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Volume 32 Number 5 (2017) Independent thoughts for independent minds

Producing DHA enriched pork
to improve human nutrition

Vaccination: a matter
of protection

We look at options
from around the world

Effective management of sows
for increased prolificacy

Choosing the right applicator
for your pigs

Who is responsible for on farm
handling of vaccines?
Positive Action Publications Ltd


Nigel Horrox: neh@positiveaction.co.uk

here is research taking spreading within the central
us? Have the scientists nervous system.
Too much α-s, from multiple or
Colin Foster: cf@positiveaction.co.uk
made all the major
Tim Brown: tb@positiveaction.co.uk discoveries that will be made? Are chronic GI infections, becomes
we providing adequate or toxic because the system that
disposes of α-s is overwhelmed,
Alison Burdass: ab@positiveaction.co.uk
inadequate funding for research?
PRODUCTION Rather than answer these specific nerves are damaged by the toxic
Sarah Dove: sarah@amneh.co.uk questions, let us consider the very aggregates that form and chronic
recent announcement on research inflammation ensues, which could
into Parkinson’s disease in man. It be the start of Parkinson’s disease
notes that α-synuclein (α-s), the
Matthew Baker: bacca@amneh.co.uk and other entities. Damage occurs
protein implicated in Parkinson's both within the nervous system of
disease and other forms of neuro- the GI tract and the brain.
Sally Walker: sw@positiveaction.co.uk
degenerative diseases, is released Thus, the homeostasis of the gut
when an infection occurs in the flora by interventions with products
upper GI tract (the oesophagus, like probiotics may well provide the
Anne Smith: accounts@positiveaction.co.uk
stomach and duodenum) inducing basis for the prevention or
an immune response as part of the treatment of this disease in the
body's innate immune system. The future.
researchers say that these findings Returning to the pig, what other
The copyright for material appearing in International
suggest that frequent or chronic substances are being produced by
Pig Topics is held by Positive Action Publications Ltd. upper GI infections could over- the microbiota of the GI and what
Production of editorial material, in whole or part, from this
whelm the body's capacity to clear are their effects in the pig? There
α-s, leading to disease.
publication requires written permission of the copyright
holder. Positive Action Publications, its editors and the could be effects on performance,
contributors accept no liability for the contents of
International Pig Topics and the views expressed in it are Animal studies have further shown reproduction, weaning stress and
statements and opinions of the authors and do not
necessarily constitute representations of fact.
that microbes in the GI tract can virtually every biological function in
induce formation of toxic the pig’s body – a better
The publishers accept no liability for late or non-delivery. aggregates in the enteric nervous understanding of which could
No refund can be made after fulfilment has begun.
system, which can then travel to the impact on the economics of
brain. The α-s can use the nerves
Positive Action Publications Ltd reserves the right to
use email addresses supplied to it for promotional activities. production.
connecting the GI tract to the There is as much need today, if not
International Pig Topics (ISSN 0963 5866) is published brainstem as an escalator, trafficking a greater need, for well funded
α-S from the gut to the brain and n
eight times a year (January, March, April, May, July,
September, October and December) by Positive Action research.
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International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 5

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Extending One Health approach to AMR
Sally Walker
The EU Commission has adopted an action plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that
is based on a One Health approach to address the issue in both man and animals. It is based
on a three pillar strategy, making the EU a best practice region, boosting innovation, research,
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development and shaping the global agenda. The mention of a possible link between animals
and man, rather than a definite link, is very interesting. It also highlights that some countries
are lagging behind others when it comes to action. For example, Spanish antibiotics for
PO Box 4, Driffield,
animal use sales were 36 times the figure for Sweden. Worryingly the link between the use of
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We have five titles covering the
Public health risk from traditional product
pig, poultry, hatchery, dairy,
food & meat sectors. The Vietnamese love a traditional cold starter based on raw pig’s blood and boiled intestine.
Contact us for more information In fact, a third of rural Vietnamese and 10% of their urban cousins consumed this dish last
info@positiveaction.co.uk year. Unfortunately the raw blood can carry a bacterium associated with meningitis in man
and several hundreds of cases of this meningitis are seen every year. Many of these are
associated with the consumption of this raw blood delicacy. Vietnam needs to rid itself of
this issue but faces the challenge of educating its people of the risks associated with the
consumption of raw porcine blood. This is made all the more difficult by the cultural
traditions that surround this particular Vietnamese raw blood delicacy.

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 7

Producing DHA enriched
pork to improve human
T he transfer of essential nutrients from
animal products to human consumers
is important as diets and the raw
materials used in animal production
continue to change.

by D. Jules Taylor-Pickard,
Alltech, Ireland.

The use of fish products has recently

decreased due to concerns regarding the
conservation of important fish stocks as the
human population continues to grow to
nine billion. Fish products are an important
source of essential omega-3 oils that are
required in human food, especially
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

DHA: A critical component for


DHA is required by animals and humans for ADHD in children, poor emotional stability Adults require 220mg/d, but most only
multiple purposes, especially in the and heightened anxiety, and depressive consume 60-80mg/d, which is less than
formation and protection of membranes. mental disorders. half the requirement.
As such, it is important for fertility, sperm In older people, low DHA has been shown DHA is typically obtained from eating fish
production, brain and eye development, to increase brain shrinkage in old age, which and seafood, which consume algae rich in
heart health, cognitive function (especially is a main symptom associated with DHA and concentrate it in tissues and oils
regarding dementia), and behaviour and dementia problems such as Alzheimer’s within their bodies. Supplying fish oil to
emotional stability. disease. This is because DHA makes up 30- children used to be very common, although
In cardiovascular disease studies, DHA has 40% of the fatty acids in brain membranes. consumption is now low.
been shown to reduce platelet aggregation, Despite the awareness of the importance However, where such intake is limited,
decrease triglycerides by 26%, control of DHA in the diet, it is known that intake in new research has shown that growing
inflammation and increase high-density Western diets has been declining for some specific types of algae and using them in
lipoproteins by 9%. time. For a 3-year-old child, the animal feed can provide good transfer rates
Insufficient DHA intake is related to low recommended daily intake (RDI) is 150mg/d, in human food, increasing daily intake for
reading ages and behavioural issues like whereas the actual average is only 19mg/d. consumers.
Alltech has developed such a product
through its extensive development of
Table 1. Effects of feeding All-G Rich to sows on piglet litter sizes and characteristics. specific algae production systems, the
product of which is then spray dried into a
All-G Rich 0g/d 3.5g/d 7g/d 14g/d 28g/d stable form suitable for use in animal feeds.
The final product, All-G Rich, contains 67%
Sow numbers 10 12 11 12 10 fat, 16% DHA and 0.3% sodium.
Pig meat is popular in many regions of the
Litter size (kg) 13.1 12.8 15.4 14.6 14.6 world, and All-G Rich has been trialled in all
ages of pigs to discern its benefits in the
Litter live weight (kg) 17.12 16.25 18.98 19.05 20.26 pigs themselves as well as the expression of
higher levels of DHA in the resulting meat
Average piglet birthweight 1.31ab 1.27b 1.23b 1.31ab 1.39a
for human consumption.
Means in a row not sharing a letter differ significantly P<0.05 In addition, using organic forms of
minerals in conjunction with algae have also

8 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

responses in more depth. Feeding
Carcase parameter Control All-G Rich (5kg/t feed) experiments run by Moran et al. (2014)
included two levels of supplementation
Carcase hot weight (kg) 93.5 93.7 with All-G Rich, 2.5kg/t or 5kg/t, in a study
lasting 112 days using grower-finisher pigs.
Belly weight (kg) 6.95 6.59 The researchers examined the transfer of
DHA into meat cuts and also looked at the
DHA backfat (%) 0.026 0.109 fatty acid profile in carcase fat and the ratio
of omega-3 to omega-6 oils.
DHA belly (%) 0.015 0.047 The results showed that the uniformity of
carcases was improved in the
DHA loin (%) 0.002 0.004 supplemented group of pigs at the 5kg/t
inclusion rate. Levels of DHA increased in
Table 2. Impact of feeding All-G Rich on DHA expression in the pork carcase. line with supplementation rates for the loin
Including the algae product at 5kg/t in
been trialled, as these minerals can also without sacrificing growth or feed feed increased the omega-3 to omega-6
increase the nutritional profile of the end efficiency. ratio in the loin meat of both castrated
product for consumers by adding valuable Such trials in sows and young piglets after males and female pigs, with males in the
antioxidant minerals to human diets. weaning demonstrate that feeding this control group having a ratio of 0.1384 versus
Several trials in sows and the effects on specialised algae supplement can help in 0.1666 for the supplemented males, and
their piglets, as well as in nursery pigs, have both breeding more viable young and also 0.1453 versus 0.1812 for the control and
been conducted using All-G Rich in feeds. in the healthy growth of piglets after supplemented females, respectively.
DHA is important for reproduction in weaning. Significant differences were seen between
mammals, not only in maximising sperm pigs fed the control and the two levels of
production and protecting gamete All-G Rich in DHA levels of the carcase,
membranes, but also in the development of Focusing on fatty acids for more especially backfat (Table 3).
gestating young. nutritional pork The increases in transfer are more evident
To examine the effects of feeding higher in backfat due to the accumulation of DHA
levels of DHA from All-G Rich on pig When producing pork with an aim to in fats and oils within body tissues.
breeding, feeding trials have shown that increase human nutritional intake of Later trials (Moran et al., 2015) with
sows supplemented with the product have specific compounds such as DHA, feeding grower-finisher pigs fed the same levels of
heavier live litter weights with fewer trials need to focus on the impact such All-G Rich compared to a control for 117
lightweight piglets born (Table 1). supplements have on the expression of days showed similar responses. Whilst there
The trials fed either an unsupplemented fatty acids in the carcase, especially the were no performance effects at this later
control diet or 3.5, 7, 14 or 28g of the algae popular meat components. stage of production, significant increases in
product per day to the gestating sow. The Early trials fed 28 gilts 5kg/t (0.5%) All-G DHA expression in carcase and backfat were
highest average piglet birth weights and live Rich for the last 28 days of production. reported.
litter weights were seen with the sows fed Although performance was not significantly DHA was increased in the carcase in line
28g/d of All-G Rich. different between the treated group and with supplementation levels, with the
In a trial with young pigs, a combination the unsupplemented control, average daily control group carcases averaging
of All-G Rich, Bioplex chelated minerals gain was higher in the All-G Rich-fed pigs 0.01g/100g carcase fat versus 0.02g and
(selenium, copper, iron, zinc and (2.30kg versus 2.16kg for the control group) 0.03g/100g for the 2.5kg/t and 5kg/t
manganese) and nucleotides for gut and feed conversion was better (2.89 versus inclusion levels.
development and maintenance was 3.13 for the control group). The weight of In backfat, DHA significantly increased
supplemented at a level of 0.5%, 1% or 2% the carcase and belly meat, as well as the from 0.07g/100g to 0.22g and 0.3g for the
in feed for 42 days after weaning. DHA concentrations in the belly and loin 1.5kg/t and 5kg/t-supplemented groups,
Daily gain and feed intake were cuts, were compared (Table 2). respectively.
significantly improved from seven to 21 Levels of DHA in the meat portions were In a further feeding experiment where
days after weaning in diets containing the four times higher in the backfat, more than grower pigs were fed for 0-56 days and
0.5 or 1% levels, although the 2% level twice as high in the belly cuts and twice as finishers from 56-112 days of the trial
showed issues due to the oversupply of high in the leaner loin meat from pigs fed (average body weight 28kg at the start of
nutrients in the piglets. It was concluded the supplemented diets. the trial), loin and backfat DHA was
that such a combined product worked best Other trials have investigated such Continued on page 10
in the first week after weaning at a
maximum level of 1%.
In a more recent trial, 2% or 4% All-G Rich Table 3. Influence of feeding two levels of All-G Rich on DHA levels in pig carcase and
in feed was compared to an backfat fatty acid profiles.
unsupplemented control diet in young pigs
to see where such performance benefits All-G Rich All-G Rich
originated. Parameter (g/100g) Control
(2.5kg/t feed) (5kg/t feed)
A faecal digestibility trial showed that
piglets receiving 4% All-G Rich obtained an DHA males carcase 0.006a 0.02b 0.03c
extra 35 kcal/kg energy from feed
compared to the control group. DHA females carcase 0.005a 0.02b 0.024c
This would account for the higher
Backfat average DHA 0.047a 0.187b 0.307c
performance and also reduced negative
response to an oversupply of nutrients in Omega-3:6 ratio 0.065a 0.08b 0.09c
combined product trials.
This can be used to the specific diets for Means in a row not sharing a letter differ significantly P<0.05
the starter phase, which reduces feed costs

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 9

Continued from page 9
All-G Rich
significantly increased with All-G Rich Meat cut Parameter Control
DHA levels in the loin rose from 0.006% DHA (mg/100g) Not detectable 17.2
for carcases from the control group to
0.018% for those fed 2.5 kg/t and 0.027%
Ratio omega-6:3 29:1 12.8:1
for the highest supplementation. Backfat
levels responded in a similar fashion, at
0.047%, 0.19% and 0.31% for the control, DHA (mg/100g) 31.9 175.0
2.5kg/t and 5kg/t All-G Rich groups, Belly pork
respectively. Ratio omega-6:3 16.3 11.6

Table 4. Feeding All-G Rich to finisher pigs significantly increases DHA in ham and belly
Reaping the nutritional rewards of pork in commercial production conditions.
DHA on-farm

Whilst research trials are relevant for algae-derived products, such as All-G Rich, Providing DHA from pork meat that is
proving the efficacy of a zootechnical feed have an impact on breeding performance in attractive to children is paramount in
ingredient, the effect under farm conditions sows, birth weights and liveability of ensuring they are willing to eat such
also needs to be established, as these piglets, and early nursery pig performance, sources.
animals face different housing, it is important in producing pork with a Algae-based products provide an effective
management, feeding and health better nutrient profile for human and sustainable form of DHA that is well-
conditions. consumers. expressed in animal food products and is
Commercial trials conducted in Thailand The major reduction in DHA intake in easily incorporated into feed at relevant
using 10kg/t All-G Rich in feed examined humans, especially when compared to RDI inclusion levels, which contribute to
the DHA levels in hams and belly meat cuts for western populations, and the very low reducing feed costs in young animals.
(Table 4). levels consumed by children, is a particular The DHA-enriched meat offers producers
The results showed major improvements focus for dieticians. and retailers an opportunity for promoting
in omega-6:3 ratios (due to the increased Providing a source of popular meat cuts value-added meat, which has defined
omega-3 consumption) as well as an that contribute to DHA intake on a daily benefits for consumers. n
increase in DHA specifically within the meat basis is key to not only preventing
cuts. developmental and mental health disorders,
From the trials conducted, not only does but also as a carry-over into diseases References are available
DHA supplementation from specialist experienced by people as they age. from the author on request.

10 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

Vaccination against
PRRS: a matter of
P orcine reproductive and respi-
ratory syndrome virus (PRRSV),
a RNA virus member of the
Arteriviridae, widespread among the
ing periods. In a continuous flow
system, there are sometimes recur-
rent episodes of disease that are
the result of viral shedding from
swine population, causing reproduc- infected older pigs to younger ones,
tive failure in sows and respiratory or from persistently (often congeni-
and systemic disorders in pigs of all tally) infected pigs to age-matched
ages, continues to be a major prob- cohorts that may have previously
lem in most pig-keeping countries. been immune. The presence of sus-
The economic impact of PRRS to US ceptible pigs (naïve subpopulations)
swine producers has been projected because of only partial spread of
to be more than 600 million US PRRSV during the acute phase of an
dollars/year. epidemic, and the introduction of
naïve pigs or breeding stock
(replacement gilts), provide addi-
by Paolo Martelli, tional means by which PRRSV is able
Full Professor of Veterinary to continue to circulate in endemi-
Internal Medicine, Department cally infected herds.
of Veterinary Science, Marked differences in infection Piglet vaccination reduces the viral load of PRRSV within the susceptible
University of Parma, Italy. rates between groups, pens or population in the nursery, partially protecting from clinical signs, and
rooms of animals may occur. It is reducing the associated diseases and also the related costs
accepted that the clinical manifes- (www.msd-animal-health.com).
This estimate is highly conserva- tations of PRRSV infection vary from
tive, as it only accounts for direct subclinical to severe reproductive
losses due to the disease (mortality failure and/or respiratory/systemic host-virus interaction (immune mented for a long time.
and reduced performance) and does disease. response, virus persistence) and Broad genetic variation is a major
not include cost of vaccination, Severity of PRRS may result from current methods of swine produc- concern in the development of
medication, diagnostic testing and interactions among factors involv- tion (often large, continuous-flow effective PRRS diagnostic tools, vac-
biosecurity measures incurred fol- ing differences in virulence among systems, typically with an outside cines, and control strategies. The
lowing onset of the disease. Other PRRSV isolates (highly pathogenic – source of replacement gilts) is existence of antigenic variation was
estimations exist also from Europe HP isolates exist), differences in essential in designing an effective demonstrated between European
accounting for different types of concurrent infections (co-infection strategy for PRRS control. and North American PRRSV with the
production systems and country. with other viruses, mycoplasma and immunoperoxidase monolayer assay
bacteria), genetically-based differ- (IPMA) very soon after the discovery
ences in pig susceptibility, environ- Genetic diversity of the virus.
Questions still to answer mental factors, varying management Biologically, such an antigenic dif-
conditions among herds (weaning Genetic divergence and presumably ference between European and
Despite years of intensive study, age, pig flow, gilt acclimatisation at least some antigenic diversity American types of PRRSV is of con-
PRRS still poses numerous questions strategies), level of PRRSV herd among PRRSV strains raise questions cern with respect to cross-protec-
for which answers, once available, immunity, and other factors or about immunity and particularly tion.
are often complex and difficult to circumstances. cross-protection.
interpret with regards to practical PRRSV undergoes consistent High nucleotide diversity (hetero-
application. Part of the problem is genetic change, reducing the ability geneity) in both North American Cross-protection/vaccine
that PRRS virus (PRRSV) is not a of conventional intervention strate- and European genotypes has efficacy
‘typical infectious agent’. gies such as animal flow and vacci- already been shown for a long time.
Moreover, its interaction (patho- nation to consistently control all Extensive genetic variations have The relative effectiveness of a vac-
genesis and immunity) with its only cases. Therefore, attempts to elimi- been observed among different cine against heterologous PRRSV
known natural host (swine) is not nate the infection and the corre- PRRSV strains. It appears that accu- field isolates may largely depend on
fully understood. As a consequence, lated diseases have been done with mulation of both random mutations the antigenic relatedness of the
the control, prevention and some- strategies such as depopulation and and recombination drives variation virus strain to which the vaccinated
times elimination of PRRS still repopulation, herd closure and test of the PRRSV genome. animals are exposed. Antigenic
present a formidable, sometimes and removal. While highly success- Despite all of the existing infor- relatedness is not correlated with
frustrating, challenge for ful at eliminating the resident virus mation about recombination and the genetic similarity we are used to
researchers, practitioners, and from the population, these strate- mutation of viruses, the factors measure today for epidemiological
producers. gies often fail and infection returns, which are primarily responsible for purposes.
Severe reproductive failure, or because of the re-introduction of the high prevalence of variability In fact, it is already well known
respiratory disease, or both, are an unrelated/diverse PRRSV strain. among currently circulating PRRSV and largely accepted that the
clinical features of PRRS during an A clear and complete understand- field isolates is unknown. In the genetic similarity (the degree of
epidemic in a fully susceptible herd. ing of the nature of PRRSV (viru- field, co-existence of more than genetic homology of ORFs)
The respiratory disease is typically lence, genetic and antigenic one isolate at the same time in a between the MLV and the chal-
seen in nursery and/or early finish- diversity), characteristics of the swine herd has already been docu- Continued on page 13

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 11

12 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5
Continued from page 11 tion at herd level. Moreover, this PRRSV control is based on stopping defined as time in weeks to produce
lenge/naturally exposed isolate is evidence supports the fact that the virus circulation in the sows in PRRSV negative pigs at weaning.
not a good predictor of vaccine continued vaccination of a dynamic an attempt to prevent vertical (sow l Time-to-baseline production
efficacy. population (weaners) tends to to foetuses) and horizontal trans- (TTBP), defined using statistical
Heterologous protection against reduce the level of infection over mission (sow to newborn) before process control methods that rep-
PRRSV ranges from fact to myth and time (months) as well as the clinical weaning. resent time to recover to the num-
everything in between. The reasons signs. This condition is well known as ber of weekly weaned pigs prior to
for such disparate views vary due to All PRRS attenuated vaccines pro- stabilisation. So, a herd is stable PRRSv-detection.
differences in outcome measures, vide partial protection because the when sows do not transmit the l The total production loss in
expectations, experimental designs, isolates from which they were infection to the foetuses/newborn. terms of number of pigs weaned per
and economic considerations. derived are presumed to no longer In fact, infected weaned piglets that week.
The ability of each strain to exist in the environment, so that the enter the nursery propagate the Herds in the MLV group recovered
induce a strong cell-mediated field isolates naturally infecting the virus throughout the population by production sooner and had less
immune response also seems to be vaccinated pigs are divergent and infecting the eventually non- total loss than herds in the LVI
more important than the genetic heterologous in respect of the infected weaners in the nursery. group. TTBP and TTS were signifi-
similarity. priming virus, the vaccine strain. In order to control PRRSV, critical cantly shorter and the total loss was
In pigs vaccinated with a The results obtained in laboratory issues that maintain PRRSV circula- significantly less in herds assisted by
European MLV (DV strain-Lelystad trials with heterologous challenge tion within herds include co-exis- a specific veterinary clinic and herds
cluster) subsequently challenged can be easily measured by the tence of genetically diverse isolates, that were infected with PRRSV in
with a virulent heterologous PRRSV investigators (rectal temperature, the existence of naïve breeding the three years prior to the study.
(Italian-like cluster) characterised by clinical scores, viraemia, viral excre- herd subpopulations, and improper This study provided new metrics
a high degree of ORF5 divergence tion, pathological lesions). management of gilt replacement to assist veterinarians to decide
compared with the vaccine strain, Conversely, in field conditions, pools. between methods of exposure to
clinical and virological protection the partial protection obtained in Proper development of replace- control and eliminate PRRSV from
(100 fold reduction of the load and vaccinated/infected animals is diffi- ment gilts, an important component breeding herds and mass vaccina-
duration of viraemia, and reduced cult to be measured as reductions in of PRRS control, involves exposing tion with a MLV had an overall bet-
presence of the virus into BAL fluid) infection level and disease severity incoming naïve animals to the farm- ter performance as compared to
was demonstrated. may be judged as failures if protec- specific resident PRRSV isolate LVI.
tion is not absolute or if the resid- before entering a positive breeding Although herd closure allows for
ual disease still results in economic herd in order to reduce seronega- the preservation of genetics and
Field trial results losses. This is a matter of observer’s tive subpopulations. retains minimal diagnostic costs, it
perception! Exposure can be done by vaccina- can be costly and can result in the
In a field trial based on the natural tion, live virus inoculation (LVI), and production of an improper parity
exposure/infection to PRRSV, it was contact with infected animals such distribution within the breeding
calculated that in vaccinated grow- Maternally derived as nursery piglets with clinical herd, effects that can be minimised
ers the overall clinical protection antibodies symptoms. through off-site breeding projects
(respiratory and systemic clinical A minimum time following expo- for replacement gilts.
signs) was 70%. This means that The influence of maternally derived sure is required for animals to
vaccinated pigs had only 30% of the antibodies (MDAs) on the post-vac- recover clinically and establish
clinical signs observed in the non- cination humoral and cellular immunity. Whole herd depopula- Conclusions
vaccinated controls. immune responses in piglets vacci- tion/repopulation has been used
Measures of disease, consisting nated against PRRS has not been for the elimination of multiple The ability of PRRSV to escape or
primarily of lung lesion scores, were investigated in detail. PRRSV-spe- swine pathogens including PRRSV. modulate the immune system of
also significantly reduced. cific neutralising antibodies (PRRSV- Several methods of eradication the host and the complexity of the
Moreover, the results are inde- NAs) transferred from the sow to have been shown effective in elimi- immune response to PRRSV makes it
pendent of nucleotide sequence the piglets by the colostrum can nating PRRSV from positive herds, difficult to develop a vaccine char-
similarity between immunising and delay their infection by PRRSV. The including whole herd depopula- acterised by complete protection
challenge viruses. passive transfer of sufficient tion/repopulation, test and and universality, safety and desir-
More recently, the partial protec- amounts of PRRSV-NAs can also removal and herd closure. able ability to differentiate vacci-
tion induced by MLV based on prevent PRRSV infection in piglets. Test and removal methods have nated pigs from the infected (DIVA).
PRRS-1 (DV strain) was demon- On this very interesting subject, also resulted in the successful elimi- Even if live vaccines currently
strated following challenge with more recently, Fablet et al (2016) nation of PRRSV from positive pop- available on the market confer only
Highly Pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV investigated the potential interfer- ulations. partial protection, they are however
belonging either to the subtype 1 or ence of MDA on piglets’ humoral The most frequently applied strat- a useful tool in PRRS control. In fact,
subtype 3-Lena. This is a further and cellular immunity induced by egy to control and eliminate PRRSV in association with other necessary
clear and robust confirmation of the PRRSV vaccination. Unfortunately, from breeding herds is called load- measures, sow vaccination con-
partial protection conferred by that interesting paper is not conclu- close-expose (also called herd clo- tributes to the stabilisation of the
‘traditional’ MLV. The efficacy of sive because of the experimental sure) which consists of interrupting herd, the key point towards the
MLV on the infection is also sup- conditions do not mimic the real replacement pig introduction for control/eradication of the infec-
ported by a reduced Basic world. Overall, before drawing con- several months and exposing the tion. In that context of an inte-
Reproduction Ratio (number) (R0), clusions, further studies are pigs to a replicating PRRSV resulting grated approach to PRRSV infection,
defined as the number of cases one absolutely needed to assess the in the reduction in viral shedding piglet vaccination reduces the viral
case generates on average over the impact of MDAs on PRRSV vaccine and elimination of carrier animals. load of PRRSV within the suscepti-
course of its infectious period, in an efficacy (clinical and virological) fol- Attempts to expose the pig popu- ble population in the nursery, par-
otherwise uninfected population. lowing a PRRSV natural or experi- lations can be initiated through MLV tially protecting from clinical signs,
The estimated transmission rate of mental challenge and its ability to vaccines. Although live-resident and reducing the associated dis-
PRRSV was 10-times lower in MLV reduce viral transmission. virus inoculation (LVI) is another eases and the related costs.
vaccinated than in non-vaccinated way to expose the population to The interference of maternal
piglets and the duration of infec- the virus and to induce population derived antibody on the active
tiousness was reduced, leading to a PRRS control and sow immunity, this method does not immunisation by vaccination is not
significantly lower reproduction vaccination come without risk. completely understood and data
ratio R (0.30 [0.05-0.96] versus 5.42 A recent paper by Linares et al available are contradictory so that
[2.94-9.04] non-vaccinated piglets). Substantial effort toward success- compares successful application of accurate, further investigations are
Hence, vaccination was able to con- fully controlling and eradicating both MLV vaccination and LVI. In needed. n
siderably decrease PRRSV spread. PRRS has been placed on reducing this study, treatment groups (load-
This feature makes MLV a tool for negative production and economic close-expose with MLV or LVI) were
control of PRRSV propagation and effects of the disease in swine pro- compared for: References are available
even for eradication of the infec- duction systems. The first step in l Time-to-PRRSV stability (TTS), from the author on request

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 13

14 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5
Insight (29)
Practical Health
on farm handling
of AH products

T he 2017 European Symposium of Porcine Health Management, held

recently in Prague, the beautiful capital city of the Czech Republic,
was a well attended meeting with an excellent and interesting
scientific program.

On the last day of the symposium, (of the AH product) cannot and
and as the last speaker, Dr Frédéric does not accept any consequence
Vangroenweghe presented data on and is not liable for any reported
a survey that he performed on the suspected adverse effect.
actual temperatures measured in This counts for all the cases (30%)
refrigerators that are used to store that Dr Vangroenweghe encoun-
Animal Health (AH) products on tered. But there is more on the indi-
farms in Belgium and the vidual vaccine level.
Netherlands. Freeze dried vaccines, in general, Everywhere in the world, instructions that are given to farm staff on
These countries might not be can handle freezing, so storing how to handle AH products is the responsibility of the veterinarian
regarded as representative for the below +2˚C will not cause any prob- under whose care the animals are treated.
worldwide situation. However, lems. Inactivated oil adjuvanted
when the situation in these coun- vaccines will suffer from freezing to
tries is not considered optimal the extent that the emulsion will Who is responsible for the correct storage, handling and
there is no reason to assume that break rendering the vaccine imme- on-farm storage? administration of the AH products
the situation in other countries is diately useless. that are used on farms under his
much better. There are lots of variations on this This question is not an easy one to care and that are prescribed by him.
In this survey the term ‘AH question of consequences, so the answer. Dr Vangroenweghe decided He can delegate this responsibility
products’ was restricted to vaccines simple answer here is: follow the to call it a ‘shared’ responsibility to properly trained staff that work
only. recommendations of the (AH prod- between the owner of the pigs/ under his supervision. There are vet-
uct) manufacturer and check the farm manager and the farm veteri- erinary practices that offer this type
temperature of the storage refriger- narian. Of course national legisla- of training to their customers in
Objectives of the survey ator continuously. You never know tion also comes into force so a both theoretical and practical ses-
when ‘outside of range’ tempera- general statement is difficult to sions. In such cases, the veterinarian
Firstly, the actual storage tempera- tures do appear. make. proves his responsibility and han-
ture for vaccines on pig farms in the The end result is that the affected However, when this issue is taken dles in good faith. Now the farmer
Benelux area was measured. Of vaccines will be less efficacious or to a higher level a judgement can be has to live up to the responsibility
course the recorded data was even cause adverse side effects due given. It all starts with the fact that given to him, on his request.
analysed and the distribution of to degradation of vaccine compo- a diagnosis is made by the veterinar-
correct and incorrect refrigerator nents. It is a relatively low invest- ian and that a certain intervention
temperatures was reported. ment in a refrigerator but a much strategy is decided upon. Often, and Lessons to learn
Furthermore, an analysis for differ- higher investment in vaccines. just for economic reasons, the vet-
ences among seasons was made and To protect this high investment, it erinarian leaves the AH products With a temperature monitoring
if there were any differences in vac- is a must that AH products are behind on the farm. He trusts the system continuous information can
cine storage temperature between stored correctly. storage, handling and administration be gathered, stored and accessed by
Belgium and The Netherlands. Next The availability of a good working of the AH products to the local any connected device. Warning
to this, all suggestions for improve- refrigerator with a temperature staff present on the farm. Does this systems can also be included when
ment were given and financial recording system is essential. release him from his responsibilities deviations from the set tempera-
aspects were included. or make this a shared responsibility? tures are recorded.
No, of course not. As an example, when products are
Why are vaccines often At first the veterinarian has to taken out of the fridge and the door
Results stored so poorly on farms? assure that the necessary hardware is left open too long, the cold air
is in place, and in good working will drop out of the fridge and the
For both countries the results were This is a good question which often order and, secondly, that the staff inside temperature will rise and it
very similar. In around 30% of the has a simple answer. True causes are receive proper training on aspects might take a long time before the
cases (110 pig farms in total partici- a combination of a lack of knowl- of storage, handling and correct inside temperature comes back into
pated in this survey) the recorded edge on the consequences of a administration of AH products. the desired range.
temperature was not within the wrong storage temperature and an Farm staff that are applying AH This can be made visible by moni-
prescribed limits (between +2˚C unfounded firm belief that the old products that are prescribed by the toring and used to train the staff on
and +8˚C). and second hand refrigerator is in veterinarian often do not have the farm on how important it is to open
perfect condition. knowledge to oversee the conse- and close doors in a quick manner.
Of course there are also seasonal quences related to wrong storage or Data collection becomes a key
The consequences of wrong differences. In summer the capacity use of AH products. element in any business. In the
storage of the refrigerator to cool suffi- It is amazing to learn that AH struggle for optimal use of
ciently below ambient temperatures products that are the result of resources a lot can still be learned.
Of course there are different vari- is a critical factor, while in winter several years of dedicated research The contribution of Dr
ables that should be identified. As a the refrigerator situation can be and that are often expensive end up Vangroenweghe during the ESPHM
general statement it can be said very different. with end users who are often 2017 was an excellent example of
that, when a product is not handled The place where the refrigerator is poorly instructed and seldom read such a lesson learned by analysing
according to the manufacturer’s located on the farm is also of leaflets. the data gathered by simple
recommendation, the manufacturer importance. The veterinarian is responsible for monitoring. n

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 15

Palatability: helping sow and piglet Prevent swine dysentery with herbal
nutrition happen feed additives
Formulating high performance diets intake of creep and starter feeds to Swine dysentery and porcine prolif- Since 24% of the tested isolates
that satisfy all the nutritional help establish the neonate and erative enteropathy is a worldwide needed higher MIC for obtaining
requirements of the pig at eco- reduce stress at weaning. disease causing severe economical complete inhibition, the develop-
nomic cost is an everyday challenge Krave AP stimulates sow feed losses in swine production. ment was reconsidered and a new
for nutritionists all over the world. intake during lactation and has con- The greatest problem pig produc- product, named BioSantrix Special
Appetite and feed intake are often sistently demonstrated in trials a tion is facing is that Brachyspira was generated. With BioSantrix
compromised by a variety of factors significant increase in milk produc- species, such as B. hyodysenteriae Special, 2/3 part of the above men-
such as weaning, diet transition, tion and subsequent significant or B. pilosicoli, causing swine dysen- tioned 24% of the isolates – where
unpalatable feed ingredients and improvements in piglet weight and tery or Lawsonia intracellularis, the MIC values were high with
heat stress. litter homogeneity at weaning. responsible for proliferative BioSantrix – could be inhibited in
To maximise these benefits Krave enteropathy, became highly 0.7-1.2 kg/t concentration range.
nutriad.com AP also creates a powerful flavour resistant to the pleuromutilins, The newly developed BioSantrix
‘imprint’ that piglets retain at lincosamids or macrolid-type anti- Special is still a mixture of thyme
With a comprehensive range of weaning and this, in con- biotics that are commonly used as and carob seed, however by chang-
palatability solutions designed junction with treatments. ing the extraction procedure of the
specifically to stimulate feed intake Delistart K-Link active ingredients, and modifying
in pigs, Nutriad provides nutrition- added to drbata.com the pH circumstances, BioSantrix
ists with the tools to ensure that diets and BioSantrix Special differ in
carefully formulated rations have Dr Bata aims to provide new, terms of isolate-specific inhibiting
the appeal to achieve target feed green, natural solutions in the con- selectivity, as it was observed in the
intake, even when challenged. tinuous fight against these in vitro microplate screening proce-
Optisweet and Delistart provide pathogens. dure.
specific taste cues To overcome multiple resistance Fig. 1. represents the comparison
to stimulate and to fulfil the growing demand of between BioSantrix, and the newly
consumers for antibiotic-free meat developed BioSantrix Special in
production a microplate method terms of effective dosage for four
was developed for screening natural isolates out of the tested 50.
fed at compounds and developing herbal It was found that with BioSantrix
weaning, has been proven in feed additives capable of selective Special Dr Bata are capable of offer-
trials to ease transition with sig- inhibition of the pathogens. ing an alternative in those cases
nificant improvements in feed Altogether approximately 50 where BioSantrix is not effective at
intake and growth in the initial post Brachyspira species were isolated 1kg/t.
weaning period. from Asia, America and Europe, The newly developed BioSantrix
mainly B. hyodysenteriae and Special offers an effective tool for
B. pilosicoli, and were used as test those isolates, which can only be
micro-organisms throughout the inhibited by a higher dosage of
research and development process. BioSantrix.
Use of essential oils to meet some A thyme and carob seed contain-
ing herbal feed additive, BioSantrix,
Their goal is to have a variety of
antidysenteric compounds against
of the swine industry’s challenges was developed with a Minimal
Inhibition Concentration (MIC)
the farm-specific swine-dysentery
pathogenic agent, in order to
range between 0.7 and 2.5kg/t val- achieve effective dysentery preven-
Plants are a very wide source of nat- and their mechanisms of action are ues. 76% of the screened 50 isolates tion even with low (≤1kg/t dosage)
ural active ingredients. In their envi- very complex: were inhibited in a 0.7-1.2kg/t con- herbal feed additive supplementa-
ronment, they have developed over l Action on cell membrane. centration range. tion.
time ways to defend themselves l Disturbance of osmotic balance
against biotic attacks (parasites, bac- and modification of bacterial intra- Fig. 1. Inhibiting the growth of Brachyspira sp. with BioSantrix and the
teria, fungi, etc) and also against abi- cellular pH. newly developed BioSantrix Special. The figure symbolises the results of
otic stresses (variations in l Modification of intracellular four isolates out of the tested 50.
temperature, UV radiation, etc). metabolic processes.
l Inhibition of the communication
idena.fr system between bacteria. n BioSantrix (kg/t)
n BioSantrix Special (kg/t)
Building on this knowledge of 2.5
Product in feed (kg/t)

The active molecules synthesised essential oils, Idena has developed a 2.0
by the plant to protect itself from range of high-performance addi-
these stresses are called secondary tives, which focus on specific bacte- 1.5
metabolites. They are intrinsically ria, depending on the stage of
present in the plant and are concen- development of the piglet. Idena's 1.0
trated in some of its organs, such as objective is to create a favourable 0.5
essential oils. and healthy environment in the
In vitro, essential oils act specifi- digestive tract of pigs from birth to 0
cally or unspecifically on many slaughter, depending on the condi- B2 B6 B10 B21
germs. Their antimicrobial activity, tions of breeding to promote the
Tested isolate
strictly speaking, is highly depen- performance of the animals and the
dent on their chemical structure, reduction of the use of antibiotics.

16 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

essential oils & flavours

Combine your favourite essential Phytogenic adaptation formula

oils in granular form for gut agility
Dr Eckel Animal Nutrition has devel- to handle, to dose and to combine. Competitive pig production oxidative stress, reduced gut
oped Soft-Melt-Coating (SMC) – a How do you deal with molecules requires pig producers to continu- integrity and inflammation are
new technique to handle essential that are almost impossible to ously adapt to changes in consumer reduced in favour of saving meta-
oils. It allows the handling of essen- process? In collaboration with demands – respond faster to chal- bolic energy for animal perfor-
tial oils at low temperatures. During galenic experts, Dr Eckel has mas- lenges and drive production and mance. Field trials have also shown
SMC, components stabilise and are tered combining and stabilise essen- cost-efficiency. In this fast-moving that in situations with feed intake
fixed on carriers. As a result, the tial components in granular form. business environment, operational problems in response to nutritional
additive can be further processed The secret: a combination of emul- agility becomes key to profitability stressors Anco FIT increased feed
even when heated without any sig- sifiers and stabilising detergents and success. intake and growth performance.
nificant loss of active ingredients. minimises evaporation. The improved ability of pigs to
SMC allows Dr Eckel to combine With SMC, Dr Eckel now offers anco.net cope with nutritional stressors leads
essential oils according to customer tailor-made essential oil combina- to a more efficient and agile opera-
requirements. tions in granular form suitable for all Nutritional stressors, such as feed tion, which can adapt to nutritional
feed manufacturing processes. transitions, reduced nutrient challenges in a natural and prof-
dr-eckel.de digestibility, endotoxins, antinutri- itable way.
tional factors and mycotoxins nega-
Feed manufacturers are becoming tively impact consistency and
increasingly aware of the beneficial efficiency in pig performance in
effects of essential oils. Especially response to diets. Important for
producers of high-value feed brands profitability is how animals react to
wish to combine essential oils in a these stressors.
customised fashion to target spe- The phytogenic adaptation for-
cific applications (respiratory tract, mula in Anco FIT boosts gut agility
intestinal disorders, antimicrobial and empowers pigs to adapt to
effects). nutritional stressors more effi-
Essential oils are, however, small ciently. Stress reactions such as
molecules that become unstable at
rising temperatures and literally
vaporise. That makes them difficult
Providing greater flexibility
in feed formulation
Consistent and easy to use essential
oil compound solution Pancosma is a leading company in
the research, development, produc-
demonstrated that the gut is indeed
an epithelial surface with sensory
tion and worldwide sales of pala- properties, able to perceive its envi-
Essential oils-based feed additives fully controlled. Cinergy FIT 3S is tants used in animal feed. Based on ronment and adapt to it.
are known for their ability to sup- made of EOCs to help ensure con- advanced research and innovation, This concept of Intelligent Gut
port animal performance with both sistent results from all batches. Pancosma creates palatants, which Action ensures that Pancosma’s
improved growth and feed intake. Carefully selected solvents ensure bring real value to an increasingly palatants improve feed palatability,
stability of EOC in various type of specialised area of animal nutrition. increase feed intake, and enhance
cargill.com feed-premix, extruded feeds and the absorption of nutrients in the
acids blends – allowing >80% recov- pancosma.com gut, providing greater flexibility in
Due to the diversity of products ery of the essential oil compounds feed formulation.
available on the market, a significant after application. Since it was established in 1947, All products are manufactured
variability in the magnitude of Cinergy FIT 3S is easy to use and Pancosma has been refining the using the unique Iso-Fusion
response to these solutions is often can be included in both premixes technology used in the production Technology production process
observed. Natural identical Essential and complete feed. Cinergy 3S can of palatants, to improve feed (micro-sized particles with uniform
Oil Compounds (EOC) are selected be applied to piglets post-weaning, palatability and encourage higher homogeneity).
essential oil components whose lactating sows and at the grower/ feed intake, which is crucial for Pancosma’s palatants are scientifi-
type and concentration are care- finisher stage. optimal animal productivity. cally developed, tested by an in-
Their sophisticated flavours have house panel, and validated by the
a powerful impact in the nose and highest scientific protocols to meet
Table 1. Cargill internal trial result demonstrating consistency of results oral epithelium. In addition, their customer’s expectations.
in post-weaning performance (in different hygiene conditions). Pancosma’s market leading sweet-
ener and taste enhancer, Sucram,
Average daily gain – post weaning has a strong and unique effect on
the tongue and the lingual epithe-
Number Consistency Average
of trials (%) improvement (%)
They have proved that palatants
Cinergy FIT 3S 26 73 4.5 not only target the oral and lingual
epithelium, but also positively
Competitors 35 61 4.1 affect nutrient uptake in the gut. A
sophisticated research program has

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 17

Natural oregano in the sow
lactation diet
In recent years sows have been pro- digestibility and less stress on the
ducing larger litters with more vul- immune system, which leads to a
nerable piglets, making the already better performance. An experiment
challenging lactation period even conducted at Wageningen
harder. University examined the effect of
adding 750mg Dosto Mineral
dostofarm.de 4Green per kilo of feed in the sow
lactation diet one week before far-
German feed supplement manu- rowing and during lactation on the
facturer Dostofarm has shown that health and performance of sows
a sows’ lactation diet with pure nat- and piglets.Piglets had a significantly
ural oregano essential oil helps to lower diarrhoea score compared to
stabilise the gut and also improves the control group. The supplemen-
Healthier, more profitable piglets the feed utilisation of sows and
tation also influenced the perfor-
mance of the sows and their litter.
with essential oils Other studies have also shown
that oregano enhances health
It was observed that the average
live birth weight of the piglets
thanks to its antimicrobial activity. tended to be higher. Oregano seems
Weaning is a critical phase in pig By joining forces, Crina Piglets and It disrupts the microbial cell mem- to increase milk production since
production, during which young VevoVitall, the latter registered as branes and inhibits the growth of the litter was bigger at weaning. The
animals undergo several stressful zootechnical additive in piglets in several pathogenic bacteria. sows also had a better udder
changes at a time when their Europe, have both complementary A balanced and rich gut bacterial hygiene status and the piglets had
immune and intestinal systems are and synergistic effects leading to population means better nutrient better gastrointestinal health.
far from fully developed. Separation enhanced gut health and optimum
from the mother, change from milk productivity of piglets.
to solid feed and a new housing Some essential oil compounds like
environment are all conditions that
piglets need to adapt to.
piperine improve nutrient digestibil-
ity through stimulation of secre-
Get the most out of EO thanks to
tions of digestive enzymes, while
other actives such as thymol modu-
protection and combination
late the growth of potentially path-
Besides a decreased feed intake, ogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Essential oils (EO) are fragrant Nevertheless, due to their volatil-
major consequences are impaired Benzoic acid is particularly effec- and/or volatile compounds from ity and physiological conditions in
digestion and diarrhoea due to their tive in controlling Gram-negative plant materials acknowledged for the gastrointestinal tract, most
sensitive, as not yet mature, intesti- bacteria (E. coli, salmonella) in the their antimicrobial activity. ingested EO will not reach bacteria.
nal microbiota. In this context, a piglet’s digestive tract. Microencapsulation technology
targeted combination of eubiotics This concept is also available in jefo.com allows a proper convoy of active
like the Crina Essential oils and pure one single product, called Vevowin, compounds to a dedicated location
grade Benzoic acid product offer which has been successfully used by Together with organic acids (OA), for best efficacy.
the swine industry a cost-effective swine integrators in Brazil and they are today spearheads of alter- Associated with a specific selec-
and consistent alternative to col- China, where colistin has been native products used in piglets at tion of organic acids, protected EO
istin to prevent colibacillosis. recently banned. weaning time and also in sows to + OA combination represents the
reduce pathogenic bacteria excre- best synergy for antibacterial activ-
tion and help control urinary infec- ity. Safely conveyed to bacterial
tions and vaginal discharge. location, by weakening the bacterial
Vectorising phytogenic feed Based on either perforation or
binding of bacterial membranes
membranes EO will effectively
allow active undissociated OA to
additives to optimise gut health mode of action, EO as OA, have to
reach the bulk of bacteria located
penetrate bacterial cells. Based on
Jefo’s Matrix Technology, protected
lower down in the gastrointestinal EO+OA combinations ensure safe
In order to help customers in the them with carriers and, if needed, tract in order to express their best embedding of active compounds
global trend of reducing the use of encapsulation agents. potential. for a targeted delivery.
antibiotics and the use of zinc oxide The aim is to ensure optimal
at medicinal levels in piglet feed, efficiency of the selected ingredi-
MiXscience, an innovative company ents, by bringing them together at
with expertise in nutrition and the right place, at the right time.
animal production, is focused on ActEbioz, a blend of phytogenic
developing vectorised solutions. active components and other
aromatic compounds, has therefore
mixscience.eu been developed under this tech-
Vectorising is a process of choos- It supports the animal’s health and
ing the best ingredients – taking performance during critical stages
into account the possible synergies of development, such as weaning
between them – and associating and post-weaning.

18 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

essential oils & flavours

Essential oil blend offers excellent

action against coccidiosis
An essential oil is a concentrated and decrease of weaning weight,
hydrophobic liquid extracted from which in turns lengthens the growth
plants, containing aroma com- cycle. It is therefore essential to act
pounds. They have a clear effect against coccidiosis both in the sow
against pathogens, due to their before farrowing, to decrease the
capacity to increase the pathogen infection of piglets, and in the
cell membrane’s permeability, and piglets themselves.
also reduce intestinal inflammation. Eurofeed Technologies has devel-
oped Erbaroma, a blend of essential
eurofeed.it oils to be added in piglet and sow
feed which has an excellent action
Coccidiosis in swine is caused by against coccidiosis in swine.
the presence of Isospora parasites
which enter the cells of the gut lin-
It works by increasing the
permeability of the cell wall of the
Tasty feed ensures a constant
ing and use them to reproduce,
destroying them in the process,
Isospora (so the pathogen is
neutralised in the stomach without
feed intake
causing extensive intestinal damage. reaching the intestine) and by
Coccidiosis does not have clinical reducing intestinal inflammation, Piglets experience a lot of stress at flavour before and after weaning,
signs in adult pigs but can cause increasing intestinal epithelium the time around weaning. This stress the piglets start eating the new feed
extreme economical losses in resistance and helping the healing needs to be reduced to a minimum within a shorter period.
piglets due to diarrhoea, wasting process. in order to avoid an adverse effect A further advantage in the admin-
on further development. Using istration of the same flavour before
flavours can be helpful as this and after weaning is that the piglets
ensures a high degree of palatabil- suffer less stress on the day of
Low dosage; great piglet ity, thus stimulating feed intake. weaning.
However, with increasing age, the
performance kaesler.de flavour preferences change. The
preference for sweetness decreases
Piglets react more sensitively to and shifts to fruity flavours, which
A low addition level of a specialty effect in the digestive tract of the differences in quality in feed than they would find in nature. The older
phytogenic in piglet feed improves animal. The well-chosen phytogenic older pigs, meaning that feeding is the animals get, the more they pre-
weaned piglet performance. This is compounds have a broad spectrum of particular importance during this fer spicy flavours.
the result of the latest animal trial antimicrobial effect and remain stage of life. They prefer sweet and Cuxarom offers a broad range of
organised by Aveve Biochem. 336 active at high intestinal pH milky flavours that remind them of specific flavour blends, which cater
weaned piglets were allocated in 24 (pKa=10.5). The compounds are their mother’s milk. for pigs of every age group, thus
pens each with 14 piglets. Half of known to provide extra balance of When given feed with the same ensuring a constant feed intake.
them were fed a standard antibiotic the microbiota, stimulation of nutri-
free diet, the other 168 piglets were ent digestion and absorption and
fed the same diet supplemented inhibition of oxidative reactions.
with only 100ppm AveMix Essence. On day 14 post-weaning the per-
formance parameters of the two
The purely natural yield enhancer
avevebiochem.com groups were compared. The AveMix
Essence-supplemented piglets con-
for all animals
This light orange product com- sumed 2% more feed. 12% greater
prises a selected phytogenic mix, daily gain as well as a 7% better Sangrovit Extra is Phytobiotics’ lead- pounds, thus stimulating feed intake
validated by Aveve Biochem. The feed conversion ratio was registered ing brand of patented, purely plant- and supporting digestion.
aromatic oils are entrapped in a fat- compared to the non-supple- derived product solutions which Consequently, positive effects on
matrix. This ensures stability of mented group – this with only the increase feed intake and therefore amino acid digestibility and protein
components in the feed production addition of 100g extra AveMix promote animal growth, meat qual- deposition are achieved and more
process as well as a ‘slow release’ Essence product in 1 ton of feed. ity and yield. amino acids are available for build-
ing muscle.
Fig. 1. Effect of AveMix Essence addition to piglet feed. phytobiotics.com A healthy intestine is the prerequi-
site for optimum nutrition meeting
n Control
Sangrovit Extra’s clearly described the demands of fast-growing pigs,
n AveveMix Essence
120 and analysed active ingredients contributing to the effectiveness of
secure feed intake and stimulate medicinal interventions and vacci-
100 digestion naturally. nations.
Effect (%)

From plant cultivation to finished The use of Sangrovit Extra is

bags of microgranules, the entire worthwhile, as supplementing diets
80 production process remains in their results in a substantial cost-benefit
hands. Thus, the company guarantee ratio of 1:3-1:10, depending on animal
a consistent, outstanding quality species, and actual farm and pro-
product. duction conditions. This has been
Feed intake Daily gain FCR
The main active ingredients of established in numerous scientific
Sangrovit Extra include bitter com- studies and field trials.

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 19

essential oils & flavours

Maintaining good gut health for

better performance
Maintaining good gut health in inhibit harmful bacteria and stimu-
younger pigs is very important for late good bacteria, thus they also
better growth and performance. A play an important role in improving
healthy gut will help the piglets to gut health.
get a good start in the nursery, One such product is Salcochek
which will manifest itself with a Pro. It is a gut function modulator
much higher weight in finisher pigs. that combines the strength of
essential oils from Ocimum sanc-
ayurvet.com tum, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha
piperata along with herbs like
It will improve feed intake and Acacia, Aegele, Plantago, Berberis .
absorption of nutrients, resulting in Salcochek Pro helps in improving
greater average daily gain and lower the gut environment by increasing
pig mortality. the number of beneficial Bifido bac-
Nature is a store house of many terium, Lactobacillus and inhibiting
such plants and herbs that can play the growth of pathogenic bacteria
Increase appetite and improve a very vital role in improving gut like E. coli, salmonella and entero-
health. cocci.
bodyweight gain in pigs Essential oils are a Salcochek Pro
mixture of fragrant and helps in increasing
volatile compounds the villous height
Production stress in young animals antifungal, anti-inflammatory and from plants. They have and crypt depth,
can result in loss of appetite and antioxidant properties, they can a known antimicrobial thus there is bet-
weight loss. Additionally, their also offer healthy performance and role and inhibit their ter absorption
immature immune and digestive food safety benefits to pig produc- growth, thus reducing and assimilation
systems are susceptible to disease- ers. microbial load. The of nutrients. It
causing organisms which can disrupt Developed following intensive essential oils enhance also improves gut
gut integrity. essential oil component laboratory digestive secretions immunity by
screening and in vivo research such as bile, mucus and increasing the
animalnutrition.dupont.com across different diet types and ages digestive enzymes number of goblet
of animal, Enviva EO comprises which aid in digestion. cells. Thus,
This is compounded by the reduc- carefully balanced, high concentra- They also reduce the Salcochek Pro
tion or elimination of in-feed anti- tion blends of thymol and cin- adherence of pathogens plays an impor-
biotics in many countries, leading namaldehyde in a nature identical in the gut wall, thus tant role in
producers to find other ways of form. protecting it. The phe- Improving the
achieving a healthy gut and Ongoing research has shown that nolic compounds pre- gut environment,
improved growth performance, Enviva EO is a superior solution for sent in the essential oils utilising the strength of herbs along
such as essential oils compounds. resolving common pig production also have an anti-inflammatory with essential oils.
Essential oil compounds are aro- challenges. activity. Maintaining good gut health right
matic molecules that have been Pig producers are using Enviva EO In addition to essential oils there from the nursery is the first step for
extracted from specific plants or to increase appetite and improve are many herbs in nature that have a better performance and higher
plant parts. Deemed ‘essential’ to body weight gain, as well as support beneficial role that help in improv- returns and leads to less incidence
the plant because they offer varying the development of a positive gut ing gut immunity, increase the of scours, less treatment costs, and
degrees of antibacterial, antiviral, microbiota. absorptive capacity of the gut, better growth in finishers.

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20 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

Choosing and caring
for the right applicator
for pigs
sing the right tools, no matter what l Incorrect administration – that you will need; this ensures the highest

U the task at hand, makes the job more

efficient, effective and easy. Having
the right applicator, whether injecting or
ineffectiveness of the product, animal
l Less than ideal cleanliness – spreading
accuracy and comfortable handling.
l Drench nozzles – check the length based
on the animal size for proper administration
drenching, is critical to overall good results. disease. to avoid damage to the animals’ throat.
l Inaccurate dosing – less than optimal l Priming – setting the barrel on maximum
results. dosage allows easier elimination of any air
by Stefan Knefel, in the system during setup, which you want
Henke-Sass Wolf, Germany. to evacuate, prime, then adjust downward
www.henkesasswolf.de Drenching piglets and sows if needed.
l Accuracy test – set the required dose
Oral administration, especially viscous and test the accuracy of the applicator with
For routine treatments, the majority of product, is a challenging job requiring a scaled measuring cup before going to
veterinarians and producers prefer proper handling, technique and equipment. work.
automatic applicators that are self-filling, Always refer to the manufacturer’s l Maintenance – after working, clean and
either via a tube connection or bottle recommended dosage, applicator disinfect according to the manufacturer’s
mount for speed and efficiency versus compatibility and application technique. instructions and always oil the o-rings with
individual dosing devices. Recent introductions in the food-grade oil, to keep the piston running
Within this category of products, there market of plastic, semi-disposable smoothly. Dry and store in a clean location.
are many choices to consider. The risks of drenchers offer an ergonomic and accurate Emphasis needs to be placed on care. A
using the wrong applicators are many and alternative to the plastic hand pumps few extra moments after use will ensure the
following a few small guidelines can commonly provided with the drench drencher is working the next time it is
eliminate things such as: product. needed avoiding costly delays later.
l Overdosing – wasting money. Some tips to keep in mind:
l Underdosing – risk of resistance and l Size matters – choose a drencher that is
effectiveness of the product. as close as possible to the maximum dose Injecting

Keeping animals healthy is a priority; we

The Henke Sass Wolf Eco-Matic range including their bottle mount basket, bottle spend a lot of money on vaccines and herd
mount universal and draw-off syringe. health programs, and part of this should be
choosing a quality vaccinator that does the
job correctly. A compromise on the syringe
to save money may end up costing a lot
more. Consideration should be given to the
following factors.

Bottle sizes

l Bottle mount or draw off – a general rule

of thumb is for 100ml and smaller use a
bottle mount; for 200ml and larger use a
draw off connection.
l Draw off syringes – using a bottle holder
on the arm or waist eliminates the bottles
from getting in the way of work, or tubing
getting caught up with the animals and loss
of product.
l Protecting the bottle – when using glass
bottles, consider a syringe with a basket
that connects and protects the bottle at
the same time.
l Bottle neck sizes – there are a variety of
shapes and sizes of bottles on the market,
Continued on page 22

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 21

Continued from page 21 of it properly. Do not straighten and reuse
most of which tend to have either 20mm, bent needles.
30mm or 33mm necks. Before you go out to l Dispose of used needles and other
vaccinate, verify you have a syringe that fits ‘sharps’ properly and according to
your bottles. regulations to prevent environmental
Many syringes are packaged with only one contamination and potential injury to
connection size. Henke Sass Wolf offers a animal caretakers, waste handlers, other
universal pack with all sizes included, never livestock and pets.
leaving users unconnected.

Dose size
Always refer to the manufacturer’s
Choose a syringe that is as close to the guidelines for care. Look for syringes where
maximum dose you will be giving for the entire syringe can be boiled for
accuracy. disinfection for added biosecurity. Good
The further the dose setting is away from l Priming – always prime on maximum general practice includes:
maximum dose, the less accurate the position and dose test into a scaled l Rinse thoroughly with a hot water and
syringe will be. measuring cup to verify accuracy. A good soap mix.
Refer to manufacturer’s instructions on benchmark to look for in your syringe is a l Rinse thoroughly with clean, warm water.
adjustment settings; some syringes are to design with ±3% dose tolerance l Pump dry.
the end of the plunger (upper picture) and l Lubricate the O-ring with a food-grade
others to the o-ring (lower picture). oil like corn or olive. Do not use mineral oil,
Needles silicone, WD-40, glycerine or alcohol.
Petroleum-based products harden the
Getting connected l Fit the needle to the job. piston.
l Keep track of needles before and after l Store in a clean, dry place.
l Bottle setup – to avoid small pieces of working, Count the number of needles to
bottle bung getting stuck in the vaccinator, be used for treatment, Count the needles In summary, fit the applicator for the
prior to connection, it is recommended to again when the job is done to ensure all purpose, and take time to care and clean.
pre-puncture the bottle bung with a clean needles are accounted for. Following these basic steps will ensure that
needle. Use this ‘pilot’ hole as a base to l Change needles, as needed, to ensure treatments are effective and efficient.
insert the draw off spike or bottle mount sharpness and cleanliness. Reusable applicators with care will last for
spike. l If you drop a needle, find it and dispose many thousand treatment cycles. n

22 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

Effective management of
sows for increased
I n the pig business, high prolifi-
cacy means the ability to give
birth to large numbers of pigs.
Sows that can wean 12 or more pigs
give birth to many pigs but such
pigs are of relatively low commer-
cial value.
At the opposite pole, selection
methods that starve the gilt, force
her to grow slowly, and limit her
skeletal development are detrimen-
tal to modern genotypes. Excessive
sapeloviruses, and astroviruses that
can cause stillbirths, mummifica-
tions, embryonic death, infertility,
and shaker pig syndromes.
per litter are highly productive. We for extremes in rapid growth rate, commercial focus on minimising the It is impossible to vaccinate
must consider not only pig count carcase muscling, and piglet surviv- cost of feeding replacement gilts is against these ‘SMEDI viruses’ but
but also pig birth weight, pig quality, ability generally drives the system misdirected economy. their impact can be minimised by
and pig viability. toward fewer pigs born live, sub- Feed gilts ad-libitum to reach 125- exposing gilts to faeces from the
Non-survival to weaning is detri- standard lactation performance, 150kg and about 20mm P2 backfat at sow herd and to culled sows 30
mental to production of the surviv- infertility, and skeletal dysfunction- about eight months of age. days before mating, such that the
ing pigs as colostrum, milk, and alities. Research has shown that gilts fed gilts become exposed and immune
other resources are wasted on pigs The biological opposition of organic chromium at 400-600ppb before pregnancy.
that die. Weaning weights or 21-day maternal traits and ‘market hog’ during development have more
weights provide useful information. (terminal) traits has led to the pigs.
development of ‘static cross’ Mating gilts
genetic programmes where sow
by E. Wayne Johnson, DVM, lines derive from ‘maternal’ lines Purchase only clean negative Mature gilts should be heat checked
Senior Consultant, Enable heavily selected for reproductive stock twice daily (am and pm) by direct
Ag-Tech Consulting, Beijing. traits and the sires of the market boar exposure, and mated on their
pigs derive from lines selected for Any incoming animals should be second or third lifetime heat.
growth, muscling, and market- isolated for 60 days and retested 30 Inseminate gilts at the detectable
Sow productivity is perhaps best appropriate conformation. days after arrival to the isolation onset of oestrus and repeat
assessed by examining the number The gilt that becomes a prolific facility. insemination every 12 hours until
of full value quality pigs and their productive sow is typically the first Purchased breeding animals must the end of heat (when she will no
weight at nine weeks of age. The or second cross of two or three be seronegative for PRRS and wild- longer stand for the boar).
number of full value pigs marketed genetic lines, typically Large White, type PRV virus. Herds that are
per sow per year is a measure of Landrace, or Chester White, that vaccinating for PRRS should buy
pigmanship and management skill, have been selected strongly for seronegative animals and vaccinate Gestation feeding
but it all begins with the productiv- reproductive traits. them as appropriate.
ity of the sow. The crossing of unrelated genetic In pseudorabies (PRV) prevalent The nutritional needs of pregnant
We expect that after a lactation lines produces hybrid females that regions, replacements should be swine and their foeti are not high. A
of 17-25 days, the sow will express optimise genetic potential. The best vaccinated with gene-deleted vac- 14% crude protein diet containing
an obvious and fertile oestrus genetic programs combine genera- cine and test negative for field virus. 0.65% lysine, 0.9% Ca and 0.7% P is
within seven days after weaning, tions of data recordkeeping and Where Classical Swine Fever (CSF) adequate for sows and gilts in all
conceive upon mating, and bear a computer-based ‘BLUP’ prediction is endemic, animals should be free stages of gestation.
subsequent litter of equal or better technology with visual evaluation from persistent infection (PI) as Feed a basal level of 2kg gestation
quality than the previous litter. of reproductive soundness. determined by PCR. Serology is use- diet daily and increase or decrease
We expect that the sow will be less to determine CSF status except feeding levels to body condition
able to stay in the herd and produce for presently rare cases where pigs score 3.0 or P2 backfat 17-22mm at
6-8 litters of healthy, high quality Developing the gilt are vaccinated with the new CSF farrowing.
piglets. subunit vaccines. Minimum feeding level is 1.8kg/
Gilt selection begins when her sire day. Increase feed 500g per day
and dam are mated. We know during the last three weeks of
The highly prolific sow which litters are going to provide Vaccination and controlled gestation. Feeding high dietary fibre
future productive females. exposure during gestation can improve sow
The primary influence that causes Gilts have significantly higher satiety, reduce stress levels, and
the high pig born live numbers is the dietary protein and amino acid Gilts in preparation for breeding improve foetal growth. Sows need
genetics of the sow. Highly produc- requirements than do barrows, and should be vaccinated twice for more feed in cold weather and less
tive sows derive from genetic lines those gilts that will be kept for Parvovirus, Erysipelas, and Porcine feed in warm weather.
that have been selected for genera- breeding purposes should be fed Circovirus 2 (PCV2). Vitamins and trace minerals are
tions for good reproductive perfor- diets that meet their maximal Herds with a history of PCV2 important. Supplement 750-900ppm
mance. requirements, and they should be problems should sequence the farm choline, 70-100+ppm vitamin E,
Extreme individual sows in the raised in sow and litter environ- virus and use a vaccine appropriate 5-10ppm folate, 5-6ppm pyridoxine,
extreme prolificacy genetic lines ments that allow them to grow to their situation. 200-250ppm Zn, 500ppb biotin, and
can predictably and repeatably give maximally. In regions where PRV, FMD, or lep- 50ppb B12.
birth to more than 20 pigs per litter High value gilts should not be fed tospirosis are prevalent, vaccinate Producers are well advised to add
and produce more than 40 live born the budget-minded diets designed gilts accordingly. Expose and accli- 0.2ppm organic Se in addition to
pigs per year. for commercial market hogs. mate gilts to the sow herd about 30 the typical 0.3ppm inorganic Se (in
It is well said that ‘extremes are Enhanced levels of vitamins, miner- days prior to breeding. countries where permitted).
dysfunctional’ since the most als, phosphorus, and calcium are There exists in all swine herds Sows should have ad libitum
extremely prolific Taihu breeds can needed. Traditional gilt rearing viruses such as enteroviruses, Continued on page 25

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 23

24 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5
Continued from page 23 controlled by genetics. This is a vaccination of sows. Use the four- of iron 75-150mg, given at day two
access to water at all times, and function of mature body size. strain (K88, K99, 987p, F41) E. coli and repeated at day 10 are prefer-
some form of environmental cool- Elephants are bigger than rats at vaccine or laboratory prepared farm able to a potentially oxidising iron
ing should be provided (drippers birth, and Charolais calves are big- specific killed bacterins. overload.
and fans are ideal) when the tem- ger than Jerseys. The pig at birth is Routine use of ‘preventive’ antibi- Crossfostering can be done safely
perature is 28˚C or above. similarly subject to his mature body otics for control of piglet diarrhoea at birth to even up litters, but later
size. is illogical and deprecated. crossfostering spreads infectious
Increasing dietary protein and disease and is counter-productive.
Sow mortality increasing gestation feeding Castration can be done easily at
amounts can effectively waste Lactation feeding of sows day seven. Consider use of a local
The highly productive sow can be money, waste feed, and produce anaesthetic and an analgesic when
sensitive and susceptible to high overfat sows but have little to no Avoid restricted feeding in lacta- castrating piglets, as it is not only
mortality rates. Gestation housing positive impact on piglet birth tion. Full feed beginning the third humane and civilised but it can
should be dry and well-ventilated. weight and piglet viability. day post farrowing. Low fibre, high enhance profitability.
Accurate diagnosis is essential in Three dietary interventions in late protein diets with minimum 0.95%
any situation of sow mortality. gestation can have a predictably lysine should be provided three or
The most common cause of sow positive impact on piglet birth four times daily. Supplemental feeding (creep
mortality is gastric ulceration due to weight and piglet viability. These The highly productive sow needs feed or milk replacer)
feeds being ground too finely. Feed are: about 60g of lysine per day in a bal-
particle size should be 600-800 l Addition of organic chromium anced protein-amino acid matrix. If It is impossible for even the best
microns. There is no economic has been demonstrated to improve all sows are cleaning up their feed sows to provide sufficient milk for
advantage to grinding sow feeds total litter birth weight and individ- and no sows have any feed left large litters. Creep feed or supple-
more finely than 600 microns. ual pig birth weights. The optimum before the next feeding, then sows mental milk should be provided.
Pelleted feeds are attractive to the level of dietary chromium is are indeed underfed. Sow milk contains about 1.8-2.0%
eye but are far more likely to cause 600ppb rather than the oft-cited Addition of water to the sow feed digestible lysine on a dry matter
ulcerations. Do not feed pelleted 200ppb. The Cr effect is apparently can increase feed intake, but wet- basis. Eighty years ago it was noted
feeds to valuable breeding swine. due to modulation of insulin ting of feed should be a simple that supplemental milk and creep
The second most common cause response. Cr is incorporated into process not a time-wasting ritual. feeds should have lysine levels
of sow mortality is urinary tract new cells in the sow’s body as they Put the feed supply near the farrow- similar to sow milk.
infection (UTI). These are usually are formed. Provide Cr to the devel- ing room, otherwise workers will be More recent research suggests
sudden deaths, but some vulvar dis- oping young gilt and continuously reluctant to full-feed the sow. that the milk of the sow is not quite
charge may be observed in gesta- long-term to the sow. There is no such thing as diarrhoea perfect for the pig, and a milk diet
tion. l Carnitine when provided at due to excessive milk production. If with about 2.4% lysine might max-
The common causes are water 50ppm during the last three weeks diarrhoea occurs, get a diagnosis of imise pig performance.
deprivation and alkalinising diets. of gestation does not modify birth the underlying disease. Full-feeding Inducing the fairly smart pig to
Urine can be collected early in the weights but does substantially sows from day three to weaning consume perfunctorily proffered
morning and tested with common improve piglet viability and early increases weaning weights, reduces pellet of low quality but sugary
pH paper. Ideal pH should be 5.5-6.5 growth. wean to oestrus interval, and 1.35% lysine diet is not easy.
(slightly acidic). Herds experiencing l Lignocellulose, a specialised increases ovulation rate, embryo Some nutritionists gave up on the
discharge problems or UTI losses insoluble/fermentable fibre source survival, and increases born live at concept of ‘creep feeding’ as sup-
often have sow urine pH of about derived from forest resources, can the subsequent litter. Continue to plemental nutriture and say that the
eight. predictably increase piglet birth full-feed the sow from weaning to feed provided to the piglet is not to
In such cases, examine the diet weights by 100g per pig when added rebreeding. replace or supplement milk, but just
and remove alkalinisers such as to late term gestation diets (last 2-3 to ‘teach the pig how to eat’.
bicarbonate. Ammonium chloride weeks of gestation) at the rate of We may call ‘nonsense’ on this.
added to the diet can acidify urine 75g per day. Piglet processing Neonatal pigs are precocious and
and is effective along with good express natural rooting behaviour
water provision in stopping UTI Where quality labour is available, that drives them to consume earth
problems. Consult with your nutri- Preparation for farrowing attendance at farrowing can reduce to get iron essential for life.
tionist and your veterinarian. piglet mortality. A farrowing pow- They do not need to be taught
The third most common cause of Individually feed sows in gestation der can dry the pig at birth. how to eat, they know that at birth.
sow losses is lameness. Most lame- such that the P2 backfat level does Provide three heat sources at far- Earth, in the form of organic peats,
ness is rooted in structural not exceed 22mm at farrowing. rowing, one behind the sow, and can be offered to pigs on the floor
unsoundness of breeding animals. Overfat sows have farrowing diffi- one at either side of the sow, to of their farrowing crate, and they
Common causes of unsoundness are culty and increased stillbirth rates. warm the pig when he is born, and consume it readily due to innate
legs that are too straight and Fat sows tend to have lactation fail- to warm him while he reaches a teat grubbing behaviour.
hypoplasia of the medial claw (small ure, eat poorly in lactation and lose on the right or the left side of the Peat and humic substances can be
inside toe). too much weight in lactation, have sow. provided to the pig early in life and
Deficiency in biotin and/or zinc prolonged wean-to-oestrus interval, Do not tie off the navel, but trim then mixed daily with a high quality
can render the hoof susceptible to and produce smaller litters at the it and dip in strong 10% iodine tinc- creep feed which the pig consumes
cracking and infection. subsequent farrowing as compared ture (not tamed iodine) to chemi- along with the peat, and the pig can
with sows that are not overfed in cally cauterise the navel and thus quickly be transitioned to con-
gestation. prevent infection. Tooth cutting is a suming significant amounts of creep
Gestation feeding to improve Constipation is one of the most major cause of morbidity and mor- feed by day seven or before.
piglet birth weight common causes of lactation failure tality in farms that still cut the The economics of feeding a high
in sows. High fibre diets pre- and teeth. There is no viable argument quality creep feed or milk replacer
There are sow feeding programs post-farrowing and/or a chemical to justify cutting the teeth of the to a piglet are compelling. The
such as ‘bump feeding’, and ‘bu-bu- laxative such as potassium chloride piglet and intelligent management maintenance needs of the pig and
gao’, phased gestation feeding, addi- or potassium magnesium sulphate has discontinued the practice. more are being met by the sow milk
tion of fish meal, dietary fat, etc., (K2Mg[SO4]2) are effective in pre- Antibiotics are not necessary at they consume.
that attempt to increase piglet birth venting absorption of dopaminergic birth unless there is a serious dis- That means that, in effect, about
weight in high prolificacy sows but endotoxins that commonly block ease problem, and in those cases 100% of supplemental milk or high
in most cases there is no positive prolactin release in sows with lacta- antibiotics should be an emergency quality creep feed can be utilised
effect and often strong negative tion failure. Avoid feeding high fibre stop-gap measure pending broader directly for piglet growth, and it is
effects if sows become overfat. throughout lactation as it can control by vaccination or other log- quite possible to see milk replacers
It has been recognised for more reduce feed intake. ical disease management. and good creep feeds produce
than 30 years that litter weight and Colibacillosis in the piglet can be Iron injections are essential to more than 1kg gain for every 1kg of
individual birth weight are chiefly effectively halted by prefarrowing prevent anaemia. Moderate dosages creep feed consumed. n

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 25

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Number: 125
Roundworms II

Stomach worms
Five roundworm genera can be found in the stomach of the pig. Hyostrongylus is common, but the
remainder are less common and more limited in their geographical distribution. These four are
Ascarops, Physocephalus, Gnathostoma and Simondsia.

The red stomach worm

The red stomach worm, which is also known as Hyostrongylus rubidus, is a trystrongyloid that
occurs unattached on the mucosa of the stomach’s lesser curvature. These worms are less than 1cm
long and thin.

The lifecycle
Roundworm eggs are typical strongyloid eggs that, at the time of being laid, contain a 16-32 cell
stage embryonic larva. Their lifecycle is a direct one so no intermediate host(s) is required. Once
eggs have been voided in the faeces, it takes a week for them to develop into infective larvae which
then migrate from the faeces, for example on to grass, where they are ingested by pigs. The disease
Aveve Biochem caused by this worm is called hyostrongylosis and is typically a disease of outdoor pigs.

CID Lines
The ingested larvae then enter the gastric glands, where two moults occur, before they re-enter the
Dupont gastric lumen and develop into adults.


Their pathogenicity is not that great as they suck little blood. However, they can cause a catarrhal
Novation gastritis which may lead to catarrhal erosion that can adversely impact weight gain and FCR.

Other stomach worms

Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascarops strongylina, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Simondsia paradoxa
are all much larger than Hyostrongylus rubidus, being both thicker and longer (about 2cm). These are
spiruroid worms that attach by their mouths to the gastric mucosa where they appear to cause little
harm other than to stimulate excessive mucus production.

© Positive Action Publications Ltd

Inorganic selenium
Reproductive performance of sows The objective of this Lithuanian study (Vet. ir
Zotech. 73 105-108) was to assess the effects of a
higher level of inorganic selenium (0.5mg per kg)
This study looked at the reproductive performance of breeding sows kept in rural households in Assam on live animal productivity and meat quality.
(Ind. J. of An. Reprod. 38 52-55). It was found that adding 0.5mg per kg of
The average number of sows per household was 2.7 and the average litter size at farrowing was 7.2. inorganic selenium to the diet of 62 day old pigs
Sows were bred 2.3 months after the weaning of piglets and breeding was done 2.3 days after onset of for 13 weeks had no effect on live pig perfor-
oestrus. Some 12% of households had a boar and 86% used a neighbour’s boar. The remaining 2% relied mance or the chemical composition of the
on a community owned boar. resulting meat or the accumulation of selenium.
However, it significantly improved the muscu-
larity of the pigs.

Oxidative stress and reproductive

In the perinatal period of mammals, due to the
high rate of foetal growth and intensity of lacta-
tion, the metabolic intensity of the body is
greatly increased, and it is easy to produce pro-
gressive oxidative stress. The negative impact of
this on sow performance includes reduced litter
size and survival rate for piglets, decreased lacta-
tion and poor sow health status.
This Chinese review (Chin. J. of An. Nut. 28
3735-3741) provides an overview of the causes of
perinatal oxidative stress, an evaluation index and
the effects of oxidative stress on sow reproduc-
tive performance. In addition, some effective
measures to reduce oxidative stress in sows are

Long term boar fertility

This Chinese work (Reprod., Fert. and Devel. 29
374-382) suggests that intra-uterine growth
restriction affects subsequent sperm production
via reproductive organ development and epige-
netic regulation.

Estimating later reproductive

performance in sows
This American study (Liv. Sci. 196 22-27) was
undertaken to compare lifetime performance of
sows based on number of piglets born alive and
number born alive across three classifications in
first and second parities.
The data used came from 17 farms in one com-
pany and was collected between 2001 and 2014.
This equated to 502,491 records accounting for
the lifetime performance of 105,791 sows.
Overall, the findings were that the use of first
and second parity performance based on born
alive can be used to effectively predict subse-
quent parity and life time performance, which
can help in selection and culling decisions earlier
in a sow’s life.

Algae and boar fertility

This Irish study (Theriogenology 90 78-87) was
undertaken to assess the effects of dietary sup-
plementation with a commercial algal product
rich in docosahexaenoic acid on boar fertility.
It was found that supplementation with this
product gave a significant increase in semen vol-
ume and total sperm numbers. This equated to an
additional three or four doses (inseminations) per

28 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

Birthweight and gilt development Supplementation with arginine decreased the 202-207) was conducted on a batch of lactating
The purpose of this Brazilian study (Reprod., Fert. number of born alive piglets and increased the sows with suckling piglets in a PIC multiplication
and Devel. 29 254-261) was to investigate the number of stillbirths. unit and, in essence, was an evaluation of the
effect of birthweight on bodyweight develop- Gilts producing <14 live piglets receiving the sows’ breastfeeding capacities on the basis of a
ment, development of the genital tract, onset of amino acid mix had increased litter birthweights score which was given at weaning and at the end
puberty and their association with insulin-like and average piglet birth weight and when fed just of the previous lactation.
growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin concentrations. arginine also had higher average piglet birth The statistical analysis of the influence of
This was done by studying the heaviest and weight when compared to the control. genetic, phenotype and environment over the
lightest female piglets in 51 litters. Taken overall, arginine or amino acid mix breastfeeding capacity and the growth and
There were no significant differences in the supplementation increased average birth weight health of the piglets. There was a significant cor-
number or size of total antral follicles or in and reduced the percentage of low birthweight relation between the weight of the batch of
follicle population. pigs. piglets at parturition and at 21 days.
Age at puberty was similar. Bodyweight did not They ascertained that there was a strong corre-
affect the development of the genital tract, lation between the number of functional nipples
ovulation rate or hormone plasma concentra- Volatiles and piglet feeding behaviour and the number of weaned piglets which, in turn,
tions. The early exposure of the foetus to certain correlated to the amount of milk consumed.
Thus, it was concluded that birthweight did not volatiles may result in a further preference for It was calculated that an additional functional
affect the development of the genital tract these compounds in later life and positively nipple corresponds to an extra piglet per batch
before puberty or the onset of puberty. affect the acceptance of feed containing them. and an extra 5kg of weight to the batch at wean-
This Spanish study (J. of An. Sci. 94 5262-5271) ing. Increasing breastfeeding capacity correlates
consisted of two trials with a commercially avail- to a reduction of losses caused by milk subnutri-
Amino acids in gestating gilts able feed additive containing at least 25% tion of suckling piglets.
Arginine is an important amino acid for angio- anethol and cinnamaldehyde and at least 10%
genesis and vasodilation and recent studies have eugenol in sow and post weaning diets.
determined ideal amino acid ratios for maternal, It found that the product’s inclusion in sow Iron supplementation
placental, foetal and mammary gland tissue diets improved piglet consumption and growth In this Polish article (Zycie Wet. 92 116-118)
development during gestation. after weaning and this suggests early exposure of modern strategies of iron supplementation are
This Brazilian study (Liv. Sci. 197 30-35) was pig foetuses to maternal dietary clues at the end discussed.
undertaken to assess the effects of supplement- of gestation might allow for the conditioning of One of the innovative and promising technolo-
ing gestation diets with arginine and/or an amino pigs after weaning. gies is based on nanotechnology and the possi-
acid mixture of lysine, methionine, threonine and bilities of biodegradable oxide nanoparticles as
tryptophan on placental efficiency and piglet carriers of ferric ions in dietary supplementation
birthweight in hyperprolific female gilts. Breast feeding capacities of sows is also discussed.
Supplementation with the amino acid mix The technological, nutritional, hygiene and vet- The oxide nanoparticles have been confirmed
increased gilt weight on day 112 and total piglets erinary services provided today have significantly to possess extensive reach and fast pharmacoki-
born, percentage mummified foetuses, average improved the number of piglets born and to a netics in the animal, including the ability to cross
piglet body weight and its within litter variation, lesser extent at weaning. Over the last 30 years physiological barriers.
percentage of low birthweight piglets (<850 or an increase of only 0.5 piglets weaned per sow Coupled with proven biodegradability, the dis-
<1,000g), placental weight and efficiency and per reproductive cycle has been achieved and cussed nanoparticles provide an interesting
expression of VEGF (vascular endothelia growth most losses are due to inadequate milk intake. source for tissue targeted iron distribution after
factor) were not affected. This Romanian project (Lucrari Stiintifice 59 nutritional supplementation.

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 29

First year in US pork
The team that sup- Px directly feeds key small intes-
ports Px, the first iso- tine cells, or enterocytes, which are
tonic drink for pigs known as building blocks for strong,
and produced by Tonisity, cele- tall villi. It is critical to supply the
brated its first year of acceptance by unique ingredients in Px early as the
the US swine industry during the number of cells in the small intes-
recent World Pork Expo. tine doubles in the first three days
Starting at day 2, Px helps pigs to of life. By the tenth day of life, the
The 9th European Symposium of Porcine Health increase fluid intake, improve hydra- total small intestine surface area has
Management (ESPHM) recently took place in the City of tion, absorb more nutrients and doubled. And, at 21 days of age, the
Prague, Czech Republic. In total 1562 delegates, partners improve health and production original 4m intestinal length and
and sponsoring company staff members from in total 49 countries par- throughout their lifetime. surface area have increased by two
ticipated in this event. In 2018 the 10th ESPHM will be held in Barcelona, The unique formula of Px helps to three times.
Spain from May 9-11th, 2018. provide more pigs weaned, fewer Px is formulated as a powder that
EAPHM.org fall-behinds, increased livability and mixes easily with water and remains
greater profitability. Producers using in suspension when used in a creep
Px for baby pigs concur and report feeder or pan. It fits into all man-
that it helps decrease pre-weaning agement systems and can be used
Productivity Vietnam and this new partnership mortality, increase weaning weight during suckling, weaning and before
portfolio enhanced with LAA, Agrana is well positioned and helps increase the potential of or after transportation. Its unique,
to drive business growth in the high higher economic return than if pigs sweet-and-sour taste especially
Church & Dwight Co Inc, the parent potential Vietnam market,” David had not received it. appeals to baby pigs.
company of Arm & Hammer Animal Saunders, CEO of LinkAsia Partners, “Stress in animals comes with any “Our excitement about the bene-
Nutrition, has acquired Agro told International Pig Topics. change. For baby pigs, this begins fits Px brings to US pork producers
BioSciences Inc of Wauwatosa, agrana.com immediately after birth as they tran- continues to grow,” added Arie
Wisconsin, USA. sition to sows’ milk in a new envi- Halpern, Board of Directors.
Agro BioSciences is a leading ronment where they must compete “Their ongoing positive feedback
microbial biotechnology company with siblings for nourishment. This about how their pigs are starting
with an innovative platform to pro- Big changes for the stress affects piglets’ intestinal faster, are increasing nutrient intake
vide novel, science-based products Livisto brand health and results in lowered and transition more easily through
for animal and agricultural produc- appetites and dehydration. Px is each stage of production is reward-
tion. Using proprietary techniques The Livisto Group, made up of specifically formulated to bring bal- ing. Even more rewarding is their
and functional genomics, Agro aniMedica, Invesa, lhisa and trei, ance back to the intestines and gut,” observation of healthier swine herds
BioSciences identifies the distinct have been through a number of big Ava Firth, DVM, Director of Research and pigs reaching their full poten-
and beneficial bacteria within the changes since their launch at the and Development with Tonisity, told tial.”
Microbial Terroir Technology end of 2016. Due to the large num- International Pig Topics. tonisity.com
Platform to improve animal and ber of trademarks, the Group made
agricultural productivity. the strategic decision of unifying all
With the integration of these two of them into one unique name.
entities, Arm & Hammer Animal The Livisto name comes from the Online biosecurity identify their most vulnerable areas
Nutrition now becomes a world- sentence ‘because life is better lived assessment tool of risk in the control of PRRS, they
wide leader in providing both together’, that clearly expresses the can implement corrective biosecu-
microbial and nutrition solutions feeling of proximity, complicity, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health rity actions,” Poul Henning Rathkjen,
and services supported by an warmth, empathy and reliance has expanded its suite of innovative Sr. Global Technical Manager PRRS,
unmatched research and develop- which defines the solid relationship biosecurity resources to help swine told International Pig Topics. “We
ment pipeline. of the company with its partners farms control the introduction and are committed to offering a range
ahanimalnutrition.com and customers. spread of Porcine Reproductive and of solutions, such as COMBAT, to
Livisto manufactures and commer- Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). The help protect against PRRS and other
cialises high quality pharmaceutical company’s new Comprehensive challenging swine diseases.”
and nutraceutical products for farm Online Management Biosecurity Using the COMBAT app or web-
New distributor in animals. The Group is now present Assessment Tool (COMBAT) is now site, customers complete a detailed
Vietnam in more than 130 countries all over available globally to strengthen the set of questions within four risk cat-
the world, with headquarters and identification and resolution of egories: internal, external, location
LinkAsia Partners has announced factories in Spain, Germany, potential biosecurity hazards as part and management/pig flow.
that Lam An Trading (LAA Co Ltd) Switzerland, El Salvador and Italy. of a 5-step PRRS control program The farm’s various risks are calcu-
has been appointed as distributor of Commercial offices are in Poland, risk management process. lated based on published literature
ActiBeet in Vietnam, following the Russia, Dominican Republic and Successful PRRS control incorpo- and previous on-farm assessments.
recent successful registration of the Panama, and there are area repre- rates measures to reduce both exist- The data, presented in a chart that
product in the country. sentatives in Belarus, Ukraine, Qatar ing PRRS virus spread and new virus indicates the range and prominence
ActiBeet is produced by Agrana, a and The Philippines. introduction. of various risks, can be mapped
leading sugar producer in Central Livisto’s implementation in the The online COMBAT solution against risk data from other farms
and Eastern Europe. The product is market is being made gradually in facilitates improved biosecurity, pig worldwide. The risk assessment
extracted from sugar beet molasses each region and the new logo and flow and management practices by results enable producers to discuss,
and is a natural source of betaine brand is being launched at the most assessing the most important risk prioritise and guide future risk
used extensively in animal nutrition. important exhibitions worldwide. areas related to PRRS incidence. improvement efforts.
“With ActiBeet registered in livisto.com “By efficiently helping swine farms boehringer-ingelheim.com

30 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5

pig news from around the world

Building bridges in Brazil

The Austrian feed pany’s competence adapts to the
additive company, local needs quickly and builds
Anco Animal bridges between cultural differences
Nutrition Competence GmbH, is effectively. A new version of the
expanding its global growth to the “This is an ideal time to enter the PCM cough monitor
Brazil market. The company has Brazilian market,” Marcelo Blumer, for finishers is now
chosen Sao Paulo as the location for Executive Director Anco Brazil, told available from Fancom. It consists of
the subsidiary Anco Brazil, which is International Pig Topics. “The busi- a computer with special sound
currently in the process of being ness environment for producers was analysis function and two micro-
founded. The subsidiary will be challenging last year and producers phones that hang in the section. The
operational in 2017 and headed by are therefore looking for solutions computer filters the coughing noises
Marcelo Blumer. that can help them increase opera- from other sounds and warns if the
At present the company has a tional agility to stay competitive coughing behaviour differs from acceptable levels. Through better and
feed additive product line for pigs, and at the same time fulfil increas- quicker observation of coughing behaviour, respiratory problems can de
with a core competence in manag- ing demands for a reduction in the detected at an early stage and antibiotic use can be reduced, or even
ing the animal’s response to nutri- use of antibiotic growth promoters. avoided altogether. The display of measurement results has also been
tional stressors, including naturally “Our product line Anco FIT can hugely enhanced in this updated version. The new PCM features a LED
occurring toxins by nutritional meet those needs. It was specifi- strip that hangs on the control computer in the central corridor. During
means. The pillars and focus that cally developed to boost gut agility the daily inspection rounds in the house, the user is shown the animals’
support the company’s develop- in farm animals and empower them health status at a glance; green is good, amber is an alert and red is a sig-
ment are what matters most to cus- to adapt to nutritional stressors nal to take action. The system does more than simply count the
tomers and what works best in farm efficiently. This is a great support for absolute number of coughs. It automatically adjusts to the situation in
animals for competitive animal pro- producers, when it comes to manag- the house and takes into account any tendencies in the animals’ growth
duction. ing the cost-effectiveness of diets process. Users will only be alerted if anything really is wrong.
Entering the market in Brazil and stay competitive in the face of fancom.com
promises to be successful when the nutritional challenges otherwise
company has a permanent local rep- difficult to control.”
resentation. It ensures that the com- anco.net
and with the new bottle mount Nutriad launches
adapter, treatments can now be trace minerals in USA
delivered via both line feed and
44% less piglets birth weight decreases when litter bottle connection. You can screw During the recent World Pork Expo,
under 1,000 grams size increases. With the balanced your medication bottle directly Nutriad launched its NutriTrace
breeding program of Topigs Norsvin, onto the adapter and immediately minerals, a new line of organic
In recent years, users of Topigs the unique piglet weighing protocol, begin treatments. minerals, developed by using state-
Norsvin genetics have experienced a and state-of-the-art breeding goals Producers can save up to 13% on of-the-art technology, which offers
clear drop in piglets with a birth this can be avoided. wasted medication, and on average the industry new ideas on mineral
weight below 1,000 grams. Topigs Norsvin sows are bred to treatments are 15% more accurate. nutrition.
Based on genotypic information, cope with larger litter sizes and pro- The automed system validates each “The NutriTrace product line is a
the percentage of piglets born with duce more uniform and heavier treatment as it is delivered, and cre- great addition to the company’s
a weight below 1,000 grams piglets. This leads to higher effi- ates a treatment record for every portfolio as it represents an
dropped by 44% between 2012 and ciency in the entire pork produc- animal from birth. The device is the improvement on the industry stan-
2016. In the same period litters tion. most ergonomic on the market, dards, the same way our other tech-
became more uniform, the average topigsnorsvin.com weighing only 14 oz, and the nologies do, showing Nutriad’s
birth weight increased by 12%, and adapters can last twice as long as strength in science and research,”
litter size increased by an average of similar products on the market. Guilherme Bromfman, Business
one piglet. Having just finalised a distribution Director for Nutriad in the
Fewer low-weight piglets and a New bottle mount deal with Neogen, automed is gain- Americas, told International Pig
higher uniformity have many bene- adapter launched ing traction fast both in the USA Topics.
fits. Pre-weaning mortality is sub- and around the globe. World Pork Expo also offered
stantially reduced, which leads to Australian ag-tech innovation com- automed.io Nutriad the opportunity to present
less labour in the barn and better pany, automed, made waves at this and discuss its recently concluded
finisher results. The higher birth years’ World Pork Expo launching its safety studies in support of the pre-
weight has a positive effect new bottle mount adapter. cision delivery coated sodium
throughout the entire production. The automed system comprises of butyrate, Ultramix C.
It is often thought, and for many both hardware and software for “The safety studies, conducted in
other genetics it is the case, that the medication delivery, recording, vali- several renowned institutes in North
dation, as well as inventory manage- America and Europe, required an
ment. Designed for ease of use and investment close to half a million
Please mention with compliance and traceability in dollars. Nutriad considers such an
mind, the system has an open inte- investment and commitment a
International gration platform designed to com- must, as we need to make sure our
Pig Topics plement and work with your
existing management software.
customer’s brand is protected,”
added Steve Moreland, VP Technical
when sourcing further information It is suitable for injectable, pour- Services for Nutriad.
on, intranasal and oral treatments, nutriad.com

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 31

Expansion in Latin America
Hypor is partnering In the near future, Nugeporc is
with Nugeporc to planning to build a nucleus facility
supply quality genet- to produce high quality Hypor
ics to pork producers in the genetics in the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Republic as well as for Hypor will export top breeding
the rest of the Greater and Lesser stock from its nucleus facilities in
Antilles. Canada to the nucleus facility in the
Nugeporc, a company that was Dominican Republic on a regular
formed by leading pork producers, is basis to maintain genetic improve-
currently building a 200-boar AI ment. International Pig Topics. “Hypor has the new AI stud. “In addition to
stud to exclusively house Hypor The partnership is the result of the technology and technical sup- training, Hypor’s technical team and
boars. An initial delivery of 100 Hypor’s expansion in Latin America port that Nugeporc is looking for to specialists are providing support to
great-grandparent (GGP) boars has and Nugeporc’s objective to partner continue to be competitive in the Nugeporc throughout the entire
been imported into the Dominican with a global genetic company. future.” process to make sure this is a suc-
Republic and genetics will be sup- “Hypor has the product portfolio Hypor have trained Nugeporc cessful partnership,” Luis added.
plied during the second half of 2017. and the flexibility to adapt business members on Hypor’s production and “Successful partnerships with dis-
Hypor will start supplying dam line to meet the needs of Nugeporc,” quality standards to ensure the busi- tributors, like Nugeporc, are a vital
and boar line genetics for an initial Luis Prieto Garcia, Hypor general ness has a smooth start. The training part for Hypor’s expansion in Latin
sow base of 9,000 sows. manager of Americas, told took place before the pigs arrived at America.”
Hypor currently has a strong pres-
ence in Canada, the US and Mexico
and has partners in Colombia,
Ecuador, Guatemala as well is
expanding its reach to include Peru
and Brazil in 2017.
Specialised in the moulding of plastic hypor.com
materials for the veterinary sector.

Large range of disposable syringes for New acquisition

intramammary, oral and intra-uterine use for IMV
UNI EN ISO 9001:2008 by the certification agency TÜV Italia. French group IMV Technologies has
acquired ECM (Echo Control
Tel: +39 059 28.35.21 • E-mail: export@interdamo.com Medical), one of the world leaders
www.interdamo.com in the design and manufacture of
portable and ultra-portable ultra-
sound scanners for farm animals.
ECM designs high-performance
devices that are distributed world-
wide through 60 distributors. Its
equipment is used by veterinarians
and ultrasound technicians to per-
form scans in farms in the best pos-
sible conditions. The robust systems
are equipped with innovative fea-
tures such as a simplified display of
functions on the tactile screen,
voice command or management via
a tablet.
For IMV Technologies, this acquisi-
tion is in line with its strategy to
widen its product offering, which
had historically been focused on
insemination, to the entire repro-
duction management sector. In 2016,
the company had already added
Alphavision to its range, a video-
assisted insemination system that
makes insemination more reliable.
The acquisition of ECM underlines
the intensification of this change to
an integrated offering, which will
now include ultrasound scanning for
pregnancy control examinations.

Volume 32 Number 5
pig news from around the world

For quite some time, phytase has been

used in swine diets to liberate
Improving palatability phosphorus in the diet and to replace
inorganic phosphate. Recent efforts to
maximise its application have made the
extra-phosphoric effects of phytase more
The post-weaning Hydroxy trace minerals have been
evident; meaning that it is clear that
growth reduction rep- developed as a new source of min-

phytase has the ability to do more

resents one of the erals. They are virtually insoluble at

beyond liberating phosphorus. Phytase

most significant production con- a pH above 4.0, which makes a big

has been shown to increase the Dr Yueming Dersjant-Li,

straints for pork producers. The difference in terms of palatability.

availability of amino acids, energy and Senior Scientist

multifactorial stressors surrounding Comparatively, inorganic sources of

minerals, all of which are the main drivers Danisco Animal Nutrition
the weaning process can result in minerals such as copper sulphate

for improved growth performance and

poor feed intake due to an abrupt are highly soluble.

feed efficiency.
and drastic change in the diet of In a recent study in the

As phytase use increases due to the

these animals. Netherlands, piglets were provided Identifying phytase with the

realisation of these extra-phosphoric

Piglets are acclimated to a highly a free choice of diets containing highest bio-efficacy

effects, nutritionists need to be aware Both in vitro and in vivo pig research
palatable, energy dense, liquid either sulphate forms of trace min-

that a traditional dosing recommendation showed that Axtra PHY has the highest
based diet of sow’s milk. That diet is erals (highly soluble) or Selko

of 500FTU/kg regardless of age and diet bio-efficacy and acts twice as fast as
suddenly changed to a relatively IntelliBond hydroxy trace minerals

is insufficient. Every pig producer has other phytases. In addition to rapidly

unpalatable, dry/pelleted feed. (insoluble).

different requirements for optimising degrading phytate in the upper

Thus, any modifications formulators It was found that in the first four

gastrointestinal tract for better release

can use to improve palatability or weeks after weaning, piglets had a
feed intake are of great interest to significantly higher preference for animal performance and requires a
pig producers in order to maintain hydroxy trace mineral diets com- tailored phytase dosing approach based and faster absorption of nutrients, Axtra
intake levels during this transition. pared to those with sulphates. This on life stage and specific feeding PHY increases bone mineralisation,
Animals can predominantly taste indicates that Selko IntelliBond program. Achieving success with tailored amino acid digestibility and overall
soluble compounds (i.e. salts, sugars, improved palatability over sulphate dosing requires continuous investment in nutrient uptake.
etc) due to their strong flavours. sources of minerals. The benefits research and innovation to generate A meta-analysis of trials conducted in
Soluble compounds that taste salty, include increased chances of maxi- species, life stage and diet-specific data different pig production stages clearly
bitter, sour or sweet can be mal feed intake and minimised
that can be applied by nutritionists. As a showed dose-dependent benefits of Axtra
leading phytase supplier, Danisco Animal PHY. Piglets experienced a 9.1%
detected by the pigs and affect how adverse palatability effects, such as
Nutrition has claimed this research increase in BWG and FCR in grower pigs
they might perceive a diet’s taste (or post-weaning growth reduction.
responsibility, enabling animal producers reduced by 2.6% (6 points) compared to
palatability). selko.com

to make smart decisions. the positive control by increasing the

Axtra PHY dose up to 2000 FTU/kg.
In finisher pigs (>75kg), the optimal
dose for FCR was found at 500 FTU/kg.
New wean to finish Now, Osborne Industries Inc has Greater efficacy gained from

For sows, increasing levels of Axtra PHY

fast-acting phytase
feeder introduced its latest advancement in
The faster and more thoroughly that at 1000FTU/kg reduced weight loss by
their signature line of ‘no-waste’ pig
phytate is degraded, the better the 27% relative to the positive control.
Finding the most efficient method feeders. The new FAST Start wean-
outcome in the animal. Therefore,
of feeding pigs has been a never to-finish feeder features all the no-
phytase must actively work in the acidic
ending quest for producers and waste, feed saving aspects of the Big

environment of the stomach and upper

equipment suppliers alike. Hand Wheel family of mechanical-flow Tools to support optimised dosing

gastrointestinal tract. One in vitro study Danisco Animal Nutrition supports

feeding and automatic, gravity-flow feeders, but operates in gravity-flow

examined the activity of six different optimised phytase dosing for maximum
feeders dominated the industry mode for newly weaned pigs. The

phytases based on pH to determine performance and benefit with the

until the development of mechani- feeder then automatically converts

which demonstrated the greatest level of Optimise Feed program. This is an online
cal-flow feeding in the 1980s. This to mechanical-flow as pigs grow.

activity under gut conditions. Axtra PHY tool that uses matrix values generated
development revolutionised the When weaned pigs are put on the

(shown as Phytase 1) was most active at from more than 14 swine trials to
industry and the only mechanically- feeder, small slides in the feed hop-

the pH that is akin to stomach acidity, calculate the optimum enzyme dose
operated feeder, the Osborne Big per bottom are open, allowing feed

demonstrating its ability to degrade needed in order to achieve the strongest

Wheel Feeder, quickly became the to freely flow into the trough. As

phytate faster than competitive products. performance benefits and cost savings.
number one selling hog feeder in pigs grow, they begin turning the
the US. However, as the industry multi-spoke feed wheel in the bot-
moved toward wean-to-finish, pro- tom of the trough, which closes the

Fig. 1. The phytase activity relative to pH 5.5 (expressed as 100% standard FTU
ducers often found no commercially slides on the feed hopper bottom.

for commercial phytase) in a pH range of 1.5-6.5.

available feeding systems were ade- A feed sweep, located in the bot-
quate in a wean-to-finish tom of the feed hopper and

environment. attached to the feed
The best gravity-flow wheel, sweeps feed past –– Phytase 1
160 –– Phytase 2
Residual activity (%)

–– Phytase 3
feeders worked well for the cone and out of the
120 –– Phytase 4
newly weaned pigs, but as hopper to the trough.
80 –– Phytase 5
pigs grew, play waste and Feed falls through the cen-
–– Phytase 6
overloading of the trough tre hole into the trough,

became a maintenance where the feed wheel dis-

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
nightmare. penses it to the pigs. Feed

Alternatively, mechani- stops flowing when pigs
cal flow feeders provided stop moving the wheel,
never-before-seen feed allowing for the auto-
savings, but sometimes matic conversion from For more information visit http://animalnutrition.dupont.com/axtraphy
required assistance to help gravity to mechanical flow. or email us at info.animalnutrition@dupont.com
pigs get started on the feeder. osbornelivestockequipment.com

International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5 33

Live yeast and heat stress
In the summer, from growth performance under both 4-8th September
the Netherlands to thermo-neutral and heat stress con- Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Spain, lactating sows ditions. However, the supplementa-
could spend 34-94% of their time tion had a greater impact under
above the heat stress threshold heat stress as it was able to ‘com-
(25°C), which could lead to 0.6- pensate’ for the negative impact of
Angel's production 2.5kg per day of reduced feed high temperature on pig growth.
line at their plant intake. These are the findings from This could be linked to two SPACE
in Liuzhou has now an initial survey conducted by effects of the supplement:
l Improved feeding behaviour: The
12-15th September
come on stream and the first Lallemand Animal Nutrition in order
Rennes, France
batch of GroPro has been suc- to evaluate the reality of heat stress number of meals per day was signifi-
cessfully produced. This is a cus- in the farrowing rooms across cantly improved under heat stress
tomised production line for Europe. The consequences for the and the total daily feed intake was
GroPro with an annual capacity sow and the farmer range from dis- not affected by ambient tempera-
of nearly 12,000 tonnes. This is comfort to reduced body weight ture with Levucell SB.
due to the fact that the demand and reproduction issues. l Positive effect on energy metab- KISTOCK
for the product in China contin- A recent trial (INRA Pegase, France, olism: Less energy is consumed for
21-24th September
ues to grow. unpublished) confirms that the use heat production, therefore more
Daegu, Korea
angelyeast.com of probiotic yeast S. cerevisiae energy was made available for pig
boulardii I-1079 in feed, known to growth. www.kistock.co.kr
help control digestive process and Farm trials conducted with sows in
performance under challenging a maternity pen confirm similar ben-
conditions, could contribute to efits in sows in field conditions –
adaptation to heat stress. improved sow feed intake, reduced
Livestock Taiwan
The study was performed by E. body weight loss in lactation, trans-
28-30th September
Labussière and his team at INRA lated into increased piglet pre-
Pegase, using a state-of-the-art weaning average daily gain (ADG), Taipei, Taiwan
experimental facility to study and even reduction of piglet neona- www.livestocktaiwan.com
energy balance and metabolism tal diarrhoea. Hence, Levucell SB
under controlled conditions. could represent a valuable tool to
APPOINTMENTS They used finishing pigs as a help alleviate the heavy toll of heat
model for swine and sows, (the big- stress on pig production, combined
ger the animal, the more sensitive to with relevant heat abatement strate-
AgriLivestock Cambodia
heat stress). Results indicate that gies in the barn. 10-12th November
Jeroen De Gussem Levucell SB had a positive effect on lallemand.com Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Nutriad www.agrilivestock.net
Marketing Director
One step further identified, each component is sub-
in base mixes jected to a special encapsulation
Joke Van De Velde process to ensure its release in the AgriLivestock Myanmar
Nutriad Produmix has released Colosus, its most appropriate zone. 7-9th December
Marketing Communications new high-growth base mixes line. In trials conducted both in Yangon, Myanmar
Manager After in-depth analysis and many Produmix’s experimental farm and www.agrilivestock.net
www.nutriad.com trials, Produmix’s R&D&I team has commercial ones, Colosus stands

developed a base mix which notably out due to the increase in average
increases the weight of the piglet. body gain, obtaining 300-500g per
Roman Krikovtsov Colosus is the product of an piglet in the pre-starter stage and
Nutriad exhaustive study of the piglet’s 700-1,000 in the starter one.
Key Account Manager, Russia digestive system and the interaction The product is aimed at those
www.nutriad.com of the different components of the farms whose main priorities are
base mix. growth and high digestive health.
They analysed where and how produmix.com
Dawid Kolacz these particles must be placed to
Pancosma make the most of them and their
Area Sales Manager, synergies. Once these aspects are Ildex Vietnam
Central and Eastern Europe 14-16th March
www.pancosma.com Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Secure your regular copy of www.ildex.com
Dr. Marcin KorczyNski
Pancosma Pig Topics
Technical Support Manager, by taking out a subscription
Central and Eastern Europe see page 7 or email sw@positiveaction.co.uk Pig Focus Asia
www.pancosma.com www.positiveaction.co.uk 21-23rd March
Bangkok, Thailand
34 International Pig Topics • Volume 32 Number 5