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Franklin Avorque
Marco Barlongo
Christian Esmeres
Mark Angelo Negrito
Eugene Novicio
Cheilo Anire
Edin Asis
Lerma Buado
Maryben Gavion
Missy Lecera
Ma. Rica Macabus
Eunice Loi Magramo
Elwenna Mae Marañon
Regine Kyle Regida
Dixie Grace Tenio


Also known as ‘behaviorism’—is a learning theory based on the idea that behavior can be
controlled or modified based on the antecedents and consequences of a behavior. It focuses on
objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior
theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on
environmental conditions.

A behavior will only occur if given the right environment or antecedent. The behavior is more or
less likely to reoccur based on the reinforcements or consequences that follow such as rewards
and punishments.

 “You can watch TV as soon as you are done with your homework.”
 “Students who complete all homework this week don’t have to take the quiz on
 “Whoever gets the correct answer will receive a sticker.”
 “Students who arrive late will receive detention.”

This theory is relatively simple to understand because it relies only on observable behavior and
describes several universal laws of behavior. Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques
can be very effective– such as in treatments for human disorders including autism, anxiety
disorders and antisocial behavior. Behaviorism is often used by teachers who reward or punish
student behaviors.


It is a broad theory that explains thinking and differing mental processes and how they are
influenced by internal and external factors in order to produce learning in individuals. When
cognitive processes are working normally then acquisition and storage of knowledge works well,
but when these cognitive processes are ineffective, learning delays and difficulties can be seen.

These cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our
environment. A disruption in these natural cognitive processes can cause behavioral problems
in individuals and the key to treating these problems lies in changing the disrupted process. For
example, a person with an eating disorder genuinely believes that they are extremely
overweight. Some of this is due to a cognitive disruption in which their perception of their own
weight is skewed. A therapist will try to change their constant pattern of thinking that they are
overweight in order to decrease the unhealthy behaviors that are a result of it.

The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of
information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory can be
divided into two specific theories: The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and the Cognitive
Behavioral Theory (CBT).
A. Social Cognitive Theory includes several basic concepts that can manifest not only in
adults but also in infants, children and adolescents.

1. Observational- learning from other people by means of observing them is an

effective way of gaining knowledge and altering behavior.
2. Reproduction- the process wherein there is an aim to effectively increase the
repeating of a behavior by means of putting the individual in a comfortable
environment with readily accessible materials to motivate him to retain the new
knowledge and behavior learned and practice them.
3. Self-efficacy- the course wherein the learner improves his newly learned knowledge
or behavior by putting it into practice.
4. Emotional- coping good coping mechanisms against stressful environment and
negative personal characteristics can lead to effective learning, especially in adults.
5. Self-regulatory- capability ability to control behavior even within an unfavorable

In the Social Cognitive Theory, we are considering 3 variables:

 Behavioral factors
 Environmental factors (extrinsic)
 Personal factors (intrinsic)

These 3 variables in Social Cognitive Theory are said to be interrelated with each other,
causing learning to occur. An individual’s personal experience can converge with the
behavioral determinants and the environmental factors.

B. Cognitive Behavioral Theory describes the role of cognition (knowing) to determining

and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. This theory was developed by
Aaron Beck. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory says that individuals tend to form self-
concepts that affect the behavior they display. These concepts can be positive or
negative and can be affected by a person’s environment.

 The Cognitive Triad

Cognitive Behavioral Theory further explains human behavior and learning

using the cognitive triad. This triad includes negative thoughts about:

 The self (i.e., I am rubbish)

 The world/environment (i.e., the world is irrational)
 The future (i.e., my future is doomed)

Cognitive learning theory

For example, a person with an eating disorder genuinely believes that they are extremely overweight.
Some of this is due to a cognitive disruption in which their perception of their own weight is skewed. A
therapist will try to change their constant pattern of thinking that they are overweight in order to
decrease the unhealthy behaviors that are a result of it.
Examples and application of cognitive learning theory:

 Classifying or chunking information

 Linking Concepts (associate new content with something known)
 Real world examples
 Discussion
 Problem solving
 Analogies
 Imagery/providing pictures
 Mnemonics


Stephen Krashen is an educator and linguist who proposed the monitor model as his theory of
second language acquisition in his influential text principles and practice in second language
acquisition in 1982.

He is also a linguist, educational researcher, and activist who is Professor Emeritus at the
University of Southern California. In the 1990s, Krashen, was instrumental in advocating the
merits of learning a second language.

Krashen's widely known and well accepted theory of second language acquisition, which has
had a large impact in all areas of second language research and teaching since the 1980s.

1. Second Language Acquisition is the process of learning a second language different

from your native language.
2. Acquiring language is a “subconscious process identical in all important ways to the
process children utilize in acquiring their first language.”
3. Learning language is a “conscious process that results in knowing about the roles of

“People acquiring a second language have the best chance for success through reading.”
-Stephen Krashen

“We acquire language when we understand messages, when we understand what people tell us
and when we understand what we read.”
-Stephen Krashen



A. Acquisition Learning Hypothesis- acknowledges that students learn faster as they are
given more comprehensible input. Comprehensible input is a language input that can be
understood by listeners.
- Acquisition Learning Hypothesis- distinction is the most fundamental of all the
hypotheses in Krashen's theory and the most widely known among linguists and
language practitioners.

Two process of L2 performance:

 Acquisition- is the product of a subconscious process

 Learning- Consciously learning a language by learning the rules of the target

Historical Background of Language Learning

 Grammar translation (17th – 19th century)

 Audiolingual (20th century)
 1970’s Krashen’s Theories’ backlash to be prescribed; inauthentic methods
 2000’s National Reading Panel, Susuna Dutro, et al. – Weave Concrete
Instruction with Content and Teaching; Explicit language instruction is needed to
learn Academic Language.

B. Natural Order Hypothesis- this acquire the rules of grammar in a logical order in:
 Sentence
 Subject
 Predicate
 Object
 Clause
 Phrase

Natural Order Hypothesis- Grammar Structures are acquired in a predictable order;

 L2 learning order different from L1
 L2 learning adults and children show similar order
 Rules easiest to state not always first acquired

C. Monitor Hypothesis- asserts that a learner's learned system acts as a monitor to what
they are producing. In other words, while only the acquired system is able to produce
spontaneous speech, the learned system is used to check what is being spoken.
According to Krashen, the role of monitor is or should be minor. Before the learner
produces an utterance, he or she internally scans it for errors, and uses the learned
system to make corrections. Self-correction occurs when the learner uses the Monitor to
correct a sentence after it is uttered. According to the hypothesis, such self-monitoring
and self-correction are the only functions of conscious language learning.

The Monitor model then predicts faster initial progress by adults than children, as adults
use this ‘monitor’ when producing L2 (target language) utterances before having
acquired the ability for natural performance, and adult learners will input more into
conversations earlier than children.


1. Monitor Over-Users- these language learners are too concerned and focused
on correctness that they can’t speak with any real fluency. Some characteristics
of monitor over-users are:
They know many of the rules of the English language:
 They are not able to communicate in speech.
 Their written English might be quite accurate.
 They don’t have speaking fluency because they are too concerned with
being grammatically correct.
 When speaking, these languages learners make many pauses,
repetitions, and speech repair.

2. Monitor Under-Users- these language learners are not focused on correctness

because they have not consciously learned the rules or because they have
decided not to use their conscious knowledge of the target language.

Some characteristics of monitor under-users are:

 They don’t use the monitor under any conditions even when they have
the opportunity.
 They don’t use conscious linguistic knowledge in their speaking
 These learners aren’t able to correct their own errors in written English.
 These students might not like grammar.
 They believe that grammar rules are important but hardly use when they
 These learners tend to rely on instinct to spot errors in their second
language performance.
 These students are not embarrassed to make mistakes.

3. Optimal Monitor-Users- these language learners are able to keep a balance

between self-correction and fluency so error correction is not an obstacle in their
quest of communication. These learners use their knowledge appropriately.

Some of the characteristics of these users are:

 They have fluency and accuracy when they speak or write.
 These learners are able to correct errors and mistakes in their own
language performance.
 They know the rules and use them when they communicate.


There are many difficulties with the use of the monitor, making the monitor rather weak
as a language tool.

1. Knowing the rule- this is a difficult condition to meet, because even the best
students do not learn every rule that is taught, cannot remember every rule they
have learned, and can’t always correctly apply the rules they do remember.
Furthermore, every rule of a language is not always included in a text nor taught
by the teacher.

2. Having time to use the monitor- there is a price that is paid for the use of the
monitor- the speaker is then focused on form rather than meaning, resulting in
the production and exchange of less information, thus slowing the flow of
conversation. Some speakers over-monitor to the point that the conversation is
painfully slow and sometimes difficult to listen to.

3. The rules of language make up only a small portion of our language

competence- acquisition does not provide 100% language competence. There is
often a small portion of grammar, punctuation, and spelling that even the most
proficient native speakers may not acquire. While it is important to learn these
aspects of language, since writing is the only form that requires 100%
competence, these aspects of language make up only a small portion of our
language competence.

D. Input Hypothesis- this is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a
second language – how second language acquisition takes place.

The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this
hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she
receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of
linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes
place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'.

Since not all of the learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the
same time, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is the key to designing a
syllabus, ensuring in this way that each learner will receive some 'i + 1' input that is
appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence.

E. Affective Filter Hypothesis- embodies Krashen's view that a number of 'affective

variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition.

These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen claims that
learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of
anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation,
low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the affective filter and
form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition.
In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand,
positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place.

The final critique of Krashen’s Monitor Model questions the claim of the affective filter
hypothesis that affective factors alone account for individual variation in second
language acquisition. First, Krashen claims that children lack the affective filter that
causes most adult second language learners to never completely master their second
language. Such a claim fails to withstand scrutiny because children also experience
differences in non-linguistic variables such as motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety
that supposedly account for child-adult differences in second language learning.

“Whether you think you can or think you can’t, you are right.”
-Henry Ford

Table 1.


 
Over-emphasize correctness Errors are natural (affirm effort)
Laughing at mistakes tolerated Respect required by all (zero of tolerance
Put in embarrassing situation (forced to Pair work and group work (think-pair-
answer) share)
No routines Clear routines


A. Applied Linguistics- According to the Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics (1985)

there are two definitions:

1. The study of second or foreign language learning and teaching.

2. The study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problems, such as
lexicography, translation, speech pathology, etc.

Applied linguistics uses information from sociology, anthropology, and information theory
as well as from linguistics in order to develop its own theoretical models of language and
language use, and then uses this information and theory in practical areas such as
syllabus design, speech therapy, language planning, literacy, bilingualism and
authorship identification.
It is also an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers
solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to
applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology.

Wilkins (1999) states that in a broad sense, applied linguistics is concerned with
increasing understanding of the role of language in human affairs and thereby with
providing the knowledge necessary for those who are responsible for taking language-
related decisions whether the need for these arises in the classroom, the workplace, the
law court, or the laboratory.


Therefore, applied linguistics involves:

a. What we know about language.
b. How it is learned.
c. How it is used.

The primary concern of applied linguistics has been second language acquisition theory,
second language pedagogy and the interrelationship of both areas.

The field of language teaching or Applied Linguistics is concerned with the development
of language programmes and courses, teaching methodology, materials development,
second language acquisition theory, testing, teacher training and related areas.

A sample of questions Applied Linguistics addresses:

 How can we teach languages better?
 How can we diagnose speech pathologies better?
 How can we improve the training of translators?
 How can we develop valid language examinations?
 How can we determine the literacy levels of a population?
 What advice can we give the ministry of education on proposals to introduce a
new teaching method?
 What advice can we give a defence lawyer on the authenticity of a police
transcript of an interview with a suspect?



 First language  Workplace  Literary stylistics
education communication  Critical discourses
 Second language  Language planning analysis
 Foreign language  Forensic linguistics  Translation and
 Clinical linguistics interpretation
 Language testing  Information design
 Lexicography

B. Cognitive Learning Theory- is a broad theory used to explain the mental processes
and how they are influenced by both internal and external factors in order to produce
learning in an individual. The theory is credited to Educational Psychologist Jean Piaget.
Jean Piaget disagreed with the behaviorist theory which focuses strictly on observable
Psychologists focused on different cognitive conditions that impacts learning:

1. Robert Gagne
 was an educational psychologist who pioneered the science of instruction
in the 1940's. He focused on:
 Verbal information
 Intellectual skills
 Motor skills
 Attitude

2. Jerome Bruner
 he wrote the Process of education which emphasizes curriculum
innovation grounded in theories of cognitive development.

3. David Ausubel
 he is an American psychologist born in New York. Ausubel is also a
follower of Jean Piaget who believed that children have to learn by

Cognitive learning is centered on the mental process which the learner takes in,
interprets, stores and retrieves information like:

 attention
 observing
 perception
 interpreting
 organizing
 memory
 categorizing
 forming generalizations


1. Constructivism- Cognitive theories emphasizing the idea that individuals do not

just passively absorb information, but rather interact with information constructing
their own individual meaning from it to form knowledge.
2. Contextual Theories- suggest that learners often think and perform move "
intelligently" when they can draw on a variety of environment supports system
that enable them tackle challenging tasks and problems (Ormrod, 2008).
3. Behaviorist Approach- only studies external observable behavior that can be
objectively measured. This is based on stimulus and a person’s response to that
stimulus. Behaviorists believe that internal behavior cannot be studied because
internal mental processes cannot be observed and objectively measured.
4. Cognitive Approach- believe that internal mental processes can be scientifically
studied. It focuses on the thought process behind the behavior. Cognitive
approach to learning pays more attention to what goes on inside the learner’s
head and focuses on mental process rather than just observable behavior.
C. Functional View- as characterized by Allen, (2007:254) "holds that linguistic structures
can only be understood and explained with reference to the semantic and
communicative functions of language, whose primary function is to be a vehicle for
social interaction among human beings."

Since the 1970s, inspired by the work of Jespersen, Bolinger, Dik, Halliday, and Chafe,
functionalism has been attached to a variety of movements and models making major
contributions to linguistic theory and to various subfields within linguistics, such as
syntax, discourse, language acquisition, cognitive linguistics, typology, and documentary

Further, functional approaches have had a major impact outside linguistics in fields such
as psychology and education, both in terms of theory and application. The main goal of
functionalist approaches is to clarify the dynamic relationship between form and function
(Thompson 2003:53). Functionalist perspectives have gained more ground over the past
decades with more linguists resorting to functional explanations to account for linguistic
structure. The authors in this volume present the current state of functional approaches
to linguistic inquiry expanding our knowledge of language and linguistics.

D. Language Learning- is the process by which the language capability develops in a

human. It is also the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and
comprehend language (in other words, gain the ability to be aware of language and to
understand it), as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.


1. Behaviorists’ Theory
 Believe we learn by associating events, known as classical conditioning.
We also learn through rewards and punishments, a process known as
operant conditioning.
2. Cognitive Theory
 Is a broad theory that explains thinking and differing mental processes
and how they are influenced by internal and external factors in order to
produce learning in individuals.
3. Interactionist Theory
 Posits that children can only learn language from someone who wants to
communicate with them.

E. Community Language Learning- community language learning (CLL) is a humanistic

approach to language learning based on psychological insights of Charles A. Curran.

Community language learning represents the use of counselling-learning theory to teach

languages. Within the languages teaching tradition, CLL is sometimes cited as an
example of a “Humanistic Approach” since it deals with the emotions and feelings as
well as with linguistic knowledge and behavioral skills.
According to Curran, there are six factors which are essential to non-defensive whole
person learning process:

1. Sense of security.
2. Paying attention to language in all its form.
3. Experiencing a feeling of self-assertion and aggression when ready.
4. Reflection and participation in class activities.
5. Internalization by retention at a deep level.
6. Discrimination among various elements of language and their functions.


A. Phonology

Phonology is the study of the patterns of sounds in a language and across languages.
Put more formally, phonology is the study of the categorical organization of speech
sounds in languages; how speech sounds are organized in the mind and used to convey
meaning. In this section of the website, we will describe the most common phonological
processes and introduce the concepts of underlying representations for sounds versus
what is actually produced, the surface form.

Phonology can be related to many linguistic disciplines, including psycholinguistics,

cognitive science, sociolinguistics and language acquisition. Principles of phonology can
also be applied to treatments of speech pathologies and innovations in technology. In
terms of speech recognition, systems can be designed to translate spoken data into text.
In this way, computers process the language like our brains do. The same processes
that occur in the mind of a human when producing and receiving language occur in
machines. One example of machines decoding language is the popular intelligence
system, Siri.


Key Differences

Phonology is concerned with the abstract, whereas phonetics is concerned with the
physical properties of sounds. In phonetics we can see infinite realizations, for example
every time you say a ‘p’ it will slightly different than the other times you’ve said it.
However, in phonology all productions are the same sound within the language’s
phoneme inventory, therefore even though every ‘p’ is produced slightly different every
time, the actual sound is the same. This highlights a key difference between phonetic
and phonology as even though no two ‘p’s are the same, they represent the same sound
in the language.

B. Phonetics

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that focuses on the production and classification of

the world’s speech sounds. The production of speech looks at the interaction of different
vocal organs, for example the lips, tongue and teeth, to produce particular sounds. By
classification of speech, we focus on the sorting of speech sounds into categories which
can be seen in what is called the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The IPA is a
framework that uses a single symbol to describe each distinct sound in the language and
can be found in dictionaries and in textbooks worldwide. For example, the noun ‘fish’ has
four letters, but the IPA presents this as three sounds: f i ʃ, where ‘ʃ’ stands for the ‘sh’


Key Differences

Phonetics looks at the physical production of sounds, focusing on which vocal organs
are interacting with each other and how close these vocal organs are in relation to one
another. Phonetics also looks at the concept of voicing, occurring at the pair of muscles
found in your voice box, also known as the Adam’s apple. If the vocal folds are vibrating,
this creates voicing and any sound made in this way are called voiced sounds, for
example “z”. If the vocal folds are not vibrating, this does not lead to voicing and creates
a voiceless sound e.g. “s”. You can observe this yourself by placing two fingers upon
your voice box and saying “z” and “s” repeatedly. You should feel vibrations against your
finger when saying “z” but no vibrations when saying “s”.

C. Morphology

Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words and forms a core part of
linguistic study today. The term morphology is Greek and is a makeup of morph-
meaning ‘shape, form’, and -ology which means ‘the study of something’. Morphology as
a sub-discipline of linguistics was named for the first time in 1859 by the German linguist
August Schleicher who used the term for the study of the form of words.

Morphology is also the study of structure of the words and word formation. Meanwhile,
morphemes are the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.

 Free Morphemes- the type of morpheme that can stand alone as words by
Example: Friend, boy, tree, blue, man etc

 Lexical Morphemes- is an open class because we can add morphemes to these

words. These are nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
Example: girl(n), jump(v), pink(adj.)
 Functional Morphemes- is also a closed class because it cannot be added to
other morphemes. These are conjunctions, prepositions, articles, auxiliaries, and
Example: he, she, we, but, nor, could, while, because, etc

 Bound Morphemes- are affixes that must be attached to the word and it cannot
stand by itself to form a word.
 Derivational Morpheme- deals with morphemes that change the lexical
category of the word they are added to.
 Inflectional Morpheme- these are morphemes that are used to indicate
aspects of the grammatical function of a word.
Prefix ( re-, in-, pre-, un-, mis-, etc)
Suffix ( -ish, -less, -ly, -ity, ship, -ance, etc)

D. Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the
structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word
order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and
processes. The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to
all languages.

 In English we have four main types of sentences, the Simple sentence, Compound
sentence, Complex sentence and Compound-complex sentence.

1. Simple sentence
- Has one subject and predicate.

I kicked the ball
The cheetah run.

2. Compound sentence
- Has two or more independent clause.

Example: I kicked the ball and it hit tom.

3. Complex sentence
- Has at least one or more independent clause.
- Complex sentence usually using subordinating conjunctions.

Example: Tom cried because the ball hit him.

4. Compound-complex sentence
- Has at least two or more independent clause and one or more dependent clause.
Example: The girl smelled cookies, which were baking at so, she ran all the way

Common errors that are frequently found in students work:

 Run-on sentences
- A sentence that is too long.
Example: The fox really liked pancakes, he ate them everyday for breakfast, he
couldn’t eat them without syrup and butter.
 Fragment sentence
- A fragment is just a piece of sentence: It missing a subject, a predicate, or an
independent clause. It’s simply an incomplete sentence.
Example: If the dog eat chocolate Then what?

E. Discourse

Came from the Latin word ‘discursus’ meaning written and spoken communications. A
discourse is a body of text meant to communicate specific data, information, and
knowledge, there exist internal relations in the content of a given discourse; likewise,
there exist external relations among discourses. As such a discourse does not exist in
itself, but is related to other discourses by way of inter-discursivity. It is also perpetually
differentiating toward each other in time:

 Argument
 Narration
 Description
 Exposition

F. Semantics

Is the study of meaning in language. The term is taken from the Greek word ‘seme’,
meaning sign. Semantics is the function of signs in language. This understanding of
meaning corresponds to German Philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein’s definition. The term
semantics was only invented in the 19th century, but the subject of meaning has
interested philosophers for thousands of years. The Greek philosophers were the first
people known to have debated the nature of meaning. They held two opposing views on
the subject.

1. A toy block could be called a block, a cube, a toy.
2. A child could be called a child, kid, boy, girl, son, daughter.

Since meaning in language in language is so complex, there are actually different

theories used within semantics such as formal semantics, lexical semantics, and
conceptual semantics.
 Formal Semantics – Uses techniques from math, philosophy, and logic to
analyze the broader relationship between language and reality, truth, and
 Lexical Semantics – Deconstruct words and phrases within a line of text to
understand the meaning in terms of context.
 Conceptual Semantics – Deals with the most basic concept and form of a word
before our thoughts and feelings added context to it.

G. Pragmatics

Is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context
contributes to meaning. It encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicative,
talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology,
linguistics and anthropology.

Pragmatics is the study of how context affects meaning, there are two types of context:

 Physical Context – it is where the sign is located.

 Linguistic Context – such as preceding sentences in a passage.


1. Someone: May i have a glass of water?

Meaning: He/she is thirsty

2. First Person: Hi, how are you?

Second Person: ugh! What a lovely wheather today.

3. Someone: Can you please close the window.

Invisible meaning: It's either she's freezing or its too noisy outside.

4. Someone: "Take this" (Physical closeness)

The speaker and listener's relationship, its either they're friends, officemate, stranger etc. (Social