is also
the act of imparting and transferring information as fact/ news.

Elements of the Communication Process:

• Sender/ Source - The entity from which information or message flows.

• Channel - means of communicating the message
• Receiver - the target entity for the message
• Feedback - The response given to the message from the receiver to the sender.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Aspects of the Communication Process:

• Encoding: The representation of an idea in a way that enables for it to be conveyed.

• Selecting a Channel: The chosen channel should enhance the opportunity for the
receiver to accurately receive what was sent.

• Decoding and Interpretation: The receiver is the decoder, and through the use of past
experience, the language itself, perceptions, opinions or any other clues to decipher
the message sent and understood the meaning.

• Barriers and Facilitators: Anything that negatively affects the understanding of a

message is known as a barrier. The opposite would be a facilitator, which aids the
passing of information.

• Feedback: When the receiver processes/ decodes the information, the response given
or lack of response is known as feedback.

• Media, Channels and technology: Communication process decisions must be made

on the best channel and medium to ensure effective communication.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Elements of the Communication Process:

- Sender/Source - The entity from which the information originates.

- Receiver - The target entity for the message
- Channel/Medium - The form the message will take (Medium)
The means through which the message is sent (Channel)
- Feedback: The response of the receiver to the message indicating whether the message was
understood or perceived. Effective Communication has taken place when the intended
feedback has been received, ie, the communication was successful.
- Message: The information to be sent.
- Noise: Anything that prevents effective or successful communication. Noise may occur at the
level of the source, the receiver, the message or the medium/ channel.
- Communication Context: Time or place, (Environment) in which message occurs.


Sunday, March 10, 2019

Aspects of the Communication Process:

• Conceptualization: The idea that the sender creates in order to form a message.

• Encoding: The representation of an idea in a way that enables to be conveyed.

• Selecting the media/ channel: The best possible means of transmitting the message.

• Decoding: Deciphering of a message by the receiver in a way that enables it to be


• Interpretation of a Message: The use of past experiences, the language itself,

perceptions, opinions, or any other clues in order understand what the message

• Feedback: The response given by the receiver after he processes/ decodes the

Sunday, March 10, 2019
Forms of Communication

Verbal Communication: Based on the use and understanding of vocabulary.

( i.e. speech and writing).

Non-Verbal Communication: Relies on elements other than speech or writing. In theory, non-
verbal communication entails more than ninety percent of communication.

Types of Non-Verbal Communication

• Kinesics - the use of gestures, facial expressions, body language, head movement, posture,
eye contact.
• Adornments/Attire- Body Presentation, physical environment, dress
• Paralanguage/ Vocalics - Tone, pitch, volume, and rate at which one speaks.
• Proxemics - Use of Space
• Haptics - Use of Touch
• Chronemics - Use of Time, Punctuality.


• Contradictory
• Emphasis
• Regulating
• Complementing
• Substituting

- Contradicting - Are you sick? Person coughs and say, “Yh!”

- Emphasis - If someone accuses you, and you raise your hand and say,” no it wasn't me.”
- Regulating - Pausing after ending a sentence, indicating that the other person may now enter
the conversation.
- Complementing - Person is agreeing and says yes whilst nodding.
- Substituting - Someone asks a question and instead of replying, one shrugs his shoulders.

Sunday, March 10, 2019


Situation: Where, why, what

Social: Who, relationship, cultural beliefs.

• Intrapersonal: Communication that takes place within the individual, ie, it occurs in the mind. It
is internal to the communicator.
• Interpersonal - Communication that takes place between two or more persons. Interpersonal
communication is irreversible.
• Group: Communication that occurs in a group of between 2 to 12 individuals. It takes place in
different contexts and mixes interpersonal communication with social clustering.
• Organizational: Communication which takes within an organizational context. There are
patterns of organizational communication: Downward- High position to Lower ( Teacher to
Students), Upward- Lower position to Higher position ( Students to Teachers), Horizontal- Sam
e Position (teachers), Grapevine ( Gossip).
• Academic - communication in various forms with which the student at that level should be
• Public
• Intercultural - Also known as cross-cultural communication
• Mass Communication - Use of Mass Media to transmit a message, eg. An address to the
• Health Communication.


A channel is a means of delivering your message. How the message is sent:

Range includes:
• Oral
• Written
• Electronic Media
• Visual

The decision as to which channel is used, depends on the context of communication:

• Nature of message
• Whether private or public
• whether audience/receiver is an individual or a large group
• whether feedback is required instantly
• Geographic Distance

Sunday, March 10, 2019


• Direct
• Can be varied to suit the needs of the receiver
• Easy to Understand
• Can be Questioned quickly

• Need to listen carefully
• Affected by Noise
• Passive
• No permanent/ accurate record
• Can be quickly forgotten

Eg, Speeches, meetings, discussion, conversations, interviews, argument, singing, complaints.


• Recorded so there is permanency
• More structured
• Easy to distribute
• Cannot be varied
• Can be referred to again

Eg. Notice Boards, Letter, Newsletter, Magazine

• Often difficult to read.
• No body language
• Feedback is slower
• No immediate response
• May be misinterpreted
• Losty and Time Consuming

Sunday, March 10, 2019

• More interactive
• Demands Attention
• Often easier to remember
• Creates greater interest

Eg. Pictures, diagrams, charts etc.

• Needs Close attention
• Not always clear
• Interpretations by receivers can vary


• Great Speed
• Interactive
• Creates Interest
• Encourages Response
• ignores boundaries
• A good image for external communication.

• Cannot always be received
• its expensive
• Risk of Communication Overload
• Can be intercepted
• Diminishes personal contact.

Eg. Social Media, Telephone, Fax Machines.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Speaking and Writing

Oral Communication

Speaking and writing: spoken or written language: The message is communicated to the
receiver using words. Four skills associated with verbal communication:

• Reading
• Writing
• Speaking
• Listening

Oral Communication consists of all spoken exchanges. It can occur in face to face meetings or
as a presentation to a large audience. It can be formal or informal, planned or accidental.

Spoken: Dialogue, Debates, Discussions, Speeches.

• Enables Speedy Exchanges

• Quick Feedback
• Opportunities for Questions and Clarification
• The effect of the message on the audience can be noted. Sender can check whether the
message is clear or has created confusion.
• Spoken instructions are flexible and easily adaptable to deliver situations.

- Time consuming depending on the context

- Can be difficult to meet the objective of the communication
- Core presentation of the message can result in misunderstanding
- Spoken Communication is influenced by non-verbal communicative behavior, such as tone
and body language which may affect the message of the message in the mind of the reader.
- Usually, there is no record of the communication.

Sunday, March 10, 2019
Written: Books, letters, emails, texts, memos, notices, magazines, newspapers, personal
journals, notes.

• Good for vital or complicated instructions as they can be given in a precise and uniform
manner, which can be referred back to.
• Less chance of messages being misunderstood.
• Provides a record for authority: is transmitted more effectively with a written order than an
aural one.
• The message can be carefully prepared and then directed to a large audience through mass
• Also promotes uniformly in policy and procedure.
• Can reduce waste in some cases.

- It is impersonal
- People may not always read written communication
- No immediate feedback
- Not possible for the receiver to obtain immediate clarification if they do not fully understand
the message.
- It may generate a lot of paperwork
- Can be poorly expressed by ineffective writers.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

- Persuasive

• LOGOS - Logic and Reasoning

• Pathos - Emotion
• Ethos: Character, values , and ethics

An appeal to logic and reason. Logos gives the evidence and statistics required to fully
understand the issue.
Eg. The logos of an advertisement will be straight facts about the product. Eg. One glass of
Florida Orange Juice contains 75 percent of your daily Vitamin C needs.

An appeal to emotion. Pathos will attempt to evoke an emotional response in an individual. It is
sometimes positive such as happiness eg. an image of people enjoying themselves whilst
drinking Pepsi. Often, negative emotions are used such as pain or suffering or guilt. Eg. Images
of starving children to persuade you to send money.

An appeal to Credibility or Character. Ethos will try to convince you that an individual/company
is reliable, honest and credible, therefore you should listen to that individual. It involves the use
of reliable experts ad celebrities.