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Setting up the New Silk Road: A allusion à l’ancienne route commerciale

struggle for geopolitical and geo- dans une ancienne Chine avec le Moyen-
economic power. Orient et l’Europe. La «nouvelle route de la
soie», une initiative lancée par la Chine et
Yurian Adriana Bustamante Reyes en Indonésie un mois plus tard. qui pourrait
Diego Guzmán Medina constituer une excellente occasion pour les
Danna Mitchelle Mejía Villarruel parties en termes de développement des
infrastructures, d’établissement de relations
Faculty of Economic and Social sciences, commerciales, de coopération politique et
Business and International Relations d’échanges culturels. Ce grand projet a déjà
La Salle University Bogotá, Colombia des antécédents; Cependant, le Président Xi
Jinping (Président chinois) a annoncé la
retravailler de la même, en expliquant ses
Abstract avantages et tous les détails. Cette
énonciation suscité beaucoup de
For the year 2013, China launched a new controverse dans l’environnement
project that today is an attempt to create an international, c’est pourquoi cette
economic route that connects three recherche mettra en doute les intérêts des
important continents. The current project principaux acteurs internationaux
has been considered an allusion to the old spécialement la Chine et les conséquences
trade route in an ancient China with the pour les pays qui n’exercent pas une grande
Middle East and Europe. The 'New Silk influence dans la scène internationale.
Road', an initiative lead by China and Mots clés: géopolitique, géo-économie,
Indonesia one month later. that could développement, coopération, stratégie,
provide a great opportunity for the parties Chine.
in terms of infrastructure development, __________________________________
establishment of commercial relations,
political cooperation and cultural exchange. Introduction
This great project already has antecedents;
however, the President Xi Jinping (Chinese Under the framework of many changes on
President) announced the reworking of the the part of globalization, the industrial
same, explaining its benefits and all the revolution and the great technological
details. This enunciation generated much innovations, many aspects of the first "Silk
controversy in the international Road" went down to leave few traces of it.
environment, which is why this research It is for the foregoing that for the year 2013
will question the interests of the major Chinese President Xi Jinping announced a
international actors specially China and the contemporary reworking of the "Silk Road"
consequences for those countries that do naming the project 'One Belt, One Road'
not exert great influence in the international (OBOR).
arena. The OBOR, is a reworking of the project
Key words: Geopolitical, geo economy, that involves more interests and of course
development, cooperation, strategy, China. more actors; It also aims to promote, build
and maintain high levels of communication
Résumé and integration in politics, cultural
exchange and the economy. The
Pour l’année 2013, la Chine a lancé un elaboration of this great project has
nouveau projet qui est aujourd’hui une generated doubts, comments and several
tentative de créer un itinéraire économique opinions about the scope that it could have
qui relie trois continents importants. Le in a globalized and modern context like the
projet actuel a été considéré comme une present one. China affirms that this
initiative would be an important source of The concept that has been adopted by
jobs and income for the countries that will United States, has originated approximately
undoubtedly improve the quality of life of a since the decade of 1990 and has even been
large population and in turn the economies postponed until 2011. At the beginning of
will have a free trade exchange that will the 2000s, China managed to position itself
facilitate political integration not only at the after the economic crisis of 2008 as the
regional level but also at the continental main trading partner of the Central Asian
level as well. However, this mega work has region, in which it began to invest with a
been continuously questioned because trade and investment strategy. The initiative
many researchers and government officials to create the new Silk Road, was permeated
affirm that it is a strategy of China to by the interests of the United States, whose
position itself as a hegemon and strongly charge and current Secretary of State
promote interdependence around the world. Hillary Clinton “as part of an exit strategy
Given the above, it is worth asking what the in the United States that emphasizes the
interests of the countries are and what integration of Afghanistan. in the regional
would be the impact of the project on the energy and trade markets, focused on the
countries with less influence in the links with South and Central Asia, but
international environment. without mentioning China (Department of
State of the United States, 2011)”.
History of the Silk Road
Research question
The name that is known today to the route
of the silk, was introduced by Von Based on the importance that the new
Richthofen in the year 1877 and published strategy of the “One Belt, One Road”
in several of its texts on China, by means of proposed by the chinese President has been
folding maps that leave in evidence taken, it is important consider beyond the
important paths,identifying then routes of statements that China has made so far.
silk repres in lets cartographically and China declared that it does not have
extending westward. From China to individual interests over the common
Eurasia. According to the author, "Von interests that the development of the Silk
Richthofen made more precise Road would bring, thereby the research
identification of the lands known in the question is: How the “One Belt, One
Greco Roman World As Carica (the source Road” depicts the commercial, economic
of silk) and named and mapped silk roads and political interests of the great powers
extending westward." such as China and how through the
geopolitical and geoeconomic power
The Silk Road contains a history closely China could get a better position in an
entangled with European imperialism is international scenario?
skirted around in the contemporary
reworking of the concept into `One Belt, The new Silk Road strategy
One Road´ (OBOR) narratives. Sidway and
Yung expose that `One Belt, One In order to promote better communication
Road´(OBOR), an initiative launched by between Asia, Europe and Africa, the
China, consists of a long-term project government of China developed a new
whose main objective is to promote high concept along the Silk Road and the
levels of communication and integration in Maritime Route of the Silk of the 21st
the international community in a economic century (the Belt and the Road, B & R), a
and cultural way. concept that seeks to narrow and strengthen
relations with several regional economic
blocs that allow free trade and increase
maritime connectivity. “Multidimensional refers to “recast rather than simply replaces
impacts of the B&R on the global supply geopolitical calculation.” (p. 25). Based on
chains and maritime connectivity in Kaufman (2004) “Geoeconomics… is
association with infrastructure shorthand for a complex notion: the
development along the corridors and the intersection of economics and finance with
Maritime Silk Road (MSR) need to be global political and security considerations.
examined in order to develop strategic Simply but, geo-economics links the “big
plans for regional cooperation and inter- picture” with the practical realm of
firm collaboration.” (P. T.-W. LEE ET AL., markets.”(As cited in Cowen & Smith,
p.. 2.) 2009, p.38)

The B & R strategy is a very good The main concern is about the geopolitical
opportunity to promote Economic and geoeconomics dynamics in the
Cooperation of the Economic Corridor development of the initiative launched by
formed by China, Mongolia and Russia and the Chinese president in 2013, the
the Silk Road Belt, since these corridors announcement lays out a vision which
will be integrated with each of the rail involve more or less a population of 4
transport networks, both road as by sea billion people, which also include one-third
according to what the authors say in the of the world’s wealth, and it has three main
article " can consequently influence components: energy, security and markets.
existing global supply chains and (Fallon, 2015)., In the article The New Silk
international logistics systems. Current Road: Xi Jinping’s Grand Strategy for
knowledge about B & R is particularly Eurasia, the project is described as
limited to the likely impact of B & R on “reflecting the common ideals and pursuit
commercial flows and network of human societies, it is a positive endeavor
connectivity.”(P. T.-W. LEE ET AL., p.. 2.) to seek new models of international
cooperation and global governance, and
The author of Geostrategic and Military will inject new positive energy into world
Drivers and Implications of the Belt and peace and development” (Fallon, 2015, p.
Road Initiative highlights the strategies on 141)
which the United States bases its
geostrategy to manage the new and The ‘Silk Road’ is not a new or innovative
improved wax routes in both sea and land, initiative of this century, actually it is a
but clarifies the challenge is much greater redesign of and old road that was the major
for China who should use strategies to trade route between Europe and China,
dodge the challenges and inconveniences to when China had a dominant power trade, it
be presented in order to carry out their was in third century B.C and fifteenth
objects of cooperation and liberalization of century A.D., so this initiative could be an
the economy. attempt of China for claiming historical
legitimacy in the región (Fallon, 2015).
First at all, it is important have a notion of Even when the Chinese sources have stated
what it is geopolitics and geoeconomics. that it is not about a tool of geopolitics, they
According Cowen and Smith (2009)., on have not completely ruled out the
one hand, “modern geopolitics arose as a possibility that the “economic cooperation
part of the specific historical and did eventually turn into political influence”
geographical assemblage of modern nation- (Fallon, 2015, p. 142)., which questions the
state making and the rise of capitalism.” (p. true nature of the project, and reaffirms the
23)., so the geopolitics refers to the state main purpose of this paper about how the
power and security between other states and geopolitics and geoeconomics dynamics set
territories ; on the other hand geoeconomics up and to have a huge influence in an
initiative such the Silk Road and the established its commercial, political and
Maritime Silk Road. economic benefits over the same benefits in
other countries involved in the “One Belt,
In the article China and the New one Road”. The descriptive analysis is
Geopolitics of Central Asia, Walsh argued going to describe in general terms some
that the “One Belt, One Road” initiative is indexes and indicators that could be
where China could find a new role in affected by the project in its three paths: the
regional affairs, and there it would make the maritime route, the commercial railway and
best use of its political, economic and its China-Pakistan commercial route.
military resources. To continue with the
main thesis of the paper, “China’s ability to Analysis
play in the new geopolitical game in Central
Asia is based on “comprehensive national For the descriptive analysis and according
strength” as well as traditional interests. to the investigation: the GDP (annual %
Geography also favors its role in Central growth), the gross capital formation (annual
Asia since three of the five republics border % growth), the trade and finally, it could be
Xinjiang.” (Walsh, 1993, p. 274). Finally, said that the population is the less relevant;
the possible benefits of economic those mentioned before are the indicators
cooperation and the need for political considered important for this analysis.
stability have been achieved through the Additionally, the analysis was made taking
Chinese diplomacy. three years before the announcement of the
“One road, One Belt” and four years after
Methodology: This paper is going to be the announcement, in order to analyze
developed mainly through a qualitative deeply the behavior of the variables,
method, however is going to have also a looking for a significant change after the
quantitative section, which is going to be a announcement, with a total of 8 years.
descriptive analysis. First at all, the main Likewise in every path was taken the total
authors on the “Silk Road” were taken as countries instead of the cities which are
references, to make a theoretical analysis of involved in the routes and those that have
the main components as well as the main agreed so far. In general terms the countries
actors involved in the project, the main involved so far are: China, Tajikistan,
authors were determined by a larger search Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkey,
and a filter focused on the main topics Russia, Germany, Netherlands, Italy,
related to the topic such as: geoeconomic, Greece, Kenya, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia,
geopolitics, among other. Malaysia, Vietnam and Pakistan,
The majority of the literature is secondary connecting in that way the three continents.
sources which provide to the paper primary So, each variable is understood according
data and after that the data was analyzed the World Bank as:
deeply. Some tertiaries sources were taken
such as events where the “One Belt, One GDP (annual % growth): Percentage
Road” has been mentioned. Once the whole annual growth rate of GDP at market prices.
sources were obtained, they were studied The aggregates are expressed in USD at
and analyzed through a further reading in constant prices for the year 2010. GDP is
order to get the necessary information for the sum of the gross added value of all
building the state of art or the theoretical producers resident in the economy plus all
framework. taxes on products, minus any subsidy not
Once the state of art were built, some included in the value of the products. It is
statistics were searched in order to analyze calculated without making deductions for
the possible impact that China could have depreciation of manufactured goods or for
with the building of the project, in order to
depletion and degradation of natural
resources.
Gross Capital Formation (Annual %
growth): Annual growth rate of gross
capital formation based on constant local
currency. Aggregates are based on constant
2010 U.S. dollars. Gross capital formation
(formerly gross domestic investment)
consists of outlays on additions to the fixed
assets of the economy plus net changes in
the level of inventories. Fixed assets
include land improvements (fences,
ditches, drains, and so on); plant,
machinery, and equipment purchases; and
the construction of roads, railways, and the
like, including schools, offices, hospitals,
private residential dwellings, and
commercial and industrial buildings.
Inventories are stocks of goods held by
firms to meet temporary or unexpected
fluctuations in production or sales, and
"work in progress." According to the 1993
SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also 2) Railway Route
considered capital formation.

Trade (% of GDP): Trade is the sum of


exports and imports of goods and services,
measured as a proportion of GDP.
Population, Total: Total population is
based on the de facto definition of
population, which counts all residents
regardless of legal status or citizenship. The
values shown are mid year estimates.

Results

First at all, the analysis was made in three


parts according every route designed, and
China is part of all and every path, it means
that all routes pass through China, whether
is maritime or railway.

China is the country with the highest GDP


annual % growth and highest population,
over its neighbors countries in the different
three paths as it is shown below.

1) China-Pakistan Railway.
3) Maritime Route

2) Railway Route

However its annual % growth is


followed closely by its pairs, like
the measures of tendency and
dispersion show it in the descriptive
analysis.

In the case that the gross capital


formation (annual % growth) and
the trade(% of GDP) China does not
have the highest score, but in those
indicators the country has atypical
data, which can interfere in the 3) Maritime Route
results and also in its analysis. It
should be noted that it is not the
only country with such atypical
data. But anyway its scores are
relatively high in comparison with
some of its pairs.

1) China-Pakistan Railway
As (Li, Qian, Howard, & Wu, 2015)
express it, and according to the results
obtained in this research even when the
“One Belt, One Road” project promises that
will bring many opportunities specially for
Central Asian countries,to develop faster in
economy, creating wealth and prosperity
and a fast development for China too. It also
has some concerns about the environment
such the arid climate, the limited
The previous graphics are supported by the availability of water resources, fossil
measures of tendency and dispersion shown energy resources, air quality, land
in the appendices. degradation, soil pollution and salinization,
however the damage caused could be
Even when China has some advantages minimized as much as possible by helping
over its neighbors countries, it has been and cooperation between all countries
investing more money in the whole project involved, it requires a lot scientific
and it cannot be forgotten that the three research, an environmental monitoring, and
paths pass through China which could finally through education, the last is a
enhance its benefits or its positioning at the critical and important key in the
international level. development and success of this project .
To conclude, in the project is required not
Discussion and Conclusions just the funds for developing it, the
compromise of every country involved in
Making just a descriptive analysis for this this is essential, countries should achieve
type of investigation is not enough for free trade agreements in order to reduce and
getting the wished results. The analysis to eliminate barriers, also to conclude some
should contain more variables and propose bilateral arrangements, as well as liberalize
a model which could analyze the possible markets, all of this with the purpose of
impact of a project of that dimension not reaching a successful Silk Road and
just for China but for the entire world. Maritime Silk Road working through Asia,
China and finally Europe.
On one hand, the results of the quantitative
method did not confirm or refuse the
different interests or the wishes from China References
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7.1400189
The World Bank. (27 de Mayo de 2019). GDP=data.frame(cbind(`GDP(CHI)`
The World Bank Data. Obtenido de ,`GDP(PAK)`))
https://data.worldbank.org/ GROSS_CAPITAL=data.frame(cbind(
`GROSS_CAPITAL(CHI)`,`GROSS_CAP
Veselova, E. S. (2018). On the ITAL(PAK)`))
Periphery of the Great Silk Road. COMMERCE=data.frame(cbind(`COMM
Problems of Economic Transition, ERCE(CHI)`,`COMMERCE(PAK)`))
60(1–3), 86–89. POPULATION=data.frame(cbind(`PO
https://doi.org/10.1080/10611991.201
PULATION(CHI)`,`POPULATION(PAK)
8.1456202
`))
Walsh, J. R. (1993). China and the
New Geopolitics of Central Asia. summary(GDP)
Asian Survey, 33(3), 272–284.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2645251 ## GDP.CHI.
Wang Zhi. (2016). China’s New Silk GDP.PAK.
Road Strategy and Foreign Policy ## Min. : 6.700 Min.
Toward Central Asia. Retrieved :1.607
March 7, 2019, from ## 1st Qu.: 6.900 1st
https://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract? Qu.:3.317
direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=sit ## Median : 7.528 Median
e&authtype=crawler&jrnl=1083074X :4.536
&AN=127337622&h=NK%2f6Cmz1 ## Mean : 7.948 Mean
ACyObGm2jO%2fB2uLzy6z1HAkh :4.111
hbS8%2frHRvMsWtQkAn67sJfoNy6 ## 3rd Qu.: 8.276 3rd
hX9WooUISJ1RgEWM%2f3U9l2W Qu.:4.930
SVh2g%3d%3d&crl=c&resultNs=Ad ## Max. :10.636 Max.
minWebAuth&resultLocal=ErrCrlNo :5.701
tAuth&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdire
ct%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26sc summary(GROSS_CAPITAL)
ope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler
%26jrnl%3d1083074X%26AN%3d1 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.CHI.
2733762 GROSS_CAPITAL.PAK.
## Min. : 4.894 Min.
:-6.6988
## 1st Qu.: 6.342 1st Qu.:
Annexes
0.2723
## Median : 7.549 Median :
Descriptive Analysis developed in the 2.7667
statistic software rStudio ## Mean : 8.578 Mean :
3.2762
CHINA-PAKISTAN RAILWAY ## 3rd Qu.: 9.637 3rd Qu.:
library(readxl) 7.8407
Railway_China_Pakistan <- ## Max. :16.584 Max.
read_excel("C:/Users/USUARIO1/D :14.5501
esktop/Railway_China_Pakistan.x
summary(COMMERCE)
lsx")
View(Railway_China_Pakistan) ## COMMERCE.CHI.
attach(Railway_China_Pakistan) COMMERCE.PAK.
## Min. :37.03 Min.
:25.31
## 1st Qu.:39.04 1st ## [1] 16978535
Qu.:27.19
## Median :45.72 Median sd(`POPULATION(PAK)`)
:31.85 ## [1] 9288756
## Mean :44.17 Mean
:30.20 boxplot(GDP, main= "GDP (ANNUAL
## 3rd Qu.:48.30 3rd % GROWTH", sub= "Own
Qu.:32.89 Elaboration, 2019", col=
## Max. :50.60 Max. "skyblue")
:33.33

summary(POPULATION)

## POPULATION.CHI.
POPULATION.PAK.
## Min. :1.338e+09 Min.
:170560182
## 1st Qu.:1.349e+09 1st
Qu.:176979716
## Median :1.361e+09 Median
:183629426
## Mean :1.361e+09 Mean
:183689347
## 3rd Qu.:1.373e+09 3rd boxplot(GROSS_CAPITAL, main=
Qu.:190336254 "GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION
## Max. :1.386e+09 Max. (ANNUAL % GROWTH)", sub= "Own
:197015955 Elaboration, 2019", col =
"orange")
sd(`GDP(CHI)`)

## [1] 1.412724
sd(`GDP(PAK)`)

## [1] 1.404485

sd(`GROSS_CAPITAL(CHI)`)

## [1] 3.635336

sd(`GROSS_CAPITAL(PAK)`)

## [1] 7.35981
boxplot(COMMERCE, main=
sd(`COMMERCE(CHI)`) "COMMERCE", sub= "Own
## [1] 5.332725 Elaboration", col = "gold")

sd(`COMMERCE(PAK)`)

## [1] 3.414723

sd(`POPULATION(CHI)`)
## [1] 0.9634791

RAILWAY ROUTE
library(readxl)
Corredor_Economico <-
read_excel("C:/USers/USUARIO1/D
esktop/Corredor_Economico.xlsx"
)
attach(Corredor_Economico)
View(Corredor_Economico)

DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

boxplot(POPULATION, main= 1) RAILWAY ROUTE


"POPULATION", sub= "Own PIB=data.frame(cbind(`PIB(CHI)`
Elaboration, 2019", col = , `PIB(GER)`, `PIB(IRA)`,
"violet") `PIB(KAZ)`, `PIB(NET)`,
`PIB(RUSS)`, `PIB(TAJ)`,
`PIB(TUR)`, `PIB(UZB)`))

GROSS_CAPITAL_FROMATION=data.fr
ame(cbind(`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMAT
ION(CHI)`,`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMAT
ION(GER)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(IRA)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(KAZ)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(NET)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(RUSS)`
,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(TAJ)`,
cor(`GDP(CHI)`, `GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(TUR)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(CHI)`+`COMMERCE( `GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(UZB)`)
CHI)`) )

## [1] 0.9203571 COMMERCE=data.frame(cbind(`COMM


ERCE(CHI)`, `COMMERCE(GER)`,
cor(`GDP(CHI)`, `COMMERCE(IRA)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(CHI)`+`COMMERCE( `COMMERCE(KAZ)`,
CHI)`+`POPULATION(CHI)`) `COMMERCE(NET)`,
`COMMERCE(RUSS)`,
## [1] -0.8890778 `COMMERCE(TAJ)`,
cor(`GDP(PAK)`, `COMMERCE(TUR)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(PAK)`+`COMMERCE( `COMMERCE(UZB)`))
PAK)`) POPULATION=data.frame(cbind(`PO
## [1] 0.6673212 PULATION(CHI)`,
`POPULATION(GER)`,
cor(`GDP(PAK)`, `POPULATION(IRA)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(PAK)`+`COMMERCE( `POPULATION(KAZ)`,
PAK)`+`POPULATION(PAK)`) `POPULATION(NET)`,
`POPULATION(RUSS)`, ## Min. :5.300
`POPULATION(TAJ)`, ## 1st Qu.:7.798
`POPULATION(TUR)`, ## Median :8.000
`POPULATION(UZB)`)) ## Mean :7.737
## 3rd Qu.:8.225
summary(PIB) ## Max. :8.500
## PIB.CHI. sd(`PIB(CHI)`)
PIB.GER. PIB.IRA.
PIB.KAZ. ## [1] 1.412724
## Min. : 6.700 Min.
:0.4896 Min. :-7.4446 sd(`PIB(GER)`)
Min. :1.100 ## [1] 1.292048
## 1st Qu.: 6.900 1st
Qu.:1.4272 1st Qu.:-0.4757 sd(`PIB(IRA)`)
1st Qu.:3.375
## Median : 7.528 Median ## [1] 6.049596
:2.1676 Median : 3.2005
sd(`PIB(KAZ)`)
Median :4.500
## Mean : 7.948 Mean ## [1] 2.428661
:2.1297 Mean : 2.6549
Mean :4.513 sd(`PIB(NET)`)
## 3rd Qu.: 8.276 3rd
Qu.:2.5967 3rd Qu.: 4.9020 ## [1] 1.356714
3rd Qu.:6.325 sd(`PIB(RUSS)`)
## Max. :10.636 Max.
:4.0799 Max. :13.3962 ## [1] 2.661008
Max. :7.400
## PIB.NET. sd(`PIB(TAJ)`)
PIB.RUSS. PIB.TAJ.
## [1] 0.5674573
PIB.TUR.
## Min. :-1.030 Min. :- sd(`PIB(TUR)`)
2.8282 Min. :6.008 Min.
: 3.184 ## [1] 2.535573
## 1st Qu.: 1.035 1st Qu.:
0.4977 1st Qu.:6.660 1st sd(`PIB(UZB)`)
Qu.: 5.072 ## [1] 1.014035
## Median : 1.755 Median :
1.7161 Median :7.137 Median var(PIB)
: 6.764
## Mean : 1.434 Mean : ## PIB.CHI.
1.8203 Mean :7.002 Mean PIB.GER. PIB.IRA. PIB.KAZ.
: 6.845 PIB.NET.
## 3rd Qu.: 2.303 3rd Qu.: ## PIB.CHI. 1.995788865
3.8679 3rd Qu.:7.422 3rd 1.1920771 -0.2509628 2.8764899
Qu.: 8.488 0.1351234
## Max. : 2.869 Max. : ## PIB.GER. 1.192077134
5.2849 Max. :7.617 Max. 1.6693884 4.3163942 1.1183369
:11.113 1.2916939
## PIB.UZB. ## PIB.IRA. -0.250962809
4.3163942 36.5976077 -3.2793373 var(GROSS_CAPITAL_FROMATION)
5.8182690
## PIB.KAZ. 2.876489899 ##
1.1183369 -3.2793373 5.8983929 GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
-0.6089698 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
## PIB.NET. 0.135123434 13.215669
1.2916939 5.8182690 -0.6089698 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER.
1.8406741 14.253960
## PIB.RUSS. 2.980475399 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA.
1.3022006 -2.2604392 5.8209904 8.147192
-0.7240414 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ.
## PIB.TAJ. -0.004443891 - -2.706341
0.1997390 -0.6965096 0.5873380 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET.
-0.2972271 -9.958788
## PIB.TUR. 2.414491616 ##
1.4600426 -2.5335295 4.8640367 GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS.
0.3803711 37.830486
## PIB.UZB. 0.716639703 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ.
0.1428849 -0.8534911 0.5969410 1.011535
-0.5544884 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR.
## PIB.RUSS. 24.873939
PIB.TAJ. PIB.TUR. PIB.UZB. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB.
## PIB.CHI. 2.9804754 - 0.163821
0.004443891 2.4144916 ##
0.7166397 GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER.
## PIB.GER. 1.3022006 - ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
0.199738992 1.4600426 14.253960
0.1428849 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER.
## PIB.IRA. -2.2604392 - 39.717704
0.696509618 -2.5335295 - ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA.
0.8534911 34.130282
## PIB.KAZ. 5.8209904 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ.
0.587337998 4.8640367 -17.697080
0.5969410 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET.
## PIB.NET. -0.7240414 - -4.495600
0.297227081 0.3803711 - ##
0.5544884 GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS.
## PIB.RUSS. 7.0809637 64.966920
0.865868641 4.0135047 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ.
0.5499787 1.255313
## PIB.TAJ. 0.8658686 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR.
0.322007757 0.3802864 - 48.367047
0.2285449 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB.
## PIB.TUR. 4.0135047 -5.360677
0.380286373 6.4291283 ##
0.1658942 GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA.
## PIB.UZB. 0.5499787 - ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
0.228544881 0.1658942 8.1471916
1.0282663 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER.
34.1302821 ##
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA. GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS.
81.2891428 -68.1074102
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ.
-19.8703394 -0.7236256
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR.
-52.1898778 3.5282260
## ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB.
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS. -3.3680034
54.8842620 ##
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ. GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS.
0.7695781 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR. 37.830486
29.0922708 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB. 64.966920
-4.9839185 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA.
## 54.884262
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. -18.758232
-2.7063405 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER. -68.107410
-17.6970800 ##
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA. GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS.
-19.8703394 247.084103
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ.
13.4326786 4.749100
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR.
-5.9738049 86.176023
## ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB.
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS. -9.818305
-18.7582323 ##
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ. GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ.
-0.2931979 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR. 1.0115354
-21.3463292 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB. 1.2553126
4.0295808 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA.
## 0.7695781
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. -0.2931979
-9.9587879 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER. -0.7236256
-4.4955997 ##
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA. GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS.
-52.1898778 4.7491000
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ.
-5.9738049 0.1099902
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET. ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR.
130.1220466 1.9433289
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB. ## COMMERCE.CHI. 28.437956
-0.1129821 -4.519739 3.042432
## 35.479157
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR. ## COMMERCE.GER. -4.519739
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. 4.989926 1.781675 -
24.873939 7.681184
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER. ## COMMERCE.IRA. 3.042432
48.367047 1.781675 13.179778
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA. 8.584721
29.092271 ## COMMERCE.KAZ. 35.479157
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ. -7.681184 8.584721
-21.346329 58.010088
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET. ## COMMERCE.NET. -28.751714
3.528226 16.048591 1.078816 -
## 48.149539
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS. ## COMMERCE.RUSS. 2.289035
86.176023 -2.030624 -3.421583
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ. 1.576368
1.943329 ## COMMERCE.TAJ. 56.561072
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR. -5.381913 14.794136
85.968344 83.551586
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB. ## COMMERCE.TUR. 1.177676
-7.465634 4.923669 4.602888
## 1.029493
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB. ## COMMERCE.UZB. 9.679648
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. 1.698180 13.610040
0.1638210 23.169015
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.GER. ## COMMERCE.NET.
-5.3606767 COMMERCE.RUSS. COMMERCE.TAJ.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.IRA. COMMERCE.TUR.
-4.9839185 ## COMMERCE.CHI. -28.751714
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.KAZ. 2.2890350 56.5610716
4.0295808 1.177676
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.NET. ## COMMERCE.GER. 16.048591
-3.3680034 -2.0306241 -5.3819134
## 4.923669
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.RUSS. ## COMMERCE.IRA. 1.078816
-9.8183050 -3.4215832 14.7941359
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TAJ. 4.602888
-0.1129821 ## COMMERCE.KAZ. -48.149539
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.TUR. 1.5763682 83.5515862
-7.4656343 1.029493
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.UZB. ## COMMERCE.NET. 65.547026
2.0436852 -5.6701427 -57.2406637
11.266130
var(COMMERCE) ## COMMERCE.RUSS. -5.670143
2.1770210 0.9746851 -
## COMMERCE.CHI.
1.827340
COMMERCE.GER. COMMERCE.IRA.
## COMMERCE.TAJ. -57.240664
COMMERCE.KAZ.
0.9746851 156.9823299 3.011794e+12
5.163000 ##
## COMMERCE.TUR. 11.266130 POPULATION.KAZ. POPULATION.NET.
-1.8273404 5.1630000 POPULATION.RUSS.
8.243747 ## POPULATION.CHI.
## COMMERCE.UZB. -10.421870 1.024731e+13 2.934726e+12
-1.4650899 35.5071715 1.060650e+13
11.380531 ## POPULATION.GER.
## COMMERCE.UZB. 3.721503e+11 1.098489e+11
## COMMERCE.CHI. 9.679648 4.035088e+11
## COMMERCE.GER. 1.698180 ## POPULATION.IRA.
## COMMERCE.IRA. 13.610040 1.404477e+12 4.005814e+11
## COMMERCE.KAZ. 23.169015 1.455869e+12
## COMMERCE.NET. -10.421870 ## POPULATION.KAZ.
## COMMERCE.RUSS. -1.465090 3.644544e+11 1.041526e+11
## COMMERCE.TAJ. 35.507171 3.776261e+11
## COMMERCE.TUR. 11.380531 ## POPULATION.NET.
## COMMERCE.UZB. 39.989585 1.041526e+11 3.008263e+10
1.072182e+11
var(POPULATION) ## POPULATION.RUSS.
## 3.776261e+11 1.072182e+11
POPULATION.CHI. POPULATION.GER. 3.944884e+11
## POPULATION.TAJ.
POPULATION.IRA.
2.710942e+11 7.747781e+10
## POPULATION.CHI.
2.808208e+11
2.882706e+14 1.057982e+13
## POPULATION.TUR.
3.947332e+13
1.792239e+12 5.122814e+11
## POPULATION.GER.
1.857566e+12
1.057982e+13 8.168932e+11
1.409584e+12 ## POPULATION.UZB.
## POPULATION.IRA. 7.814488e+11 2.237227e+11
3.947332e+13 1.409584e+12 8.061379e+11
5.415137e+12 ##
## POPULATION.KAZ. POPULATION.TAJ. POPULATION.TUR.
POPULATION.UZB.
1.024731e+13 3.721503e+11
## POPULATION.CHI.
1.404477e+12
7.622609e+12 5.039749e+13
## POPULATION.NET.
2.197146e+13
2.934726e+12 1.098489e+11
## POPULATION.GER.
4.005814e+11
2.761245e+11 1.844006e+12
## POPULATION.RUSS.
1.060650e+13 4.035088e+11 7.589150e+11
1.455869e+12 ## POPULATION.IRA.
## POPULATION.TAJ. 1.044747e+12 6.906014e+12
7.622609e+12 2.761245e+11 3.011794e+12
1.044747e+12 ## POPULATION.KAZ.
2.710942e+11 1.792239e+12
## POPULATION.TUR.
7.814488e+11
5.039749e+13 1.844006e+12
## POPULATION.NET.
6.906014e+12
7.747781e+10 5.122814e+11
## POPULATION.UZB.
2.237227e+11
2.197146e+13 7.589150e+11
## POPULATION.RUSS. boxplot(COMMERCE, main=
2.808208e+11 1.857566e+12 "COMMERCE", sub= "Own
8.061379e+11 Elaboration, 2019", col =
## POPULATION.TAJ. "yellow")
2.016564e+11 1.333137e+12
5.812962e+11
## POPULATION.TUR.
1.333137e+12 8.814138e+12
3.841252e+12
## POPULATION.UZB.
5.812962e+11 3.841252e+12
1.681574e+12

boxplot(PIB, main= "GDP GROWTH


(ANNUAL %)", sub= "Own
Elaboration, 2019", col =
"red")

boxplot(POPULATION, main=
"POPULATION, TOTAL", sub= "Own
Elaboration, 2019", col =
"green")

boxplot(GROSS_CAPITAL_FROMATION
, main= "GROSS CAPITAL
FORMATION (ANNUAL % GROWTH)",
sub= "Own Elaboration, 2019",
col = "blue")

cor(`PIB(CHI)`,`GROSS_CAPITAL_F
ORMATION(CHI)`+`COMMERCE(CHI)`)

## [1] 0.9203571
cor(`PIB(CHI)`,`GROSS_CAPITAL_F `COMMERCE(NET)`+`POPULATION(NET
ORMATION(CHI)`+`COMMERCE(CHI)`+ )`)
`POPULATION(CHI)`)
## [1] 0.3597818
## [1] -0.8890778
cor(`PIB(RUSS)`,
cor(`PIB(GER)`, `GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(RUSS)`
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(GER)`+ +`COMMERCE(NET)`)
`COMMERCE(GER)`, use =
"everything") ## [1] 0.7375674

## [1] 0.8514298 cor(`PIB(RUSS)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(RUSS)`
cor(`PIB(GER)`, +`COMMERCE(RUSS)`+
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(GER)`+ `POPULATION(RUSS)`)
`COMMERCE(GER)`+`POPULATION(GER
)`) ## [1] -0.7844357

## [1] 0.227057 cor(`PIB(TAJ)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(TAJ)`+
cor(`PIB(IRA)`, `COMMERCE(TAJ)`)
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(IRA)`+
`COMMERCE(IRA)`) ## [1] 0.4898274

## [1] 0.5601299 cor(`PIB(TUR)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(TAJ)`+
cor(`PIB(IRA)`, `COMMERCE(TAJ)`+`POPULATION(TAJ
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(IRA)`+ )`)
`COMMERCE(IRA)`+`POPULATION(IRA
)`) ## [1] -0.5317128

## [1] 0.3023674 cor(`PIB(TUR)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(TUR)`+
cor(`PIB(KAZ)`, `COMMERCE(TUR)`)
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(KAZ)`+
`COMMERCE(KAZ)`) ## [1] 0.9026495

## [1] 0.7144167 cor(`PIB(TUR)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(TUR)`+
cor(`PIB(KAZ)`, `COMMERCE(TUR)`+`POPULATION(TUR
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(KAZ)`+ )`)
`COMMERCE(KAZ)`+`POPULATION(KAZ
)`) ## [1] -0.531093

## [1] -0.7991273 cor(`PIB(UZB)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(UZB)`+
cor(`PIB(NET)`, `COMMERCE(UZB)`)
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(NET)`+
`COMMERCE(NET)`) ## [1] -0.4466344

## [1] 0.1314009 cor(`PIB(UZB)`,


`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(UZB)`+
cor(`PIB(NET)`, `COMMERCE(UZB)`+`POPULATION(UZB
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(NET)`+ )`)
## [1] -0.7414654 `POPULATION(ITA)`,
`POPULATION(KEN)`,
`POPULATION(MAL)`,
`POPULATION(NDO)`,
`POPULATION(NET)`,
MARITIME ROUTE `POPULATION(SRI)`,
`POPULATION(VIE)`))
library(readxl)
Maritime_Route <- summary(GDP)
read_excel("C:/Users/USUARIO1/D
esktop/Maritime_Route.xlsx") ## GDP.CHI.
View(Maritime_Route) GDP.GREE. GDP.IND.
attach(Maritime_Route) GDP.ITA.
## Min. : 6.700 Min. :-
GDP=data.frame(cbind(`GDP(CHI)` 9.13249 Min. :5.241 Min.
, `GDP(GREE)`, `GDP(IND)`, :-2.8190
`GDP(ITA)`, `GDP(KEN)`, ## 1st Qu.: 6.900 1st Qu.:-
`GDP(MAL)`, `GDP(NDO)`, 5.93440 1st Qu.:6.154 1st
`GDP(NET)`, `GDP(SRI)`, Qu.:-0.3468
`GDP(VIE)`)) ## Median : 7.528 Median :-
1.83963 Median :7.289
GROSS_CAPITAL=data.frame(cbind(
Median : 0.7503
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(CHI)`,
## Mean : 7.948 Mean :-
`GROSS_CAPITAL(GREE)`,
2.94217 Mean :7.041 Mean
`GROSS_CAPITAL(IND)`,
: 0.1839
`GROSS_CAPITAL(ITA)`,
## 3rd Qu.: 8.276 3rd Qu.:
`GROSS_CAPITAL(KEN)`,
0.04173 3rd Qu.:8.040 3rd
`GROSS_CAPITAL(MAL)`,
Qu.: 1.2521
`GROSS_CAPITAL(NDO)`,
## Max. :10.636 Max. :
`GROSS_CAPITAL(NET)`,
1.50510 Max. :8.498 Max.
`GROSS_CAPITAL(SRI)`,
: 1.6865
`GROSS_CAPITAL(SRI)`,
## GDP.KEN. GDP.MAL.
`GROSS_CAPITAL(VIE)`))
GDP.NDO. GDP.NET.
COMMERCE=data.frame(cbind(`COMM ## Min. :4.563 Min.
ERCE(CHI)`, `COMMERCE(GREE)`, :4.223 Min. :4.876 Min.
`COMMERCE(IND)`, :-1.030
`COMMERCE(ITA)`, ## 1st Qu.:5.236 1st
`COMMERCE(KEN)`, Qu.:4.992 1st Qu.:5.026 1st
`COMMERCE(MAL)`, Qu.: 1.035
`COMMERCE(NDO)`, ## Median :5.794 Median
`COMMERCE(NET)`, :5.384 Median :5.312 Median
`COMMERCE(NET)`, : 1.755
`COMMERCE(SRI)`, ## Mean :5.847 Mean
`COMMERCE(VIE)`)) :5.513 Mean :5.496 Mean
: 1.434
POPULATION=data.frame(cbind(`PO ## 3rd Qu.:5.936 3rd
PULATION(CHI)`, Qu.:5.924 3rd Qu.:6.065 3rd
`POPULATION(GREE)`, Qu.: 2.303
`POPULATION(IND)`, ## Max. :8.406 Max.
`POPULATION(ITA)`, :7.425 Max. :6.224 Max.
: 2.869 ## 3rd Qu.: 2.7505 3rd
## GDP.SRI. GDP.VIE. Qu.:10.957 3rd Qu.: 9.623
## Min. :3.309 Min. ## Max. : 5.4635 Max.
:5.247 :11.372 Max. :23.880
## 1st Qu.:4.201 1st ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO.
Qu.:5.843 GROSS_CAPITAL.NET.
## Median :4.984 Median GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI.
:6.226 ## Min. :-6.063 Min.
## Mean :5.838 Mean :-6.7398 Min. :-8.831
:6.127 ## 1st Qu.: 2.963 1st
## 3rd Qu.:8.113 3rd Qu.:-2.5310 1st Qu.: 9.597
Qu.:6.487 ## Median : 5.322 Median
## Max. :9.145 Max. :-0.9537 Median :18.951
:6.812 ## Mean : 4.371 Mean :
2.4495 Mean :14.197
summary(GROSS_CAPITAL) ## 3rd Qu.: 6.235 3rd Qu.:
2.6550 3rd Qu.:20.711
##
GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. ## Max. :10.981 Max.
GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE. :29.1403 Max. :27.104
GROSS_CAPITAL.IND. ## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1
## Min. : 4.894 GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE.
Min. :-24.008 Min. :- ## Min. :-8.831 Min.
:-6.838
3.707
## 1st Qu.: 9.597 1st
## 1st Qu.: 6.342
Qu.: 4.681
1st Qu.:-14.825 1st Qu.:
## Median :18.951 Median
3.854
: 8.673
## Median : 7.549
## Mean :14.197 Mean
Median :-10.343 Median :
4.512 : 5.936
## Mean : 8.578 ## 3rd Qu.:20.711 3rd
Mean : -7.040 Mean : Qu.: 9.208
5.623 ## Max. :27.104 Max.
## 3rd Qu.: 9.637 :10.406
3rd Qu.: 6.226 3rd Qu.: summary(COMMERCE)
8.360
## Max. :16.584 ## COMMERCE.CHI.
Max. : 9.954 Max. COMMERCE.GREE. COMMERCE.IND.
:14.079 COMMERCE.ITA.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA. ## Min. :37.03 Min.
GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN. :52.83 Min. :40.16 Min.
GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL. :52.35
## Min. :-14.9014 Min. ## 1st Qu.:39.04 1st
:-9.814 Min. : 2.549 Qu.:60.09 1st Qu.:41.63 1st
## 1st Qu.: -2.1695 1st Qu.: Qu.:55.55
3.678 1st Qu.: 4.211 ## Median :45.72 Median
## Median : 1.5139 Median : :62.44 Median :49.09 Median
7.983 Median : 5.639 :55.90
## Mean : -0.8668 Mean : ## Mean :44.17 Mean
5.543 Mean : 8.816 :61.76 Mean :48.29 Mean
:55.96 ## 1st Qu.:1.349e+09 1st
## 3rd Qu.:48.30 3rd Qu.:10809655 1st
Qu.:64.39 3rd Qu.:54.29 3rd Qu.:1.259e+09
Qu.:56.37 ## Median :1.361e+09 Median
## Max. :50.60 Max. :10928812 Median :1.286e+09
:67.15 Max. :55.79 Max. ## Mean :1.361e+09 Mean
:59.36 :10934908 Mean :1.286e+09
## COMMERCE.KEN. ## 3rd Qu.:1.373e+09 3rd
COMMERCE.MAL. COMMERCE.NDO. Qu.:11059983 3rd
COMMERCE.NET. Qu.:1.313e+09
## Min. :36.75 Min. ## Max. :1.386e+09 Max.
:128.8 Min. :37.42 Min. :11121341 Max. :1.339e+09
:131.5 ## POPULATION.ITA.
## 1st Qu.:42.47 1st POPULATION.ITA..1
Qu.:135.2 1st Qu.:41.29 1st POPULATION.KEN.
Qu.:147.3 ## Min. :59277417 Min.
## Median :52.22 Median :59277417 Min. :41350152
:140.5 Median :47.39 Median ## 1st Qu.:59499650 1st
:149.4 Qu.:59499650 1st Qu.:43356682
## Mean :49.39 Mean ## Median :60385328 Median
:142.5 Mean :45.24 Mean :60385328 Median :45425550
:148.1 ## Mean :60139308 Mean
## 3rd Qu.:55.11 3rd :60139308 Mean :45466551
Qu.:149.6 3rd Qu.:48.87 3rd ## 3rd Qu.:60653269 3rd
Qu.:151.3 Qu.:60653269 3rd Qu.:47542586
## Max. :60.45 Max. ## Max. :60789140 Max.
:157.9 Max. :50.18 Max. :60789140 Max. :49699862
:157.8 ## POPULATION.MAL.
## COMMERCE.NET..1 POPULATION.NDO.
COMMERCE.SRI. COMMERCE.VIE. POPULATION.NET.
## Min. :131.5 Min. ## Min. :28112289 Min.
:46.36 Min. :152.2 :242524123 Min. :16615394
## 1st Qu.:147.3 1st ## 1st Qu.:29036624 1st
Qu.:49.48 1st Qu.:161.3 Qu.:248089302 1st
## Median :149.4 Median Qu.:16739490
:50.13 Median :167.3 ## Median :29967370 Median
## Mean :148.1 Mean :253581690 Median :16834720
:50.36 Mean :171.3 ## Mean :29923412 Mean
## 3rd Qu.:151.3 3rd :253443399 Mean :16854300
Qu.:51.10 3rd Qu.:180.2 ## 3rd Qu.:30839182 3rd
## Max. :157.8 Max. Qu.:258900449 3rd
:54.98 Max. :200.4 Qu.:16962521
## Max. :31624264 Max.
summary(POPULATION) :263991379 Max. :17131296
## POPULATION.SRI.
## POPULATION.CHI.
POPULATION.VIE.
POPULATION.GREE.
## Min. :20198353 Min.
POPULATION.IND.
:88472512
## Min. :1.338e+09 Min.
## 1st Qu.:20397504 1st
:10753531 Min. :1.231e+09
Qu.:90198072 -0.01670966
## Median :20681500 Median ## GDP.GREE. -0.5934551 -
:92021320 2.1280829 2.4540117 -7.9169798
## Mean :20739296 Mean 0.96074568
:92010640 ## GDP.IND. 0.3073323 -
## 3rd Qu.:21025250 3rd 0.3411772 1.1432653 -1.1528975
Qu.:93820943 0.39134638
## Max. :21444000 Max. ## GDP.ITA. 0.4883232 -
:95540800 0.2609699 2.1930251 -0.9083709
0.84710716
var(GDP) ## GDP.KEN. 0.6099188
0.2972632 0.6823195 0.6983120
## GDP.CHI.
0.17554735
GDP.GREE. GDP.IND. GDP.ITA.
## GDP.MAL. 0.9439792
GDP.KEN.
0.2320879 0.4281077 0.8832845
## GDP.CHI. 1.99578886 -
0.14364506
4.1869180 -0.2079375 0.2740267
## GDP.NDO. 0.2320879
1.2643122
## GDP.GREE. -4.18691799 0.3277374 -0.2492496 1.0846532
15.8594551 3.1383700 -0.11794201
2.5470697 -1.2735140 ## GDP.NET. 0.4281077 -
## GDP.IND. -0.20793750 0.2492496 1.8406741 -0.9292810
3.1383700 1.5198439 1.3478472 0.71114448
## GDP.SRI. 0.8832845
0.6954693
1.0846532 -0.9292810 5.4229016
## GDP.ITA. 0.27402667
-0.34730930
2.5470697 1.3478472 2.6412998
## GDP.VIE. 0.1436451 -
0.9074380
0.1179420 0.7111445 -0.3473093
## GDP.KEN. 1.26431219 -
0.31052777
1.2735140 0.6954693 0.9074380
1.3525934 var(GROSS_CAPITAL)
## GDP.MAL. 0.89691538 -
0.5934551 0.3073323 0.4883232 ##
0.6099188 GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
## GDP.NDO. 0.70865931 - ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
2.1280829 -0.3411772 -0.2609699 13.2156691
0.2972632 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE.
## GDP.NET. 0.13512343 -18.3316152
2.4540117 1.1432653 2.1930251 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.IND.
0.6823195 6.3580857
## GDP.SRI. 2.27046302 - ## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA.
7.9169798 -1.1528975 -0.9083709 4.1915205
0.6983120 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN.
## GDP.VIE. -0.01670966 6.6876471
0.9607457 0.3913464 0.8471072 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL.
0.1755474 19.2063093
## GDP.MAL. ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO.
GDP.NDO. GDP.NET. GDP.SRI. -13.0934971
GDP.VIE. ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NET.
## GDP.CHI. 0.8969154 -9.9587879
0.7086593 0.1351234 2.2704630 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI.
1.7285480 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1 10.304962 2.721765
1.7285480 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1
## GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE. 10.304962 2.721765
-0.7274292 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE.
## 17.535204 -3.916037
GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE. ##
GROSS_CAPITAL.IND. GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO.
-18.331615 6.3580857 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE. 19.206309 -13.093497
172.406015 18.5473939 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.IND. -47.085354 -9.288373
18.547394 27.8247317 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.IND.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA. 21.107507 -11.399315
49.551802 17.4684250 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN. -9.809729 -21.081979
-16.293163 23.8277150 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL. 26.028345 -2.447655
-47.085354 21.1075067 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO. 61.506996 -16.485638
-9.288373 -11.3993154 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.NET. -16.485638 24.683239
-15.936047 0.6060046 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NET.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI. -15.676541 -8.205340
10.706248 34.4321394 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1 26.863669 9.232737
10.706248 34.4321394 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1
## GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE. 26.863669 9.232737
49.980500 10.8824138 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE.
## 5.503152 -15.565076
GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA. ##
GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN. GROSS_CAPITAL.NET.
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI.
4.191521 6.687647 ## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE. -9.9587879 1.728548
49.551802 -16.293163 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.IND. -15.9360470 10.706248
17.468425 23.827715 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.IND.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA. 0.6060046 34.432139
43.329071 -4.954248 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN. 22.0483440 10.304962
-4.954248 54.475750 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL. 11.5011259 2.721765
-9.809729 26.028345 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO. -15.6765410 26.863669
-21.081979 -2.447655 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.NET. -8.2053401 9.232737
22.048344 11.501126 ## GROSS_CAPITAL.NET.
130.1220466 -57.035862 ## COMMERCE.KEN.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI. 47.019191 -18.264248
-57.0358617 136.471069 56.811810 -9.919674
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1 ## COMMERCE.MAL.
-57.0358617 136.471069 50.588229 -34.650924
## GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE. 51.952728 -13.033759
8.7909528 -6.843174 ## COMMERCE.NDO.
## 24.956583 -5.535195
GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1 31.387136 -4.614705
GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE. ## COMMERCE.NET. -
## GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION.CHI. 28.751714 33.171814 -
1.728548 -0.7274292 22.926878 13.537924
## GROSS_CAPITAL.GREE. ## COMMERCE.NET..1 -
10.706248 49.9804998 28.751714 33.171814 -
## GROSS_CAPITAL.IND. 22.926878 13.537924
34.432139 10.8824138 ## COMMERCE.SRI.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.ITA. 2.146751 2.513952
10.304962 17.5352037 5.105771 2.111772
## GROSS_CAPITAL.KEN. ## COMMERCE.VIE. -
2.721765 -3.9160374 76.296343 47.393639 -
## GROSS_CAPITAL.MAL. 85.907900 25.656259
26.863669 5.5031520 ##
## GROSS_CAPITAL.NDO. COMMERCE.KEN. COMMERCE.MAL.
9.232737 -15.5650764 COMMERCE.NDO. COMMERCE.NET.
## GROSS_CAPITAL.NET. ## COMMERCE.CHI.
-57.035862 8.7909528 47.019191 50.588229
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI. 24.956583 -28.751714
136.471069 -6.8431737 ## COMMERCE.GREE. -
## GROSS_CAPITAL.SRI..1 18.264248 -34.650924 -
136.471069 -6.8431737 5.535195 33.171814
## GROSS_CAPITAL.VIE. ## COMMERCE.IND.
-6.843174 33.5786822 56.811810 51.952728
31.387136 -22.926878
var(COMMERCE) ## COMMERCE.ITA. -
9.919674 -13.033759 -
##
4.614705 13.537924
COMMERCE.CHI. COMMERCE.GREE.
## COMMERCE.KEN.
COMMERCE.IND. COMMERCE.ITA.
81.059071 78.623073
## COMMERCE.CHI.
43.353498 -38.469198
28.437956 -13.140871
32.995073 -6.683940 ## COMMERCE.MAL.
## COMMERCE.GREE. - 78.623073 107.499183
13.140871 22.460223 - 38.857612 -67.574138
9.131503 7.260287 ## COMMERCE.NDO.
## COMMERCE.IND. 43.353498 38.857612
24.512520 -16.583157
32.995073 -9.131503
## COMMERCE.NET. -
43.646609 -5.703810
38.469198 -67.574138 -
## COMMERCE.ITA. -
16.583157 65.547026
6.683940 7.260287 -
## COMMERCE.NET..1 -
5.703810 3.722715
38.469198 -67.574138 - POPULATION.IND.
16.583157 65.547026 ## POPULATION.CHI.
## COMMERCE.SRI. 2.882706e+14 -2.453285e+12
5.451192 1.436159 6.407976e+14
2.811807 5.141247 ## POPULATION.GREE. -
## COMMERCE.VIE. - 2.453285e+12 2.138018e+10
128.009864 -130.874904 - -5.467522e+12
65.672609 88.907981 ## POPULATION.IND.
## 6.407976e+14 -5.467522e+12
COMMERCE.NET..1 COMMERCE.SRI. 1.427007e+15
COMMERCE.VIE. ## POPULATION.ITA.
## COMMERCE.CHI. - 9.373773e+12 -8.538693e+10
28.751714 2.146751 - 2.120431e+13
76.296343 ## POPULATION.ITA..1
## COMMERCE.GREE. 9.373773e+12 -8.538693e+10
33.171814 2.513952 2.120431e+13
47.393639 ## POPULATION.KEN.
## COMMERCE.IND. - 4.965018e+13 -4.232936e+11
22.926878 5.105771 - 1.104453e+14
85.907900 ## POPULATION.MAL.
## COMMERCE.ITA. 2.102223e+13 -1.799460e+11
13.537924 2.111772 4.685594e+13
25.656259 ## POPULATION.NDO.
## COMMERCE.KEN. - 1.277295e+14 -1.091129e+12
38.469198 5.451192 - 2.845099e+14
128.009864 ## POPULATION.NET.
## COMMERCE.MAL. - 2.934726e+12 -2.468993e+10
67.574138 1.436159 - 6.507261e+12
130.874904 ## POPULATION.SRI.
## COMMERCE.NDO. - 7.440999e+12 -6.303790e+10
16.583157 2.811807 - 1.646741e+13
65.672609 ## POPULATION.VIE.
## COMMERCE.NET. 4.232952e+13 -3.617078e+11
65.547026 5.141247 9.422646e+13
88.907981 ##
## COMMERCE.NET..1 POPULATION.ITA.
65.547026 5.141247 POPULATION.ITA..1
88.907981 POPULATION.KEN.
## COMMERCE.SRI. ## POPULATION.CHI.
5.141247 5.857206 9.373773e+12 9.373773e+12
4.977477 4.965018e+13
## COMMERCE.VIE. ## POPULATION.GREE. -
88.907981 4.977477 8.538693e+10 -8.538693e+10
253.485359 -4.232936e+11
## POPULATION.IND.
var(POPULATION) 2.120431e+13 2.120431e+13
1.104453e+14
##
## POPULATION.ITA.
POPULATION.CHI.
4.081216e+11 4.081216e+11
POPULATION.GREE.
1.627995e+12 ## POPULATION.NET.
## POPULATION.ITA..1 2.130456e+11 1.296216e+12
4.081216e+11 4.081216e+11 30082632455
1.627995e+12 ## POPULATION.SRI.
## POPULATION.KEN. 5.391624e+11 3.280814e+12
1.627995e+12 1.627995e+12 76171343922
8.554100e+12 ## POPULATION.VIE.
## POPULATION.MAL. 3.093955e+12 1.878710e+13
7.049419e+11 7.049419e+11 429747064637
3.624806e+12 ##
## POPULATION.NDO. POPULATION.SRI. POPULATION.VIE.
4.244869e+12 4.244869e+12 ## POPULATION.CHI.
2.201764e+13 7.440999e+12 4.232952e+13
## POPULATION.NET. ## POPULATION.GREE. -
9.097921e+10 9.097921e+10 6.303790e+10 -3.617078e+11
5.048289e+11 ## POPULATION.IND.
## POPULATION.SRI. 1.646741e+13 9.422646e+13
2.325848e+11 2.325848e+11 ## POPULATION.ITA.
1.279497e+12 2.325848e+11 1.401921e+12
## POPULATION.VIE. ## POPULATION.ITA..1
1.401921e+12 1.401921e+12 2.325848e+11 1.401921e+12
7.295172e+12 ## POPULATION.KEN.
## 1.279497e+12 7.295172e+12
POPULATION.MAL. POPULATION.NDO. ## POPULATION.MAL.
POPULATION.NET. 5.391624e+11 3.093955e+12
## POPULATION.CHI. ## POPULATION.NDO.
2.102223e+13 1.277295e+14 3.280814e+12 1.878710e+13
2934725738214 ## POPULATION.NET.
## POPULATION.GREE. - 7.617134e+10 4.297471e+11
1.799460e+11 -1.091129e+12 ## POPULATION.SRI.
-24689933247 1.942490e+11 1.089099e+12
## POPULATION.IND. ## POPULATION.VIE.
4.685594e+13 2.845099e+14 1.089099e+12 6.223738e+12
6507261057116
## POPULATION.ITA. boxplot(GDP, main= "GDP GROWTH
7.049419e+11 4.244869e+12 (ANNUAL %)", sub= "Own
90979205491 Elaboration, 2019", col=
## POPULATION.ITA..1 "brown")
7.049419e+11 4.244869e+12
90979205491
## POPULATION.KEN.
3.624806e+12 2.201764e+13
504828863762
## POPULATION.MAL.
1.539476e+12 9.343758e+12
213045585099
## POPULATION.NDO.
9.343758e+12 5.672800e+13
1296216494511
boxplot(POPULATION, main=
"POPULATION", sub= "Own
Elaboration, 2019", col =
"gray")

boxplot(GROSS_CAPITAL, main=
"GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION
(ANNUAL % GROWTH)", sub= "Own
Elaboration, 2019", col=
"pink") cor(`GDP(CHI)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(CHI)`+
`COMMERCE(CHI)`)

## [1] 0.9203571

cor(`GDP(CHI)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL_FORMATION(CHI)`+
`COMMERCE(CHI)`+`POPULATION(CHI
)`)

## [1] -0.8890778

cor(`GDP(GREE)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(GREE)`+`COMMERCE
boxplot(COMMERCE, main= (GREE)`)
"COMMERCE", sub= "Own
## [1] 0.9210376
Elaboration, 2019", col =
"purple") cor(`GDP(GREE)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(GREE)`+
`COMMERCE(GREE)`+`POPULATION(GR
EE)`)

## [1] -0.9077333

cor(`GDP(IND)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(IND)`+`COMMERCE(
IND)`)

## [1] -0.355591

cor(`GDP(IND)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(IND)`+`COMMERCE(
IND)`+`POPULATION(IND)`)
## [1] 0.3238832 ## [1] 0.1314009

cor(`GDP(ITA)`, cor(`GDP(NET)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(ITA)`+`COMMERCE( `GROSS_CAPITAL(NET)`+`COMMERCE(
ITA)`) NET)`+`POPULATION(NET)`)

## [1] 0.949011 ## [1] 0.3597818

cor(`GDP(ITA)`, cor(`GDP(SRI)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(ITA)`+`COMMERCE( `GROSS_CAPITAL(SRI)`+`COMMERCE(
ITA)`+`POPULATION(ITA)`) SRI)`)

## [1] 0.198006 ## [1] 0.5123782

cor(`GDP(KEN)`, cor(`GDP(SRI)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(KEN)`+`COMMERCE( `GROSS_CAPITAL(SRI)`+`COMMERCE(
KEN)`) SRI)`+`POPULATION(SRI)`)

## [1] 0.1562516 ## [1] -0.7751309

cor(`GDP(KEN)`, cor(`GDP(VIE)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(KEN)`+`COMMERCE( `GROSS_CAPITAL(VIE)`+`COMMERCE(
KEN)`+`POPULATION(KEN)`) VIE)`)

## [1] -0.5690107 ## [1] 0.5875533

cor(`GDP(MAL)`, cor(`GDP(VIE)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(MAL)`+`COMMERCE( `GROSS_CAPITAL(VIE)`+`COMMERCE(
MAL)`) VIE)`+`POPULATION(VIE)`)

## [1] 0.7099248 ## [1] 0.3917226

cor(`GDP(MAL)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(MAL)`+`COMMERCE(
MAL)`+`POPULATION(MAL)`)

## [1] -0.4901822

cor(`GDP(NDO)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(NDO)`+`COMMERCE(
NDO)`)

## [1] 0.3788011

cor(`GDP(NDO)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(NDO)`+`COMMERCE(
NDO)`+`POPULATION(NDO)`)

## [1] -0.9112514

cor(`GDP(NET)`,
`GROSS_CAPITAL(NET)`+`COMMERCE(
NET)`)