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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL


Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Effects of Cyber Bullying in the


Students of Senior High School in
Saint Theresa College
________________________________________________________________

A Research Paper
Presented to the Faculty
Of Senior High
School department of Saint Theresa
College of Tandag City, SDS
____________________________________________

In partial fulfillment of the


Requirements for the subject
Practical Research 1
____________________________________________

By:
Christian Valentin Tavarro
JarrenBalo
LaidenDapiasan
Marlowe Peteros
Rix Montero

March 2018
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are thankful to our Heavenly Father for giving us wisdom, and knowledge, and good

health.

To Ms. Riscelle O. Pinzon, Ph. D, our Practical Research 1 Instructor, for extending his

time, efforts, assistance, fand guidance that made us finished this research work.

We would like to thank also our families and friends for the undying financial and moral

support to us.

The Researchers

DEDICATION iv
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

We dedicate this research to our school Saint Theresa College of Tandag Inc. for

having a successful performance, especially to our teacher in the Practical Research 1,

Ms. Riscelle O. Pinzon for teaching and guiding us to make this research. We also

dedicate this research from our parents for the nonstop support, financially, morally and

love. In above all we dedicate this research to our all loving almighty god for giving us

strength, courage and inspiration to have a successful research.

v
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement iv

Dedication v

CHAPTER 1- The problem and it’s setting

Background of the study 1

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework 7

Schematic Diagram 11

Statement of the problem 12

Scope of limitation
13
Significance of the study

Definition of terms 14

CHAPTER 2- Review Related Literature and Related Studies

Foreign

Related Literature 16

Related Studies 20

Local

Related Literature 21

Related Studies 25

CHAPTER 3- Research Methology

Research Design 26

Locale of the Study


28
Respondents of the Study
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Map of Tandag City 29

Research Instrument

Data Gathering Procedure 30

Statistical Treatment
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND IT’S SETTING

Background of the study

Most people by now are familiar with what is cyberbullying, but if you find yourself

asking the question “What is cyberbullying exactly?”- it is a legal term used to describe

any form of harassment or intimidation done over the internet. The harassment and/or

intimidation must be intentional, ongoing and done in a hostile manner to qualify as

cyber bullying. Cyber bullying is a huge problem and is becoming a growing epidemic

among children. With the increase of social media and internet use among people of all

ages rising each year, cyber bullying cases continue to skyrocket as well.We all know

that cyber bullying is widespread in our country and many have become victim of this

case so we need to study this.Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form

of bullying or harassment using electronic means. It has become increasingly common,

especially among teenagers.Harmful bullying behavior can include posting

rumors, threats, sexual remarks, a victims' personal information, or pejorative labels

(i.e., hate speech). Bullying or harassment can be identified by repeated behavior and

an intent to harm. Victims may have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation, and

a variety of emotional responses, including being scared, frustrated, angry, and

depressed. Cyberbullying may be more harmful than traditional bullying. Awareness in

the United States has risen in the 2010s, due in part to high-profile cases. Several US states

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

and other countries have laws specific to cyberbullying. Some are designed to specifically target

teen cyberbullying, while others use laws extending from the scope of physical harassment. In

cases of adult cyberharassment, these reports are usually filed beginning with local police.

Research has demonstrated a number of serious consequences of cyberbullying victimization.

Internet trolling is a common form of bullying over the Internet in an online community (such as

in online gaming or social media) in order to elicit a reaction, disruption, or for someone's own

personal amusement. Cyberstalking is another form of bullying or harassment that uses

electronic communications to stalk a victim; this may pose a credible threat to the victim. Not all

negative interaction online or on social media can be attributed to cyberbullying. Research

suggests that there are also interactions online that result in peer pressure, which can have a

negative, positive, or neutral impact on those involved. So, in all 50 states, only 34 have laws

against cyberbullying. The states that DO NOT have a law against it are: Alabama, Connecticut,

Hawaii, Indiana, Maine, Michigan, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota,

Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Do those 16 states have to lose

people to bullying for them to realize that something should be done about it? We should not

lose any more people to bullying.I want to make a difference because I know what its like to be

bullied online and at school, it sucks and you feel terrible, you feel trapped, you can't be

yourself, and you feel like no one cares. And some people it pushes over the edge and they

commit suicide. People should not kill themselves because of how uncomfortable and miserable

another person or other people make their life! I dont want this to happen to anyone else. Did

you know 90% of students are victims of bullies? Thats way over what it should be which is 0%.

Bullies shouldn't get away with what they do to others. I want to make a difference in the 16

states that dont have the law against cyberbullying. The difference I want to make is for those

16 states to get a law that makes it illigal to cyberbully. I know that right now its just

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

cyberbullying, but this is just a start. Ive lived in 2 of those 16 states, both Ive been bullied in,

online and at school. Im tired of bullies and something needs to be done about it, so instead of

me being another person just sitting around and complaining about it, Im going to try my best to

make a difference. No more lives should be hurt or lost to bullies! Bullies need to know that what

they are doing is so wrong and they need to pay the concequences.

According to Dr. Robin Kowalski (2012) the professor of psychology at Clemson

University. She obtained her Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of North

Carolina at Greensboro. Her research interests focus primarily on aversive interpersonal

behaviors, most notably complaining, teasing and bullying, with a particular focus on

cyber bullying. She is the author or co-author of several books includingComplaining,

Teasing, and Other Annoying Behaviors, Social Anxiety,Aversive Interpersonal

Behaviors, Behaving Badly, and The Social Psychology of Emotional and Behavioral

Problems. She (along with Susan Limber and Patricia Agatston) has a book forthcoming

entitled Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Her research on complaining brought

her international attention, including an appearance on NBC’s “Today Show.” Dr.

Kowalski has received several awards including Clemson University’s Award of

Distinction, Clemson University’s College of Business and Behavioral Science Award for

Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, and the Clemson Board of Trustees Award for

Faculty Excellence.Dr. Susan Limber (2013) is Director of the Center on Youth

Participation and Human Rights at the Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life and

Professor of Psychology at Clemson University. She is a developmental psychologist

who received her masters and doctoral degrees in psychology at the University of

Nebraska-Lincoln, where she also received a Masters of Legal Studies. Dr. Limber’s
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Surigao del Sur, Philippines

research and writing have focused on legal and psychological issues related to youth

violence (particularly bullying among children), youth participation, and children’s rights.

She directed the first wide-scale implementation and evaluation of the Olweus Bullying

Prevention Program in the United States and co-authored the Blueprint for the Bullying

Prevention Program as well as many other articles on the topic of bullying. She is co-

author of the book entitled, Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age, with Dr. Robin

Kowalski and Dr. Patricia Agatston. In recent years, she has overseen dissemination of

the Olweus program in the United States. Since 2001, she has provided consultation to

the National Bullying Prevention Campaign (“Take a Stand. Lend a Hand. Stop Bullying

Now!”), supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services. Dr. Limber has received a number of

awards for her work, including the American Psychological Association’s Early Career

Award for Psychology in the Public Interest, and the Saleem Shah Award for early

career excellence in psychology-law policy, which was awarded by the American

Psychology-Law Society of the American Psychological Association and the American

Academy of Forensic Psychiatry.Dr. Patricia Agatston(2011) is a Licensed Professional

Counselor with the Prevention/Intervention Center, a student assistance program that

serves more than 100 schools in the Cobb County School District, a suburb of Atlanta

Georgia. She earned her bachelor’s degree from Florida State University, her master’s

degree from the University of North Texas, and her doctorate from The Union Institute

and University in Cincinnati, Ohio.As a counselor and prevention specialist with more

than twenty years experience, Dr. Agatston provides training and technical assistance

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Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

to schools in the areas of bullying prevention, internet safety, drug prevention, and

suicide prevention. She is a nationally certified trainer and technical assistance

consultant for the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program and assisted in gathering data

for some of the first national research being conducted on cyber bullying. She co-

presented with Dr. Susan Limber and Dr. Robin Kowalski on cyber bullying at the

International Bullying Prevention Conference in November 2006 , 2007, and 2009. Dr.

Agatston is co-author of the book entitled, Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age,

with Dr. Limber and Dr. Kowalski and the Cyber Bullying Prevention Curriculum for

Grades 3 -5 and the Cyber Bullying Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6 – 12. A two-

time recipient of the Coalition for Child Abuse Prevention’s VIP award, she has been

quoted in articles on cyber bullying in Time Magazine, The Washington Post, The

Christian Science Monitor, and CNET News, and has appeared on CNN as well as

other local and national television segments to discuss cyber bullying. Dr.

Agatston serves on the board of directors for Net Family News and the International

Bullying Prevention Association.

The purpose of this study is to make students aware of cyber bullying. To know

the consequences of students if this happens at specific time. To make students realize

their actions whether it is right or wrong.

Reviewing policies and procedures related to cyberbullying, and offering

recommendations for improvements. Professional development training for

administrators and staff. Training of students: our Safe School Ambassadors® program

is an effective way to equip students with the skills to prevent and stop cyberbullying

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

(and other forms of peer mistreatment and violence). Deliveringparent education

workshops that increase their awareness of the problem and signs of cyberbullying and

other forms of mistreatment.Cyberbullying is a people problem, and it requires a people

solution. Until the courts provide clear constitutional guidance on how schools may

regulate online speech, education is the most effective way to respond. These

include:Educate students with information about what cyberbullying is, as well as costs

and consequences, to the perpetrators, the targets, and the school as a whole. They

see, hear and know more than adults do about particular incidents of cyberbullying, and

are in the best position to prevent and stop it.Train administrators and staff to recognize

and respond. Educate parents; inform them of district policies and state or other laws,

and provide them with tips and tools for preventing, recognizing and responding.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
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Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

(Conflict Theory) Karl Marx, he is the father of conflict theory, it is easiest to

understand from a visual perspective. Picture in your head a ladder. There are teens at

the top of the ladder and they are considered ‘upper class’ or the popular teens. The

people at the bottom of the ladder are the ‘lower class’ or sometimes called losers. The

teens at the top really want to stay there and keep their status, as well as wanting to

distance themselves from teens who are seen to be at the bottom. The teens at the

bottom really want to climb up the social ladder so they can be more popular. When we

look at this from the perspective of cyber bullying, the conflict theory would say that

conflict happens between these social levels and can cause cyber bullying. Teens will

do what they need to do in order to increase their status. The actual cyber bullying that

takes place signifies a social conflict that is unsolved and power that is unbalanced.

This makes so much sense when we look at teens at our own school. Conflicts seem to

arise when status and power are unevenly distributed between groups or cliques. The

cyber bullies that are in peer repress the poor teens that are at the bottom of the ladder

and they do this to maintain the status quo, basically so they stay on top. It doesn’t

seem to matter who they hurt a long the way.

Labelling Theory was developed by Howard Becker and gives us another way

to look at cyber bullies. This theory is based on the fact that people’s negative

behaviours are “deviant” only because society labels them this. This simply means that

the labels teens are given impact their own and other’s perceptions of them. This

makes their behaviour deviant….according to Howard. This theory also believes that a

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

teen is not bad because of their actions, but rather it is developed because people

negatively judge a teen. Nobody is born bad, but social aspects of their peers

constantly labelling them as bad. Doesn’t this sound familiar? It ends up basically

being a self-fulfilling prophecy and these people then live up to their reputation! This

theory also shares how the self-identity and behaviour of individuals may be determined

or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. Think of how often this

happens in a high school….”loser, nerd, geek, slut…” These teens who bully may be

“A” students and/or are the athletic “jocks” and because of this, dismiss their actions

and do not consider themselves to be bullies. Once teens are given this label, they tend

to continue to live up to the name

Choice Theory Glasser, the father of Choice Theory and a school psychologist

believes “people cannot be responsible for their behaviours, including psychological

problems” (Kaner, 1993). His firm belief is that the true source of problems in

individuals’ own choice and that we do things because of internal factors directing us.

So does this mean teens who cyber bully are doing it because something inside them is

telling them to do it? Does this make it ok? Looking at the from the perspective of a

cycler bully, Glasser would say that they want to change the other person, who is the

victim, by controlling their behaviour rather than choosing to control or change their own

behaviour. This makes total sense to me! This theory definitely knows what it is talking

about when it says that an individual has the competence to control only his own

behaviours! Too bad they don’t! Why aren’t we using this theory at school as a way to

deal with these problems? Glasser also believes that all behaviours aim to meet 5

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Surigao del Sur, Philippines

basic needs, and basically cyber bullying aims to satisfy 1 or more of these needs.

Most often, teens who cyber bully have behaviour problems in school, and this is related

to them being unsuccessful and experiencing feelings of “being restrained in satisfying

their basic needs” (Tanrikulu, 2014). Choice theory claims cyber bullies generally have

the inability to have successful and satisfying relationships with one or more people

important to them in their life, or attach themselves to other people.” (Tanrikulu, 2014).

Also common in cyber bullies is those who are socially unaccepted by society and are

loners who may have poor relationships with their parents. So what does this all mean?

Basically, it just means that because of choice theory, we can explain the behaviour of

cyber bullies as their inability to develop satisfying and healthy relationships. This is

due to the fact that their need to belong and develop relationships are not met properly

and this leads to an unsuccessful identity!

Social Disorganization Theory This theory states that crime and deviant

behaviours are more likely to happen in a social institution that is unable to control

groups of people. According to the social disorganization theory of social problems, the

rapid changes in the media and technology have disrupted the norms in society.

Facebook, Instagram, cell phones and other social networks have developed so quickly

and have basically taken over! This is so true when we look at Walnut Grove. Teens

have access to the social media all day while they are at school, so cyber bullying is

taking place in this setting all day long! This theory would say that cyber bullying is an

issue at the school level and the cyber bullying is a sign of the disorder of the

behaviours and attitudes at a larger level.

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Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

General Detterence Theory This theory follows the belief that people are scared

to break the law because they are very scared of the consequences that come with

this. If we look at this from a school level, it makes so much sense! If we send a

message to all the students at WGSS by making them fearful of the consequences if

they cyber bully, they will be less likely to do this! If our purpose is to deter teens from

cyber bullying, then we need harsh consequences to deter them from doing it again!

Ultimately, this should be in a school policy for all to see and follow. As it stands now,

most teens do not come forward when they are experiencing cyber bullying. If teens do

not come forward, this issue cannot be addressed and those who cyber bully will not

receive consequences, and therefore will most likely continue to cyber bully.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

The profile
respondents as
to a
cyberbullied
1. Age The causes and the The prevention of
2. Sex effects of cyber cyberbullying
3. Civil bullying
Status

Figure 1.

Schematic Diagram of the Study

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Explanation of the Schematic Diagram

Through the schematic diagram, we will know how to prevent cyberbullying in

our school and here, we will know how to avoid it. The aims of this study is to

determine how many percent of the students of Saint Theresa are experiencing of

being cyberbullied. We the researchers come up with the schematic diagram

process shown in the paradigm. The paradigm of the problem of the study. As

defected on the conceptual paradigm of this study, it has three boxes. The first box

contains the profile of the students. The second one shows the possible cause

and/or effect of being cyber bullied and the third box shows us how to prevent cyber

bullying.

Statement of The Problem

This study is aimed to look into the effects of cyber bullying to educationally

development of students In Saint Theresa College of Tandag.

1. What are the profile respondent of the victim?

1.1 Age

1.2 Sex

1.3 Civil Status

2. What are the causes of cyberbullying?

3. What are the effects of being cyber bullied?

4. How to prevent the cyberbullying?

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Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Scope and Limitation

They can help us by answering the questions we’ll give. The study will be

conducted at Saint Theresa College Department of Tandag especially in Grade 11

HUMSS. We would like to collect more information about our research in the effects

of cyber bullying. Information acquired and provided by respondents will be used to

confirm of negate the possible causes which were earlier stated.

Significance of The Study

This study proved to be useful to the following groups of individual:

Parents. They are one who will guide us in a good path and help us to be aware of

what we will do. They will give us a good advice.

Students. They will help also to research more about this problem and this will serve

as an eye opener which will guide the students to be aware.

Victims. This study will be their guide to start a good life and help them to prevent

cyber bullying to spread.

Future Researcher. It will give them an idea to come up with similar study and make

this as their reference to make them further studies about the proposed business.

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Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Definition of terms

Bullying. An act of repeated aggressive behavior in order to intentionally hurt

another person, physically or mentally. A second common element in bullying

behavior is a perceived imbalance of power, which allows one individual, or group, to

victimize another.Bullying can occur in any setting where human beings interact with

each other. This includes school, church, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods.

It is even a common push factor in human migration. Bullying can exist between

social groups, social classes, and even between nations.

A person is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and

over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more persons."Negative actions"

are "intentional infliction of, or attempt to inflict, injury or humiliation on

another.[3]Such injury can be physical, verbal, or a mixture of the two. In some cases,

verbal harassment is used to provoke a weaker person to anger and thus provide an

excuse for the stronger individual, the bully, to become physical in their attacks.

Verbal harassment, or teasing, is often the method used by a verbally efficient

individual against one who is less proficient with words. Teasing with a sexual

content may be a precursor to sexual harassment in later years.

Cyberbullying or cyberharassment. A form of bullying or harassment

using electronic means. It has become increasingly common, especially among

teenagers. Harmful bullying behavior can include posting rumors, threats, sexual

remarks, a victims' personal information, or pejorative labels (i.e., hate

speech). Bullying or harassment can be identified by repeated behavior and an intent

to harm. Victims may have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation, and a

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

variety of emotional responses, including being scared, frustrated, angry, and

depressed. Cyberbullying may be more harmful than traditional bullying. Awareness

in the United States has risen in the 2010s, due in part to high-profile cases. Several

US states and other countries have laws specific to cyberbullying. Some are

designed to specifically target teen cyberbullying, while others use laws extending

from the scope of physical harassment.In cases of adult cyberharassment, these

reports are usually filed beginning with local police. Research has demonstrated a

number of serious consequences of cyberbullying victimization. Internet trolling is a

common form of bullying over the Internet in an online community (such as in online

gaming or social media) in order to elicit a reaction, disruption, or for someone's own

personal amusement. Cyberstalking is another form of bullying or harassment that

uses electronic communications to stalk a victim; this may pose a credible threat to

the victim. Not all negative interaction online or on social media can be attributed to

cyberbullying. Research suggests that there are also interactions online that result

in peer pressure, which can have a negative, positive, or neutral impact on those

involved.

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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
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Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Effects of Cyber Bullying in the


Students of Senior High School in
Saint Theresa College

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature And Related Studies

This chapter discusses some foreign and local related literature and studies

which has bearing to the present study.

Related Literature

Foreign

According to Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja (2014) whether you teach

in the classroom, lead a youth group, or work with teens in another setting, Words

Wound can help you guide your young people as they learn about cyberbullying,

consider their own attitudes and actions (and those of others), and think about ways

to delete cyberbullying and make kindness go viral. This leader’s guide can help you

use Words Wound to inspire productive discussion, engage teens in reflection,

explore useful strategies for dealing with online bullying, and work toward building a

culture of greater kindness and respect.The sections of this guide match up with the

chapters of Words Wound. Each section includes a general overview of the

information covered along with specific learning objectives, discussion questions,

and other activities that can be used with the group or assigned for group members

to complete at home. The “Fill in the Blank” worksheets can be used to help guide

readers through the material, while the “Make Your Choice” quizzes can be used to
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assess their comprehension of the information. In addition, both are helpful in

prompting and continuing the conversation surrounding these issues. Other features

of the guide include “Think About It, Talk About It” discussion questions for every

chapter, as well as a handful of “Status Update” activities and “Puzzler” pieces that

you’ll find at the end of the guide, which can be used with any chapter or section of

the book.Feel free to use the guide in whatever order and manner works best for you

and your group. For example, the “Think About It, Talk About It” sections can help

foster quick but meaningful conversations even if you don’t have a lot of time with

your group. For deeper investigation, you may want to turn to the “Status Update”

activities. And when you have some time to fill at the end of a class or meeting—or

when group members need a breather—“Puzzler” activities can provide a light but

still stimulating break. Depending on the ages, interests, and needs of your group

members, each of these features may be more or less suited to your situation. You

make the call and use what’s right for your group.We firmly believe that teens have

the most power to stem the tide of cyberbullying. However, we also know—from our

own experience and the feedback educators and parents have given us—that they

often need encouragement, guidance, leadership, and modeling from the adults in

their lives. And even the most motivated teens may hesitate for a number of reasons,

such as the fear of failure or rejection, a sense of powerlessness, or a lack of

information and practical strategies. As an adult who cares about young people, you

are in a great position to spark an interest in teens to tackle this problem. Now, we

ask you to take the next step—identify your group, rally them together, and help

them in their efforts to make positive changes in their own lives and in those of their

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friends, in their schools, in their communities, and beyond. And be sure to visit

wordswound.org for more information and inspiration!

Smith et al, (2006), ‘In June/July 2012, a questionnaire in the UK was

designed and returned by 92 students aged between 11 and 16 years across 14

different London schools’. The questionnaire looked at the different types of

cyberbullying experiences in and outside school by distinguishing between seven

forms of cyberbullying. These included bullying by text message, phone call, email,

picture/video clips, through instant messaging and via websites. The questionnaire

found that ‘girls were significantly more likely to be cyberbully victims than boys

especially by text messages and phone calls. Girls were more likely to be both

cyberbullied and bullied in school than boys’ (Smith et al., 2006). In all cases, girls

reported a greater degree of victimisation than boys and girls were more exposed to

cyberbullying via text messages and phone calls, the two methods of cyberbullying

found to be the most dominant among school children.

Blumenfeld (2010) wrote the ‘Social Norms Theory in many contexts has

proven to be effective in empowering those that oppose unhealthy or abusive

behaviour, as well as empowering bystanders who are aware of negative behaviours

but feel powerless to intervene.’ (Blumenfeld, 2010)Both Rational Choice

Theory and Self Control Theory have been used to explain cyberbullying. Sameer

Veenstra (2011) argues that ‘Rational Choice Theory states that aberrant conduct is

the result of costs and benefits whereby the benefits outweigh the costs. The

research supports the theory that due to the low risks of bullying online, cyberbullies

feel free from constraints on their behaviour.’ To establish why some young people

make the decision to bully online while others do not, Self- Control Theory was used. 18
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According to Veenstra (2011) ‘this theory assumes that engagement in deviant

behaviour depends on a person’s extent of self- control. Consistent with the theory,

the results indicate that cyberbullies have less self-control than non-

cyberbullies.’Routine Activity Theory (RAT) was used to explain victimisation.

The RAT theory states there has to be a connection of likely offenders and targets

and an absence of parents/guardians for cyberbullying to occur. Veenstra (2011)

states; ‘first, the results indicate that motivated bullies are present in cyberspace.

Furthermore, victims seem to be suitable targets: they spend significantly more time

online and use Instant Messaging significantly more than non-victims. Finally,

parents of victims are less able to protect their children from cyberbullying than

parents of non-victims.

Downs and Leary (1995) said that ‘self-esteem is an inner depiction

of dismissal and social non-acceptance and a psychological instrument recording the

degree to which an individual is excluded vs included by others.’ These two concepts

undermine the fact that self-esteem is seen as a perception – a person’s belief about

their personal value is affected by their participation in the social world – where often

interpersonal disputes occur that lead to behaviour such as bullying. The connection

between bullying offending and self-esteem is much less systematic.

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Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Related studies

Foreign

Victimization on the Internet through what has been termed cyberbullying has

attracted increased attention from scholars and practitioners. Defined as “willful and

repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text” (Patchin and

Hinduja 2006Patchin , J. W. and S. Hinduja . 2006. “Bullies Move Beyond the

Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying.” Youth Violence and Juvenile

Justice 4 ( 2 ): 148 – 169, this negative experience not only undermines a youth's

freedom to use and explore valuable on-line resources, but also can result in severe

functional and physical ramifications. Research involving the specific phenomenon—

as well as Internet harassment in general—is still in its infancy, and the current work

seeks to serve as a foundational piece in understanding its substance and salience.

On-line survey data from 1,378 adolescent Internet-users are analyzed for the

purposes of identifying characteristics of typical cyberbullying victims and offenders.

Although gender and race did not significantly differentiate respondent

victimization or offending, computer proficiency and time spent on-line were

positively related to both cyberbullying victimization and offending. Additionally,

cyberbullying experiences were also linked to respondents who reported school

problems (including traditional bullying), assaultive behavior, and substance use.

Implications for addressing this novel form of youthful deviance are discussed.This

study investigates the nature and the extent of adolescences’ experience of

cyberbullying. A survey study of 264 students from three junior high schools was

conducted. In this article, ‘cyberbullying’ refers to bullying via electronic

communication tools. The results show that close to half of the students were bully
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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

victims and about one in four had been cyber-bullied. Over half of the students

reported that they knew someone being cyberbullied. Almost half of the cyberbullies

used electronic means to harass others more than three times. The majority of the

cyber-bully victims and bystanders did not report the incidents to adults. When

gender was considered, significant differences were identified in terms of bullying

and cyberbullying. Males were more likely to be bullies and cyberbullies than their

female counterparts. In addition, female cyberbully victims were more likely to inform

adults than their male counterparts.

Related Literature

Local

According to Cyndy P. dela Cruz (2017) many attribute President Duterte’s

electoral victory to a strong social media presence and awareness from supporters

and detractors alike. Similarly, in the United States, President Trump’s astounding

victory may not have been predictable on the basis on old measures of popularity,

but perhaps to a more subtle, even subliminal influence, perhaps attributable to

social media as well. Unfortunately, when people log into their social media

accounts, some tend to shed normal sensibilities or even basic civility. This is the

same phenomenon that perhaps gives rise to the anomaly of Philippine vehicular

traffic, where the polite and non-confrontational is shed for disrespectful and

sometimes barbaric behavior leading to the Gordian knot that is Philippine traffic.

Part of this is the cloak of perceived anonymity that social media brings. We

therefore sometimes see posts or commentaries meant to embarrass competence

and intelligence, gender, or just plain rumor-mongering. However, even when done

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

behind the cloak of a social media platform may have legal implications under our

present laws. This law finds applicability in school-related bullying incidents which

cover those uttered on social media platforms. “Bullying” under this law refers to any

severe, or repeated use by one or more students of a written, verbal or electronic

expression, or a physical act or gesture, or any combination thereof, directed at

another student that has the effect of actually causing or placing the latter in

reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to his property; creating a

hostile environment at school; infringing on the rights of another student at school; or

materially or substantially disrupting the education process. (Sec. 2, RA 10627)

When done through the use of the Internet, the law categorizes the same as “cyber-

bullying.” (Sec. 2-D, RA 10627) This covers social bullying aiming to belittle another

individual or group or gender-based bullying which humiliates another on the basis of

perceived or actual sexual orientation and gender identity. (Sec. 3, B-1, RA 10627,

Implementing Rules). However, this law only addresses student-student bullying.

Hence, a teacher who belittles a student in Facebook or any other social media

account, on account of grades or class performance, social standing or gender may

not be held liable under this law. One who publicly or maliciously imputes to another

a crime, vice, defect, real or imaginary, or any act, omission, condition, status or

circumstance tending to cause the dishonor, discredit or contempt of a natural or

juridical person, or blacken the memory of one who is dead may be liable for libel

under the Revised Penal Code. (Art. 353, RPC) These acts, when done in social

media, will be punished more severely in addition to the civil action for damages

which may be brought by the offended party. (Sec. 4 (c-4), RA 10175)

Cyberlibelholds liable only the original author of the post (Sec. 5 (3), Implementing

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Rules of RA 10175) hence, if you are one of those who are fond of liking or reacting

to a post of this character, cyberlibel is not the crime for you. Slander may also be

applicable to one who, in heat of anger, utters statements that are highly defamatory

in character. (Art. 358, RPC) Intriguing Against Honor may also find applicability

when the principal purpose is to blemish the honor or reputation of a person. (Art.

364, RPC) However, the requirement is that the post be directed to a specific

person. Hence, a blind item is not as actionable as a named-post in social media.

One who is aggrieved by a defamatory post in social media may nonetheless find

refuge in the provisions of the Civil Code on Damages. (Art. 2176, Civil Code) One

who posts in social media, causing damage to the reputation of another may be

liable to the subject for damages and this can be a valid cause of action under the

law. Such post must tend to pry to the privacy and peace of mind of another, meddle

or disturb the private life or family relations of another, intrigue to cause another to

be alienated from his friends or vex or humiliate another on account of his religious

beliefs, lowly station in life, place of birth, physical defect or other personal condition.

(Art. 26, Civil Code) The recent popular posts in Facebook featuring over-weight

people who are victims of body-shaming may rely on the Civil Code for an action for

damages. An employee who spreads rumors or intrigues against a coworker or his

superior or vice versa, or who does any act similar to cyberlibel, slander, intriguing

against honor or even prying into the privacy of another may be a just cause for his

termination if embodied in the company policy in addition to all other causes of action

available to him under the laws mentioned. (Sec. 5.2 (g), D.O 147-15) However, all

the laws mentioned will only be a valid cause of action to one who is the subject of

the post and who is aware of the post directed to him. Those who simply react and

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

call foul because a post imputes to another an act which tarnishes one’s reputation

without them being the subject of the same has no remedy under any of our present

laws. Social media is a powerful tool. It is always best to set a limit on which issues

to react to or which people direct a post to. While freedom of speech is well-

enshrined in our Constitution, this right is not without any limitations. In the end, it is

always best to devote the stroke of our fingers and the clicks of our mouse to

intellectual discourse rather than risk being held liable under our present laws. After

all, the power of our minds should be mightier than any sword there is.

Prof. NymiaSimbulan (2014) said that there is no specific law or regulation

that is being violated. This is because there is a very thing dividing line between

cyberbullying and the right to freedom of expression. The dividing line is very thin

that it is very hard to differentiate the two.Libel and slander under the revise penal

code; however it is different when the act is done using social media.There is a need

for to verify first the information before disseminating or sharing those.Media literacy

could be doneamong social media users so that they would know what cyber-

bullying is and consequently avoid engaging in it. Educating the users should be

done and on the part of the social media user, selfdisciplineis what is needed.

Prof. NymiaSimbulan (2014)theGenerally needed toaddress the issue is the

responsible use of the internet and social media. passive bystanders; they should

not just tolerate it, they should take a stand and they should condemn theSocial

media can be used to launch counter campaigns against the perpetrators As

platforms, social media can be used to enlightened users through education. Mr.

Mark Madrona Social media perse cannot be used to stop cyber bullying…but we

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

can educate the users to be more vigilant. Social media like Facebook can be used

to report offensive acts, statements, photos.

Mr. Jose Descallar (2014) Users can report through socialmedia like

Facebook somebody who is not doing good., we have created a site that provides

information about cybercrimes. What is needed is the responsible usage of the social

network sites. It is a useful tool to inform them of the negative implications and harm

that it might bring once use in cyber bullying.

Related Studies

Local

The effects of cyberbullying is far worse than what we have imagined. A

recent study conducted by Kaspersky Lab and iconKids& Youth warned parents

about how cyberbullying negatively affects their children's psychological, emotional

and physical well-being.Cyberbullying is intentional intimidation, persecution or

abuse that children and teenagers may encounter on the Internet. Based on the

survey which included children aged 8 to 16 years old, 16 percent of the children

surveyed are more afraid of being bullied online than offline, while half are equally

afraid of both real-life and virtual bullying. Seven out of 10 children who admitted to

have been bullied said they experienced trauma.Among the effects of cyberbullying,

as noted by the parents of the cyberbullied children, are lower self-esteem,

depression, inactivity, nightmares and anorexia.Just as worrying are the statistics

showing that 20 percent of children witnessed others being bullied online, and in

seven percent of cases even participated in it. The survey shows that children often

hide incidents of cyberbullying from their parents, making the task of protecting them

even more complicated, though, fortunately, not impossible.“In an effort to protect

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

our children from danger, we must not forget that they not only live in the real world

but also in the virtual world, which is just as real to them. On the Internet, children

socialize, learn new things, have fun and, unfortunately, encounter unpleasant

situations,” said Andrei Mochola, Head of Consumer Business at Kaspersky

Lab.“Cyberbullying is one of the most dangerous things that can confront a child on

the Internet, because it can have a negative impact on their psyche and cause

problems for the rest of their lives. The best solution in this case is to talk to your

child and to use parental control software that can alert you to any suspicious

changes to their social network page.

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Effects of Cyber Bullying in the


Students of Senior High School in
Saint Theresa College

Chapter III

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the Research design, locate of the study, Respondents of the

study, Research instruments, Validation of instrument, Data gathering procedure,

tabulation and statistical treatment.

Research Design

The researchers use the descriptive method to this study.This research study was

solely designed to examine the issues of cyber bullying and its effect on a

performance of a person . In the course of this research, the concept of cyberbullying

and the effect as well as misuse was looked into. The study was aimed at finding out

how parent, family background, peer group, etc. contribute cyberbullying problems.

The investigation also show that cyberbullying may affect the behaviour of a person.

It was also discovered that cyberbullyingwill cause trauma or depression. Therefore,

the work recommends proper educational consequences of cyberbullying, the

provision of counselling services to school and the imposition of some levies prevent

the cyberbullying It also recommends that the mass media should month heavy

campaign against cyberbullying.


Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Locale of the study

This research will be conducted in GRADE-11 HUMSS in Saint Theresa College

Department of Tandag, that have many concerns about cyberbullying. The purpose

of this study is to lessen the cyberbullying.

Respondents of the study

To make the study more accurate and reliable, the researchers needs the help

of 20 most selected students of Grade 11 HUMSS of Saint Theresa College to

answer the questionnaire. The number of 20 students answered and obtained by the

Slovene method.

Table 1. Respondents of the study

RESPONDENTS F M PERCENTAGE

STUDENTS 10 10 20%

TOTAL 10 10 20%

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Figure 2. Map of Tandag City

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Research Instrument

The researcher will be used a researcher made questionnaire in gathering the

necessary data. Each item from the questionnaire was carefully studied to ensure

that yet it yields a valid result.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers followed step by step procedure gathering the necessary

data of the study. First, they sought the approval of the Principal of Senior High

department to conduct the research about the harmful effect of cyberbullying.

Second they distributed the survey questionnaires in the most selected 20 students

in Grade 11 HUMSS. And lastly after the distribution of questionnaire, the

researchers retrieved, analyzed and interpreted the data in order to get the findings

and to come up with the conclusions and recommendations.

Statistical Treatment

This study used a Sloven Formula as the statistical tool in determining the

number of sample respondents. The respondent’s answers were tallied and organize

according to the criteria specified in the questionnaire. The statistical treatments

used the answer the problems were the following: Frequency counting, and mean.

Frequency counting was used to tabulate how many person who are totally affected

in cyberbullying. Mean used to compute the percentage; it answered the question on

the level of problems about cyberbullying.

To measure the general response of the survey samples, whether they

agree to a given question or not.


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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

This questionnaire is based on the research and studies of Christian

Valentin Tavarro, JarrenBalo, LaidenDapiasan, Marlowe Peteros and Rix Montero.

The Senior High School Students of Saint Theresa College of Tandag City

Inc.(2017)

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Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Effects of Cyber Bullying in the


Students of Senior High School in
Saint Theresa College

Ellis, L.A., H.W. Marsh and G.E. Richards ( 2002) ‘A Brief Version of the Self

Description Questionnaire II’, paper presented at Self-concept Research

Driving International Research Agendas, Sydney , 6-8 August.

Name: (optional) ________________________

Address: _____________________________________

Please indicate (/) in the appropriate information about yourself. Each

question should only have one answer.

1. Are Male or Female?

Male

Female

2. Have you ever posted rude comments about someone online?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

3. Have you ever posted lies about someone?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

4. Have you ever used someone else’s password without their permission?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

5. Have you ever used bad language online?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

6. Have you ever posted pictures or information about someone on a Web site

without their consent?


Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

7. Have you ever forwarded an e-mail without the permission of the other person?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

8. Have you ever used information found online to tease or embarrass someone?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

9. Have you ever signed someone else up for something online without their
permission?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

Often

10. Have you ever teased or threatened someone online?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

11. Have you ever impersonated someone online?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often

12. Have you ever signed on with someone else’s screen name to gather info?

Never

Just Once

Sometimes

Often
Saint Theresa Collegeof Tandag Inc.
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Dagocdoc Tandag City
Surigao del Sur, Philippines

REFERENCE

 American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). Bullying: It’s not OK.

Retrieved from http://www.heathychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-

play/pages/Bullying-It’s-Not-Ok.aspx.

 Cross, E.J., Piggin, R., Douglas, T., Vonkaenel-Flatt, J.(2012) Virtual violence

II: Progress and challenges in the fight against cyberbullying. Beatbullying,

London.

Retrieved from http://www2.beatbullying.org//pdf/Virtual-Violence-II.pdf

 Hinduja, S., &Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying identification, prevention

and response [fact sheet].

Retrieved from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying-identification-

prevention-response.php.

 McAfee. (2013). Cyberbullying and harassment

Retrieved from

http://www.mcafee.com/us/campaigns/fightcybercrime/cru/information/cyberb

ullying-and-harassment.html.

 Patchin, J. W. (2013). Summary of our research (2004-2013)

Retrieved from http://cyberbullying.us/summary-of-our-research/.

 Sleglova, V., Cerna, A.(2011) Cyberbullying in adolescent victims: Perception

and coping. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on

Cyberspace.

Retrievedfrom

http://cyberpsychology.eu/view.php?cisloclanku=2011121901&article=4