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3, 411-425

W. G. K. FLEMING*

A method is presented for the analysis and predic- L’article prbente une methode pour analyser et

tion of single pile behaviour under maintained predire le comportement d’un pieu unique sous

loading, based on the use of hyperbolic functions to chargement continu. Elle est basee sur I’emploi de

describe individual shaft and base performance. fonctions hyperboliques pour decrire les per-

When these functions are combined, and elastic formances du fiit isole et de la pointe. Lorsque ces

pile shortening is added by a relatively simple pro- fonctions sont combinees et qu’on y ajoute le

cedure, an accurate model is obtained. By a simple raccourcissement elastique du pieu it en resulte un

method of linkage, which relies on the fact that a modele precis. Par une methode tres simple de con-

hyperbolic function of the type described requires nexion il est possible d’employer des parametres

only definition of its origin, its asymptote and elastiques conventionnels du sol et des charges

either its initial slope or a single point on the func- limites de rupture pour decrire les performances

tion, conventional ‘elastic’ soil parameters and ulti- totales. Cette methode reflete bien I’accroissement

mate loads may be used to describe total des modules du sol avec basses contraintes. Des

performance. By means of the changing slope of examples sont present& pour dtmontrer que

such functions, this method also reflects well in the l’emploi du modele s’accorde bien avec toutes les

increase of soil moduli at low strains. Examples donnees enregistrees. Son emploi frequent a confir-

are given from back-analysis of some fully instru- me sa validite pour des essais a chargements con-

mented and other cast-in-place pile test results, to tinus pour une large gamme de SOB. Pourvu que les

demonstrate that good agreement with all recorded pieux soient assez enfoncits sous chargement, on

features can be achieved using the model. Exten- trouve que tous les parametres principaux impor-

sive use has confirmed its validity for maintained tants peuvent &tre determines avec une precision

load tests in a wide range of soils. Provided that satisfaisante par analyse retrospective. Alors il est

piles have been made to settle sufficiently under possible d’employer les donnees derivees pour pre-

load, so that the latter part of each relationship is dire le comportement des pieux sous des circon-

well defined beyond the stage where shaft friction stances analogues a d’autres emplacements ou bien

is close to a constant value, all the main relevant de pieux de diametre different dans les memes SOB.

parameters can be determined with good accuracy Cette methode a des implications d’une grande

in back-analysis. The derived data may then be portee pour les etudes, la construction et la tech-

used to predict behaviour of piles in similar cir- nique des essais.

cumstances on other sites or of piles of different

diameter in the same soils. Subject to the condi-

tions described in the Paper, the method has far-

reaching implications for design, construction and KEYWORDS: analysis; bearing capacity; field tests;

testing techniques. foundations; piles; settlement.

In his Rankine Lecture, Poulos (1989) catalogued tion. The sophisticated input data required are

the available methods for predicting pile per- not normally available from conventional site

formance under load, ranging from simple to investigation, and there would therefore seem to

complex methods using finite element solutions. be a place for a simpler approach that could

He drew attention to the versatility of some of the readily be correlated with site experience and

more complex methods, but also demonstrated mainly used parameters that most geotechnical

that in the realm of pile performance prediction, engineers would recognize and understand.

Chin (1970, 1972, 1983) has made the method

of plotting the behaviour of both footings and

piles according to the hyperbolic method well-

Discussion on this Paper closes 4 January 1993; for

further details see p. ii. known. This method has been widely adopted,

* Cementation Piling Foundations Ltd; Visiting Pro- although it has not been linked with soil param-

fessor, Department of the Built Environment, Queen’s eters, but rather used as a method for defining

University, Belfast. ultimate loads.

41

412 FLEMING

Fellenius (1980) has discussed the Chin method approximately the same yield load. This is an

and other methods for defining ultimate loads; he interesting hypothesis, and appears plausible.

and others have drawn attention to the fact that In this Paper a means of analysis and fore-

the Chin method appears to overpredict. casting pile settlement based on the simple hyper-

However, there is little doubt that in most cases, bolic function is developed. It is first necessary to

according to the plotting method, linear functions consider the obvious criticisms of the use of

represent pile performance very well. Chin’s method in practice so that items that affect

The method is expressed by Chin (1970, 1972) performance and are not normally hyperbolic can

in the form A/P = mA + C,, where A is pile head be separated from the general soil functions.

settlement, P is applied load and C, is a constant. Two obvious features lead to the criticism that

Thus if A/P is plotted against an abscissa of A, a the method overpredicts ultimate load. First, by

linear plot is obtained and the inverse slope l/m the nature of the function, the slope of the plotted

gives an asymptotic limiting value of P. This, lines represents an asymptote in each case. Most

according to the evidence presented by Chin, is definitions of ultimate load are arbitrary, as Fell-

true of piles that carry most of their load by shaft enius (1980) shows, being based either on a settle-

friction, and also of footings and piles that carry ment related in some way to diameter or on

most of their load in end bearing. A typical geometrical manipulation. Most theoretically

relationship between pile head settlement A and satisfactory bearing capacity coefficients are

settlement divided by load A/P is shown in Fig. 1. based on soil mechanisms that would automati-

Many such relationships for piles are bilinear: cally imply asymptotic values. However, asymp-

it has been suggested by Chin & Vail and has totic load values will always exceed those

often been accepted that the first part (A) of the determined arbitrarily. The second distorting

relationship represents shaft friction while the influence is the elastic shortening of the pile body,

second part (B) represents total load. This cannot as can easily be demonstrated by making realistic

be strictly true because of the nature of hyper- estimates of shortening and removing this item

bolic functions, but it can easily be accepted that from the settlement before plotting the functions.

individually shaft and base performance are of It must also be borne in mind, that some

hyperbolic form. driven piles, in particular, show the characteristic

It is interesting to speculate as to why the of set-up, which means that after installation their

simple hyperbolic function should be important frictional capacity increases and on subsequent

in the matter of foundation settlement. Chin loading it declines at large strains. This may also

(1983) suggests that mobilization of stress in a soil be true of certain piles in soft sensitive alluvial

with increase of strain is a function of an increas- deposits, but there is little evidence of it in cast in

ing number of effective soil contacts rather than place piles in overconsolidated soils at least up to

of a general increase of intergranular stress on a movements of the order of 5% of pile diameter.

constant number of grain contacts. He suggests Within this range the stated hyperbolic function

that intergranular stress in a flocculated clay, for appears to hold true. Interestingly, Burland &

example, is virtually constant and independent of Twine (1988) suggest that residual strengths apply

the applied or effective stress. On this basis he along cast in place pile shaft surfaces in clay, and

derives a hyperbolic function for the stress-stain that under maintained loading conditions there is

relationship. It may be visualized that when a soil no decline in load following a peak value, this

is under compressive stress, the load is transmit- being a feature of a dynamic context, for example

ted by internal columnar grain structures and in CRP tests.

that as these reach limiting loads, more and more

columns begin to support load, each having

SETTLEMENT PREDICTION

Settlement and differential settlement are

perhaps the most important features in pile

Settlement/load A/P

design, and the problem is complicated by struc-

tural stiffness, pile load redistribution, construc-

A

tion techniques and group effects. Settlement

4

E control, however, receives the most attention and,

E if the performance of a single pile cannot be ade-

0, B

%

quately forecast, it poses something of a dilemma

co as many specifications include numbers with

“\ which it is difficult to comply without some

understanding of the mechanisms involved. For-

tunately, most specifications are not concerned

Fig. 1. Relationship of settlement and settlement/load with group settlements, although the calculation

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 413

able help in this context. The use of empirical

group load reduction factors is now generally dis- KSUSPS

credited, as they have no basis apart from geo- As = ~ (2)

us - Ps

metrical manipulation.

Cementation Piling Foundations Ltd has for Similarly, base performance can be expressed as

many years addressed the problem of pile settle-

ment by simple means, particularly for cases in

AB = ~

&a UBPB

which the design load of a pile exceeds the ulti-

mate shaft friction, using the methods set out by u, - P,

Fleming & Thorburn (1983). It would be useful,

where the load P, corresponds to a settlement

however, to develop a function that could charac-

AB. For a rigid pile, AB is movement at the pile

terize pile load/settlement behaviour, and the

head.

hyperbolic function offers a key to this. Given

that piles in general behave according to such a

function with respect to shaft friction and end

bearing, a method can be derived relatively Shaft friction and settlement

simply by relating the performance to a contin- There is substantial evidence that the settle-

uous function which can mostly be linked to con- ment of a pile shaft for a given load is a direct

ventional soil parameters. function of the diameter Ds (see for example the

finite element studies carried out by Randolph &

Wroth (1982)). Similarly, a considerable number

of studies seem to indicate that K, is an inverse

DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOURAL MODEL function of U,, i.e. settlement for a given load

In Fig. 2, which represents a typical plot as decreases with increasing ultimate shaft load.

used by Chin in considering a truly rigid pile, the Thus, from

slope of A represents ultimate shaft friction and

the slope of B is the ultimate end bearing as Ms 4

defined by vertical asymptotes to the load/ KS = -

settlement relationships. Thus ultimate shaft fric- US

tion is given by

it is found that M, becomes a dimensionless flex-

ibility factor in the nature of an angular rotation,

AS and equation (1) can be rewritten as

Us=(As/Ps) - Ks

Ms Ds Ps

where As represents settlement of the shaft head As = ~

at any load P,, and Ks is the intercept on the us - Ps

horizontal axis. Equation (1) can be rearranged to

Ms is in fact the tangent slope at the origin of the

hyperbolic function representing shaft friction.

Randolph (1991) points out that M, is the

equivalent of jrsJ2G in the notation of Randolph

and Wroth (1978, 1982) where [ is ln(r,,,/rJ, rm is

the radius at which soil deflexions become van-

ishingly small, r, is the pile radius, 7s is the shear

stress at the pile surface and G is the soil shear

modulus. M, is also dimensionless in this nota-

tion. Because G/7, lies in the range 500-2000 in

the findings of Randolph & Wroth, M, would be

expected to have values in the range O~OOllO~OO4.

As far as base performance is concerned, the

settlement of a circular footing is commonly

expressed as

Individual shaft and base performance

AB = ; $ D,(l - v”)fi

Fig. 2. Individual shaft and base performance B

414 FLEMING

where E, is the modulus of the soil under the and the base load is available from equation (9)

footing, 4 is the applied base pressure, AB is the

base settlement, Ds is the diameter, v is Poisson’s P, =

4 E, ABU,

(13)

ratio and f, is a standard settlement reduction 0.6U, + D, E, A,

factor related to foundation depth. For increasing

These terms may be expressed more simply and

load on a given foundation this means a linear

handled in a general form by writing the expres-

relationship between load and settlement.

To evaluate the secant modulus E, from a real sion for total applied load at a given settlement

and inserting the total pile head settlement value

load/settlement relationship in a standard way, it

is usual to take its value at one quarter of the AT

ultimate stress in non-linear functions. Thus in

the case of piles equation (6) can be simplified to P, = -+f

aAT bAT

(14)

c + AT d + eA,

A = 0,6075qD, where a = U,, b = D,,EBUB, c= M,D,, d=

B (7)

El3 0,6U, and e = D, E,.

To solve for A, given any specific value of PT,

by attributing values of, say, v = 0.3 and fr =

equation (14) has to be rearranged in the form

0.85.

If at a load of U,/4, equations (3) and (7) are (eP, - ae - b)AT2 + (dP, + ecP,

set equal, the coefficient K, can be determined for

the point where the hyperbolic function and the -ad - bc)A, + cdPT = 0 (15)

linear elastic functions intersect. Thus If for convenience we let eP-, - ae - h =J dP,

+ ecP, - ad - bc = g and cdP, = h, this yields

the solution

This value of K, can now be used to determine I- (16)

the whole of the hyperbolic function. Equation (3) v”

can therefore be rewritten as Only the positive resulting value of Ar is used.

0.6U, P,

AB = ELASTIC SHORTENING

D, J%(~, - P,)

The elastic shortening of a pile shaft under load

This allows an expression for the total load/ is clearly additional to settlement calculated by

settlement relationship to be formulated. Note the above method, and must depend on the rela-

that within a hyperbolic function of this type it is tive development of load transfer between the pile

necessary only to define the origin, the asymptote and soil along its length, as well as on any free

and one point (e.g. the E,, point) in order to length or near friction-free length at the pile head,

define the whole function. Of course, the secant and on the load being transferred at the pile base.

modulus value in such a function is highest at the To work out the elastic shortening accurately

origin and falls linearly with increasing load, to would require a considerable knowledge of the

zero at the asymptote; this accords with general load transfer flexibility M, along the shaft, and

experience of high E values at low strain. would involve an iterative method, whereby the

pile was divided into elements and compatibility

of strains was studied at given levels. This would

TOTAL SETTLEMENT OF A RIGID PILE make for a somewhat cumbersome procedure,

If a pile is purely rigid, then obviously the involving the complication of varying soil strata

loads taken by the shaft and base can be added to and thickness.

give a total load at any given settlement AT It is suggested that a simplified method can be

As = AH = Ar used: a study of some piles in which elastic short-

(10)

ening has been measured indicates the following

and the total load is method to be sufficiently accurate for most pur-

poses. The simplified method is indicated in Fig.

P, = P, + P, (11) 3, which considers shortening in three stages

The shaft load is available from equation (5), and (a) a free or low friction length extending to a

can be written distance L, from the pile head

(b) a length L, over which friction is transferred

P, =

USAS (c) the whole pile shortening as a column a.fter

(14 the ultimate shaft friction has been reached.

MsDs + As

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 415

can be expressed as

Friction-free or

A==-- 4 K, LrPr

low friction zone

n D,=E,

When the applied load P, exceeds the ultimate

shaft load Us, additional load causes shortening

Frictional load of the full length L, so that it may be treated

transfer length

simply as a column carrying the excess load, and

the shortening of L, becomes

friction transfer

A = 4 VT - U&F

3 (19)

MobWed base load t (pr - US) for p, > U, n

Fig. 3. Simplified method of calculating elastic short- As total elastic shortening AE is the sum of the

ening elemental shortenings being brought into play,

for loads P, up to the ultimate shaft load Us

E

the shortening A, is given by n Ds=&

4 LOP, and for

A, z-p (17)

n D,=E,

A$ n & CP&o LF) L, USC1

where Ec is Young’s modulus for the pile material

in compression.

(21)

The second stage represents the elastic short-

ening which takes place during load increase up By the combination of equations (16) and or

to the stage when ultimate shaft friction has been (21) the total settlement pile

mobilized. For uniform friction the elastic short- load the ultimate load may cal-

ening will, at maximum, be equivalent to that of a culated, including a good estimate of elastic

column of length 0.5Lr. However, as Ms and K, shortening.

are both important elements in determining the A computer program has written

early slope of the load/settlement relationship, tate rapid calculation, and given the

and friction development takes place more CEMSET. Help screens been established to

rapidly at the top of this section than at its base, give guidance in choice for

it seems preferable to use an effective column various pile soil.

length slightly lower than 0.5Lr. A series of

elastic shortening comparisons with the present

method have been carried out using the Ran- APPLICATION THE METHOD

dolph and Wroth method in the form of the Having accepted hyperbolic function

PIGLET computer program, based on an elastic closely the load/settlement behaviour

soil of uniform stiffness. These indicate an effec- of piles, the very simple, and

tive column length for this case of O-4Lr. Like- its importance lies in ability link func-

wise, for a uniformly increasing soil stiffness and tion sensibly

strength, from zero at the top of this length, full that should use the asymptotic

mobilization of friction would lead to an effective

column length of 0.67Lr. The elastic method sug- are confusing and

gests that in the early stages of loading an effec- also implies strongly that

tive length of 0.47L, is appropriate. For a typical application any factor load

London clay case, where strength increases lin- alone as a means of controlling deformation is

early from a finite value at the top of the section, crude and

an equivalent column length of 0.45Lr is a reas- The normalized for a wide

onable good approximation. from softest are likely

The effective column length appears to be used to very and soft rocks, are shown

between 70@80% of the distance from the top of Figs 4 5 both and

the friction transfer length to the centroid of the bearing show familiar

friction load transfer diagram. If the coefficient characteristics of pile load/settlement relation-

applied to the friction length to give the effective ships the rigid pile case. Note also that the

column length is denoted as K,, then shortening shape and the function

416 FLEMING

s2

i:

G?

5

54-

Cemset

% analysis: rigid pile

‘,

2

-$$6-

S

$

5 _

rSO

101 , , I I

0 20 40 60 80 100

Load applied/ultimate load: %

for a range of soils from soft to very stiff (Ms = 0+05-0+00!5)

imply that low strain moduli are always one-third separate and back-calculate all the main param-

higher than the E,, value. eters for the pile. As the base reaction stiffens and

It will be observed that, for example, the soil end bearing becomes more ‘brittle’, there is a

modulus below a pile base would be of the order remote possibility that the shaft and base charac-

of say 50000 kN/mZ for a stiff overconsolidated teristics may become too similar to separate

clay with an undrained shear strength approach- mathematically in a reliable way. Only a very

ing 200 kN/m*, giving an E$q, ratio of -30, small proportion of the total range of piles are

whereas the shaft flexibility factor Ms would be likely to be in this category.

-0.002. A simple comparison of the related If Figs 4 and 5 are used to judge pile per-

curves shows that they are very different in char- formance without reference to the formulae, care

acter at this level of soil strength. This means should be taken that the scales are similar to

that, if in a pile test the pile has been pushed suffi- those used in the diagrams. The graphs, however,

ciently far to mobilize a reasonable part of the are fully dimensionless and general given the con-

end bearing curve, the equations may be used to ditions attached to equation (7).

of soils from soft to very stiff: qu = ultimate base pressure (kN/m’); Es =

modulus of soil below base; E,/q, = 5-200; the latter valw corresponds to

soft rock materials

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 417

It should be stressed that good quality test data Effective column length factor K,

are required for accurate mathematical separation This factor converts the length L, to an effec-

during back-analysis. Tests carried out com- tive free column length. It is necessary first to find

mercially are often good enough to give reason- the centroid of friction transfer by calculation.

able indications of the various parameters, but The friction length down to the centroid should

any improvement in test quality leads to much be multiplied by a factor in the range 0.7-0.8. In

greater accuracy. Quality often suffers because of stiff overconsolidated clays, which increase in

an inability to hold loads constant in maintained stiffness with depth, K, is usually -0.45.

load tests, and because test procedures have long

and short load holding periods which give incon-

sistent degrees of consolidation or creep at the Shaftflexibilityfactor M,

various stages. It also appears that the longer This is found to vary from 0.004 in soft to firm

loads are held constant at any stage, the greater or relatively loose soils to -OX)005 in very stiff

are the errors in the measuring system as a result soils or soft rocks. As stated, it lies in the range

of factors such as temperature variation. For the that would be expected from Randolph and

purposes of accurate back-analysis, the settlement Wroth (1978), and decreases with increasing soil

at each load hold should be projected to infinite stiffness. In stiff overconsolidated clays, for

time before plotting the points to be used. It is example, it is found to be in the range O%I-

found that the results of continuous rate of pen- 0.002, although some variations are found, even

etration tests can be analysed approximately, but on a single site, which appear to be related to pile

the stiffness coefficients obtained are naturally type, construction practice, pile straightness and

higher than one obtains from maintained load possibly time-dependent construction processes.

tests. It is also clear that, as Burland & Twine

(1988) suggest, ultimate shaft load is increased

with subsequent decline if this test procedure is Modulus of soil beneath pile base E,

followed, so that rather distorted ultimate load Back-analysis shows this to be one of the most

results are obtained. interesting parameters of the method. It is obvi-

The method described has been used both as a ously related to the intrinsic soil properties, but it

predictive and an analytical tool for maintained is also highly construction dependent. There is a

load tests by Cementation Piling Foundations wide range of choices, depending on whether a

Ltd for three years. It has proved useful in assess- pile is driven or bored, and pile base condition is

ing whether or not piles under test will perform very important.

according to specification, and in discovering Overconsolidation has an important effect on

appropriate parameters to use in future designs. most soils. As site investigations as carried out at

In the analysis mode it is analogous to the signal present are more concerned in practice with

matching procedure now used in dynamic load strength than with deformation, this factor is not

testing, and it similarly requires a certain degree usually directly determinable. Instead, there are

of movement to acquire adequate data. Its advan- several attempts in the literature to establish

tage in comparison with dynamic signal matching stiffnesses by correlation with other soil proper-

lies in the fact that the dynamic procedure ties, for example by Meigh (1987), Burland &

involves many more parameters and at present Burbridge (1985) and Stroud (1989). These are

relies on an inferior bilinear model. The following helpful in regard to the factors that generally

comments on the various parameters may be influence stiffness, but data from a pile loading

helpful. test seem to be best, as they also incorporate the

construction factors. Indeed, it would seem highly

desirable to test piles to higher loads and greater

Diameters settlements than is done at present in order to

The diameters of the shaft and base are regard- establish all the parameters reliably.

ed as known items (Ds and D,J. Equivalent diam-

eters can be used for non-circular sections.

Concrete modulus Ec

In practical terms it seems highly desirable to

Length obtain the E, value directly from the material of

The overall length must be known. The com- the pile. A common figure for concrete piles at the

ponent L, is the free length or length through fill age of test is -30 x lo6 kN/m’, but with high

or soft alluvial deposits from the pile head. These strength mixes and excellent curing conditions in

soft soils rarely contribute significantly to bearing cast-in-place piles, values as high as 50 x lo6

capacity. The component L, is the pile length kN/m’ and infrequently higher seem to occur. A

transmitting load by shaft friction. short extensometer or set of extensometers in the

418 FLEMING

head region of a pile, but outside the zone of all the parameter determinations are greatly

stress concentration below the load application diminished. Using the computer program, it is a

level, seems an adequate answer to the problem. simple matter to investigate sensitivity in any par-

An alternative might be to cast a short dummy ticular case, and it can easily be appreciated that

pile nearby, which could be extracted and tested sensitivity depends on the relative magnitude of

in a testing press concurrent with pile loading. the parameters in individual situations.

At present, conventional means of calculation A large and growing number of field test results

are used for forecasting the ultimate shaft load. have been examined by this method, and it is

However, back-analysis shows that in reality con- clear that with good data piles in a wide range of

ventional calculation is usually conservative but soil conditions follow the calculated form very

occasionally not so, possibly due to installation closely indeed. At present, most of the piles that

techniques that may alter the surrounding soil have been examined are of the cast in place type.

properties. This is particularly likely to happen in Where it is possible to find instrumented pile

the interglacial sands and silts with certain types tests, the data are usually good enough to

of bored pile. confirm that the base alone, the elastic shortening

and the pile as a whole can be modelled closely.

The following examples have been selected

Ultimate base load U, from the database of pile tests back-analysed by

The ultimate base load is also calculated by the method to illustrate its application in a range

conventional means for the purpose of prediction. of ground conditions and for cast in place piles of

Again, using the logical asymptotic definition it different types. It is a simple matter when the

seems from analysis that for deep bases in clay database is sufficiently large to use the method for

soils the N, factor is slightly higher than the con- prediction purposes, as the main parameters are

ventional value of 9. Installation method is of remarkably consistent with specific ground condi-

primary importance, particularly for short piles, tions and installation. The database currently

which rely heavily on end bearing. For conven- extends to some 200 cases. All the input data

tional bored piles in such circumstances the points used in the examples are taken directly

cleaning of bases is important, continuous flight from site records.

auger piles behave well given good construction

techniques, and driven piles obviously densify

cohesionless soils markedly in most cases. The Bored piles in stiflclay soils

stiffness of the soil in such circumstances may be Useful information can be found in Whitaker

increased by a factor of two or three for a driven & Cooke (1966) which deals with instrumented

pile, and is often even higher where the technique tests carried out at Wembley on both straight

of driving bulbs is used. Data on all the param- shafted rotary bored piles and under-reamed

eters are currently being collected for a wide piles. The paper provides information on the soil

range of pile types and ground conditions; it is conditions, and although the majntajned load

hoped to pubhsh the more important findings in data are given in detail over only part of the total

due course. load settlement curve, the ultimate base and shaft

loads are quite accurately known. Whitaker &

Cooke took a definition of failure as correspond-

Sensitivity ing to about 10% of pile base diameter, and the

From the equations and Figs 4 and 5 it will ultimate loads were determined by continuous

readily be appreciated that the most important penetration tests. The data are fuller in some

parameters in the early stages of any pile load set- cases than in others; the maintained load results

tlement relationship are the M, and Ec values. for two straight shafted piles have been chosen

Fortunately, in most cases these parameters have for illustration purposes.

very limited ranges and have only minor effects In each case the compatibility of the solution

on the ultimate shaft friction, end bearing and has been checked against the ultimate load given,

base soil stiffness moduli where movements are and the base/settlement relationship has been

large in back-analysis. The E, and U, values checked independently. These piles were not

have significantly different effects, and with sufti- made to settle sufficiently during the maintained

cient settlement data can be separated readily. load test to give a clear solution for the base from

The most important consideration is that if piles the overall settlement data, but, usefully, this is

are made to settle well beyond the stage where supplemented by records from each pile base,

shaft friction is fully mobilized, potential errors in allowing a full solution to be obtained. The solu-

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 419

x = inputdata \

D, = 0.775 m

D, = 0.775 m

Us= 1994kN

U,= 1002kN

L, = 1.4 m

L, = 10.8 m

M, = 0.0017

E, = 33125

E; = 1.95E + 07

Whltaker & Cooke (1966)

K, = 0.45

--- Base

--- - Elastic shorteni,q

I , I 1 I

Load t

Fig. 6. Comparison of results from the present study with those of Whit-

aker 81 Cooke (1966) : pile H

with all the information supplied. For pile H, It is difficult to find results for under-reamed

Whitaker & Cooke quoted an ultimate shaft load piles that have been made to settle significantly;

of 1960 kN and a base load of 770 kN. These again the work of Whitaker & Cooke (1966) at

figures correspond to asymptotic values of 1994 Wembley provides an interesting case. No satis-

and 1009 kN respectively. For pile N, ultimate factory and straightforward result for the behav-

shaft and base loads were given as 3070 and 870 iour of under-reamed bases at this site could be

kN; the analysis by this method corresponds to found by the matching program until the original

asymptotic values of 3100 and 1068 kN. The paper was studied more carefully. Pile P has been

analysis values correspond closely to the Whit- taken as an example. The under-reaming tool

aker and Cooke values, if 10% of diameter settle- produced a dome-shaped upper surface, and did

ment criterion is taken as defining ultimate load. not at the time conform with usual specification

The method represents well the performance of requirements that the side slope should make an

bored piles in stiff overconsolidated clay. angle of 60” or more with the under-ream floor.

x = lnpuldata

D, = 0.94 m

Db = 0.94 m

U, = 3100 kN

&,=1066kN

I I I I I I

20

0 60 120 180 240 300 360

Load t

Fig. 7. Comparison of results from the present study with those of Whit-

aker & Cooke (1966): pile N

420 FLEMING

x = input data

D, = 1.854 m

I&,= 1.854m

U, = 700 kN

U, = 3940 kN

L, = 0.001 m

L, = 0.5 m

M, = 0.0015

Eb = 53819

E, = 9E + 10

K. = 0.45

----Base

=--G-

0 ’

I

100

Load: t

4 I

150

I I

200

I

Hence the under-ream was cut, then the shaft was expose features of construction that might other-

deepened a little and a second cut was made. This wise go unnoticed.

allowed the composite under-ream to meet the

specification requirement, but inevitably produc-

ed a peripheral surface on which friction could Driven piles in dense sand

act. Once friction was allowed a part in base per- The examples given in Figs 10 and 11 are from

formance, the solution shown in Fig. 8 resulted de Beer, Lousberg, de Jonghe, Wallays & Carpen-

for pile base capacity; the consequent solution for tier (1979). A series of Franki piles, with and

the complete pile is shown in Fig. 9. In the total without enlarged bases, were driven through - 8 m

solution, the 700 kN of shaft resistance on the of very soft clay and peat to a penetration of just

base now appears in the shaft result, and the over 1 m in very dense sand. The enlarged based

overall solution is exactly compatible with that piles were subsequently extracted and measured,

given by Whitaker and Cooke, bearing in mind so the dimensions are fully known.

their criterion of approximately 10% of base Although four of these piles have been exam-

diameter for the ultimate condition. ined in detail, two have been chosen to exemplify

The method can thus represent well the case of the results. Fig. 10 shows the results of analysis

an under-reamed large diameter bored pile in all on pile V in the series, a straight-shafted pile. This

its aspects in stiff overconsolidated clay, and can pile was cast within a 406 mm steel tube: for the

-->

4

! x

Cemsolve

analvsis

input

h-1

;: = m

Db=

1

. U, 2905

U, = 3940 kN

:: L, = 0.5 m

d

Lf = 14.1 m \

M, = 0.0012

ED = 53819

E, = 1.6E + 07

K, = 0.45

---- Elastic shortening

161 I I I I I I I I

0 100 200 300 400

Load: t

Fig. 9. Under-reamed pile P at Wembley: total pile performance

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 421

20- Cemset

analysis

:

c: x = input data

D, = O+ZJ m Pile 5

5

E 40- & = 0.406 m

d U, = 140 kN

% U, = 1790 kN

d

L, = 0.2 m

L, = 1.33 m

60 - M, = 0.001

Eb = 416427

E, = 3.5E + 07

K. = 0.45

406 mm

YY

Load: t

Fig. 10. Result of pile load test on a driven cast-in-place pile at Kallo,

near Antwerp

purpose of calculating elastic shortening the steel piles with enlarged bases. It is of interest to note

area has been converted to equivalent concrete by that the stiffness of the base reaction is substan-

the modular ratio method. The ultimate shaft tially different: this is much more likely to be due

load was very small and could not be determined to construction technique than to natural varia-

accurately, but the base settlement characteristic tion in the founding layer.

clearly conforms with Fig. 5, the soil modulus E,

value being approximately 416000 kN/m’ and

the ratio E,/qu being 30. Bored piles in chalk

Pile 2 (Fig. 11) was driven through a slip-sleeve Figure 12 shows the results of a test on a pile in

arrangement and had an enlarged base. The fric- chalk at Norwich. This was an instrumented pile,

tion on this pile was effectively removed, and the for which data have kindly been provided by Ove

soil modulus below the base now appears as Arup. The chalk in this instance has standard

1000 000 kN/m’. Again the form of the result is as penetration test results of the order of N = 10,

indicated in Fig. 5 (l&/q, = 79). The method rep- and because the pile was instrumented by the

resents well the performance of driven piles in a Building Research Establishment, the base, total

dense sand both for straight-shafted piles and and elastic shortening characteristics were all

o*

20-

Cemset

: analysis Pile 2

5 D, = 0.324 m

Db = 0639 m

E

U, = 0.01 kN

B

:: 60 - IJb = 2890 kN

5 L, = 9.26 m

L, = 0.4 m

M, = 0.001

=

80 - Eb = 5E

E, 1 000 000

+ 07 1

K. = 0.45 e=15mm

539 mm dia.

100 I I I , I

0 60 120 180 240 300

Load: t

Fig. 11. Result of pile load test on a driven cast-in-place pile at Kallo,

near Antwerp

422 FLEMING

--- Base

- --- Elastic shorlemg

I I I \ ,

160 240 320 400

Load. t

measured. Fig. 12 shows the agreement of the ranging up to very hard, and that very good

solution with all the data. It will be observed that matching is possible in all cases.

although the chalk was generally of relatively

poor quality, the base soil modulus is 84000

kN/m’, and while this value may be due to Piles in silty conditions

harder layers in the soft chalk, there is evidence The results of two tests on piles constructed

that even soft chalks show relatively high using continuous flight augers at Shrewsbury in

modulus values. The details of this pile are in very complex silty conditions are shown in Figs

Twine & Grose (1989). 13 and 14. These piles are of interest because they

Again, the method represents well in detail the were made to settle a long way under load. Below

results of an instrumented large diameter pile in some 6 or 7 m of organic silt and clay there were

chalk. This chalk was weak according to the site layers of very silty sands, clayey silts and silty

investigation information, but the end bearing is clays. Results of Dutch cone tests varied violently

higher and the base stiffness is greater than might with friction ratios in the range 2-4. These results

have been expected. The elastic shortening is also and those from standard penetration tests imply

well represented. Note that there are several piles loose to at best medium-dense conditions, with

tested in chalk in the database, with chalk SPT N values increasing from 8 or 9 at the top to

OX__

x Shrewsbury TPl

Cemset

analysis

E 40

x = input data

-:5 D, = 0.75 m

b

ji , !f:

>

/

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Load: t

Fig. 13. 750 mm continuous flight auger pile 27 m long, in Shrewsbury

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 423

OX

Shrewsbury. TP2

2oc

Cemset

.WlalySlS

x = input data

E 40- D, = 0.75 m

i:

& D, = 0.75 m

E U, = 2350 kN

4 t/b = 3709 kN

60-

% L,=6m

6 Lt = 26 m

M, = 0.00095

Eb = 327 686

80 - EC = 34E + 07

K, = 0.53

100 1 I I I 1

0 120 240 360 480 600

Load: t

Fig. 14. 750 mm continuous flight auger pile, 32 m long, in Shrewsbury

about 20-30 near the pile bases. Groundwater between shaft and base, using the least squares

stood near the piling surface level. Towards the curve fitting method contained within the

lower end of each pile conditions became a little analysis program for all the variable parameters.

more sandy, but bands of silty clay and clayey silt The matching and the values of parameters are

persisted. The area is well known for its difficult good and stable, particularly in the case of test

piling conditions. pile 2, where the data quality is better.

The results of test loading are of good quality

and show that in spite of the very mixed ground

conditions, end bearing is a more significant com- Pile in weathered Mercia mudstone

ponent of capacity than might have been Figure 15 shows the results of a test on a con-

expected. The full computer solutions are shown; tinuous flight auger pile founded in a weathered

again good agreements with the hyperbolic equa- Mercia mudstone in the Bristol area. Again the

tion forms are apparent. pile was made to deflect sufficiently to give a

These are long piles, and the Young’s modulus good fix on the various parameters. The soil was

for the concrete may not be exact. If the concrete layered with softer and harder bands in the

modulus is varied it is found to have only a very region of the toe of the pile, but it is evident that

minor influence on the resulting load distribution the pile base behaved in accordance with effective

E, = 4.5E + 07

40

t K, = O-5

I I I , \ I

60 120 180 240 300

Load. t

Fig. 15. Pile founded in weathered Mercia mudstone

424 FLEMING

stress parameters, although for this ground condi- linkage method fits comfortably with the known

tion the modulus of soil below the base is not as increase of secant modulus at low strains.

high as might be expected. The ground consisted The mode1 is intended to take elastic short-

of fill and soft peaty clays to a depth of 7.2 m. ening into account, not to determine it with

Below this was soft clayey silt to just over 10 m absolute precision. It is adequate for the purposes

depth (N = 6). The pile then entered sand and of prediction and analysis. In practice it can have

gravel (N = 49, and at a depth of 14.2 m encoun- little effect on the ultimate states and in particular

tered Mercia mudstone with SPT results up to on the modulus of the soil below the pile base,

N = 120. Water stood at 2.4 m below ground. because in general these determinations involve

This result is of interest because it appears to much larger movements.

be possible to achieve good results even in a vari- The method has been in use for three years,

able and layered founding material. The relatively and has led to a series of improvements in testing

high concrete modulus is indicated by small set- practice, to be covered in a further paper. As

tlements which occurred in the early stages of methods have been improved, the fit of higher

loading. quality data with the model has also improved

noticeably. It should be stressed, however, that a

sensible analysis can only be carried out on piles

Summary of examples that have been made to settle sufficiently to mobi-

The above examples show that using the lize a reasonable part of the end bearing charac-

method, both the form of the load/settlement teristic. In mathematical terms the solution of

relationship and the derived parameters provide a each set of data is simply that of a set of simulta-

very good representation of pile behaviour. Many neous equations, using screen graphics as an aid.

other cases have been examined in an extensive The method calls for an asymptotic definition

range of soils, showing that the method is capable of ultimate loads as originally suggested by Ter-

of a wide range of application provided that tests zaghi (‘We identify the failure of the earth support

produce sufficient data for analysis. with the transition of the (load/settlement) curve

into a vertical tangent’). This removes the need

for multiple definitions, which are mainly strain-

CONCLUSIONS related, for lack of any other means of consider-

The method described is straightforward and ing deflexion constraints. This method, although

its success depends mainly on three factors. These not primarily designed to do so, allows any other

are the accuracy of the model, the parameter definitions to be put in context simply by assign-

linkage and the elastic shortening calculation. ing a limit to deflexion and calculating the corre-

Chin’s method has been used for many years sponding load.

and demonstrates the basis of the model well, In order to use the method correctly in back-

although imperfectly in that it deals with a func- analysis, not only should test piles be moved sufh-

tion of an amalgam of base resistance and shaft ciently to mobilize a significant part of the base

friction load and not with components separately, load, but settlement should be projected under

nor does it take into account adequately elastic each load to infinite time in order to remove time

shortening. Once these problems are dealt with, dependence from the result. An accurate tech-

the model is exceptionally good, as is demon- nique has been developed for this purpose, and

strated in this Paper and elsewhere for cast in will be described in a future paper. Current

place piles. No case in the large number back- testing practice therefore requires some recon-

analysed does not conform to the model with a sideration.

high degree of accuracy. Studies have dealt with Back-analysis of tests shows many interesting

piles carrying load mainly by shaft friction and features; for example, if a pile base is resting on

mainly by end bearing, and with a wide range of debris, the effect becomes obvious. It can also

combinations in many different ground condi- show where the load-bearing soil around a pile

tions. Some tests have involved direct measure- shaft is severely disturbed by a boring process, as

ment of friction and end bearing; these also this leads to significant reductions in expected

indicate the reliability of the model. friction.

The method linking the mode1 with conven- The method implies that to obtain maximum

tional soil parameters is mathematically straight- information from any preliminary test on a site,

forward. It recognizes that only the initial slope of the pile may be constructed to found in the same

the described function, or a single point on it, has ground as intended working piles by the same

to be defined in addition to the origin and the technique, but made to have a smaller diameter.

asymptote. Where the single point method is This would mean for a given load and cost, the

used, this is provided by the conventional secant pile could be made to settle substantially further,

modulus as used in other soil techniques. The allowing good determinations of all the relevant

SINGLE PILE SETTLEMENT PREDICTION 425

parameters. Once the parameters are known, it is settlement of pile base under applied load

necessary only to insert the changes of pile dia- total elastic shortening of pile

meter into the equations to discover the likely settlement of pile shaft under applied load

performance of contract piles, and whether or not total settlement of rigid pile under applied

they will comply with specification. load P

Internal pile instrumentation is expensive and

components of elastic shortening of pile

there are many cases, such as continuous flight

piles, in ln (r,/r,)

auger which full load-recording Poisson’s ratio

equipment cannot at present be inserted to posi- shear stress at pile surface

tions where it would be useful. Subject to the con-

ditions stated, this method would appear to offer

valid results at the reasonably low cost of suffi-

cient load application. Direct measurement of REFERENCES

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The method has been shown to have many Engrs, Part 1, 85, Dec., 132551381.

Burland, J. B. & Twine, D. (1988). The shaft friction of

consequences. The load/deformation performance

bored piles in terms of effective strength. Deep foun-

of piles is not a matter of random behaviour.

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Balkema.

Chin, F. K. (1970). Estimation of the ultimate load of

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Asian Conf: Soil Engng, Singapore, 81-92.

NOTATION Chin, F. K. (1972). The inverse slope as a prediction of

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EC Young’s modulus of pile concrete Paris 2, 29933.

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I &

PLl load applied at pile base Randolph, M. F. (1991). Private communication.

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