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# Name varun Kumar

Reg No 10907073

Roll No RTB903B44

## Q1 :- Classify the following classes into class A, B, C, D, E :-

a) 197.18.10.201 :- Class C

b) 170.78.90.121 :- Class B

c) 248.172.16.109 :- Class D

## d) 11001100.00001111.10101010.00000011 :- i.e 204.15.170.3 :- Class C

Explain with example?

information's. where as classless addressing routing protocols will carry

## Example of classful protocol : --class-A 255.0.0.0

Class-B 255.255.0.0
Class-C 255.255.255.0
So classful routing protocols will not support the VLSM and Supernetting
Example of classful routing protocols is
1. RIP V1
2. IGRP

## Example of classless protocol :-

RIP V2
EIGRP
OSPF
Q3:- In symmetric key cryptography how many keys are needed if Alice
and Bob want to communicate with each other?

## Ans:- In the symmetric key cryptography a single key is used in bidirectional

communication . If Alice and Bob want to communicate with each other a secret
key encryption /decryption the same key is used by both the parties.

## The sender uses this key and encryption algorithm to encrypt

data. the receiver uses the same key and the corresponding decryption algorithm
to decrypt the data.

Part -B

## Q4:- In a symmetric key cryptography , if person in a group of 10 people

need to communicate with every other person in another group of 10
people how many secret keys are needed?

## Ans:- If person in a group of 10 people need to communicate with every other

person in another group of 10 people then 45 secret keys are needed.

i.e n * (n-1)/2

10*(10-1)/2 =>45
Q5:- Find the block of address assigned to your organization or institution?

Ans:- The organization network is connected to the Internet via a router. The
router has two addresses. One belongs to the granted block. The other belongs
to the network that is at the other side of the router.
We call the second address x.y.z.t/n because we do
not know anything about the network it is connected to at the other side. All
messages destined for addresses in the organization block (205.16.37.32 to
205.16.37.47) are sent, directly or indirectly, to x.y.z.t/n.
We say directly or indirectly because we do not
know the structure of the network to which the other side of the router is
connected.

## Suppose an organization is given the block

17.12.40.0/26, which
contains 64 addresses. The organization has three offices and needs to divide
the addresses into three subblocks of 32, 16, and 16 addresses. We can find the
new masks by using the following arguments:----

1. Suppose the mask for the first subnet is n1, then 232- n1 must be 32, which
means
that n1 =27.

2. Suppose the mask for the second subnet is n2, then 232- n2 must be 16,
which
means that n2 = 28.

3. Suppose the mask for the third subnet is n3, then 232- n3 must be 16, which
means
that n3 =28.

This means that we have the masks 27, 28, 28 with the organization mask being
26.
Q6:- Some people argue that we can consider the whole address space as
one single block in which each range of address is a sub block to this
single block. Elaborate on this idea what happens to sub netting if we
accept this concept?

## Ans:- A subnetwork, is a logically visible subdivision of an IP network. The

practice of creating subnetworks is called subnetting.
All computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with a common, identical,
most-significant bit-group in their IP address. This part of the address is known
as the routing prefix or network number. The size of the routing prefix may be
indicated using CIDR notation or through specification of a subnet mask
The benefits of subnetting vary with each deployment scenario. It may use
address space more efficiently, may enhance routing efficiency, or have