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Name varun Kumar

Reg No 10907073

Roll No RTB903B44

Q1 :- Classify the following classes into class A, B, C, D, E :-

a) 197.18.10.201 :- Class C

b) 170.78.90.121 :- Class B

c) 248.172.16.109 :- Class D

d) 11001100.00001111.10101010.00000011 :- i.e 204.15.170.3 :- Class C

Q2:- Which is the better classless addressing or classful addressing?


Explain with example?

Ans:- ClassFul addressing means it will not carry the routing mask
information while routing updates or routing advertisements. it will carry
just only the ip-address information's. It will assume just default mask
information's. where as classless addressing routing protocols will carry
the subnet mask information's while doing the routing updates or routing
advertisements.

Example of classful protocol : --class-A 255.0.0.0


Class-B 255.255.0.0
Class-C 255.255.255.0
So classful routing protocols will not support the VLSM and Supernetting
Example of classful routing protocols is
1. RIP V1
2. IGRP

Example of classless protocol :-


RIP V2
EIGRP
OSPF
Q3:- In symmetric key cryptography how many keys are needed if Alice
and Bob want to communicate with each other?

Ans:- In the symmetric key cryptography a single key is used in bidirectional


communication . If Alice and Bob want to communicate with each other a secret
key encryption /decryption the same key is used by both the parties.

The sender uses this key and encryption algorithm to encrypt


data. the receiver uses the same key and the corresponding decryption algorithm
to decrypt the data.

Part -B

Q4:- In a symmetric key cryptography , if person in a group of 10 people


need to communicate with every other person in another group of 10
people how many secret keys are needed?

Ans:- If person in a group of 10 people need to communicate with every other


person in another group of 10 people then 45 secret keys are needed.

i.e n * (n-1)/2

10*(10-1)/2 =>45
Q5:- Find the block of address assigned to your organization or institution?

Ans:- The organization network is connected to the Internet via a router. The
router has two addresses. One belongs to the granted block. The other belongs
to the network that is at the other side of the router.
We call the second address x.y.z.t/n because we do
not know anything about the network it is connected to at the other side. All
messages destined for addresses in the organization block (205.16.37.32 to
205.16.37.47) are sent, directly or indirectly, to x.y.z.t/n.
We say directly or indirectly because we do not
know the structure of the network to which the other side of the router is
connected.

Suppose an organization is given the block


17.12.40.0/26, which
contains 64 addresses. The organization has three offices and needs to divide
the addresses into three subblocks of 32, 16, and 16 addresses. We can find the
new masks by using the following arguments:----

1. Suppose the mask for the first subnet is n1, then 232- n1 must be 32, which
means
that n1 =27.

2. Suppose the mask for the second subnet is n2, then 232- n2 must be 16,
which
means that n2 = 28.

3. Suppose the mask for the third subnet is n3, then 232- n3 must be 16, which
means
that n3 =28.

This means that we have the masks 27, 28, 28 with the organization mask being
26.
Q6:- Some people argue that we can consider the whole address space as
one single block in which each range of address is a sub block to this
single block. Elaborate on this idea what happens to sub netting if we
accept this concept?

Ans:- A subnetwork, is a logically visible subdivision of an IP network. The


practice of creating subnetworks is called subnetting.
All computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with a common, identical,
most-significant bit-group in their IP address. This part of the address is known
as the routing prefix or network number. The size of the routing prefix may be
indicated using CIDR notation or through specification of a subnet mask
The benefits of subnetting vary with each deployment scenario. It may use
address space more efficiently, may enhance routing efficiency, or have
advantages in network management when subnetworks are administratively
controlled by different entities in a larger organization. Subnets may be
arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning the organization's
network address space into a tree-like routing structure.
While it may improve network performance, subnetting increases routing
complexity, since each locally connected subnet must be represented by a
separate entry in the routing tables of each connected router. However, by
careful design of the network, routes to collections of more distant subnets
within the branches of a tree-hierarchy can be aggregated by single routes where
as address space logically divided into sections, called segments. To access a
particular memory location, a program must specify both the segment number
and the offset within that segment. In contrast, a flat address space consists of
simple memory addresses that start at 0 and increment to the maximum
address..