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ENGR 2832 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND GEOMECHANICS Overview Dr Hongyu Qin Civil Engineering College of Science
ENGR 2832
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND GEOMECHANICS
Overview
Dr Hongyu Qin
Civil Engineering
College of Science and Engineering
Flinders University
Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) (Honours)  ENGR7941 Advanced Foundation Analysis and Design (4.5 units) Electives
Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) (Honours)
 ENGR7941 Advanced Foundation
Analysis and Design (4.5 units)
Electives
 ENGR3831 Geotechnical
Engineering (4.5 units) (Core)
 ENGR2832 Engineering Geology
and Geomechanics (4.5 units)
(Core)
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Overview of Geotechnical Engineering • What is Geotechnical Engineering? • What type of work does
Overview of Geotechnical Engineering
• What is Geotechnical Engineering?
• What type of work does a geotechnical engineer do? (the ‘book’ description)
• What geotechnical engineering companies do? (the ‘real life’ description)
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Geotechnical Engineering Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering that deals with rocks, soils
Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering that deals with
rocks, soils and underground water, and their relation to the design,
construction, and operation of engineering projects (e.g., onshore and
offshore engineering projects). It may include:
• Soil mechanics
• Rock mechanics
• Foundation engineering
• Geoenvironmental engineering
• Earthquake geotechnical engineering
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The Geotechnical Engineer Work Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with: •
The Geotechnical Engineer Work
Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with:
• Geotechnical aspects of structures.
• Geotechnical failures.
• Determination of physical and mechanical properties of rocks and soils.
• Physical modelling and in situ testing in geotechnics
• Geotechnical construction, soil remediation and ground improvement.
• Preservation of monuments and historic sites.
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The Geotechnical Engineer Work Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with: •
The Geotechnical Engineer Work
Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with:
• Geotechnical aspects of structures.
For example, analyse and design foundations and walls and assess
stability of slopes, design and construction of embankments,
excavation, tunnels.
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The Burj Khalifa skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates The 829.8 m tall Burj Khalifa
The Burj Khalifa skyscraper in Dubai,
United Arab Emirates
The 829.8 m tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai,
United Arab Emirates, is the tallest
building in the world. It needs massive
foundations to transmit the structural
loads into the ground. Some of the
design issues and requirements:
 Structure must be supported safely
and without excessive settlement.
 Choose
and
design
appropriate
foundation systems.
 Assess
the
performance of the
foundation under working load and
extreme
conditions, such as
earthquake.
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South Australia Adelaide Grange sea bridge The design and construction of foundation for a large
South Australia
Adelaide Grange
sea bridge
The design and construction of foundation for a large bridge is the task of
the geotechnical engineer. The type of and size of foundations needed in a
large bridge depend very much on the conditions of soil and rock on which
the foundations are going to rest on. Assessing the characteristics of the
soil and rock for designing the foundations is also the task of a
geotechnical engineer.
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Open pit mining Sunrise Dam Gold Mine, Western Australia Some of the construction issues: •
Open pit mining
Sunrise Dam Gold
Mine, Western Australia
Some of the construction issues:
• Excavation method and likely rate of
progress.
• Risk analysis and Assessment on
excavatability
• Stability of the slopes and benches
• Development and implementation
of optimal mining strategies
• Effect of groundwater and rainfall
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The Geotechnical Engineer Work Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with: •
The Geotechnical Engineer Work
Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with:
• Geotechnical failures.
Although the purpose of sound geotechnical designs is to avoid failures,
when geotechnical failures have occurred, geotechnical engineers have
learnt from past mistakes, and have advanced developments in the field
of geotechnical engineering. Examples include
 development of proper draining and retaining systems to stabilize soils
that are prone to develop erosion and landslide problems;
 development of proper compaction techniques to avoid failure of dams
and road sub-grades;
 development of proper drainage techniques to avoid liquefaction
failures.
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Leaning Tower of Pisa http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa
Leaning Tower of Pisa
http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa
http://madridengineering.com/case-study-the-leaning-tower-of-pisa/
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Geotechnical failures http://english.sina.com/china/p/2009/0805/261106.html Foundation failure of a building in
Geotechnical failures
http://english.sina.com/china/p/2009/0805/261106.html
Foundation failure of a building in Shanghai, China June 2009
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Geotechnical failures http://house.shm.com.cn/2009-07/01/content_2583418.htm
Geotechnical failures
http://house.shm.com.cn/2009-07/01/content_2583418.htm
http://www.fjsen.com/h/2009-07/28/content_196164.htm
Foundation failure of a building in Shanghai, China June 2009
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Geotechnical failures Chai et al. (2014) Foundation failure of a building in Shanghai, China June
Geotechnical failures
Chai et al. (2014)
Foundation failure of a building in Shanghai, China June 2009
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Geotechnical failures http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/ Yallourn open cut slope collapse – Nov 2007 6,000,000
Geotechnical failures
http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/
Yallourn open cut slope collapse – Nov 2007
6,000,000 m 3 of material, 500m long, 80m high
Collapse diverted Yallourn river into the mine
$200M cost, 20% loss of Victoria’s power supply
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The Geotechnical Engineer Work Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with: •
The Geotechnical Engineer Work
Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with:
• Determination of physical and mechanical properties of rocks and soils.
For example, site investigation, field and laboratory testing
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Mayne et al. (2009) 17
Mayne et al. (2009)
17
A Large Scale Triaxial Apparatus Xiao et al. (2014) 18
A Large Scale Triaxial Apparatus
Xiao et al. (2014)
18
Mayne et al. (2009) 19
Mayne et al. (2009)
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Cone Penetration Testing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cone_penetration_test 20
Cone Penetration Testing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cone_penetration_test
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The Geotechnical Engineer Work Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with: •
The Geotechnical Engineer Work
Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with:
• Physical modelling and in situ testing in geotechnics
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Laboratory modelling of soil pile interaction 22
Laboratory modelling of soil pile interaction
22
Laboratory modelling of soil pile interaction Qin (2010) Qin and Guo (2016) 23
Laboratory modelling of soil pile interaction
Qin (2010) Qin and Guo (2016)
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The Geotechnical Engineer Work Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with: •
The Geotechnical Engineer Work
Typical work carried out by geotechnical engineers involves dealing with:
• Geotechnical construction, soil remediation and ground improvement:
when working for contractors, geotechnical engineers can also become
actively involved in construction projects.
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Construction of Palm Island Dubai UAE 25
Construction of Palm Island Dubai UAE
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Construction of Palm Island Dubai UAE Watch youtube to know more about Dubai's Palm Islands
Construction of Palm Island Dubai UAE
Watch youtube to know more about Dubai's Palm Islands construction
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGOs7MDiM0M
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Expansive soils http://www.propertyhere.com/australia/au-warm-weather-low- rainfall-causing-cracks-in-adelaide-homes 27
Expansive soils
http://www.propertyhere.com/australia/au-warm-weather-low-
rainfall-causing-cracks-in-adelaide-homes
27
http://www.propertyhere.com/australia/au-warm-weather- low-rainfall-causing-cracks-in-adelaide-homes 28
http://www.propertyhere.com/australia/au-warm-weather-
low-rainfall-causing-cracks-in-adelaide-homes
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Sheard and Bowman (1996) 29
Sheard and Bowman (1996)
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Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement Caused by Tree Root Drying Melbourne, Australia Li
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement
Caused by Tree Root Drying Melbourne, Australia
Li & Guo (2016)
30
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement Melbourne, Australia Li & Guo (2016) 31
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement
Melbourne, Australia
Li & Guo (2016)
31
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement Melbourne, Australia Li & Guo (2016) 32
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement
Melbourne, Australia
Li & Guo (2016)
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Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement Melbourne, Australia Li & Guo (2016) 33
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement
Melbourne, Australia
Li & Guo (2016)
33
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement Melbourne, Australia Li & Guo (2016) 34
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement
Melbourne, Australia
Li & Guo (2016)
34
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement Melbourne, Australia Li & Guo (2016) 35
Residential Building Damaged by Expansive Soil Movement
Melbourne, Australia
Li & Guo (2016)
35
Cracking of the Art Gallery of South Australia 36
Cracking of the Art Gallery of South Australia
36
Considine (1984) 37
Considine (1984)
37
• Built in the 1890s, stood intact until the early 1960s, when trees were planted
• Built in the 1890s, stood intact until the early 1960s, when
trees were planted along the eastern wall.
• In the 1960s, the Gallery began to fracture. whereupon the
CSIRO team headed by Dr Gordon Aitchison drew up profiles
of the soil suction at points near and away from the trees.
They found that suction was much greater at points near and
under the trees than away from them. The soil around the
trees had been dried, causing the building to settle.
• After the trees were removed in 1971, on advice from the
scientists, the ground nearby regained moisture and 'heaved',
leading to a partial recovery of the sagging caused by tree
roots.
Considine (1984)
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fv1fRJYcHoE 39
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fv1fRJYcHoE
39
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N7YJGd23vHQ 40
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N7YJGd23vHQ
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Ground Improvement www.menard-asia.com 41
Ground Improvement
www.menard-asia.com
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Culvert Design Transport How to determine CBR? What about the ground profile? What is the
Culvert Design
Transport
How to determine CBR?
What about the ground profile?
What is the bearing
capacity of the culvert ?
What are the mechanical
properties of the aggregates?
e.g. strength, stiffness,
permeability
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ENGR 2832 Engineering Geology and Geomechanics 43
ENGR 2832
Engineering Geology and Geomechanics
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Topic Description This topic provides an introduction to Engineering Geology and Geomechanics, and fundamentals
Topic Description
This topic provides an introduction to Engineering Geology and
Geomechanics, and fundamentals necessary for the study of
Geotechnical Engineering. This topic aims to provide an introductory
of geological process and engineering geology; origins and
composition of soils; characteristics and classification of soils; soil
permeability and seepage; stresses in soils; principle of effective
stress; consolidation, and the stress-strain-strength responses of
soils.
44
Educational Aims All civil engineers, and others working with soils and rocks must understand the
Educational Aims
All civil engineers, and others working with soils and rocks must
understand the range of techniques available for identifying various
materials and for determining their physical and mechanical
properties. The aim of this topic is to present an introduction to
geology, soil mechanics and geological processes as they affect civil
engineering.
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Expected Learning Outcomes At the completion of this topic, students are expected and develop the
Expected Learning Outcomes
At the completion of this topic, students are expected and develop the ability
to be able to:
• Understand geological process and the significance of engineering
geology for ground engineering
• Describe and classify soils based on their basic physical characteristics
• Understand the behaviour of soil during compaction, compression,
consolidation, direct shear and triaxial compression
• Understand the importance of water in the soil and the effects of water
movement
• Understand the difference between total stress and effective stress
• Apply the principle of effective stress to calculate the stresses causing
soil deformation
• Calculate the settlements and rates of settlement with the understanding
of one-dimensional consolidation theory
• Interpret data and determine parameters from a laboratory experiment
and report the results at a professional standard
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Topic Outline* Lecture Lecture Subject Tutorial Tutorial Activity Workshop week 10:00 - 12:00 Time: 12:00
Topic Outline*
Lecture
Lecture Subject
Tutorial
Tutorial Activity
Workshop
week
10:00 - 12:00
Time: 12:00 - 13:00
Thursday
Tonsley_1.08
Location: 1.02
Time: 9:30 - 11:00
week1
Wednesday
Introduction, Engineering geology
Location: Ton_G.08
Visiting SA Drill Core
week2
Wednesday
Phase relationships etc.
library
week3
Wednesday
Compaction
Wednesday
Phase relationships
Sieve analysis
week4
Wednesday
Soil permeability
Wednesday
Compaction
Atterberg limits
week5
Wednesday
Flow of water through soils
Wednesday
Seepage
Compaction
week6
Wednesday
Effective stress
Wednesday
Flow of water through soils
Seepage #
week7
Wednesday
Stress in soils
Wednesday
Stress calculation
week8
Wednesday
Compressibility
Wednesday
Stress in soils due to applied load
week9
Wednesday
Consolidation (1)
Wednesday
Compressibility
week10
Wednesday
Consolidation (2)
Wednesday
Consolidation theory
Consolidation
week11
Wednesday
Shear strength of soils
Wednesday
Rate of consolidation and
settlement
week12
Wednesday
Stress strain responses
Wednesday
Shear strength
week13
Wednesday
Revision
Wednesday
* Subject to change
# Demonstration only † Site visiting
47
Assessment Summary ENGR2832 Assessment Task Given Due Date Weighting Monday of Weeks Monday (5 PM)
Assessment Summary
ENGR2832
Assessment Task
Given
Due Date
Weighting
Monday of Weeks
Monday (5 PM) of Weeks
2,4,6,8,11
35%
Five Assignments
5,7,9,11,14
Monday of Weeks
Four Laboratory Reports
3,4,5,9
Monday (5 PM) of Weeks
20%
6,7,8,13
Examination Period
45%
End-of -Semester Exam
Total Marks
100%
# The marked assignments and lab reports will be returned in ten working
days after the due date.
48
Assessment Summary ENGR8932 Assessment Task Given Due Date Weighting Monday of Weeks Monday (5 PM)
Assessment Summary
ENGR8932
Assessment Task
Given
Due Date
Weighting
Monday of Weeks
Monday (5 PM) of Weeks
2,4,6,8,11
25%
Five Assignments
5,7,9,11,14
Monday of Weeks
Four Laboratory Reports
3,4,5,9
Monday (5 PM) of Weeks
20%
6,7,8,13
Monday of Weeks
Monday (5 PM) of Week
Research Report
6
14
10%
Examination Period
45%
End-of -Semester Exam
Total Marks
100%
# The marked assignments and lab reports will be returned in ten working
days after the due date.
49
Assessment Summary • All Assignments will be made available on FLO • Assignments should be
Assessment Summary
• All Assignments will be made available on
FLO
• Assignments should be submitted to FLO
• Electronic submission through FLO is ok
• Scanned hand written submissions submitted on
FLO ok
• Late penalties do apply
– 5% per day starting immediately from the due
date
50
Successful completion of the topic The student must • achieve an aggregate mark of at
Successful completion of the topic
The student must
• achieve an aggregate mark of at least 50% overall
• achieve at least 50% for the final end-of-semester exam.
51
Textbooks 52
Textbooks
52
Assumed knowledge • ENGR1732 Engineering Mechanics • ENGR2741 Mechanics and Structures 53
Assumed knowledge
• ENGR1732 Engineering Mechanics
• ENGR2741 Mechanics and Structures
53
Teaching team • Lecturer: Dr Hongyu Qin • Contact details: Flinders at Tonsley | Room
Teaching team
• Lecturer: Dr Hongyu Qin
• Contact details:
Flinders at Tonsley | Room 3.17
P: +61 8 8201 2763
E: hongyu.qin@flinders.edu.au
• Consulting times:
Wednesday 15:00am ~ 17:00pm @ Room 3.17, Tonsley
• Laboratory technical support:
Mr Wes Penney
Mr Mark Walford
• All resources are available on the topic FLO site
• Browsing FLO regularly for updated information about the topic.
54
APPOINT A TOPIC REP BECOME A STUDENT REPRESENTATIVE AT FLINDERS Topic Reps liaise with the
APPOINT A TOPIC REP
BECOME A STUDENT
REPRESENTATIVE AT
FLINDERS
Topic Reps liaise with the Topic Coordinator to provide a
student perspective on learning and teaching within a topic.
Your role as a Topic Rep is to consider and discuss what is
working well and where improvements can be made.
TRAINING
BENEFITS
You will be trained
NOMINATE
Horizon Award points,
and supported in your
NOW!
certificate of recognition,
role by FUSA.
professional and personal
College of Science
& Engineering
growth, and the
opportunity to make a
difference.
Emergency Procedures and Preparedness http://www.flinders.edu.au/whs/emergency/ 56
Emergency Procedures and Preparedness
http://www.flinders.edu.au/whs/emergency/
56
Things to do • What geotechnical engineering companies do? (the `real life’ description) 57
Things to do
• What geotechnical engineering companies do? (the `real life’ description)
57