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Student’s Book

Compiled by
M. Aminullah Hakiki, M.Appl.Ling.
Muh. Suluh Jati, M.A.
Fatimah, M.Hum.
This page is intentionally left blank

• Introduction to • Tenses • Present vs past

writing • Paragraph writing • Comparison and
• Part of speech • Topic and topic contrast
• Subject and verb sentence


• Paraphrase, summary • Argumentative • Describing process

and quotation writing
• Passive voice



• What makes a good

• Expression in
• Preentation at a

UNIT 1 |4

Unit I
English as Communication and Language in

Star up
1 Do a questionnaire. Put a tick (✓) for ‘yes’ or cross (✗) for ‘no’

2 Compare your answer with your friends.

Example: A I enjoy teamwork. What about you?
B No, I don’t. I actually like being independent.
3 Read the text below about Markus and Chloe. Checklist the questionnaire for them. Put
question mark (?) if there is no enough information to answer the questionnaire.
5|English for Academ ic Purpose

Reading Skills
Communication and Language
1 Answer the following question before you
read the text.
a. Do you ever need to surf the Internet
for study/work purposes? Which
language do you tend to use?
b. Look at the following sentences and
As both Asian and European markets use the Internet more
decide whether you think they are
and more to conduct business, there will be an increasing
true or false. need for more language choices for the different markets.
1. Approximately 75% of web pages on
What do you think is the world’s most widely
the Internet are in English. (T/F)
spoken language? Most people are under the
2. 5% of the world’s population speak impression that it is English as this is the language
English well. (T/F) used most frequently on the internet. If this were
3. Chinese languages are more widely true, it would, of course, bring enormous
spoken than English. (T/F) benefits for both worldwide communication and 5
4. Most people prefer to use English understanding, although it could also become a
when shopping online. (T/F) threat to cultural diversity. And English certainly
does seem to be everywhere, from films to pop
music and TV, and from business to science and 10
2 Now check and read the article using the other fields.
instruction below.
It comes as quite a surprise then that even though
a. In pairs, look at the title and the around 75% of the pages on the Web are in
introduction of the article. Discuss English, this is the mother tongue of only 5% of
what you think the text might be the world’s population. [1._____] This means that
about. a relatively small number of the world’s 15
b. Skim the article through line 10-35, population can communicate well in English.
explain the information you have Also, the numbers of people who can speak
English is nowhere near as high as it is for other
languages such as Chinese or Spanish.
c. Check your answers in 1B section 20
using scanning technique So with more and more people accessing the
Internet nowadays, including many businesses
Did you know wanting to conduct e-business, the position of
English is beginning to change. [2._____] As
Reading Skill Technique businesses in these regions increase their use of
the internet it has become apparent to many of 25
Preview is an extensive reading technique which them that people would rather buy things online
use your understanding in the form of if they can order in their own language. It has also
interpretation and transfering a few information to been pointed out that many people see the use of
get the whole clear ideas. English as a threat to cultural diversity.
Skimming is a type of fast reading technique which is As a result, companies wanting to reach world
used to find the general information within a text.
markets are now beginning to realise they will
Scanning is used when the reader is looking for have to translate their websites for their various
more specific information relying on keywords customers. However, creating a multilingual
and organizational cues. If the goal of skimming is website is not an easy task. [3._____] And
a bird's-eye view of the material, the goal of unfortunately, they are problems with no easy
scanning is to locate and swoop down on particular solutions.
UNIT 1 |6

3 Read the article again and choose

the most suitable sentence (A-H) for
each gap (1-7). There is one extra
sentence which is not needed. Which
words helped you decide?
A. They may also have to change
their way of doing business to suit
certain customers.
B. The reason for this is that, quite
simply, the quality is not good
enough for professional use.
For one thing, companies ae unable to use the
automated translation systems which already C. One reason for this is both Europe
exist in the market. [4._____] This has left 40 and Asia have become growth areas
businesses all over the world facing a huge for the Web.
challenge with virtually no real information about
how to do it. D. But one thing which is certain is
And translating websites is only the first step that
that a growth in the use of the
companies will have to deal with. There are also 45 internet is guaranteed.
likely to be customers with questions or problems
E. They are more likely to have the
that they will need to discuss in their own
flexibility to be able to adapt quickly
language. Another thing companies will need to
do is adapt their advertising materials so as not to changes.
to offend different cultures. [5._____] In Japan, 50 F. What is more, the number of
for example, they do not tend to give their credit
proficient speakers of the language
card details over the Web. There are also all sorts
of legal issues to take into consideration.
is only slightly higher.

Such vast changes will not happen overnight. In G. Most companies cannot afford to
the first place it is impossible to say exactly how 55 translate their sites into English.
many texts there are on the Web as the number
H. Companies wishing to translate
is changing all the time. [6._____] Companies
doing e-business simply need time to translate
their sites for different market face
their sites into the various languages necessary to both technical and linguistic
60 difficulties.
do business. Meanwhile, more and more material
in different languages is being added to the Web
at an ever-50 increasing pace.

While all this is happening, small local companies 5 Discussion

doing e-business only in the language of their
target market and who are also aware of the 65 Now scan the text, underline and
cultural aspects of that market, will certainly be note down the reason why websites
at an advantage. [7._____] The problem of 55 will need to become multilingual in
language and culture could well limit larger the near future. Then, in pairs
companies from expanding and so offer more discuss any other reasons you can
opportunities to smaller businesses in poorer think of for developing multilingual
areas of the world. websites.

6 Vocabulary Practice.
In pairs, look at the words in bold in the text
and try to explain them.
7|English for Academ ic Purpose

Language Spot
Part of Speech
In English language learning, it is important to know the grammar of English. Perhaps
you already learned that in your previous education or perhaps not. Before we begin to learn
grammar, young learner should know the building blocks of grammar called the part of
speech. Part of speech is a category of words. They are classifies into 8 major classes;
noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, determiner and

1. Noun 5. Adjective
A noun is a word that identifies: Adjective is a word that describes a
a person (man, girl, engineer, friend) noun, giving extra information about
a thing (horse, wall, flower, country) it.
an idea, quality, or state (anger, Example:
courage, life, luckiness) an exciting adventure
a green apple
2. Pronoun a tidy room
Pronoun are used in place of a noun
that is already know or has laready 6. Conjunction
been mentioned. This is often done in Conjunction (also called a
order to avoid repeating the noun. connective/connector) is a word such
For example: as: and, because, but, for, if, or, and
- Laura left early because she was when. They are used to connect
tired. phrases, clauses and sentences.
- Mark brought the avocados with
him. 7. Preposition
- that is the only option left. Preposition is a word such as: after,
in, to, on, and with. Prepositions are
3. Verb usually used in front of nouns or
A verb describes what a person or pronouns and they show the
things does or what happens: relationship between the noun or
an action – jump, stop, explore pronoun and other word in a
an event – snow, happen sentence. They describe the position
a situation – be, seem, have of something,
a change – evolve, shrink, widen the time when
4. Adverb happens or the
Adverb is a word that is used to give way in which
information about a verb, adjective, something is
or other adverb. They can make the done.
meaning of a verb, adjective, or other
adverb stronger or weaker. 8. Determiner
Example: A determiner is a word that
- they sang loudly introduces a noun, such as a/an, the,
- she’s very pretty every, this, those, or many (as in a
horse, the house, those fruits, every
student, many kids).
UNIT 1 |8

Exercise 1A
Choose the correct words for the following questions. The words are available in the box

Anna Winlock badly

industries is
red raindrops
stays beautiful
went know

1. ___ begin their existence as ice crystals over most of the earth seems likely.
2. It was in 1875 ___ joined the staff of the astronomical observatory in Harvard
3. We ___ at his parents’ house.
4. ___ developed very rapidly in Alabama primarily because of its rich natural
5. They ___ to Disneyland last Thursday.
6. Infinity Wars ___ the epic movie in Marvel’s cinematic universe.
7. In order to grow vegetables properly, gardeners must ___ the right season for crops.
8. Lionel Messi’s leg was injured ___
9. Santorini is well-known of its ___ sunset in the world.
10. Was she really bought the ___ Ferrari?

Exercise 1B
Classify the words below into the correct category.

acceptable watered
career recent
because after
adhere with
Nouns Verbs Adverbs Adjectives Prepositions

Subject-verb Agreement
Some sentences in English have just one subject and verb, and it is very important
for you to find the subject and verb in these sentences. In some sentences it is easy
to find the subject and verb. However, certain structures, such as objects of
9|English for Academ ic Purpose

prepositions, appositives, and participles, can cause confusion in locating the subject
and verb because each of these structures can look like a subject or verb. The object
of the preparation can be mistaken for a subject.
Engineers are working in the space program. Subject: engineers
Verbs: are working
A schedule of the day’s events can be obtained Subjects: a schedule of the day’s
at the front desk. events
Verbs: can be obtained

Subject is always in the form of noun/noun phrase/noun clause
while verb is always in the form of verb.

Exercise 1C
Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences.
Identify and correct the sentences if they are incorrect. Number 1 and 2 has done for you.
1. Last week went fishing for trout at the nearby mountain lake. (missing subject)
2. The box can be opened only with a special screwdriver. (complete sentence)
3. A schedule of the day’s events can be obtained at the front desk.
4. A job on the day shift or the night shift at the plant available.
5. The new computer program has provides a variety of helpful applications.
6. The portraits of Monalisa had displayed on Louvre Museum.
7. The pine trees in the slope of Mount Merapi.
8. Born in Boston, was a famous historian and novelist.
9. The North Platte river from Wyoming into Alaska.
10. I am missing my car keys this morning.

Writing Skills
Introduction to Writing
Why do you need to write ?
In the past people wrote letters to describe events, to give information, or to convey
feelings and ideas someone’s has. But writing can do more than that. Writing can also be
done for the following purposes :
• shopping lists
• notes to family and friends
• informal letters
• completing forms
• memos, or other more formal writing such as:
• business letters
U N I T 1 | 10

• essay for academic courses

• reports, etc.
We cannot avoid writing even if writing skill seem to decrease because today’s technology
lured us with speech text features.

How can you make writing something more pleasurable, satisfying, and even more
By developing your writing skills and confidence will make your writing skills
effectively improved then, what is effective writing? Effective writing has the aim of which
is to communicate our ideas, thoughts, feelings or put our message across to the audience
especially to expresses our ideas carefully in a way that the reader can understand by using
sufficient words to impart the message but not so many as that could obscure the meaning.
Of course, supports with correct use of vocabularies and follows the conventions for spelling,
punctuation, and grammar.
What do you have to consider when you write?
• Purpose
Before you start a piece of writing, ask yourself two questions'.
o Why am I writing?
o What do I want my writing to achieve?
Consider these questions before you think about the other aspects of writing.
You may be writing in reply to a letter, preparing a report at work, drafting an
essay – the reasons for writing are endless but the purpose must be clear in your
own mind before you start. By thinking first about your purpose, you will find it
easier to decide what you want your writing to achieve. For example, if you were
writing to complain about a product, would you want the product repaired,
exchanged or the price refunded? Determine your preference and then make
sure you convey your wishes clearly.

• Punctuation
Correct punctuation allows your reader to make sense of your ideas. A
piece of writing which has no punctuation or is punctuated incorrectly is
difficult or even impossible to understand and can convey the wrong

Last week we went to. Merry Hill Shopping Centre while Ann. And I
shopped our two children. Were able to play in the. Children's playroom
it made shopping a. Pleasure rather than a chore.

That passage is almost impossible to understand as the full stops have

been put in the wrong places. Expressing ideas in clear, correct sentences is an important
writing skill. Correct sentence construction and punctuation will help you to
impart your message effectively. If you haven't had the opportunity to do
much formal writing for a few years, you may find that you need to brush
up on your sentence construction and punctuation skills.
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• Spelling
Many people feel inhibited about writing or say they can't write because
they have difficulties with spelling. If you also feel that a lack of
confidence about your spelling is stopping you from writing, it is
important to put spelling into perspective. The degree of accuracy
required depends upon the formality of the situation. For example, a
diary entry written for your own pleasure or use may contain spelling
errors, but a report written at work must be correctly spelt.
If accuracy is essential, careful proof-reading of a first draft can
eliminate obvious spelling mistakes; knowledge of possible and probable
spelling patterns will help you to identify problematical words; sensible
use of a dictionary will increase your confidence in your spelling.

Exercise 1D
Check the punctuation and spelling of the passage below. Correct the text if you think there
is a wrong punctuation or misspell word.

Climate change is poised to affect the world’s food. Supply in three key ways
experts say. “There will be imfacts on the quantity quality, and location of the food.
we produce”, said Dr. Sam Myers. A medical Doctor and Senior research, scientist
studying environtmental health at the harvard School of Public Health, Researchers
studying climate change are looking at how the biologycal and physical changes,
happening on Earth, due to climate change will transform food production.
U N I T 2 | 12

Unit II
Pastimes and Everyday Life

Start Up
Look at the pictures and list of
sports. Which ones are popular
in your country? Are there any
sports that are only played in
your region or country?

Traditional Sport Action Sport

Volleyball Surfing
Rugby Skiing
Baseball Snowboarding
Running InlineSkating
Aerobic Mountain Biking
Fencing Windsurfing
Football Canoeing
Basketball Skateboarding
Tennis Mountin Climbing
Judo BMX Racing

Action SportSkills
ListeningSkiingabout Sports
1 ListenInlineSkating
to the people talking about their favorite sports. Write the names of the sports.
Mountain Biking
1 ________________________________________
2 ________________________________________
2 ListenMountin
again. Why do they enjoy these sports?
3 Work inBMX Racing
pairs. Ask and answer the questions about you and sport.
13 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Language Spot
Tenses: Simple and Continuous
Before you write a sentence or even clause, you need to know the basic foundation
of grammar. In the chapter one you already knew about the word classes as well as the
subject-verb agreement. Now, you need to know the tenses. Tenses are structures of
words that corelated with some notion or purpose. Tenses also make a sentence easier to
be understood because they used some time signal that differentiate about present, past
or something will happen. Let start with the simple and continuous tense.

Simple Tenses
Present Simple
Basic uses and functions:
We use the present simple for a present state (e.g. feeling, opinion)
or general facts
My sister likecereals.
Yellowstone National Park lies in the U.S.

We also use the present simple for a habitual actions or routines.

I work in Oxford. I usually drive to work.
We play volleyball on Wednesdays.
The old man walks every day.

Past Simple
Basic uses and functions:
We use the past simple for an action in the past.
I bought this coat yesterday. Past simple is very
I saw the film three weeks ago. normal tense in
The war ended in 1945. story.
When did the train arrive?
A princess once walked into a wood and sat down by a

The past simple can also refer to a series of actions in the past.
I often visited this place as a child.
He went to the Job Centre several times.

We also use the past simple for states.

That party last week was great.
The Romans had a huge empire.
I believed in fairies when I was little.
U N I T 2 | 14

Future Simple
Basic uses and functions:
Will often refer to things in the future that we can be fairly sure about.
The South will stay dry at the weekend.
I’ll be 25 next year.

Will sometimes expresses willingness while won’t expresses unwillingness or

emphatic refusal to do something.
I’ll go first then you second.
My friend will translate it for you.

The President will not agree to the plan.

I won’t listen to what people say.

Continuous Tenses
Present Continuous
Basic uses and functions:
We use present continous for a present action over a period of time, something
that we are in the middle of now. The action has started but it hasn’t finished yet.
Someone is following us.
It’s a lovely day, and we’re all sitting in the garden.

We also use a present continous for temporary routine, something that will last
only a short time.
We’ve got builders at the office, so I’m working at home this
They’re living in a rented flat until they find somewhere to buy.

Past continous
Basic uses and functions:
We use past continous for a past action over a period of time, something
that was done. The action has started in past and finished in the past.
I was writing an email.
It was raining last night.

In the negative we use not o n’t after be.

I was not writing an email.
It wasn’t raining last night.

In questions we put be before the subject.

Was I writing an email?
Was it raining last night?
15 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Future continous
Basic uses and functions:
We use future continous for a future action over a period of time, something that
will be done. The action will happen and finish in the future.
The past continous is will + be + ing form.
I will be writing an email.
It will be raining tomorrow.

In the negative we use not o n’t after be.

I will not be writing an email.
It will not be raining tomorrow.

In questions we put be before the subject.

Will I be writing an email?
Will it be raining tomorrow?

Exercise 2A
1 Circle the correct option for each sentence. What is each tense used for?
1. The boys play / are playing football in the garden at the moment.
2. Water is freezing / freezes at 0°C.
3. Jack visits / is visiting his sister next weekend.
4. She catches / is catching the 9 o’clock train every morning.
5. Bill is looking / looks very tired these days.
6. She is always interrupting / interrupts me.

2 Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct tense.

1. I ___________ (try) to get the TV to work. Can you help me?
2. He always ______________ (do) his best at school.
3. They _____________(argue) all the time.
4. Joy can’t come to the phone right now; she _____________ (have) a shower.
5. We ______________ (not/play) football every day.
6. _________________ (you/trust) your doctor?
7. They _____________ (leave) this time tomorrow.
8. She ________________ (not/get) to work before 9 am every day.
U N I T 2 | 16

Exercise 2B
Directions: decide the following questions as simple present or present continous. Circle
the correct answer.

Facebook is one of the most addictive social

phenomena to have ever swept the world! Over 500
million of us now use the site. Here’s how to
recognise that you 1) ..... (have) an addiction. One
of the earliest signs of addiction is changing your
profile picture over and over again. It 2) .....
(mean) that you 3) ..... (worry) about your image
far too much. Also, if you 4) ..... (change) your
status update more than once an hour then take a
long hard look at yourself. 5) ..... (do) anyone really
..... (need) to know that you 6) ..... (now/make) a
cup of tea? Or that you 7) ..... (think) about buying
a newspaper, or are on Facebook. No. They don’t.
If you have ever needed to be on Facebook so much that you tried to access it via a
mobile phone, then you 8) ..... (need) to have a word with yourself.
Another sign you 9) ..... (be) addicted is what is called ‘profile rash’: putting
applications like Scrabulous, Super Wall, Zombies or Videojug all over your page. Get rid
of them, even if you think they 10) ..... (look) super cool.
It’s also not good sign if Facebook 11) ..... (start) to take over your vocabulary. If you
12) ..... (say) things like “I’m going to do some facebooking” or “I’ll facebook you about
that later”, then you simply 13) ..... (have) to get a grip and try spending more time
with your friends. No. Not your Facebook friends! Your real ones who 14) ..... (inhabit)
the real world.

Exercise 2C
1 Fill in the gap with the correct simple tense.
1. I _________ (be) there by four o'clock, I promise.
2. I ____________ (not/did) any beer last night.
3. The girls always _________ (listen) to pop music.
4. You ________ (do) your homework after school.
5. She _________ (bring) a weird looking dress for my cousin’s birthday a fortnight ago.
6. My friend’s moving house tomorrow. I ________ (come) and help him.
7. She _________ (be) very happy next after graduating from college.
8. Janet never _______ (wear) jeans.
9. Mr. Smith __________ (teach) Spanish and French.
10. Our new neighbor _________ (live) in Paris a couple years ago.
11. I ___________ (like) lemonade very much.
17 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

12. Joan thinks the Democrat _________ (win) the next election.
13. She ___________ (get on) a taxi after the party yesterday.
14. I ___________ (receive) a lot of money after winning the e-sports tournament.
15. There's someone at the door. I _____________ (get) it.

2 Fill in the gap with the correct continuous tense.

1. My son ____________ (talk) on the phone right now.
2. This evening we ____________ (watch) a talk show.
3. The kids ____________ (play) in the garden when it suddenly began to rain.
4. I ____________ (practice) the guitar when he came home.
5. They ____________ (not/do) their homework this afternoon.
6. My kids ____________ (play) in the garden now.
7. Some people ____________ (wait) to talk to you.
8. My wife ____________ (not cook) today.
9. ____________ (Lucas / study) for his exam right now?
10. Jason ____________ (do) his homework at the moment.

Writing Skills
What is a paragraph?
Read the following groups of sentences that look like paragraph. Read both of them
carefully. Are they both paragraphs?

Text A Text B

Dr. Luis Pedro Coelho and colleagues Dog is a friendly animal. All dog are
from the European Molecular Biology loyal. From the big dog like Siberian
Laboratory, incollaboration with Nestlé Husky to little Chihuahua are favorite
Research, evaluated the gut microbiome among children. They are not wild as
of two dog breeds and found that the we think, especially the big dog as
gene content of the dogs microbiome
Husky and Bulldog. The bulldog have
showed many similarities to the human
gut microbiome, and was more similar to
its typical like angry face and tough
humans than the microbiome of pigs or dog but actually they are sweet and
mice.Dr Luis Pedro Coelho, corresponding soft. You will know one if you try to
author of the study, commented: "We cuddle and comfort them. The police
found many similarities between the gene dog also do the same. They look tough
content of the human and dog gut and hard but actually they also have
microbiomes. The results of this sweet and soft sense too. This what
comparison suggest that we are more makes dogs are the best partner to
similar to man's best friend than we humans in the world.
originally thought.
U N I T 2 | 18

What is the difference between text A and text B? Using your interpretation, what do you
think paragraph is?
Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers.
Many students define paragraphs in terms of length: a
paragraph is a group of at least five sentences, a
paragraph is half a page long, etc. In reality, though, the
unity and coherence of ideas among sentences is what
constitutes a paragraph. A paragraph is defined as “a
group of sentences or a single sentence that forms a
unit” (Lunsford and Connors 116). Length and
appearance do not determine whether a section in a
paper is a paragraph. For instance, in some styles of
writing, particularly journalistic styles, a paragraph can
be just one sentence long. Ultimately, a paragraph is a
sentence or group of sentences that support one main
idea. In this handout, we will refer to this as the “controlling idea,” because it controls
what happens in the rest of the paragraph.

How do I decide what to put in a paragraph?

Before you can begin to determine what the composition of a particular
paragraph, you must first decide on an argument and a working thesis statement for
your paper. What is the most important idea that you are trying to convey to your
reader? The information in each paragraph must be related to that idea. In other
words, your paragraphs should remind your reader that there is a recurrent relationship
between your thesis and the information in each paragraph. A working thesis functions
like a seed from which your paper, and your ideas, will grow. The whole process is an
organic one—a natural progression from a seed to a full-blown paper where there are
direct, familial relationships between all of the ideas in the paper.
The decision about what to put into your
paragraphs begins with the germination of a seed
of ideas; this “germination process” is better
known as brainstorming. There are many
techniques for brainstorming; whichever one you
choose; this stage of paragraph development
cannot be skipped. Building paragraphs can be like
building a skyscraper: there must be a well-
planned foundation that supports what you are
building. Any cracks, inconsistencies, or other
corruptions of the foundation can cause your whole
paper to crumble.
So, let’s suppose that you have done some brainstorming to develop your thesis.
What else should you keep in mind as you begin to create paragraphs? Every paragraph
in a paper should be:
• Unified: All of the sentences in a single paragraph should be related to a single
controlling idea (often expressed in the topic sentence of the paragraph).
• Clearly related to the thesis: The sentences should all refer to the central idea, or
thesis, of the paper (Rosen and Behrens 119).
• Coherent: The sentences should be arranged in a logical manner and should follow
a definite plan for development (Rosen and Behrens 119).
19 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

• Well-developed: Every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately

explained and supported through evidence and details that work together to
explain the paragraph’s controlling idea (Rosen and Behrens 119).

Troubleshooting Paragraph
Problem 1: transitions are needed within the paragraph

You are probably familiar with the idea that transitions may be needed between
paragraphs or sections in a paper. Sometimes they are also helpful within the body of a
single paragraph. Within a paragraph, transitions are often single words or short phrases
that help to establish relationships between ideas and to create a logical progression of
those ideas in a paragraph. This is especially likely to be true within paragraphs that
discuss multiple examples. Let’s take a look at a version of our piranha paragraph that
uses transitions to orient the reader:

Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous, they are, except in
two main situations, entirely harmless. Piranhas rarely feed on large animals; they eat
smaller fish and aquatic plants. When confronted with humans, piranhas’ instinct is to
flee, not attack. But there are two situations in which a piranha bite is likely. The
first is when a frightened piranha is lifted out of the water—for example, if it has
been caught in a fishing net. The second is when the water level in pools where
piranhas are living falls too low. A large number of fish may be trapped in a single
pool, and if they are hungry, they may attack anything that enters the water.

In the above example, you can see how the phrases “the first” and “the second” help the
reader follow the organization of the ideas in the paragraph.

Writing a good paragraph

There are two structures to learn in English that are important in writing: the
sentence and the paragraph. Paragraphs can be described as a collection of sentences.
These sentences combine to express a specific idea, main point, topic and so on. A
number of paragraphs are then combined to write a report, an essay, or even a book. This
guide to writing paragraphs describe the basic structure of each paragraph you will write.
In general, the purpose of a paragraph is to express one main point, idea or
opinion. Of course, writers may provide multiple examples to support their point.
However, any supporting details should support the main idea of a paragraph.
This main idea is expressed through three sections of a paragraph:

Beginning Introduce your idea with a topic sentence

Middle Explain your idea through supporting sentences
Make your point again with a concluding sentence, and, if
necessary transition to the next paragraph.
U N I T 2 | 20

Every good paragraph always has beginning, middle and end. Missing one of three sections
will cause your paragraph don’t have unity and coherency and irrational/difficult to

The organization of paragraph

Read the following paragraph about “Studying Abroad”
The Benefits of Studying Abroad
Studying abroad has two main benefits. Firstly, people who study abroad can get a
better job when they return to their home country. This is because their qualifications
and experience mean that they tend to get jobs that are higher paid, and they can also
gain promotion quickly. Another advantage of studying abroad is the independence
students can gain. For example, students have to cope with the challenges of living alone
and meeting new people from different cultures. As a consequence, they will become
more confident in their life and in their relationships with others. All in all, it is clear
that studying abroad is a beneficial experience.
Can you mention what information do you get from the paragraph above? How to develop
our idea into a well paragraph shown in the above text?
In paragraph writing, each paragraph organizes into four points.
Those four points are essential before you begin to write a paragraph.
The 'text book' structure for a paragraph is as follows:
1. Topic
When you read a paragraph, you would always ask yourself.
'What is this about?' That question will lead you to the topic of the
paragraph. From the above passage, the reader is going to understand that the topic is
studying abroad. The topic normally only consist of one or two keywords. When you
identify the topic, always look carefully to see if it is being narrowed down to a
particular area that you need to focus on.
2. Topic Sentence
The topic sentence states what the paragraph will be about. It gives the topic of
the paragraph, and it also restricts the topic to one or two main ideas which can be
explained fully in the space of one paragraph. The controlling idea is the specific area
that the topic is limited to:
Topic controlling idea
Studying abroad has two main benefits

Troubleshooting paragraph
Problem 2: the paragraph has no topic sentence

Imagine each paragraph as a sandwich. The real content of the sandwich—the meat
or other filling—is in the middle. It includes all the evidence you need to make the point.
But it gets kind of messy to eat a sandwich without any bread. Your readers don’t know
what to do with all the evidence you’ve given them. So, the top slice of bread (the first
sentence of the paragraph) explains the topic (or controlling idea) of the paragraph. And,
21 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

the bottom slice (the last sentence of the paragraph) tells the reader how the paragraph
relates to the broader argument. In the original and revised paragraphs below, notice how
a topic sentence expressing the controlling idea tells the reader the point of all the

Original paragraph
Piranhas rarely feed on large animals; they eat smaller fish and aquatic
plants. When confronted with humans, piranhas’ first instinct is to flee,
not attack. Their fear of humans makes sense. Far more piranhas are
eaten by people than people are eaten by piranhas. If the fish are well-
fed, they won’t bite humans.
Revised paragraph
Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous, they are,
for the most part, entirely harmless. Piranhas rarely feed on large
animals; they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. When confronted with
humans, piranhas’ first instinct is to flee, not attack. Their fear of humans
makes sense. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than people are
eaten by piranhas. If the fish are well-fed, they won’t bite humans.

3. Supporting Sentences
Supporting sentences explain and develop the topic sentence. It also provide the
evidence for your topic sentence.. Specifically, they discuss the topic sentence by
explaining the main ideas and discussing those more fully using reasons, examples, facts,
results, statistics, or anything else that proves your ideas are true. Supporting
sentences that include facts, statistics and logical reasoning are much more convincing
that simple statements of opinion.

The supporting sentences that explain “The Benefits of Studying Abroad” are:
(1st supporting idea): People get a better job when they return home
• Better qualifications & experience mean better pay and promotion (reason)
• Now has a high standard of living (result)
(2nd supporting idea): Students gain independence
• Students have to cope with the challenges of living alone and meeting new
people from different cultures.(example)
• Students will become more confident in their life and relationships (result)

Troubleshooting paragraph
Problem 3: the paragraph has more than one supporting idea

If a paragraph has more than one main idea, consider eliminating sentences that
relate to the second idea, or split the paragraph into two or more paragraphs, each with
only one main idea. In the following paragraph, the final two sentences branch off into a
different topic; so, the revised paragraph eliminates them and concludes with a sentence
that reminds the reader of the paragraph’s main idea.
U N I T 2 | 22

Original paragraph
Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous, they
are, for the most part, entirely harmless. Piranhas rarely feed on large
animals; they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. When confronted with
humans, piranhas’ first instinct is to flee, not attack. Their fear of
humans makes sense. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than
people are eaten by piranhas. If the fish are well-fed, they won’t bite
humans. A number of South American groups eat Piranhas. They fry or
grill the fish and then serve them with coconut milk.
Revised paragraph
Although most people consider piranhas to be quite dangerous, they
are, for the most part, entirely harmless. Piranhas rarely feed on large
animals; they eat smaller fish and aquatic plants. When confronted with
humans, piranhas’ first instinct is to flee, not attack. Their fear of
humans makes sense. Far more piranhas are eaten by people than
people are eaten by piranhas. If the fish are well-fed, they won’t bite
humans. A number of South American groups eat Piranhas. They fry or
grill the fish and then serve them with coconut milk.

4. Concluding Sentence
A concluding sentence can be used to signal the end of the paragraph. The
concluding sentence restates the main idea (found in your topic sentence) and reinforces
the point or opinion. It also tells the reader the important points to remember.
Concluding sentences repeat the main idea of your paragraph in different words.

Students have to cope with the challenges of living alone and meeting new people from
different cultures. As a consequence, they will become more confident in their life and
in their relationships with others. All in all, it is clear that studying abroad is a
beneficial experience.

Exercise 2B
Arrange and identify each sentence according to the role it plays in a paragraph. Is it a
topic, topic sentence, supporting sentence, or concluding sentence?
1. Aside from enthusiastic reports from cat owners about all the benefits of
interacting with felines, cats could bring happiness and keep bad emotions away.
2. Of the cat owners who participated in this survey, 87 percent believed that sharing
their lives with a cat improved their overall well-being, while 76 percent felt that
their cats helped them cope with daily stress much better.
3. Cats are often hailed as pets that can soothe and bring calm. That is, perhaps, why
places such as cat cafés (a place where anyone can go and stroke or cuddle a cat
while having a soothing drink) are so popular wherever they open.
4. Moreover, a survey conducted by the Cats Protection feline charity in the United
Kingdom in2011 found that people who spend time with cats or kittens report
feeling calmer and less upset.
23 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Exercise 2C
1 Make a group and draw a brainstorming of a text about your pastimes and everyday life.
Report your discussion into a complete draft 1 as shown below.

Title: __________________

Topic: _________________
Thesis Statement: ___________________________________

Body Paragraph 1
Topic Sentence: _____________________________________
Supporting Sentence: _________________________________
Supporting Sentence: _________________________________

Body Paragraph 2
Topic Sentence: _____________________________________
Supporting Sentence: _________________________________
Supporting Sentence: _________________________________

Concluding Sentence: _________________________________

2 Make one complete paragraph from your draft of brainstorming. Report your paragraph
below your draft.
U N I T 3 | 24

Unit III
Start Up
Work in pairs. Do the quiz together and calculate your scores.

Speaking Spot
Class Discussion
Discuss these questions below about

• What do you use a computer/laptop for?

• How has the internet changed our lives?
• What kinds of Apps do you usually used
in your smartphone?
25 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Language Spot
Tenses: Present Perfect vs Past Simple
Thera are some confusion between the differences of present perfect and past
simple. Read the following explanation to help you understand the use of the tenses:
Present Perfect
How to recognize Present Perfect:
The present perfect is the present tense of have + past participle
I’ve washed the dishes.
The programme has finished.
We’ve seen this film before.
My friends have just left.

In negative we use not ot n’t

The dogs have not eaten their food.
The post hasn’t come yet.

In questions we put have or has before the subject

How long have you worked here?
Hasn’t Sarah passed her exam?

Basic uses and functions:

We use present perfect to look back from the present. We can use the present for
an action in a period leading up to the present.
The cafe has just opened. (it is open now) The period of time referred to by
The visitors have arrived. (they are here the present perfect can be very
now) long. It can cover the whole of
history or the whole of someone’s
life up to the present.
We can use the present perfect for a series of action before now.
I’ve ridden horses lots of times.
We’ve often talked about moving.
We can also use the present perfect for a state lasting up to the present.
The film has been on for about a week.
I’ve had this computer for three years.

Past Simple
How to recognize Past Simple
With most verbs we add -ed to form the past simple
We finished our meal and walked home.
They played football on Tuesday.
When they saw the fire, they ran away.
In the negative we use did not or didn’t + base form
We didn’t finish our meal.
They didn’t run away.
In questions we use did + base form
U N I T 3 | 26

Did they finish their meal?

How fast did they run?

Basic uses and functions:

We use the past simple for an action in the past.
I bought this coat yesterday. Past simple is very
I saw the film three weeks ago. normal tense in
The war ended in 1945. story.
When did the train arrive?
A princess once walked into a wood and sat down by a
The past simple can also refer to a series of actions in the past.
I often visited this place as a child.
He went to the Job Centre several times.
We also use the past simple for states.
That party last week was great.
The Romans had a huge empire.
I believed in fairies when I was little.

Do not confuse the present perfect with the simple past.
Examples Explanation
Compare: Sentences (a) show a single action in the
a. Sergey Brin came to the U.S. in 1979 past. This action does not continue.
b. Sergey Brin has been in the U.S. since 1979
Sentences (b) show the continuation of
a. Brin and Page started Google in 1998 an action or state from the past to the
b. Google has been populer since 1998 present.
a. When did Brin come to the U.S.? Question (a) with when uses the simple
b. How long has Brin been in the U.S.? past tense. Question (b) with how long
uses the present perfect tense.

Exercise 3A
Direction: Fill in the blanks with the simple past or the present perfect of the verb in
parentheses ().
A: Do you like to surf the internet?
B: Of course, I do. I’ve had (have) my internet connection since 1999, and I love it. A
couple of months ago, I ___________ (buy) a new computer with lots of memory and
speed. And last month I _________ (change) to a better service provider. Now I can
surf much faster.
A: What kind of things do you search for?
B: Lots of things. I ________ (always/want) to learn about the stock market, and with
the Web, I can start to learn. Last week, I __________ (make) my first investment in
the stock market.
A: Do you ever buy products online?
27 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

B: Sometimes I do. Last month, I __________ (find) a great Website where I can download
music for one dollar. So far, I ____________ (download) about a hundred songs, and I
_________ (make) several CDs. My old computer _________ (not/have) burner, so I’m
very happy with my new one.
A: __________ (you/sell) your old computer?
B: No. It was about eight years old. I just ________ (remove) the hard drive and
__________ (leave) the computer on top of the garbage dumpster. When I _________
(pass) by a few hours later, it was gone. Someone _______ (take) it.

Exercise 3B
Directions: choose the correct answer.
1. Yesterday, Ahmed ( phoned / is phoning ) and ( said / have said ) that he got
2. Umesh Patel ( called / have called ) this morning.
3. For some reason my last email had delivery problems. So here it is again just in
case you ( didn’t get / didn’t got ) it first time round.
4. I am sorry that I am not able to provide you with the information you ( requested /
requesting ) last Thursday.
5. Could you let me have an answer as soon as possible to the question I ( raised /
raises ) in my email of last week.
6. I ( graduated / am graduating ) in Computer Science at the University of Oregon in
7. She ( worked / have worked ) on two major Marvel Studio projects as animator
since two years ago.

Exercise 3C
Direction: Choose the simple past or present perfect to fill in the gap in the text.
Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980’s, technology
(change) __________ a great deal. The first computers (be) _________ simple machines
designed for basic tasks. They (have/not) ___________ much memory and they (be/not)
__________ very powerful. Early computers were often quite expensive and customers often
(pay) ___________thousands of dollars for machines which actually (do) __________ very
little. Most computers (be) __________ separate, individual machines used mostly as
expensive typewriters or for playing games.
However, times (change) _________. Computers (become) __________ powerful machines
with very practical applications. Programmers (create) _________ a large selection of useful
programs which do everything from teaching foreign languages to bookkeeping. We are still
playing video games, but today’s games (become) __________ faster, more exciting
interactive adventures. Many computer users (get/also) ____________ on the internet and
(begin) ________________ communicating with other computer users around the world. We
(start) ________________ to create international communities online. In short, the simple,
individual machines of the past (evolve) ___________ into an international World Wide Web
of knowledge.
U N I T 3 | 28

Analyzing the text.

1. What information is contained in the first paragraph?
2. What information is contained in the second paragraph?
3. How did the writer organize the essay?
4. What type of essay is it?

Writing & Reading Skill

Comparison and Contrast Text
When we read an article on newspaper, we often realise that one newspaper reported
differently than the other. We know it is different because we are comparing and
contrasting. A compare and contrast is one kind of writing skill student’s need to master.
This because sometimes you will face the different source, different story but they are have
similar topic. By mastering this skill, you will make yourself easier when you come to the
library and finding sources for your paper but have similar topic and different story.
What is comparison and contrast?
Comparison and contrast is the fundamental skill student need to know especially in
writing technics. Comparison and contrast are ways of looking at objects and thinking about
how the object written are alike and different. When we compare, we find the similarities
of the objects; while when we contrast, we see the differences of the objects (Sarwono &
Purwanto, 2013).
Basically, a comparison is trying to look out either similarities, differences or both,
similarities and differences. On the other hand, a contrast only look for differences. You
can do it by finding sources and try to locate the similarities or differences or both of them.
The best sources for applying this skill are from newspapers and article journals.
The comparison or contrast should make a point or serve a purpose. Often such essays
do one of the following:
• Clarify something unknown or not well understood.
• Lead to a fresh insight or new way of viewing something.
• Bring one or both of the subjects into sharper focus.
• Show that one subject is better than the other.
The thesis can present the subjects and indicate whether they will be compared,
contrasted, or both.
The same points should be discussed for both
subjects; it is not necessary, however to give both
subjects the same degree of development. Use detailed
topic sentences and the following connecting words to
make the relationship between your subjects clear to
your reader.
29 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Comparison Text
In compare text, the writer tendency is to provides readers with two or more terms,
instruments, concepts or procedures that have close relationship and the goal is to clariffy
similarities between them (Sarwono & Purwanto, 2013).

Which position could won the match more in soccer?

Soccer is a fascinating sport for a myriad reasons: it has changing speeds, dynamics
in the variety of player positions, and a hint of unpredictability where a twist of fate can
turn the game around. Soccer is no doubt a team game—one can seldom score a goal by
dribbling the ball across the field and getting it across the goal line alone. Every player
contributes to the overall result—even those players sitting on the substitute bench can
contribute to the general winning spirit of their team. Yet, despite the undoubted fact
that soccer is a team game, there has consistently been the argument as to who
contributes more to a win, and thus, which role is to be considered more valuable: is it
the defender or the forward players?
The forward position is no doubt both exciting and fascinating. It is no secret that
forward players are commonly the most popular names in the world of soccer, and are
also usually sold to clubs at a much higher rate than players in any other position. After
all, it is a forward in most cases who scores that longed-for goal and makes the whole
stadium chant their name. Forwards also most often earn free kicks and penalties for
their team by forcing the opposing player to commit a foul to stop the marauding striker
from getting the ball across the goal line (Winston, Soccer’s Reality). Forwards are the
most widely recognized, that even non-fans can identify them by face and name.
Soccer fans themselves will, in the majority of cases, agree that forwards are the players
who deserves, on-and-off the field, more than any other.
However, there have been millions of soccer games where even the world’s top-
ranked strikers have failed to score a goal because they seldom had the ball in their
possession. When defenders play their role properly, there is no ball to get into the goal,
no matter how great a forward is up front and how much he or she is willing to contribute.
Forwards are rarely able to fall back to their half of the field to tackle for the ball, and
still have the strength to bring it all the way to the opponent’s goal (Howards, Statistics
of Soccer). It is the defenders who do the job of winning the ball for their team and
sending it across to their forwards. It is also the defender who covers for the forward
when the latter loses the ball and there is a danger of a fast counter-attack from the
opposing side.
Defenders have to be ready to make a sliding tackle—alert and ready to back up
their teammates in the event of a mistake. Defenders themselves do not have the luxury
of making mistakes, since even a small slip on their part might result in a goal for their
opponents, and thus, a loss that fans are likely not to forgive. Being a successful defender
calls for a consistent, reliable, and sound performance; on the other hand, being a
forward is about readiness to react in an instant, having an awareness of the play of the
ball without turning around—and of course, a brave heart and a firm kick to strike for your
One quality that any soccer player should have—whether they are a forward, a
defender, a goalkeeper, or a midfielder—is the ability to sense the team and each member
of it, read their intentions and act in unison for the team’s victory (Richard, Analysis of
Soccer Positions). We cannot truly say which position is more valuable: whether it is
the defender or the striker, since they are both irreplaceable to the team and could
not work effectively without each other.
What can you get from the text?
U N I T 3 | 30

Contrastive Text
Contrastive text have something little differences than comparison text. In contrast
text, the main purpose is to explain in details about the differences between texts (Sarwono
& Purwanto, 2013). To get better understanding of contrast text, study the text below.
Differences between Tokyo and Kyoto
In recent decades, the title of one of the most popular cultures worldwide should
be definitely given to Japan. Millions of people all over the world study the Japanese
language, watch dorama (dramatic TV series on all kinds of topics) or animation, read or
write haiku, and make pen pals with Japanese people. Countless people buy tickets and
fly to the country of the rising sun to see its wonders with their own eyes.
Among the most popular destinations—mostly because these city names are most
known to the western public—are Tokyo and Kyoto. And perhaps for an inexperienced
traveler, there is a dilemma: where to go? Mostly, people know that Tokyo is a mega city
of the future, and Kyoto has more to do with ancient culture, traditions, and so on.
Basically it is true, but at the same time, there also exist more subtle differences one
should consider when choosing their destination point in Japan.
The first of them is prices. Tokyo is expensive—as you might expect from the capital
of the most urbanized country in the world (the prices below are listed in Japanese yen:
1 USD approximately equals 100 yen). So, to grab some inexpensive snack in Tokyo would
cost around 850 yen. Having a three-course meal for two people in a mid-range
restaurant, in case you travel with your spouse, will cost you 5,230 yen. A one-way
ticket on Tokyo transport costs you 190 yen, and renting one room apartment outside of
the city center costs 77,853 yen (and this is probably a weekly price). Just do not expect
this apartment to be big and cozy; most likely it will be tiny, with basic utilities, and with
no central heating (actually, there is no such thing in Japan at all—everyone warms their
house up on their own). If you think of buying an apartment in Tokyo, forget it—one square
meter of a room outside of the city center is around 1 million yen (double the price if you
want to live closer to the city center).
Kyoto is not much cheaper. Although dining in a restaurant is cheaper—only 4,000
yen for two persons in a mid-range restaurant—transportation costs are surprisingly
higher: 235 yen for a ride (however, if you want to purchase a monthly pass, it is cheaper
to do in Kyoto rather than in Tokyo: 8,410 yen compared to 10,000 yen). If you think you
can save some money buying food in a market, you are correct only in particulars: some
products in Japan cost a lot of money no matter where you buy them. For example, white
rice costs 850 yen for 1 kg in Kyoto (453 yen in Tokyo). White bread, tomatoes, chicken
breasts, and especially cheese—these are the most expensive products both in Kyoto and
in Tokyo. Speaking of accommodation, renting or buying an apartment in Kyoto is much
cheaper: for a one room apartment outside of Kyoto’s center, you must pay 48,000 yen
to rent, or 300,000 yen per square meter if you want to buy it.
Tokyo is great to visit if you enjoy hustle and bustle, if you want to feel the
heartbeat of a mega-city, dive into its life, and experience all those crazy things people
in the West usually tell about Japan. Be prepared for the overcrowded subway— and
“overcrowded” is a gentle way to put it; in fact, you can take a 60-minute ride in the
subway, and your feet will not even touch the floor, because you will be squeezed
between other people so tight that you can even take a nap in this position. Kyoto, on
the other hand, is good to visit for all those who feel inspired by traditional Japanese
culture: haiku, hanami, court customs, the No theater, and so on. In Kyoto, you will not
see amazing skyscrapers, over 280 subway stations, and the craziness of the famous
Shibuya crossing; instead, get prepared for temples, tea houses, museums: all things
31 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

antique and authentic. But, if you want modernity, go to Tokyo, and you will not feel
disappointed—this city already lives in the future.
It is difficult to say which city is better for an inexperienced tourist to visit, Tokyo
or Kyoto. Kyoto is cheaper, especially in terms of renting an apartment, and is more
suitable for those looking for the old Japanese culture weaved into sophisticated palaces
made during Heian-jidai. Tokyo, on the contrary, is an enormous metropolis, with crazy
prices, crazy transportation, crazy everything. The atmospheres are different, but both
of the cities will make you awed, so if you have a chance, you should definitely visit them.

What can you get from the text?

In short, comparison and contrast text can be understood in a summary point below:
 A comparison essay notes either similarities, or similarities and differences.
 A contrast essay notes only differences.
 The comparison or contrast should make a point or serve a purpose. Often
such essays do one of the following:
• Clarify something unknown or not well understood.
• Lead to a fresh insight or new way of viewing something.
• Bring one or both of the subjects into sharper focus.
• Show that one subject is better than the other.
 The thesis can present the subjects and indicate whether they will be
compared, contrasted, or both.
 The same points should be discussed for both subjects; it is not necessary,
however to give both subjects the same degree of development.
 Use detailed topic sentences and the following connecting words to make
the relationship between your subjects clear to your reader.

Connectors used in comparing and contrasting

U N I T 3 | 32

Comparison and Contrast Sample Text

Read the text and answer the question below:

Malaysia and Singapore Malaysia and Singapore are two neighboring countries which
belong to the same geographical grouping, that is, ASEAN. ASEAN is the abbreviation for
Association of South East Nations. Although these two countries share several similarities, they
are also different in many aspects. A comparison between the two countries based on language,
geography and political system make these similarities and differences evident.

From a geographical perspective, both the countries are neighbors and located in South
East Asia. Both share a tropical climate. However, they differ greatly in terms of physical
geography. Malaysia covers a large land mass area of approximately 330,000 square kilometers. In
addition, a sizeable proportion of the country consists of mountain ranges. The highest peak in
Malaysia is at Mount Kinabalu, which is approximately 4,100 meters above sea level. In
comparison, Singapore is a small island which covers a land area of about 330,000 square
kilometers. Unlike Malaysia, it is mostly lowlands and the highest point is approximately 166
meters in Bukit Timah. In a nutshell, it can be said that Malaysia is larger and has more highlands
than Singapore.

Next, a comparison between Malaysia and Singapore shows that both are multi lingual.
Several languages are spoken and used in both the countries. Although Malay is the national
language in both the countries, the official languages are different. Malay is the official language
in Malaysia whereas Singapore recognizes Malay, English, Mandarin and Tamil as official languages.
The dominant languages are also different in both these countries. In Malaysia, the dominant
language is Malay, but in Singapore, the dominant language is either Mandarin or English. So,
although Malaysia and Singapore are multilingual, the official and dominant languages are

Finally, the political systems in both the countries share some similarities, but are not
entirely the same. Malaysia and Singapore are both democracies. Elected representatives are
voted into parliament in a period not exceeding 5 years. The people have a right to vote. However,
Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy, whereas Singapore is a republic. Malaysia has nine sultans
and a King is chosen from among these nine sultans. The position of the King is rotated between
the nine sultans. In contrast, Singapore does not have a king, However, unlike Malaysia, Singapore
has a president. So, although Malaysia and Singapore are democracies, their political systems are
quite different.

In conclusion, a comparison between Malaysia and Singapore shows that the two
neighboring states have several similarities and differences. The comparison here has been limited
to geography, language and politics. In all these areas, it has been shown that they have some
shared characteristics but several major differences.

Analyzing the text.

1. What tense is being used?
33 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

2. How many paragraphs are there?

3. What does the first paragraph contain?
4. Underline the topic sentences in the body paragraphs!
5. What is the last paragraph? What does it contain?

Exercise 3D
Directions: Construct a comparative essay based on the table between two countries
given below.
CAPITAL CITY Washington D.C Ottawa
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE English English and French
GOVERNMENT Federal presidential Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic constitutional monarchy
RELIGION 69% Christian 67.2% Christianity
24% Unaffiliated 23.9% Non-religious
3% Unanswered 3.2% Islam
2% Jewish 1.5% Hinduism
1% Muslim 1.4% Sikhism
1% Hindu 1.1% Buddhism
1% Buddhist 1.0% Judaism
1% Other 0.6% Other
POPULATION 325,719,178 (3rd) 35,151,728 (38th)
NOMINAL GROSS DOMESTIC US$20.199 trillion (1st) US$1.763 trillion (10th)


OFFICIAL LANGUAGE German Korean (Hangul)
GOVERNMENT Unitary presidential Federal constitutional
constitutional republic parliamentary republic
RELIGION 59.3% Christianity 56.9% Unknown
34.4% Not religious 27.6% Christianity (19.7%
5.5% Islam Protestant, 7.9% Catholic)
0.8% Other religions 15.5% Korean Buddhism
ETHNIC GROUPS 80.8% Germans Predominantly Korean
11.7% Europeans
4.9% West Asian
- 3.4% Turks
- 1.3% Arabs
1.3% Other Asian
0.6% Africans
0.5% Americans
0.1% Other/mixed
MAJOR SPORTS Football Football and Baseball
MAJOR COMPANIES Volkswagen, BMW, Siemens Samsung, Kia, LG
U N I T 4 | 34

Unit IV
Market Research

Start Up
Listening Skill
Speaking Spot
1 Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Listening about Street Survey
Have you ever … Melvilles department store was once the
• Been stopped in the street by leader on the high street, but recently it has
market researchers? had a decline in sales. Listen to the people
• Completed a questionnaire about being interviewed and put a tick (✓) for yes
goods or services? or a cross (✗) for no.
• Been offered a free sample in a
supermarket or through the post? 1 2
• Been paid to join a focus group or good choice
participate in market research?
high quality
high prices
good service
clear layout

Writing Spot
Write a report
In pairs, discuss about the street survey
above. Collect the information that you
could get and write a report informing about
two opinions from the street survey in
Melvilles department store.

2 Work in groups. Discuss the questions. Follow Up

Report your answer to the class. Discuss the questions below:
1 Why do businesses want market
information? 1. How do you write a report to inform
2 How do they collect it? about the street survey?
3 How do they identify their 2. Do you familiar with the technique
you use to do a report?
customers’ needs and wants?
3. What kind of language used in writing
4 How do they find out about
a report?
35 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Reading Skill
Paraphrase, Summary & Quotation
Much of the work you produce at university will involve the important ideas, writings
and discoveries of experts in your field of study. The work of other writers can provide you
with information, evidence and ideas, but must be incorporated into your work carefully.
Quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing are all different ways of including the works of
others in your assignments.
Your lecturers expect you to demonstrate an understanding of
the major ideas/concepts in the discipline. Paraphrasing and
summarizing allows you to develop and demonstrate your
understanding and interpretation of a text and to avoid plagiarism.
They are important tools for reshaping information to suit the many
writing tasks that will be required of you. They also require the
analytical and writing skills which are crucial to success at university.

What are the differences?

Paraphrasing Summarizing Quoting
• does not match the • does not match the • match the source word
source word for word source word for word for word
• involves putting a • involves putting the • are usually a brief
passage from a source main idea(s) into your segment of the text
into your own words own words, but
• appear between
including only the main
• changes the words or quotation marks
phrasing of a passage,
• must be attributed to
but retains and fully • presents a broad
the original source
communicates the overview, so is usually
original meaning much shorter than the
original text
• must be attributed to
the original source • must be attributed to
the original source

A. Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing is a way of presenting a text, keeping the same meaning, but using
different words and phrasing. Paraphrasing is used with short sections of text, such as
phrases and sentences. A paraphrase may result in a longer, rather than shorter, version
of the original text. It offers an alternative to using direct quotations and helps students
to integrate evidence/ source material into assignments. Paraphrasing is also a useful skill
for making notes from readings, note-taking in lectures, and explaining information in
tables, charts and diagrams. Paraphrase short sections of work only; a sentence or two or
a short paragraph. You can paraphrase if 1) as an alternative to a direct quotation, 2) to
rewrite someone else's ideas without changing the meaning, 3) to express someone else's
ideas in your own words, and/or 4) to support claims in, or provide evidence for, your
U N I T 4 | 36

How to Paraphrase
• Read the source carefully. It is essential that you understand it fully.
• Identify the main point(s) and key words.
• Cover the original text and rewrite it in your own words. Check that you have
included the main points and essential information.
• Write the paraphrase in your own style. Consider each point; how could you rephrase
➢ Meaning: ensure that you keep the original meaning and maintain the same
relationship between main ideas and supporting points.
➢ Words: Use synonyms (words or expression which have a similar meaning)
where appropriate. Key words that are specialized subject vocabulary do not
need to be changed.
➢ If you want to retain unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks
➢ Change the grammar and sentence structure. Break up a long sentence into
two shorter ones or combine two short sentences into one. Change the voice
(active/passive) or change word forms (e.g. nouns, adjectives).
➢ Change the order in which information/ ideas are presented (as long as they
still make sense in a different order).
➢ Identify the attitude of the authors to their subject
(i.e. certain, uncertain, critical, etc.) and make sure
your paraphrase reflects this. Use the appropriate.
• Review your paraphrase checking that it accurately reflects
the original text but is in your words and style.
• Record the original source (including the page number) so
that you can provide a reference.

Now try paraphrase the following text. Paraphrase each paragraph if possible.
Next time you are in a lift, look for the name of the people who made it. Chances
are it will be the Otis Elevator Company. It was
Elisha Otis who invented the gadget that made the
modern passenger lift possible. The concept of
elevation was already well established. Louis XV of
France disliked stairs so much that he was regularly
hoisted skywards in a ‘flying chair’ by several
strong men hauling on ropes. In Otis’s time,
warehouses commonly used moving platforms to
transport goods between floors. However,
elevating anythig further than one floor or
weighing more than 70 kilograms would have been
considered far too dangerous.
Otis worked for a bed manufacturer who has
keen to expand his business but needed to find a
way to move his beds to an upper floor for storage.
The inventive Otis soon had a solution to the safety
problem: a tough steel spring system that meshed
with ratchets on either side of the lift shaft so that if the rope gave way the sudden
loss of tension would trigger the device, stopping the lift from falling.
At the 1854 World Trade Fair in New York, Otis unveiled his invention and orders
began to pour in, including one from the United States Assay Office which at that
time was constructing one of the first buildings with an internal steel frame to
support the exterior walls. This was the same construction method that skyscrappers
37 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

would use. If not for lifts, the towering landmarks which feature so prominently in
today’s architecture would have been impossible and the character of our cities
would be entirely different.
Write your paraphrase here:




B. Summarizing
A summary is an overview of a text. The main idea is given, but details, examples and
formalities are left out. Used with longer texts, the main aim of summarizing is to reduce
or condense a text to its most important ideas. Summarizing is a useful skill for making
notes from readings and in lectures, writing an abstract/synopsis and incorporating
material in assignments. You can summarize long sections of work, like a long paragraph,
page or chapter. You can also summarize 1) to outline the main points of someone else's
work in your own words, without the details or examples, 2) to include an author's ideas
using fewer words than the original text, 3) to briefly give examples of several differing
points of view on a topic, and 4) to support claims in, or provide evidence for your writing.

How to Summarize
The amount of detail you include in a summary will vary according to the length of the
original text, how much information you need and how selective you are:
• Start by reading a short text and highlighting the main points as you read.
• Reread the text and make notes of the main points, leaving out examples, evidence
• Without the text, rewrite your notes in your own words; restate the main idea at the
• beginning plus all major points.

Now try to make summarize from the text below.

The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology
evolved from the initial “peepshow” format to the point where images were projected
on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a
small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison’s
peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed
for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual
machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time.
The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents
per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films
(or, in the case of famous prizefights, succesive rounds of a single fight).
These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven
succesful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened
to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear
different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a
similar way. Continue >>
U N I T 4 | 38

Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more
readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than
one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening
of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumière,
Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the
assistance of Edison’s former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices.
These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theathers, legitiate theaters, local
town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show
films to a mass audience.

Write your summary here:




C. Quotations
What is a Quotation?
A quotation is an exact reproduction of spoken or written words. Direct quotes can provide
strong evidence, act as an authoritative voice, or support a writer's statements. For
Critical debates about the value of popular culture often raise
the specters of Americanization and cultural imperialism,
particular issues for a 'provincial' culture. However, as Bell and
Bell (1993) point out in their study of Australian-American
cultural relations: "culture is never simply imposed 'from above'
but is negotiated through existing patterns and traditions." (Bell
& Bell 1993, p. 9)

How to Quote
Make sure that you have a good reason to use a direct quotation. Quoting should be done
sparingly and should support your own work, not replace it. For example, make a point in
your own words, then support it with an authoritative quote.
• Every direct quotation should appear between quotation marks
(" ") and exactly reproduce text, including punctuation and
capital letters.
• A short quotation often works well integrated into a sentence.
• Longer quotations (more than 3 lines of text) should start on a
new line, be indented and in italics. When to Quote
• When the author's words convey a powerful meaning.
• When you want to use the author as an authoritative voice in
your own writing.
• To introduce an author's position, you may wish to discuss.
• To support claims in, or provide evidence for, your writing.
39 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Now detect and write the quotation you found on the text from ‘Dimension of Forensic
Linguistic’ by John Gibbons and Teresa Turell (2008) below:
Plagiarism is a very common we found today. People who wanted to take a shortcut
in writing process obviously took this action, despite they noticed or not if this was a
crime. In 1999, the US Office of Science and Technology Policy had defined the word
plagiarism as the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words
without giving appropriate credit, including those obtained through confdential review
of others’ research proposals and manuscripts. The negative connotations of plagiarism
as an illegal appropriation of ideas are based on the concept of Intellectual Property.
Plagiarism can be defined as intentional lifting of an idea and/or intentional copying of
the text (including linguistic, musical, etc.) used to express that idea, to cover up non-
originality said Turell on his book that published on 2004. Judicial systems belonging to
the Common or the Civil Law traditions may characterise the legal base involved in
plagiarism quite similarly, although it is generally agreed that plagiarism as an accepted
or unaccepted practice, has to do with a community’s culture; in other words, that there
is a cultural background embedded in the nature of plagiarism that is reflected as in
Oxford dictionary in 2010 that listed the word plagiarize as an act of copying another
person’s ideas, words or work and pretend that they are your own. In 2001, the
accusation that Spanish writer Luis Racionero, at that time the Director of the Spanish
National Library, had plagiarised in his work, Atenas de Pericles (1993), several dozens
of pages from British historians Gilbert Murray and Arnold J. Toynbee, caused an uproar
within Spanish cultural and intellectual domains. Racionero rejected criticism by
formulating in his defence that “his was not a case of plagiarism, but rather of
intertextuality”. He admitted using these historians’ material in order to produce a
completely new piece of work, but did not admit that he used this material as his own,
copying literally and not citing.

Write your answer here:


List of useful phrases in academic writing:

U N I T 4 | 40

Exercise 4A
Directions: paraphrase the sentence below.
1. Fatma worried about passing the very difficult test.
a. Receiving a passing grade on the difficult exam concerned Fatma.
b. Fatma was worried about receiving good marks on the test, which was very hard.
2. Three issues are especially crucial to understanding the possible uses of the human
a. Three things are especially crucial to understanding the possible uses of the human
b. Understanding potential uses of the human genome is linked to three vital issues.
3. While most people are aware of such medical possibilities, they are less aware of the
fact that genes can also uncover a great deal about humankind's history and culture.
a. Many persons are aware of such medical possibilities, but they are less
knowledgeable about people's history and culture.
b. Most people know that genes are linked to potential medical advances. However,
what they do not realize is genes can also tell us about a society and its past.
4. On June 26 Francis Collins, head of the Human Genome Project, and Craig Venter, head
of Celera Genomics, announced that they had completed the reading of a "rough draft"
of the human genome - the complete set of human DNA.
a. On June 26 two scientists stated they had finished the initial reading of the human
b. It was announced by two researched that they had read the first reading of the
complete set of human DNA.
5. The fact that adult Europeans are twice as likely as Asians to tolerate lactose in milk
reflects a much longer history of dairy farming in the West.
a. In comparison to Europeans, adult Asians have an inability to tolerate lactose in dairy
products such as milk. This is because Europeans have had dairy farms longer than
b. b. Twice as few Asians can tolerate lactose in milk. However, the Europeans, who
have a long history of dairy farming, can better tolerate the lactose.

Exercise 4B
Direction: Choose the best paraphrase for the original passage.
1. Original passage:
“Death rates for males are substantially higher than for females for every age group
of children and youth, but the largest difference occurs among teens, ages 15 to 19”
(Goutas, et al., 2011, p. 11).
a. A recent study found that death rates for male children and teens are higher
than those for females in all age groups, but the most significant difference
between death rates for male and female children occurs between the ages
of 15 and 19 (Goutas, et al., 2011).
b. Death rates for males are much higher than for females for all age groups of
children and youth, but the largest difference occurs among teens, ages 15
to 19 (Goutas, et al., 2011).

2. Original passage:
"In the more than a century and a half of their existence, Washington Irving's two
most famous stories, 'Rip Van Winkle' and 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,' have taken
on a life of their own. They have been read, listened to, and, from the time of Joseph
Jefferson's first staging of "Rip" to our own age of mass media, watched in various of
productions, by generations of adults and children alike. Yet relatively few people
are aware that they were once—and, for that matter, still technically are—part of of
41 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

an apparently miscellaneous, but actually quite coherent unified, collection of

sketches, essays, and stories called The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon" (Rubin-
Dorsky 393).
a. The famous short stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"
by Washington Irving are so popular today that they have been made into
books, audio recordings, and movies. Generations of fans have been able to
enjoy these stories, especially now, thanks to our age of mass media (Rubin-
Dorsky 393).
b. Washington Irving's famous stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy
Hollow" are so popular that they have been enjoyed in story form and in films
by generations. However, despite the popularity of these stories, most people
do not realize that they were originally published in and remain a part of a
larger collection of works entitled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon (Rubin-
Dorsky 393).

3. Original passage:
"So dynamic is the Web that new technologies and techniques are emerging all the
time. What's commonplace one year becomes old hat the next. The only thing that
seems to remain constant is people's desire to transmit and receive information
efficiently and to communicate with others, no matter what the means. That's what
drives people to shop, invest, and converse online, and it is the same force that is
propelling them to learn online as well" (Ko & Rossen, 2008, p. 5).
a. Change for the World Wide Web in ongoing, with innovation constantly
changing and shaping the experiences people have online. The one stability
among all this change is that people want to be able to send and receive
information conveniently and efficiently, and people want to be able to
communicate with each other. These forces, which drive people to the
internet for shopping, investing, and communicating, also drive people
toward online learning (Ko & Rossen, 2008).
b. The Web is so exciting, and new technologies and techniques are emerging
all the time. What's commonplace one year becomes old hat the next. The
only thing that seems to remain constant is people's need to transmit
information and to communicate with one another. These things drive people
to shop, invest, and converse online, and it is this same force that is
propelling them to learn online (Ko & Rossen, 2008).
U N I T 4 | 42

Language Spot
Tenses: Passive Voice
The passive voice appears in scientific texts rather frequently. This is appropriate
for an impersonal use of the language, where the acting person is of no importance and
therefore does not have to be mentioned. The passive is also used to describe a process.

How to recognize Passive Voice

We use the passive voice when the subject of the sentence is the receiver of the action.
Examples Explanation
Popcorn is sold in movie theatres. Passive verb -> a form of be + past
Old movies were filmed in black and white. participle
Many movies have been made in Hollywood.
subject verb object Compare active and passive. The
object of the active sentence (movie)
Active: The children saw the movies is the subject of the passive

subject verb by agent If the agent of the action (the person

who performs the action) is
Passive: The movie was seen by the children mentioned, it follows by.

Compare active voice and passive voice in different tenses.

Tense Active Passive = Be + Past Participle
Simple Present A committee chooses the winner. The winner is chosen by a
Present Continuous They are presenting an award now. An award is being presented
Simple Future They will pick the best movie. The best movie will be
They are going to pick the best picked.
movie. The best movie is going to
be picked.
Simple Past They announced the winner’s The winner’s name was
name. announced
Past Continuous They were interviewing the The winners were being
winners. interviewed.
Present Perfect They have chosen the best movie. The best movie has been
Modal You can see the movie on DVD. The movie can be seen on
Language Notes:
1. Both the active voice and the passive voice can be used with different tenses and with
modals. The tense of the passive sentence is shown in the verb be. Use the past
participle with every tense.
2. If two verbs in the passive voice ae connected with and, do not repeat be.
The Oscar ceremony is televised and seen by millions of people.
43 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Examples Explanation
Before 1941, the winners’ names were An adverb can be placed between the
already known before the ceremony auxiliary verb and the main verb.
Today the winners are never announced
ahead of time.
Affirmative: The movie was filmed by the U.S. Observe affirmative statements,
Negative: It wasn’t filmed in Canada. negative statements, and questions
Yes/No Question: Was it filmed in Hollywood? with the passive voice. Never use do,
Short Answer: No, it wasn’t. does, or did with the passive voice.
WH-Question: Where was it filmed? (Wrong: The movie didn’t filmed in
Subject Question: Which movie was filmed in Canada)
Active: She saw him Notice the difference in pronouns in
an active sentence and a passive
sentence. After by, the object
Passive: He was seen by her pronoun is used.

Active: They helped us

Passive: We were helped by them

Examples Explanation
Compare: Most active verbs are followed by an object.
verb object They can be used in the active and passive
voice. These verbs are called transitive
Active: McCay created the first animated verbs.
Passive: The first animated film was
created in 1914

verb object

Active: Walt Disney didn’t draw his

Passive: The movie was seen by the

Active Only: Some verbs have no object. We cannot use

Disney lived in Hollywood most of his life. the passive voice with these verbs:
He became famous when he created agree die look seem
Mickey Mouse arrive fall occur sleep
He worked with many artists. be go rain stay
What happened to the first Mickey Mouse become happen recover walk
cartoon? I’d like to see it. come live remain work
These are called intransitive verbs.
U N I T 4 | 44

Compare: Leave can be intransitive or transitive,

a. Disney left Kansas City in 1923. depending on its meaning.
b. The DVD was left in the DVD Player. In sentence (a), leave means “go away
from.” It is an intransitive verb. It has no
passive form.
In sentence (b), leave means “not taken.” It
is a transitive verb. It has a passive form.
Compare: Change and move can be intransitive or
a. Cartoon have changed a lot over the transitive.
b. The light was changed by the janitor. When a change happens through a natural
process (a), it is intransitive.
a. In a cartoon, it looks like the character When someone specific causes the change
are moving, but they are not. (b), it is transitive.
b. The chair were moved to another
Compare: Notice that we use was/were with born, but
Walt Disney was born in 1901. we don’t use the passive voice with die.
He died in 1966. Born is not a verb. It is a past participle
used as an adjective.

Basic uses and functions:

Passive voice can be used when …
 The actor is unknown:
The cave paintings of Lascaux were made in the Upper Old Stone Age.
[We don’t know who made them.]
 The actor is irrelevant:
An experimental solar power plant will be built in the Australian desert.
[We are not interested in who is building it.]
 You want to be vague about who is responsible:
Mistakes were made. [Common in bureaucratic writing!]
 You are talking about a general truth:
Rules are made to be broken. [By whomever, whenever.]
 You want to emphasize the person or thing acted on.
Insulin was first discovered in 1921 by researchers at the University of Toronto.
It is still the only treatment available for diabetes.
 You are writing in a scientific genre that traditionally relies on passive voice.
Passive voice is often preferred in lab reports and scientific research papers,
most notably in the Materials and Methods section:
The sodium hydroxide was dissolved in water. This solution was then titrated
with hydrochloric acid.
In these sentences, you can count on your reader to know that you are the one
who did the dissolving and the titrating. The passive voice places the emphasis on
your experiment rather than on you.
45 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Exercise 4C
Read the following sentences. Decide if the underlined verb is active (A) or passive (P).
Examples: The actress received an Oscar. A
The actress was given an Oscar. P
1. The actress wore a beautiful gown.
2. Halle Berry presented an Oscar.
3. The director has been nominated many times.
4. Old movies were filmed in black and white.
5. Hollywood has become the movie capital of the U.S.
6. Hollywood was built at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Exercise 4D
Direction: Change the active sentences into passive.
1. Shakespeare wrote that play.
2. Bill will invite Ann to the party.
3. Alex is preparing that report.
4. Waitresses and waiters serve customers.
5. Shirley has suggested a new idea.
6. Two horses were pulling the farmer’s wagon.
7. Alice didn’t make that pie. Did Mrs. French make it?
8. Does Prof. Jackson teach that course? I know that Prof. Adams doesn’t teach it.
9. His tricks didn’t fool me.
10. Mrs. Andrews hasn’t signed those papers yet. Has Mrs. Andrews signed them yet?
U N I T 4 | 46

Exercise 4E
Direction Change into passive if possible. Some verbs are intransitive.
1. A strange thing happened yesterday.
2. Jackson scored the winning goal.
3. I agree with Dr. Ikeda’s theory.
4. Dr. Ikeda developed that theory.
5. Timmy dropped the cap.
6. The assistant manager interviewed me.
7. A hurricane destroyed the small fishing village.
8. The cups fell to the floor.
9. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago.
10. The solution to my problem appeared to me in my dreams.

Continue to the next page

for writing tips!
47 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e
U N I T 5 | 48

Unit V
Modern Lifestyle

Start Up
Read the article below, and discuss your opinion about the issue in the article in pairs.

Speaking Skills
Deliver an Opinion
The table shows some useful expression to convey your opinion about the issue above.
Express Opinion Agreeing
I think …; I believe …; In my opinion I couldn’t agree more…; I quite agree with you…; That’s
…; To my mind …; To me … true …; I partly agree…
Asking for opinion Disagreeing
What do you think about …? What’s I don’t think so …; I don’t agree…; I (don’t) feel …;
your opinion …?; Don’t you agree …? perhaps you’re right, but on the other hand…; That’s not
quite the way I see it…; I see what you mean, but …
49 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Writing Skills
Argumentative Writing
Argumentative writing is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a
topic; collect, generate and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a
concise manner. In short, argumentative writing is a work that require student point of
view about some topic and proof it with some evidence scientifically. Argumentative
writings commonly found in the form of essay. Argumentative essay mostly assigned as a
capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves
lengthy, detailed research.
In argumentative essay, writers should call for extensive research of literature or
previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical
research where student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations or
experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to
understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a
position and support it with the evidence collected during research. regardless of the
amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis
and follow sound reasoning.
The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following:
• A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph
of the essay.
In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by
reviewing the topic in a general way. Next, the author should explain why the topic
is important or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should
present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be
appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the
student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose
an effective or persuasive essay.
• Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body and conclusion.
Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without
logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument
and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous
section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.
• Body paragraphs that include evidential support.
Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will
allow for clarity and direction throghout the essay. It is important to note that each
paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis
statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis
statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain
how and why the evidence supports the thesis.
• Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical or anecdotal).
Argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed and current
information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some
factual, logical, statistical or anecdote should support the thesis. A successful and
well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the
thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis.
U N I T 5 | 50

• A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of
the evidence provided.
This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the
mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any
new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented
in the body of the essay. You may restate why the topic is important, review the
main points, and review your thesis.
• A complete argument.
It is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate.
If you were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who
lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle and end of
the conversation. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and
logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.
• The five-paragraph essay.
A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph
approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If
it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an
introductory paragraph, (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include
discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.
• Longer argumentative essays.
Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays.
Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources of emphirical research
will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. The authors may have to discuss
the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as
well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many
of these factors will be determine by the assignment.

A. Writing thesis statement

The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable. An argumentative or
persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim. In other
words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing
opinions. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact
then there is no reason to try to persuade people.
• Example of a non-debatable thesis statement:
Pollution is bad for the environment. This thesis statement is not debatable. First,
the word pollution means that something is bad or negative in some way. Further,
all studies agree that pollution is a problem; they simply disagree on the impact it
will have or the scope of the problem. No one could reasonably argue that pollution
is good.
• Example of a debatable thesis statement:
At least 25 percent of the federal budget should be spent on limiting pollution.
This is an example of a debatable thesis because reasonable people could disagree
with it. Some people might think that this is how we should spend the nation's money.
Others might feel that we should be spending more money on education. Still others
could argue that corporations, not the government, should be paying to limit
51 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

• Another example of a debatable thesis statement:

America's anti-pollution efforts should focus on privately owned cars. In this example
there is also room for disagreement between rational individuals. Some citizens
might think focusing on recycling programs rather than private automobiles is the
most effective strategy.
The basic organizations of argumentative essay are introduction, supporting argument 1,
supporting argument 3, supporting argument 4, and close with conclusion. Look at the chart

Introduction An introduction should explains what is your topic and state

the problems you want to uncover.
Supporting argument 1 Supporting argument 1 should cover the 1st reason why you
agree/disagree about the topic you write.
Supporting argument 2 Supporting argument 2 should cover the 2nd reason why you
agree/disagree about the topic you write.
Supporting argument can add up to 3 or more depends on how
many reason you have. The more reason, the strongest your
argumentative will be.
Conclusion Conclusion should review about your final statement about
your topic and clarify that your topic is the best one.

Introduction Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.
Supporting argument 1 Driving a private car is a typical citizen’s most air polluting
Supporting argument 2 Each vehicle produced is going to stay on the road for
roughly 12to 15 years.
Conclusion Hybrid cars are a better solution for the nation’s population.

B. Strengthen the evidence

What type of evidence should I use?
There are two types of evidence. First hand research is research you have conducted
yourself such as interviews, experiments, surveys, or personal experience and anecdotes.
Second hand research is research you are getting from various texts that has been supplied
and compiled by others such as books, periodicals, and Web sites. Regardless of what type
of sources you use, they must be credible. In other words, your sources must be reliable,
accurate, and trustworthy.
How do I know if a source is credible?
You can ask the following questions to determine if a source is credible. Who is the
author? Credible sources are written by authors respected in their fields of study.
Responsible, credible authors will cite their sources so that you can check the accuracy of
and support for what they've written. (This is also a good way to find more sources for your
own research.) How recent is the source? The choice to seek recent sources depends on
your topic. While sources on the American Civil War may be decades old and still contain
accurate information, sources on information technologies, or other areas that are
experiencing rapid changes, need to be much more current. What is the author's purpose?
When deciding which sources to use, you should take the purpose or point of view of the
author into consideration. Is the author presenting a neutral, objective view of a topic? Or
U N I T 5 | 52

is the author advocating one specific view of a topic? Who is funding the research or writing
of this source? A source written from a particular point of view may be credible; however,
you need to be careful that your sources don't limit your coverage of a topic to one side of
a debate.
What type of sources does your audience value?
If you are writing for a professional or academic audience, they may value peer-
reviewed journals as the most credible sources of information. If you are writing for a
group of residents in your hometown, they might be more comfortable with mainstream
sources, such as Time or Newsweek. A younger audience may be more accepting of
information found on the Internet than an older audience might be.
Be especially careful when evaluating Internet sources!
Never use websites where an author cannot be determined, unless the site is
associated with a reputable institution such as a respected university, a credible media
outlet, government program or department, or well-known non-governmental
organizations. Beware of using sites like Wikipedia, which are collaboratively developed
by users. Because anyone can add or change content, the validity of information on such
sites may not meet the standards for academic research.
To understand more about argumentative article, look at the text below. Read carefully
the sample paragraph below and try to answer the question.

Nowadays, there are lots of thing that people consider when taking a job.
Several aspects that are mostly considered by people are wages, working hours, and
satisfaction (Purdue, p.30, 2011). However, there are still constant debate regarding
which one is much more important. It is often argued that it is more advantageous to
choose a job with high wage, even if it does not appeal to you at all. I completely
disagree with this opinion and think that job satisfaction is much more important
than salary.
First of all, I believe that job satisfaction gives people a sense of fulfillment
that no money can guarantee. This statement is strengthened by Paul’s (2012, p.27)
statement in which he says that “out of the factors that contributes in choosing a
job, satisfaction has always been the most important aspect as gaining it can give
self-pleasure that money cannot provide”. Even if someone is earning a high salary,
but feels tensed and compromises with his conscience, this person will not enjoy his
life. While pursuing one’s interests will always bring pleasure and feeling of
satisfaction. For example, a lot of famous researchers made their career choices not
because of appealing wages, but because they were passionate about science. That’s
why it is more important to choose the kind of work that makes you happy than to
look only at a high salary.
Secondly, doing what you like keeps you motivated and therefore leads to a
career growth. Gary (2008, p.17) states that people with high levels of job
satisfaction tend to stay at a certain job longer than those who are not. In other
words, there is a strong relation between job satisfaction and productivity. People
who love their jobs can easily excel in their fields of work and achieve better results
than those, who put salary on the first place. For instance, Henry Miller decided to
leave his everyday job despite a good wage and ventured to become a writer. And
after enduring years of ups and downs he became one of the most famous and well-
paid authors of the twentieth century. Thus, advantages of jobs that keep you
satisfied outweigh the drawback of a low salary in a long-term perspective.
53 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

To conclude, as can be seen from the arguments above, job satisfaction is a much
more important aspect when considering/doing a job as it provides not only pleasure but
also motivated and produce higher productivity.

Gary, S (2008, November 17). Staying in a job much longer. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Paul, A. (2012). Happiness in the working environment. Retrieved from
Purdue, J. (2011). Doing the hard work. London, England: Routledge

Exercise 5A
Analyzing the text.
1. What does the first paragraph contain?
2. What does the second paragraph contain?
3. What does the third paragraph contain?
4. What does the fourth paragraph contain?
5. Do we show our personal opinion?
6. How does the writer mention other people’s ideas?
7. Underline the topic sentences for paragraph 2 and 3!
8. Look at the way the writer mentions the references. Can you guess what the
sources are?

Exercise 5B
Directions: Write an argumentative essay about the topic given by your lecture. Bring the
draft in the next meeting for discussion and consultation. This assignment is for your
U N I T 6 | 54

Unit VI
Bright Ideas

Start Up
1 Discuss each of the inventions opposite
in groups.
• Is it a good idea?
• Is there a need for the product?
• Who would buy it?
• Would it be expensive to
• How would you market it?

2 Work in groups. Which four of the

inventions do you tink become successful

3 Listen and check your answers.

Writing Skill
Describing Process
We have come this far in this semester. So, we need to begin something important
especially for your study. In this unit, we will focus our lesson on explaining a process.
Unlike other field of study, your field of study is slightly different. It is because your field
of study concern in two skills, material and technical practice. Material practice is where
you learn much theory in class while technical practice is where you develop your study in
labs or field research. In line with developing your technical practice, you probably often
found some diagrams or pictures containing the way something begin until its complete.
To understand that pictures or diagrams, we need to know how to read it first and
comprehend it later.
In explaining process, we are invited to think critically to respond to a pictures or
diagrams about a process. Answering this will help you comprehend what is happen in that
pictures. Explaining process begins with the explanation of the very beginning process/
step and ends with the very last process. There are three points should be considered:
• Introduce the diagram/ the picture
• Give an overview of the main points
• Give the detail and explain it
Explaining process regularly used in IELTS (International English Language Testing System)
test to measure students knowledge of explaining process rather than in TOEFL test.
55 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

1. Introduce the diagram

To start with, you could use the paraphrase form. What is paraphrase? Paraphrase
mainly is to make a sentence become shorter from its original form but keep the same
meaning as the original. As in this sentence:
Original Sentence:
“the diagram is mainly focusing on the process of making bricks from the very first
step to the final which was created for the building industry”
“the diagram explains the way in which bricks are made for the building industry”
Note: if the pictures is showing about the process of making bricks.

2. Give an overview of the main points

After a good short head start, you could continue with the explanation of the
diagram/ picture. Then, find points that help you in explanining those process, for
example, you could explains about how many steps are needed from the beginning to
the ending. You could use this sample sentence to help you:
“Overall, there are eight stages in the process, beginning with the .... and ....”
You can use the conjunction of number to make your reader easier to understand the
process. The common conjunction of number are:
To begin with, beginning with, the first process, second process, thridly, process
number two/three, then, next, the following process, after, after which, on the next
process, the last, the final step.

But remember, you need to consistent in using that conjunction. Look at the box below.
By number By order
First, second, third Begin with, next, following with, then,
the last/final process
Firstly, secondly, thirdly
The first, the second, the third

3. Give the detail and explain it

After introducing and giving overview, you should explaining the process in each
steps. There are two ways to help you in explaining the process; (1) time
connectors dan (2) passive sentence.
(1) Time connectors : a process is like a story line which represent a hierarchy
of some events. Those events is likely connected each steps from early step
to the final step. To make it connected, you could use time connectors
word. That is the word that take a responsibility as marks in your process.
The common time connectors are for examples: to begin, then, first, second,
next, following this, followed by, dan finally. As in this sample sentence:
U N I T 6 | 56

“first, we need to clean the oven so that there will no bacteria involved. Next,
prepare the plates and put the caramel dough into the oven. Do not spill the
dough in the oven because it will so sticky and hard to remove after the oven
are heated. The third, you need to turn the oven to 30 degrees and wait for
almost fifteen minutes before it is done.”.

(2) Passive sentence : in explaining the process, the focus is the steps of where
something is created NOT who the subject is. In line with that, you could
used passive sentence to help describes a process. commonly, most used
passive are:

Subject + Verb + Object

A large digger digs up the clay in the ground (active)
The clay in the ground is dug up by the digger (passive)

The ability to write a process essay is determined by the collection of vocabularies you have
had. To master various vocabularies, one should read, listen and write a lot. This is very needed
and there is no other way to master English vocabularies. Now, try to explain the diagrams and
pictures below. Each are showing about how something created from the beginning to the end.
The first exercise is an example.

Exercise 6A
Write an essay explaining about the production of chocolate based on the picture below:
57 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Source: IELTS Buddy

Sample Model Answer:

The diagram explains the process for the making of chocolate. There is a total
of ten stages in the process, beginning with the growing of the pods on the cacao trees
and culminating in the production of the chocolate.
To begin, the cocoa comes from the cacao tree, which is grown in the South
American and African continents and the country of Indonesia. Once the pods are ripe
and red, they are harvested and the white cocoa beans are removed. Following a period
of fermentation, they are then laid out on a large tray so they can dry under the sun.
Next, they are placed into large sacks and delivered to the factory. They are then
roasted at a temperature of 350 degrees, after which the beans are crushed and
separated from their outer shell. In the final stage, this inner part that is left is pressed
and the chocolate is produced.
Source: IELTS Buddy

Exercise 6B
Explain the process of the production of bricks for the manufacturing industry.

Source: Cambridge IELTS

U N I T 6 | 58

Exercise 6C
Explain the process manufacturing tea.

Source: Cambridge IELTS

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Exercise 6D
Directions: explains how to apply for a visa.






U N I T 6 | 60

Exercise 6E
Directions: explain how to clean fish

61 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e
U N I T 7 | 62

Unit VII

Start Up
1 Look at the pictures. Have you ever attended in one of the situation in the pictures? If
yes, are you there as a speaker or as audience? In your opinion, What kind of events would
require a presentation
and a public speaking
skills? Drop your answers

• Public lecture
• Office meeting
• _____________
• _____________
• _____________
• _____________
• _____________
• _____________

2 Have you ever once talked in front of audience? What kind of event and situation? Recall
your experience as a public speaker and tell the class what do you usually prepare before
the presentation day!

Speaking Skill
What Makes A Good Presentation?
Being a public speaker is not an instant process. You need a material preparation to
be talked with your audiences. When you have found your material, there are some points
you need to consider to make your presentation better. Make a checklist and have a greater

• Remember your audience.

Establish clear objectives in the introduction.
Meet audience expectation with relevant content.
Create interest and promote involvement.

• Organize the information.

Design an overall structure which is clear. Involve your audience
Ensure the introduction and ending have maximum impact.
63 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i P u r p o s e

Link the different section together.

Communicate using the allotted time.

• Use visual effectively

Use clear and simple messages.
Create impact.
Handle aids and equipment professionally. Use simple visuals
Be prepared to provide handouts.

• Communicate with body language

Maintain relaxed attitude; remain confident and positive.
Use eye contact to engage your audience.
Focus meaning by movement or gesture.
Avoid distracting mannerism.

• Deliver your message

Use your voice effectively; volume, rhythm, and pause.
Adjust complexity/formality of language to the audience.
Avoid distracting manner
• Prepare thoroughly
Write brief notes to assist.
Practice before the real things.

Classic Presentation Organization

Introduce Present main body

Greet Introduce Self
Presentation (Point I, II, III)

Explain conclude and Take

structure of
presentation summarize questions

List of Useful Expression

Section Expression
Greeting Good morning/afternoon/evening, ladies and gentlemen.
Name and Position Let me just start by introducing myself. My name is Peter Wong.
As some/most of you already know, I am Peter Wong.
I’m in charge of/responsible for production.
I’m the managing director.
Title/Subject The title/subject /topic of today’s presentation/talk is ….
Today I’d like to speak about …
What I’d like to talk about is …
Objective The objective of this presentation is to present…
This talk will act as a springboard for discussion.
The aim of today is to give some background about…
U N I T 7 | 64

Main part/outline I’ve divided/split my talk into four main parts/sections.

Firstly, what I want to do is give you some background…
Secondly/Thirdly, we will look at/move on to …
Then/next/after that/finally, I will speak about/examine…
Visuals (if needed) I will be using the whiteboard and flipchart.
Timing The presentation will take/last about … minutes
I will speak for about …. minutes.
Questions If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt.
I’d be glad to take any questions at the end of my presentation.
Noticing Audience I know that you have all travelled a long way.
I’m very grateful that you could come today.
It’s nice to see so many faces.
I look forward to your comment on this.
Link to start Ok. Let’s start with the first point which is …
Right. We can begin by looking at …

Signalling – Linking the Parts

Signalling will be useful to:
- clarify the structure of your presentation.
- enable the audience to understand what you are saying
- help to organize your thought as you give the presentation.
Point Expression
Sequencing Ideas Firstly/Secondly/Thirdly/Then/Next/Finally…
The first/second/third/final point is…
Ending a section Right/So/Well/Ok …
That’s all I wanted to say about…
I think that covers everything on…
To summarize…

Opening a new section Let’s now look at …

Now I want to turn to …
This brings me to the third and final point which is…

Highlighting & Emphasizing

While having a presentation, a public speaker likes to give a highlight points of
their topic to be discussed. Below are the following expressions and ways how to do an
effective highlighting and emphasizing:
Point Expression
Focusing I’d like to emphasize …
I’d like to stress …
I should reiterate/repeat …
It is critical/essential to understand …
Emphasize “What” What we can’t do is…
What I’d like to do is …
What we have been able to do is …
What is really important is …
Repetition This is very, very difficult problem.
We thought for a long, long time about this.
We need to do something and we need to do it now.
Simplifying Frankly speaking,…/To be honest,…
To put it simply,…
65 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i P u r p o s e

Analyzing Let’s look at this more closely.

What does this mean exactly?
Articulation - Stressing [Auxiliary Verb – Do/Does/Did]
We did achieve many things last year.
It does seem to be the best solution.
We have tried repeatedly.
There is a lot of room for improvement.
Dramatic language A total/absolute/complete disaster.
A great/outstanding/remarkable success.
Totally unacceptable/Quite brilliant

Engaging Your Audience

Your material will be more beneficial if it can reach your audience. To do it, you
have to get your audience involved during your presentation. Here are some useful
expression to engage your audience:
Point Expression
Rhetorical questions How can we explain this?
Is there anything we can do about this?
How will this affect us?
What will be the result?
Offer clarification Is that clear?
Are there any questions on that?
I’m sure some of you want to take me up on this.
Directing questions I’d like to try an experiment. Could you ask your neighbour…?
Can I ask for a show of hands? How many people …?
How many people here have ever …?
Creating rapport We need to…
We don’t need to spend time on this.
I know what you are thinking.
I’m sure everyone in this room…
Interesting facts Did you know that …?
According to a recent study…
I read somewhere that…
Statistics show that…
Acknowledge I’m sure you don’t need me to tell you that…
I realize you all know…
Diplomacy - softening I tend to think that…
It seems to me that…
It may be a little/bit difficult.

Visual Aids
Why use a visual aid? Visual check spot

- Save time. - Are spelling and grammar correct?

- Highlights key points. - Is lettering clear?
- Create impact. - Are the colours compatible?
- Help the presenter. - Does it communicate or distract?
- Create variety.
- Build interest.
U N I T 7 | 66

Point Expression
Introducing the visual Ok. Let’s take a look at…
I have transparency to show you.
The first/second/next/final slide is…
Check with the audience Is that clear for everyone?
Is that in focus?
Can everybody see that?
Meaning of the visual As you can see, this is…
Here we can see…
This shows/illustrates/demonstrates/refer to…
Focusing attention I’d like to draw your attention to…
One of the most important aspects of this is…
At first glance it seems… but…

Section Expression
Signalling the end Ok. That brings me to the end of my presentation.
Right. That covers everything I wanted to say about…
Summarizing and To sum up then…
Concluding In brief…
If I can briefly summarize…
I’d like to finish by saying…
In conclusion,…

Closing Thank you for listening so attentively.

Thank you for your attention.
I hope that this has been useful.
Inviting questions I’d be glad to answer any questions.
So, do you have any questions?

Handling Questions
In doing presentations, the point relies on the discussion between audience and
presenter in the Question and Answer session. Therefore, it is also important to keep the
discussion works well during the presentation.
Point Expression
Question for the presenter Are you saying that…?
What did you mean when you said…?
Could you go over that again, please? It wasn’t very clear for me.
Could you say a little bit more about…?
Don’t you think that…?
Positive response That’s good/difficult/complex/an interesting question.
Thank you for asking that question.
I’m glad someone asked that questions. It allows me to say…
Check your answer Does that answer your question? /Is that ok?
Is that clear now? Can we move on?
Clarify If I understand that correctly, you want to know…
You’re asking me about… is that right?
Sorry, I didn’t follow/catch the question.
Could you repeat for me, please?
In other words, you’re asking…
Refer back As I said earlier in the first section…
67 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i P u r p o s e

Yes, I mentioned in the introduction…

I think/already made it clear that…
Accept criticism I accept that./That’s a fair point./I agree with what you’re
Up to a point, I agree.

While handling questions, try to avoid the following situation:

1. Wrong Person
Example: I’m afraid I can’t really answer that.
That’s not really my area/field, I’m afraid.
I don’t have the figures with me.
2. Wrong Topic
Example: I’m afraid that question goes beyond the subject of today’s presentation
I’m afraid that’s confidential.
I’m not at liberty to give you that information.
I’d be glad to discuss that with you personally after the presentation.
3. Tennis – returning a question
Example: Well, let me ask you the same question.
Ok. Let me ask you a question.
I can answer that by asking you a question.
4. Hedging
Example: Well, that depends on what you mean by …
Well, it’s a very complicated matter…
Well, there are various ways of looking at it.

Presentation at a Glance

1. Greet 2. Introduce Yourself 3. State objective 4. Outline structure

Good Morning The objective of I've devided the

My name is ... my presentation talk into five
Welcome to ... today is ... section...

I will take 15 Feel free to Ok, to begin, I'd

minutes... interrupt like to look at ...

5. Timing 6. Questions 7. Link

U N I T 7 | 68

Main Body

1. Part one 2. Closing first part 3. Opening part two 4. Sequencing

So, that's all I have

So, the first part of Ok, let's move on to There are two
to say on the first
my presentation the second part questions to look at
point. Any
is... called... here: firstly...
questions on that?

Ok, that's all on Here, I'd like to

As you can see on
part two. I will now highlight two I would suggest...
this chart...
move to part three items.

5. Closing/Moving on 6. Highlighting 7. Using a visual 8. Recommending

Ok that's all I
Could I digress for a Let me now return
wanted to say on
second? to ...
part three

9. Digressing 10. Returning 11. Closing


1. Signal end 2. Summarize 3. Conclude

That brings me to the

In my conclusion, I
end of my To sum up ...
would like to say ...

If there are no more

Is there any question? That's a good question. questions, I'll finish

4. Invite questions 5. Handle question positively 6. Closing

69 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i P u r p o s e
A P P E N D I C E S | 80

Appendix 1: List of Useful Prepositions
About Behind Except On Under
Above Below For Onto Underneath
Across Beneath From Outside Unlike
After Beside In Over Until
Against Between Inside Past Up
Along Beyond Into Since Upon
Among By Like Through Versus
Around Despite Near Throughout With
As Down Of To Within
At During Off Toward Without

Appendix 2: List of Common Irregular Verbs

81 | E n g l i s h f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e

Appendix 3: Passive Sentence

A P P E N D I C E S | 82

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