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# pH

The pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration thus, it is a measure of the acidity and
alkalinity of a solution. At 25°C, aqueous solutions that have a pH less than 7 are acidic, in contrast, it
is basic or alkaline when the pH is greater than 7. When the concentration of H3O+ equals the
concentration of OH− in pure water, a pH level of 7 is obtained at 25°C making a neutral solution
(Helmenstine, 2019).

https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-ph-in-chemistry-604605

## pH Definition and Equation in Chemistry

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated May 07, 2019

In 1909, Danish biochemist Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen proposed an equation so that there could be
a more convenient way to describe hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations in aqueous solutions.
This equation is:

pH = -log[H+]

where log is the base-10 logarithm and [H+] stands for the hydrogen ion concentration in units
of moles per liter solution.

## Kalyan Jyoti Kalita, studied Chemistry at Tezpur University

https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-formula-for-pH

The Henderson Hasselbalch equation is an approximate equation that shows the relationship
between the pH or pOH of a solution and the pKa or pKb and the ratio of the concentrations of the
dissociated chemical species. In order to use the equation, the acid dissociation constant must be
known and the equation is:
when the concentrations of the acid and the conjugate base are the same, pH of the solution is
equal to the pKa of the acid.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/henderson-hasselbalch-equation

## Water, Acids, Bases, and Buffers

N.V. BHAGAVAN, in Medical Biochemistry (Fourth Edition), 2002

https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/chordata/urochordata.html

A buffer solution is one which resists changes in pH on dilution or on the addition of small
amounts of acids or alkali. The first type is the acidic buffer solution which has a pH less than 7. On
the other hand, the alkaline buffer solution has a pH greater than 7

## In order for a reaction to proceed, a constant pH is needed for a biological and

chemical reactions. Buffers are extremely useful in these systems to maintain the pH at a
constant value

https://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/buffers.html

a PH meter is an electric device used to measure hydrogen-ion activity in a solution. They are
designed with two electrodes, one for sensing hydrogen ions and one for reference. Based on
hydrogen ion activity, the sensing electrode detects changes in voltage while the reference
electrode gives a constant voltage for comparison. The difference between the two voltages is
displayed as a pH value by the meter, with higher voltages indicating acidic pH levels and
lower voltages signaling basic

## To be certain of accurate and reliable measurements, you need to perform pH meter

calibration. This is generally done by measuring different buffer solutions with standardized,
values, and then adjusting the pH meter based on any deviations from the buffer’s known pH
value..

https://www.rscal.com/what-is-a-ph-meter-and-why-is-ph-meter-calibration-important/

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