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 A leak is a way (usually an opening) for fluid to escape a container or fluid-containing

system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can
escape or outside matter can enter the container.
 Leaks are usually unintended and therefore undesired.
 The word leak usually refers to a gradual loss; a sudden loss is usually called a spill.
 The matter leaking in or out can be gas, liquid, a highly viscous paste, or even a solid
such as a powdered or granular solid or other solid particles.
 Leaks can be a significant source of wasted energy in any industrial operation.
 Leaks occur most often at joints and connections.

The most common problem areas are:

•Couplings, hoses, tubes, and fittings


•Pressure regulators
•Open condensate traps and shut-off valves
•Pipe joints, disconnects, and thread sealants.

Consequences :
 Wasting 20 to 30 percent of a compressor’s output.
 Leaks cause a drop in system pressure, which can make air tools function less efficiently,
adversely affecting production.
 Leaks shorten the life of almost all system equipment - lead to additional maintenance
requirements and increased unscheduled downtime.
Ways to overcome the leak problem :
 Detect and locate the leak source : Inspecting the for leaks
once a week by listening for leaks when all machinery is off
except the air compressor. Ultrasonic detection done by
observing and locating sources of ultrasonic vibrations
created by turbulent flow of gases.
 Fix Leaks In the system : Stopping leaks can be as simple as
tightening a connection or as complex as replacing faulty
equipment.
 Minimizing leakage.
Ways to overcome the leak problem :
 Detect and locate the leak source : Inspecting the for leaks
once a week by listening for leaks when all machinery is off
except the air compressor. Ultrasonic detection done by
observing and locating sources of ultrasonic vibrations
created by turbulent flow of gases.
 Fix Leaks In the system : Stopping leaks can be as simple as
tightening a connection or as complex as replacing faulty
equipment.
 Minimizing leakage.  Effective sealing can be accomplished by using either packing or a
mechanical seal. Though packing and mechanical seals have
similar functions but both have a distinct demand.
 Some criteria for selection of seal in pump applications.

 Pressure of driven equipment


 speed driven equipment
 Fluid properties or characteristic
 Available space radial and axial
 Flushing/ cooling arrangements, utilities in the plant
 Cost and maintenance
 Seal life
 Temperature
 Material