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ABSTRACT

This project entitled “ Overview of Kothagudem Thermal Power Station (O&M), A-


stage” covers the complete operation of electrical energy and distribution. The main objective
of the project is to study the operational behaviour which are provided for generation of
electrical energy.
Steam coal, also known as thermal coal, is used in power stations to generate
electricity. The coal is transported from mines via trains by using bogie open bottom discharge
(B.O.B.R) & Wagon tipper methods. The coal is storage in a I.C.H.P. The bunker is used to
continuous flow of to meet the requirement. The belt feeders are used in coal handling plant
depend upon the capacity of conveyor belt. With the help of feeders the coal is transported the
hoppers to separate the stones from coal because not to damage the conveyor belts. Later, coal
is fed to crusher in order to crush the coal as per the size of requirement. The crushed coal is
feed to the bunker for storage, when the availability of coal exceeds to boiler. Later, the coal is
feed to the ball mills through the conveyor belt. The ball mills are used to pulverized the coal
into fine powder. In these pulverized coal combustion (PCC) systems, the powdered coal is
blown into the combustion chamber of a boiler. This process we observed in K.T.P.S.

The purpose of boiler is converted to steam energy. The conversion of steam can be
done with the help of coal and water. From kinnerasani reservoir, the water will not directly
fed to boiler because of occurance of the corrosion. So, the water is feed to through the
clarifier. In clarifier, the alum is added to remove the dust particles. Later, the water is given to
coagulate tank which is in DM plant. This plant is used to remove the ions in water. Through
the feedwater pump water with high amount of temperature is fed into the boiler. The water
tube boilers are generally with high temperature in order to produce steam. With the help of
water and coal in boiler used to produce steam in high temperature. Hence, this process we
observed in K.T.P.S. Whatever the ash will remain in the boiler is fed into the ash handling
plant. The steam with high temperature is fed into the impulse turbine. This turbine consists
platelets to converts steam into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is fed to the
alternator through shaft. This alternator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
This electrical energy is given to the switch yard which consists of equipments in order to step-
up, step- down based on the consumer’s need. The equipments in switch yard are current
transformer, power transformer, bus bars, feeders, wave traps, lightening arresters. Hence this
matter deals with more about “An overview of Kothagudem Thermal Power Station (O&M),
A- stage”.
INDEX

CH.NO CHAPTER NAME PAGENO.


TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF SYMBOLS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT
1. INTRODUCTION OF TSGENCO

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Profile of KTPS 1
1.3 Renovation & Modernization activities 2
1.4 Stages of KTPS 2
2. BLOCK DIAGRAM 4
3. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

3.1 Rankine Cycle 6


3.2 Reheat Cycle 6
3.3 Regenerative Cycle 7
3.4 Coal to Steam process 8
3.5 Steam to Mechanical process 9
3.6 Mechanical to Electrical process 10
3.7 Electrical power transmission 10
4. STEAM TURBINE

4.1 Definition 11
4.2 Principle of Operation of Steam Turbine 11
4.3 Main Turbine 11
5. BOILER

5.1 Introduction 12
5.2 Definition 12
5.3 Working Principle of boiler 12
5.4 Classification of boiler 12
5.5 Principle of Combustion 12
5.6 Pressure parts 15
5.7 Types of Fans 16
5.8 Air Heaters 18
6. CONDENSERS

6.1 Condensers 19
6.2 Types of Condensers 19
6.3 Condensate Extraction pumps 21
6.4 Gland steam condenser 21
6.5 DE-Aerator 22
7. DE-MINERALIZED WATER PLANT

7.1 Introduction 23
7.2 Use of DM Water Plant 24
8. ELECTROSTATIC PRESPITATOR(ESP)

8.1 Types of Prespitator 25


9. ASH HANDLING SYSTEM

9.1 Wet Handling System 27


9.2 Working Principle of Ash Handling System 27
10. GENERATOR
10.1 Definition 29
10.2 Working Principle 29
10.3 Generator components 30
10.4 Generation cooling 30
10.5 Construction Details 31
10.6 Specification of KTPS 32
11. COAL MILLS AND COAL HANDLING SYSTEM
11.1 Introduction 33
11.2 Types of Coal 33
11.3 Coal handling plant 34
11.4 Introduction of Coal Mills 36
11.5 Types of Mills 36
11.6 Components of Ball Mills 36
11.7 Principle of Operation of Ball Mills 38
11.8 Firing Protection 38
12. COOLING TOWER & CHIMNEY
12.1 Cooling Tower 39
12.2 Chimney 39
13. SWITCH GEAR & PROTECTION
13.1 Switch Yard 40
13.2 Power Transformer 41
13.3 Tap changer 43
13.4 Unit Auxiliary Transformer 44
13.5 Station Transformer 44
13.6 Interbus Transformer 45
13.7 Current Transformer 45
13.8 Potential Transformer 47
13.9 Fuses 48
13.10 Isolator 48
13.10.1 Classification of Isolators 49
13.11 Circuit Breakers 50
13.11.1 Classification of Circuit Breakers 51
13.12 Relays 56
13.12.1 Functional Characteristics of Protective Relay 56
13.12.2 Different types of Relays 57
14. CONCLUSION 60
15. REFERENCES 61
LIST OF SYMBOLS

SYMBOLS: UNITS:
V: - Voltage in Volts
i :- Current in Ampere
z :- Impedance in Ohm
r :- Resistance in Ohm
λ :- Flux linkages in Wb.turn
L :- Inductance in Henry
x :- Reactance in Ohms
ψ :- Flux linkages in Volts
ω :- Angular speed in rad / sec
T :- Torque in Nm
Pin :- Power in Watts
LIST OF FIGURES

FIG.NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE NO.


2.1 Feed water 4
2.2 ID Fan 4
2.3 Pulverized Coal and air system-A 5
3.1 Rankine Cycle 6
3.2 Graph of Reheat Cycle 7
3.3 Reheat Cycle 7
3.4 Regenerative Cycle 8
3.5 Components of coal- fired thermal plant 9
3.6 Schematic diagram of KTPS 10
5.1 Schematic diagram OF Boiler 14
6.1 Condenser 20
7.1 De- Mineralized plant 24
8.1 Electrostatic Precipitators 26
9.1 Ash Handling Plant 28
11.1 Types of Coal 34
11.2 Ball mills 38
12.1 Cooling Tower 39
12.2 Chimney 39
13.1 Switch yard 41
13.2 Power Transformer 42
13.3 Shell & Core Transformer 42
13.4 NO-Load Tap Changer 44
13.5 High Voltage Current Transformer 46
13.6 Current Transformer 46
13.7 Voltage Transformer 47
13.8 SF6 Circuit Breaker 50
13.9 Electric Arc in Oil Circuit Breaker 53
13.10 Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker 54
13.11 Double Arc & Arc Quenching in ABCB 55
13.12 Differential Relay 58
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TABLE NAME PAGENO.


1.1. Capacities of Power Generation 3
13.1 Voltages & Current Ratings of transformer ratings 43
13.2 Station Transformer ratings 45
13.3 Current and Power Transfomer ratings 47
13.4 33KV Circuit Breaker ratings 52
13.5 132KV Circuit Breaker ratings 52
13.6 220KV Circuit Breakers ratings 53