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UNIVERSIDAD JUÁREZ AUTÓNOMA DE TABASCO

Department of Arts and Education

present by
Hernández Arcos Misael

CHAPTER 6
SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM

Professor
IZQUIERDO SANDOVAL MANUEL JESUS

Villahermosa, Tabasco. 31/05/2019


Introduction

in the learning of a new language it seems a very simple task in the acquisition and in the
way of teaching, nevertheless it is not like that. There are teaching approaches that can
significantly help the development of that language. which are beneficial for students and
teachers. According to the book How Languages Are Learned proposes six teaching
proposals. which are considered the most used and important for the teaching of
languages. Each proposed has its own nature and is accompanied by many investigations
that substantiate its accuracy as well as reliability. which are; 1. Get it right from the
beginning, 2. Just listen ... and read, 3. Let's talk, 4. Get two for one, 5. Teach what is
teachable and 6. Get it right in the end. This work has a class analysis as well as an
observation with a recorded video of which an analysis was made to measure the teacher's
ability in teaching English. From my point of view, it aims that the student can identify
the form of teach from teachers and what teaching proposal. since the student in the future
can be a quality teacher.

report

After watching the video of the observation class, we can analyze that the teacher of the
English subject, does not comply with the six-teaching proposal, the closest proposal on
which his class was based was get it from the beginning his class was center more in
teaching a specific grammar rule, which was the past simple. After explaining the past
simple, the teacher asked for the participation of the students in the blackboard to serve
themselves if they had understood the grammatical rule. in general, the teacher only
covers some dimensions but not in her totality. The proposal which teacher covers are get
it right from the beginning, and just listen ... and read and teach unteachable. we can say
that just listen ... and red, because his class propitious input to the students from the
teacher's speech as, the written participation of the students in the blackboard. The teacher
also involved his students to discover the grammar rules on their own, about the exercises
they were doing. The dimension of Teach unteachable is cover because students complete
a learning sequence which they follow according to the study plan.

The dimensions that the teacher does cover in English class are; just talk, get two for one,
get it right from the end. we arrived to conclusion, because the dimension just talk is
based on the mutual participation between teacher and students, and as we see in the video
of the observation class, this class lacks all verbal participation in the target language, for
example the teacher cannot interact with the students because they do not have enough
level to start a conversation. as well as propitiate discussion topics to generate outcomes
in the students. also, with the teaching proposal get two for one, because this dimension
is based on educational programs on language teaching, which this class does not belong
to anyone.

conclusion

the classroom is the place where not only a language is learned but also taught, if a
language is taught in a controlled way, the development of this, it will be successful

never had it been easy to teach a language, thanks to the collection of research done by
pasty m. Lightbown and Nina Spada, today, we can have this information of many
researchers that significantly aids teaching and learning.

the proposals presented by teachers These six proposals offer a better insight into what
can help a teacher evaluate the effectiveness of the results of each investigation and make
him / her take a posture.
Dimension 1: GET IT RIGHT FROM THE BEGINNING

Dimension and Class Supported answer to the question


observation question period
under
analysis
Question 1 Yes
From In this segment of the class, we can observe that
Is the English class minute the teacher explains the correct form in which students must use the past
focused on students’ 00:10:03 simple, we agree that the class was focused in a specific grammar rule.
understanding of a to minute According to the proposal Get it right from the beginning,
specific grammar 00:17:02 This type of explanations helps students develop their intellectual and
rule? academic activities.
(Pag:154; line:16) This part is related to one of the Information processing approaches were
researches as J. R. Anderson (1995) and Robert De Keyser (1998, 2001,
2007) suggest that most learning, include language learning, starts with
declarative knowledge and through practice may become procedural
knowledge.

ACCORDING TO THIS THEORY, THIS PART OF THE CLASS IS


GOOD, BECAUSE…the students practice how to use the grammar and
syntax in the target language, so they acquire experience in winch context
they can use certain grammar rules. The professor could help to student to
automatize their skills, if she gives a good input in class, also the
explanations have to be good for a better develop in students.
Question 2 Yes
From In this segment of the class, we cannot observe much participation by
Does the teacher minute students, but the teacher chose who would do board`s activities.
regulate 00:22:05
participation in to minute The participations were about a task that the teacher had left the last class.
class? 00:25:59 This activity was centered in a topic studied before.
In this participation we didn’t observe oral production, because the
(Pag:155; line:5) participation was based in a writing in the board.

According to Get it right from the beginning. in audiolingual aproach, its


emphasis on the oral languages, but students rarely use the language
spontaneously, and the teachers avoid letting beginning learners speak
freely out of concerns that this would allow them to make errors.
(Pag.155)

This is related, in the behaviourism theory (pag.104), we know that this


theory is related how the learners perform in classroom. also, we can
relate it with students ‘personality (introversion, extroversion) pag.84

According to behaviourism theory. the class could be better, if the


students would have had the intentions to improve their language, and the
teacher would done a good job motivating to students to participate in
class for developing the communicative skills.

Question 3 No
From Almost all the class was balance in English and Spanish languages. The
minute teacher gave instructions in English about activities or some topic`s
Does the teacher use 00:09:27 explanations, and after that she spoke in Spanish, then she sure that the
the audiolingual to minute students were following the class`s activities. There was a problem, the
approach in class? 00:30:24 students didn’t participate in class. And the audiolingual aproach wasn’t
applied succeful .

(Pag:156; line:6) According to the proposal Get it right from the beginning,
In audiolingual aproach there is little or no grammatical explanation.
Grammar is taught inductively not deductively, there is dependence on
mimicry and memorization of set phrases. The audiolingual teaching
would lead students to speak the language
(brooks 1960; Lado 1964).

The audiolingual approach is based on behaviourism because in these


theories we can find; contrastive analysis habit formation, drills,
repetition, distinguishing minimal pairs and similar
Sounds.
according to these theories, is good for a class because, the students can
memorize dialogues and sentences patters, and these can do that the
students form habits in languages, but in this video class we didn’t find
these elements.
pag.104

Question 4 No In this segment of the class, we cannot observe that the teacher uses some
From techniques for avoid the students `fossilization. But the teacher presented
What technique minute what is the correct use of grammar rules, which it is good for students if
does the teacher use 00:09:27 they apply correctly. maybe we can consider it as a technique for avoid
to avoid the to minute the misapplications and the wrong use of the target language.
fossilization of 00:30:24
errors in students? Get it right from the beginning. Propose that it’s better to prevent bad
habits in students before they happen an get it right from the beginning.
(Pag:157; line:5) (157). Many researchers argue that allowing learners too much 'freedom'
without correction and explicit instruction will lead to early fossilization
of errors.

ACCORDING TO corrective feedback in the classroom, THIS PART OF


THE CLASS IS bad, BECAUSE, there is not appropriate information’s,
for the students can improve the knowledge in target language, and they
cannot realize if the structure that they are using follow a correct form.
Yes
Question 5 From In the minutes marked in the second column, we can observe that the
minute students have the abilities for produce language, after teacher
Can students 00:25:59 presentations. It`s necessary to know that this is only a review, because
produce outcome? to minute this topic (past simple) was explained in a class before. The student
After the 00:29:00 shown that they had the ability for structure the past simple in its three
presentation of the forms affirmative, negative and question.
grammatical rule by
the teacher
Page 159, line 15-17 According to in structure-based instructional settings, it is easier for
learner acquire grammar rules and product it, applying this aproach,
because they acquire the language in stages and the linguistic items are
present and practiced in insolation, one items at a time. (pag.126)

according to this aproach, this part of the class is good, because the
learners studied the language in a sequence, also they acquire in the same
form, so it`s make easier for them. And they can produce outcomes in
languages. In this case the outcomes were writes, it would be better that
the oral productions were presented in the video.
dimension 2: just listen… and read

dimension and class supported answer to the question


observation period
question under
analysis
No the teacher didn’t use the reading for developing input for students.
from the material with which she worked was a color papier sheet, and the
question 1 minute board. the papier was used as a visual element. the teacher brought the
00:10.40 grammar rules structures written there and showed to student with a small
does the teacher to minute explanation.
use read as input 00:20:30
for students? according to just listen… and read. this proposal is based on the
hypothesis that language acquisition takes place when learners are
(pag:159; line:36) exposed to comprehensible input through listening and/or reading.
Martha trahey and Lydia white (1993) carried out a study with young
French’s peaking learners (aged 10-12) in intensive ESL classes in
Quebec. the goal of this research was to determine whether high-
frequency exposure to a
form in the instructional input would lead to better knowledge and use of
that form by the students.

according to input flood, this part of the class is good, because although
exposure to language input may provide learners
with positive evidence (information about what is grammatical
in the second language),
pag.162
question 2 yes in this segment of the class, we can observe that
does the teacher's from talking about teacher`s level is average, because she gave the instruction
level of English minute in English and in Spanish.
provide good 00:09:27 in just listen…and read dimension, proposed that learners do not need to
input to the to minute produce language in order to learn it, except perhaps to get people to
students? 00:30:24 provide input by speaking to them.
according to monitor model theory suggests that students acquire the
(pag:160; line:3) language as they are exposed to sample of language, in the same way that
children pick up their first language.
it would be good that student from video` class to be involved in the
environment with target language, it could be unfolding the language
acquisitions in a predictable sequence.
question 3 No in this segment of the class, we cannot
from observe that the teacher provided at student’s material to work, but she
does the teacher minute showed some color sheet in which she had some explanations about past
support material 00:10:24 simple.
to improve the to minute
level of input in 00:15:00 according just listen… and read dimension, the material to work the
the students? languages skill, it gives to student opportunities to learn new words in
(pag:160; everyday conversation.
example:3; according to monitor model, this theory has confirmed that students can
line:14) make a great deal of progress through exposure to compressible input
without direct instructions.
this part of the class is bad, because, there is not any material to support
the students` learning.
question 4 Yes we can observe in the video that the, provide input to students. the class
the input material from was explained in Spanish and English. when she talked in English, the
given by the minute students payed attention perhaps they had curiosity to hear somebody
teacher, led 00:10:25 speaking English, in the board the teacher provided some structure of past
students to pay to minute simple. in conclusion the students are interesting to acquire the English
attention? 00:15:00 language, but their environment isn’t enough to have a good input and
page 160, line 31- recast.
34

material is small, but it makes students pay attention at the teacher.

according to the classroom description in example 3 shows that one way


to do this is to provide learners with a steady diet of listening and reading
comprehension activities with no (or very few) opportunities to speak or
interact with teacher or other learners in the classroom. pag. 160

according to individual differences in second languages learning, this


proposal has confirmed that students `personality could be good or bad
for the target language`s develop, it`s depend on the students, how the de
students unfolds in classroom, for example; the extroversion and
motivation personality are good for learn a new language.

according to this proposal, this part of the class is good, because…the


students have a good motivation in classroom and it makes that them pay
attention to teacher, so it helps them to understand the class,
question 5 Yes in this segment of the class, we can observe that
from the teacher asked questions to student about past simple, and the students
do students minute could identify specific grammar rule.
discover 00:14:37
grammatical rules to minute
by themselves? 00:16:10
(pag:162; according, study 18: input flood, this research was focus on, no teaching
study:18; line:14) of adverb placement, nor was any error correction provided from
teachers. instead, students simply read the passages and completed a
variety of comprehension activities based on them. although learners
benefited from this exposure to sentences with adverbs in all the correct
position.
this study, in this part of class is good, because, when the students
discovered by themselves the grammatical rules it is unforgettable for
them. Because its ingrained to their brain.
dimension and class supported answer to the question
observation period
question under
analysis
Dimension 3: No in this segment of the class, we can observe that
LET`S TALK From the teacher only explains, and the student don’t participate, they had an
Question 1 minute interact verbally, but it was in Spanish.
Does the teacher 00:16:25
interact verbally to minute
with his students? 00:17:00 according to the interaction hypothesis, negotiation leads learners to
acquire the language form, the words and grammatical structure, this
proposed that the learner have to be submerge in a verbally interaction
(Pag:165; line:25) between teacher and students

this part of the class is bad, because we do not observe nothing verbally
interact.
Question 2 No In this segment of the class, we cannot observe any meaning discussion,
From because the students don’t have enough vocabulary for establish a
Does the teacher minute conversation with the teacher.
and his/her 00:15:00
students discuss to minute according to let`s talk dimension, the negotiation for meaning is
the meaning of 00:20:00 accomplished through a variety of modifications that naturally arise
the words? interaction, such as requests for clarification or confirmations.

this is related, in one part, in communicative and content- based


(Pag:166; line:1) instructional settings, were the emphasis is on the communication of
meaning.
the class could be better according to communicative and content- based
instructional, if the teacher and student had had a good participation in
class. It is good for developing the communicative skills.

Question 3 No In this segment of the class, we cannot observe that teacher worked in
From group. The class was not longer, it had a duration of 29 minutes and for
minute 15 minutes the teacher was checking some students ‘tasks.
Does the teacher
form discussion 00:16:00 The teacher didn’t implement any technique for taking advantage in that
groups? to minute time; for example, an activity in group.
(Pag:167; 00:25:40
study:21; line:7) In the study 21: learner talking to learners, they found that learners talked
more with other learners in conversation pairs. (Pag167)

Storch interprets this as support for Vygotsky's theory of


cognitive development and the claim that when pair work
functions collaboratively and learners are in an expert-novice
relationship, they can successfully engage in the co-construction
of knowledge.

Question 4 Yes In this segment of the class, we can observe that the teacher didn’t
provide any specific topic to discuss, but all the group together the
Does the teacher from teacher discussed what are grammatical past simple structure. Maybe it
provide minute was not a specific topic discussion. But they did it very looked like a
discussion topics 00:13:37 discussion topic.
in the class? to minute In the study 25; learner- learner interactions in a Thai classroom. A group
(Pag:170; 00:15:50 of students engaged in interactional activities in which they discussed
study:25; line:4) environment problems in their country. Mc Donough found that learners
who had used more negative feedback and modified output in their
interactions significantly improved in the accuracy.
This part its related with the interaction hypothesis, this agreed that
modified interaction is the necessary mechanism for making language
comprehensible.
Question 5 No In this segment of the class, we can observe that the teacher applied the
From corrective feedback, but she didn’t use the implicitly form. A student
Does the teacher minute asked her about question structure in past simple. And she explains the
implicitly apply 00:16:20 topic again but the corrective feedback was directly.
corrective to minute
feedback in 00:17:00 According to dimension; let`s talk the implicit corrective feedback is
his/her students? beneficial. A recent review of this research confirms that the positive
(Pag:170; line:39) effects for recasts in the laboratory setting (Mackey and Goo 2007,
pag.171).
The implicitly feedback could be bad, because the students do not have
clear where is their mistake in the target language.
dimension and class supported answer to the question
observation period
question under
analysis
Dimension 4: All the In this segment of the class, we can observe that the teacher teaches
GET TWO FOR class English languages in students’ mother tongue and in the target language.
ONE According to dimension get two for one; learner can acquire the target
Question 1 language in several programmes like content-based teaching and content
and language-integrated learning (CLIL)
In what
educational This class was related with content-based language, because is when
program is the learners acquire a second or foreign language as they study subject
school based to matter taught in that language. (171. Line ,17)
teach English? this aproach, is bad for class, because if the students take the acquisition
like another subject. They worry about have a good grade and not for
acquire the communicative skills.
(Pag:171; line:17)

Question 2 From In this segment of the class, we can observe that


minute The teacher chose the participants, for make an activity in the board, so
What causes 00:22:00 the students didn’t have option for decide if the wanted or do it or not.
students to to minute According to the study 26; French immersion program in Canada, have
participate or not 00:.26:50 shown that French immersion students develop fluency, high levels of
in class? listening comprehension and confidence in using their second languages.
(pag.172. line24)
(Pag:172; line:24)
This is related with Content-based instruction, according It creates a
genuine need to communicate, motivating students to acquire
language in order to understand the content (pag176. line30)
Question 3 All the In this segment of the class, we can observe that
Do students give class In all class the student talked in their mother tongue
extended answers
when the teacher
ask them
something in the
English class?
Page 172, line 25-
27

Question 4 From The students are exposed to language only in classroom, for 40 minutes.
minute The don’t take another subject in English languages. They do not have
How many hours 00:00:00 touch English language in another place.
of exposure does to minute
the student have 00:30:24 Elaine Tarone and Merrill Swain (1995) noted that learners with only
in English class? classroom exposure to the language did not have access to speech styles
that would be typical of interaction among native speakers of the same
age. (pag.173, line 4)
(Pag:173; line:4)
This related with innatist perspective theory, according to bonnie
schartz(1993), she argues that language acquisition is based on the
availability of natural language in the learner`s environment.(pag.105
line,24)

It is necessary that student have a exposure of language out from


classroom it makes that they develop the language in a success way.

Question 5 Yes In the time marked, the teacher assigned a homework the last class` day
Does the teacher From with the propose to increase the immersion in the L2.
assign activities minute
to the students as 00:21:00 According to dimension get two for one. The immersion programmes
homework for the to minute allow students from each language group to continue development of the
purpose of 00:21:40 home and to continue learning subject matter content in that languages.
increasing their
immersion in the This part of class is related with Krashen`s monitor model in the aproach
l2? comprehensible input. This theory suggests that we acquire the language
as we are exposed to samples of languages (pag.106, line 12). The
(Pag:177; line:8) compressible input occurs when one is exposed to language that is
comprehensible and it contains words, grammatical form and aspects of
pronunciation.

According to the Krashen`s monitor model this is good for student


because they have more touch with L2.and they have more opportunities
to unfolds in language.

dimension and class period supported answer to the question


observation under
question analysis
Dimension 5: Yes In this segment of the class, we can observe that the teacher makes to
TEACH WHAT IS From students produces grammatical rules studied in class, they practiced in
TEACHABLE minute the board writing sentences in past simple. So the students can
Question 1 00:22:05 to understand the rules because they are studying in a sequence
minute
Can students 00:25:59… According Pienemann (1988. Pag.177) He has tried to explain why it
produce often seems that some things can be taught successfully whereas other
grammatical things, even after extensive or intensive teaching, seem to remain
structures studied unacquired
in class?
It a true that the student can acquire the language in it is not presented
(Pag:177; line:29) in a development sequence.
According to Pienemann is good that student have a sequence in their
language development.
Question 2 No In the complete video, we cannot observe that student have a negative
From influence in English from their mother tongue. The teacher explains
Does the teacher minute the topic in Spanish and English. This process is nor observable.
help the students 00:15:00 According to feedback in the classroom focused on explicit correction
who have a To minute (pag140. Line5). It refers to the explicit provision of the correct form.
negative influence 00:20:00 The teacher clearly indicates that what the student had said was
that comes from incorrect, the teachers use phrases like, oh, you mean…, you should
their mother say…
tongue? The explicit correction is good for the English class, because it shows
to student where they make error in the target language, so when the
students know their mistakes there is a possibility that they fix it.
(Pag:178; line:4)

Question 3 No
From we cannot observe that; all the class was focused on past simple
Does the teacher minute explanation only and wasn’t interaction between teacher and students.
explain to the 00:15:00 But we can observe that one student asked a clear explanation about
students the To minute how to make questions in past simple.
mistakes that they 00:20:00… According to metalinguistic feedback (pag140.line, 32).
make clarifying Metalinguistic comments generally indicate that there is an error
their failures in somewhere.
L2?
This type if feedback it is good for be implement in the class, because
(Pag:178; it fixes language`s student and indicates where is the mistake in a
Example:7; line:9) specific grammar rule.
Question 4 No All the class was focused on general feedback about a past simple. We
From cannot observe a feedback applied from teacher to herself but in the
minute time marked, we can observe how the teacher gave the element a one
Does the teacher 00:12:20 to student, provided him feedback.
produce feedback minute
in his / her own 00:13:00: According to communicative instructional settings (pag.127 line;10).
speech with the Its emphasis is on the communication of the meaning. Both teacher
purpose of and students work together, in this aproach there is a limited amount
improve the oral of error correction on the part of the teacher.
ability of the
students? This aproach applied in the classroom is good for student, if the
teacher applies the feedback correct, but if the teacher does not have
(Pag, 178; the enough level for give a good feedback, it could be bad for the
example:6; line:11) acquisition of student.

Do students speak Yes In all video class, we can observe that the students speak in the mother
their first language From tongue.
in class? minute According to affective filter hypothesis. This is a metaphorical barrier
Pag 181 line 16. 15:00:00 to that prevents learners from acquiring language even when appropriate
minute input is available. (pag.106, line.32).
00:20:00 The filter hypothesis is a bad characteristic for language students, it
associated to feeling of anxiety or negative attitudes. Also, it is
associated with a poor outcomes.

dimension and class period supported answer to the question


observation under
question analysis
Dimension 6: GET No In all the video we can find other types of corrections, but not a
IT RIGHT IN THE during all prudent manner without interrupting the class activities. There is a
END the class. small part of video in which a student asked to teacher about a certain
Question 1 grammar rule, but the teacher left the group activities to give a
general explanation for all the class. (Pag.184 line,12)

Does the teacher According to dimension get it right in the end; example 11, The
correct the students teacher is aware of students ‘mistakes and- briefly, without
in a prudent manner interrupting the activity-helps the learners notice the correct form.
without It could be good or bad, for example, some students understand
interrupting the quickly and maybe they don’t need the explanation again, so it could
activities? be boring for them because they are studying the same topic again
and again.
But it could be bad for example; according to learner personality
(Pag:184; line:12) some students have inhibition or feel shame if they asked a question
to teacher, and they prefer stay with the doubt before to ask it.
Question 2 No In this segment of the class, we cannot observe that teacher focus on
from minute the attention of student in a certain linguistic point mistakes, but she
00:10.40 to steal the attention with the material with she worked, she use a color
Does the teacher minute paper sheet and that it’s enough for student pay attention.
steal students' 00:20:30
attention to focus According to metalinguistic feedback it indicates where is the
on their mistakes in specific mistakes, marking the grammar rules and
certain linguistic
points?
(Pag:184; line:31)

Question 3 No we can observe that some student do not follow the grammar rules so
All the class it is clear that they don’t understand the mistakes that they make in
Are students aware the target languages.
of the mistakes According to metalinguistic feedback, explicit correction, recast,
they make on the clarifications request and elicitations.
l2?
It is necessary to give the adequate tools to students for improve their
(Pag:183; line:25) language.

Question 4 From Yes, in the video we can observe that students are aware in winch
minute context they can use the grammar studied
The learners are 00:00:00
aware that they To minute According to meta-analysis reported that instructions promoted to
must use the 00:15:00 student knowledge for both types of languages features.
grammatical
explanation? Its good for student to follow instructions, because sometimes the
(Pag 193, line12) learner don’t understand what they are going to do

REFERENCE

How Language are Learned. Patsy M. Lightbown & Nina Spada. Fourth Edition.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (1986). Approaches and methods in language


teaching.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.