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Kendall Hunt

p u b l i s h i n g c o m p a n y

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Cover image copyright © Shutterstock.com
Additional credits can be found at the end of the book.

ISBN 978-1-5249-8644-5
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission. For more information contact
Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 4050 Westmark Drive, Dubuque, IA 52002, (800) 542-6657, www.kendallhunt.com.
This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ESI 9252974. Any
opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do
not necessarily reflect the views of the granting agency.
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SFUSD Science Core Curriculum
San Francisco Unified School District is committed to district-wide
implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The
San Francisco Science Core Curriculum was created in alignment with these
new standards and provides instructional experiences that positively
impact science learning for all students. The NGSS call for a shift in science teaching and learning,
with an increased focus on the practice of science and engineering as the means for students to
make sense of rich phenomena and solve real-world problems. As students have access to ever
increasing sources of scientific information, success in science is no longer defined by a student’s
ability to memorize science content. Instead, success in science is defined by the degree to which
students can identify patterns, ask questions, analyze and interpret data, argue from evidence,
collaborate with other scientists, and communicate their understandings.

SFUSD has addressed these shifts by developing a Science Core Curriculum for middle and high
school in partnership with SFUSD teachers and experts in the science education field. In
designing for these shifts, the Core Curriculum aligns with SFUSD’s Vision 2025 and the
expectations for student outcomes laid out in the Graduate Profile. Specifically, the curriculum
engages students in taking on real-life tasks that use San Francisco as the classroom. Students
build mastery and personalize their learning in their approaches to answering questions and
designing solutions.

The Core Curriculum follows the 5E Instructional model. This student-centered, constructivist
approach to science teaching and learning begins with the identification of students’ prior
knowledge. Students are then guided through a series of experiences that allow them to build a
new and robust understanding of the science concepts. In the 5E model, learning proceeds
through five distinct lesson stages: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. At each
stage, students draw upon and build their literacy skills and their science and engineering
practices. This research-based, science teaching and learning model ensures that students develop
a deep conceptual understanding of the science that will transfer to new situations over many
years of their lives.

The Science Core Curriculum has been field tested and implemented in classrooms throughout
the district and both teacher and student feedback has been incorporated into this iteration. Each
year that teachers use the curriculum, their feedback will be sought out for continued
improvement through ongoing annual revisions. This living curriculum will grow and mature
over time as the wisdom from teachers across the district is more thoroughly incorporated. We are
grateful for all of the teachers who have worked to develop this curriculum and look forward to
more voices and experiences continuing to improve it.

With Gratitude,
The SFUSD Science Department

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Acknowledgments
The development of the SFUSD Science Core Curriculum for Biology
has been a collaborative effort on the part of teachers across our district,
SFUSD Office of Curriculum & Instruction departments, and science and
education partners.

SFUSD Science Department


Thomas Reinhardt, Science Supervisor
Dawn Rege, HS Science Content Specialist
Katrina Rotter, HS Science Content Specialist
David Barrios, HS Science Content Specialist
Vanessa Carter, Environmental Literacy Content Specialist
Judith Gerber, Teacher on Special Assignment Science Safety
Theresa Hall, Science Clerk

SFUSD Educational Technology Department

SFUSD Humanities Department

SFUSD Math Department

SFUSD Multilingual Pathways Department

SFUSD Office of Sustainability

SFPUC—San Francisco Public Utilities Commission

SF Department of the Environment

BSCS—Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

California Academy of Sciences

Center to Support Excellence in Teaching—Stanford University

Exploratorium

HHMI BioInteractive

Kendall Hunt Publishing Company

LiMPETS Program, Greater Farallones Marine Sanctuary

Tuva Labs Inc.

UC Museum of Paleontology

UCSF Science and Educational Partnership

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Acknowledgments
We would like to thank all SFUSD Biology teachers who implemented
the Biology Core Curriculum during the 2018–19 school year and provided
us with feedback. This feedback was used during the revision process for
the 2019–20 SFUSD Biology Core Curriculum.

We would like to thank the members of the SFUSD HS Science Biology Response and
Development Team for their dedication
to this work.

Amber Lancaster, June Jordan School for Equity Jan Bautista, C&I Multilingual Pathways Department
Andra Kimball, Mission High School Jodi Andres, George Washington High School
Bonnie E. Daley, Lowell High School John Schlauraff, Phillip & Sala Burton High School
Brian Finley, Thurgood Marshall High School Katherine Farrar, UC San Francisco
Bryan Olney, Thurgood Marshall High School Katie Tobin, C&I STEM Department
Catherine S. Christensen, Lowell High School Katrina Rotter, C&I STEM Department
Dawn Rege, C&I STEM Department Mark Wenning, Lowell High School
Deb Apple, C&I Extended Learning & Support Marloes Sijstermans, Wallenberg High School
Eric Lewis, C&I STEM Department Rebecca M Fulop, Mission High School
Erin Bird, Lowell High School Robert Coverdell, Downtown High School
Eugene Pearson, Phillip & Sala Burton High School Sabina King, Galileo High School
Grace Gould, Thurgood Marshall High School Suniqua Thomas, Phillip & Sala Burton High School

We would also like to thank SFUSD science teachers and students who participated in Field
Testing and provided feedback on the SFUSD Science Core Curriculum.

Aljona Andrejeff, George Washington High School Kevin Hartzog, Balboa High School
Amy Trusso, Ruth Asawa School of the Arts Kyle Liu, George Washington High School
Becky Fulop, Mission High School Leah Thomas, Mission High School
Bonnie Daley, Lowell High School Lindsay Penrose, Mission High School
Denise Kwan, Galileo High School Resa Garcia, Balboa High School
Eugene Pearson, Phillip & Sala Burton High School Richard Gin, Abraham Lincoln High School
Freja Robinson, Lowell High School Rosanna Mariotti, Abraham Lincoln High School
Jodi Andres, George Washington High School

And last but not least, we would like to thank 2 people, no longer with SFUSD that supported
the creation of this curriculum by SFUSD.

James Ryan, former STEM Executive Director Sarah Delaney, former Science Supervisor

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Contents
SFUSD Science Core Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
SFUSD Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
SFUSD Biology Core Curriculum Course Description . . . . . . . . . x
Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
BSCS Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

Unit 240 Launch into Biology 2


Chapter 1 The Study of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Engage: What Makes Something Alive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Explore: Observations, Evidence, and Inference . . . . . . . . . . 10
Explain: How Similar Are We? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Elaborate: Investigating One of the Unifying
Principles of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Evaluate: First Encounter with the Critter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Unit 1 Ecology:
Interdependent Relationships 26
Chapter 2 Interdependence among Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Engage-Explore: Observing Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Explore-Explain: Interactions in the World around Us . . . . . 36
Explain: The Commons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Elaborate: Mystery on Easter Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Elaborate: Islands in the Sky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Evaluate: Critters and Interdependence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

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Unit 2 Cycles of Energy and Matter 80
Chapter 3 The Cycling of Matter and the Flow of Energy in
Ecosystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Engage-Explore: A Matter of Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Explore-Explain: Matter Goes Round and Round . . . . . . . . . 91
Explore-Explain: The Web of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Elaborate: Generating Some Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Evaluate: Energy, Matter, and Disaster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Chapter 4 Matter and Energy for Organisms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132


Engage: Releasing Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Explore-Explain: Energy in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Explain: Keep a Body Running! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Explain-Elaborate: Using Light Energy to Build Matter. . . . 161
Elaborate: Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular
Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Elaborate-Evaluate: Coevolution of Earth Systems and
Life on Earth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

Unit 3 Ecology: Human Impact 188


Chapter 5 Fire Ecology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Engage: A Short History of Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Explore: To Build a Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Explain: Humans’ Relationship with Fire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Explore: A Quick Fix? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Explain: More Than Meets the Eye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Elaborate-Evaluate: Burning Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Chapter 6 Investigating Human Impact in the Bay Area. . . . . . . . . . . 224


Engage-Explore: Science All Around You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Explain-Elaborate-Evaluate: Being a Scientist . . . . . . . . . . . 228

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Appendices
Appendix A Cover Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Appendix A1: SFUSD Science Laboratory Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Appendix A2: Periodic Table of Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Appendix A3: Biology Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Appendix B Cover Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Appendix B1: The 5E Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Appendix B2: Science Notebooking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Appendix B3: Developing a Personal Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Appendix B4: Groupwork Norms and Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Appendix C Cover Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Introduction to the Science and Engineering Practices . . . . . . . 258
Appendix C1: Asking Questions and Defining Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Appendix C1.1: Developing Testable Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Appendix C2.1: Modeling in Science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Appendix C2.2: Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Appendix C2.3: Analogy Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Appendix C3.1: Science and Engineering Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Appendix C3.2: Planning an Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Appendix C3.3: Making Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Appendix C4.1: Using and Making Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Appendix C4.2: Making Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

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Appendix C4.3: Graphical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Appendix C4.4: Interpreting Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Appendix C4.5: Digital Graphing and Data Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Appendix C4.6: Venn Diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Appendix C5.1: Scientific Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Appendix C5.2: Mean, Median, Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Appendix C5.3: Converting Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Appendix C6.1: Constructing an Explanation (C–E–R Writing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Appendix C7.1: Constructing a Scientific Argument (C-E-R + Counterclaim) . . . 314
Appendix C8.1: Mark It Up! Annotating Text Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Appendix C8.2: Effective Internet Searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Appendix C8.3: Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Appendix C8.4: Discussing Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Appendix D Introduction to the Crosscutting Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

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SFUSD Biology Core Curriculum Course
Description
In this NGSS Biology course, students explore biological concepts that build comprehension around two
driving questions: What connections exist between Earth’s changing environment and the coevolution of life? and
How and in what ways do organisms, including humans, depend on and impact the environment? Using the
guidance of the CA Science Framework’s High School 3-Course Model, Biology integrates both Life Science
and Earth and Space Science performance expectations. Earth and Space Science concepts are integrated in
a strategic way, designed to deepen student understanding of life on Earth and the interactions between the
biotic and abiotic systems. Throughout the course students build an understanding of life and how life
changes over time in response to a changing environment. Central to this understanding is the study of
interactions of living organisms and their environments on both macroscopic and microscopic scales.
The course utilizes a 5E Instructional Model in which teaching and learning proceeds through five different
stages: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. Using the 5E instructional model allows students the
opportunity to ask questions and define problems about the natural and designed world, design investigations
in which they collect and analyze trends and patterns in their data, develop models of physical phenomena
and to communicate their findings from their investigations. This course emphasizes the use of evidence based
reasoning for scientific explanations and engineering solutions in order to communicate recommendations to
address real world problems. Students discuss and evaluate a variety of scientific texts and data from different
sources, which include the analysis and interpretation of data sets used by the scientific community.

SFUSD Biology Scope & Sequence


Fall Semester
Unit 1: Unit 2: Unit 3:
Unit 0: Launch Ecology: Interdependent Cycles of Energy & Ecology: Human Impact, Climate
Unit Title into Biology! Relationships Matter Change, and Biodiversity
• What • How do Earth’s dynamic • How do organisms • How can we apply our
characteristics systems impact use energy and understanding of humans’
distinguish interactions between matter from the influence on Earth’s systems to
humans from living and nonliving environment to develop and maintain sustainable
other organisms? things? survive? and resilient societies?
Essential
Question(s) • How does the • What happens to an • How does the use of • How can we apply our
process of science ecosystem when the energy and matter by understanding of Earth’s systems to
help people to environment changes? living organisms mitigate adverse impacts of human
understand the influence Earth’s activity on natural resources,
world around systems? human populations, and
them? biodiversity?

Spring Semester
Unit 4: Unit 5: Unit 6:
Unit Title Biological Systems Genetics & Development Evolution: Change in Living Systems
• How can the basic structure of • Why are all individuals within • How do differences among individuals affect
the cell sustain life and a population similar, yet the characteristics of a population over time?
provide the basis for all of life’s unique? How do we know populations of organisms
Essential diversity? change over time?
Question(s) • How are the characteristics of
• How do organisms live, grow one generation passed to the • How have the Earth’s changing environments
and respond to their next? influenced where and how organisms survive
environment and reproduce? and proliferate over time?

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Unifying Themes
The fall semester is organized into four units. After beginning the school year by launching
into Biology, three main themes exist in the fall semester SFUSD Biology Core Curriculum. These
concepts are recurring themes that unify all of biology. Although you will see these themes in
every unit, we focus on one theme in each unit.

Ecology: Interdependent Relationships


Unit 1 centers on ecological concepts and environmental issues. You will learn about interactions
among populations, resources, and environments, and dilemmas that often arise from these
interactions. You will examine the concepts involved in population dynamics. This sets the stage for
studying the interactions between humans and their environment. You will spiral back to this at the
end of the fall semester when you focus on how human actions can modify the environment. The
final emphasis is on how humans can work together to generate policies that guide the use of
common resources.

Cycles of Energy and Matter


Unit 2 begins by letting you explore the requirements of physical performance. You will explore
the interplay between energy and matter by studying the metabolic processes photosynthesis and
cellular respiration as well as through interactions in a community. Finally, you will consider the role
of producers, consumers, and decomposers in the flow of energy and cycling of matter in a
community.

Ecology: Human Impact, Climate Change, and Biodiversity


Unit 3 returns to ecological concepts and environmental issues. You will continue to learn about
interactions in communities, resource availability, and the dilemmas that arise from these
interactions. You will focus on how human actions can modify the environment and how we can
work together to generate policies that guide the use of resources, minimizing the impact on Earth.

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Program Overview
Your Student Book
Your student book contains chapter organizers, activities, and essays. The activities in your
book are the central component of the curriculum, and they drive your science meaning-
making and learning. Activities involve hands-on/minds-on manipulation, laboratory
activities, paper-and-pencil activities, computer animations and simulations, video learning,
etc. The readings in your book introduce, formalize, or elaborate concepts; provide historical
insights; provide cultural, social, technological, and ethical perspectives; and reveal the nature
of science.
Accessing the SFUSD Core Curriculum Online: You can access the student books
associated with the SFUSD Science Core Curriculum using your SFUSD district user name and
password at https://www.sfusdscience.org/students.html.

The 5E Instructional Model


We organized the instruction of major concepts in this book around a
ENGAGE model of learning that recognizes how individuals build or construct
new ideas. This model is known as the BSCS 5E® Instructional Model.
EXPLORE The program is organized around five phases of learning that we best
can describe using words that begin with E: Engage, Explore, Explain,
EXPLAIN Elaborate, and Evaluate. The entire
book is shaped by this model.
ELABORATE Each chapter begins with
an activity which helps you
EVALUATE engage the big idea of the
chapter and articulate any
initial ideas you have around the
chapter’s topics of study. Next, you will take part in
activities that help you explore concepts and
information related to the chapter. In the middle of
the chapter, you will encounter an activity that will
give you the opportunity to construct an explanation
of what you have been learning. Later activities in the
chapter are designed to help you elaborate your
learning by either broadening your knowledge to
include new examples, or deepening your
understanding of the explanation you have
developed. In each chapter, the final activity helps
you bring together all of the learning you have done
and evaluate your understanding. Refer to
Appendix B1, The 5E Model, to learn more about the
5E Instructional Model.

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Next Generation Science Standards and the SFUSD Science Core
Curriculum
The SFUSD Science Core Curriculum aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards
(NGSS). The NGSS standards describe what you should be able to do and know. They are three-
dimensional and include disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and
crosscutting concepts. You will notice icons identifying focal Science and Engineering Practices
(SEPs) and Crosscutting Concepts (CCs) in your student book. Appendix C and Appendix D in
your book describe the practices and crosscutting concepts in more detail.

Engineering in the SFUSD Science Core Curriculum


Engineering is integrated in all SFUSD Science Core Curricula. As a student, you will take on the
role of both scientists constructing explanations and engineers designing solutions. While
purposes and products can be different, scientists work to develop explanations of the world and
engineers design solutions of problems that people encounter. There are many similarities to how
both of these roles work. Scientists and engineers do not simply create their products from a
single idea. They go through processes to collect data that can help them get the best “answers.”
Engineering design is identified in your book with an icon. Refer to Appendix C3.1, Science and
Engineering Processes, for more information about the processes of science and engineering.

Groupwork
If you went to middle school in SFUSD or if you are currently taking a math class, you have
most likely collaborated with other students on groupwork. Groupwork is an important part of
the SFUSD Science Core Curriculum and can be easily identified in your book with the groupwork
icon. Through groupwork, you will continue to value the abilities and contributions of group
members in service of a goal. There are many Explore, Elaborate, and Evaluate activities that are
premised on groupwork and positive interactions with your classmates. Refer to Appendix B4,
Groupwork Norms and Roles, for more information on the norms, roles, and responsibilities
associated with groupwork.

Assessment
Assessment opportunities in the SFUSD Science Core Curriculum will allow you to evaluate
your progress. Assessment activities themselves are learning experiences. The following
assessment strategies are included in the curriculum:
•   Assessments of your performance, such as experiments
•   Assessments of groupwork roles and responsibilities
•   Presentations, both by team and by individuals
• Written assignments, both by teams and by individuals
• Journal assignments that may include short-term and long-term work
• Projects, both ongoing and one-time
• Opportunities for self assessment and peer assessment
• Discussions, both by teams and by the whole class

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Symbols Used in This Curriculum
Pencil Caution Lab Apron

Online Resource Irritant Lab Gloves

Science &
Flammable Safety Goggles
Engineering Practices
Crosscutting
Poison PROTOCOL Protocol
Concepts

Groupwork APPENDIX Appendix

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Acknowledgments
Fifth Edition Staff
BSCS Administrative Staff BSCS Project Staff
Danny Edelson, Executive Director Pamela Van Scotter, Senior Associate Director
Pamela Van Scotter, Senior Associate Director Brooke Bourdélat-Parks, PhD, Senior Science Educator
Robert Foulk, Director of Operations April Gardner, Science Educator
Susan Rust, Director of Communications Stacey Luce, Production Coordinator
Richard Cardullo, PhD, University of California-Riverside; Chris Moraine, Production Specialist
Chairman, Board of Directors

Fourth Edition Contributors


Content Reviewers Advisors David Richard Lanning, Page HS, Page,
Dr. Amy Angert, Colorado State Joshua Adams, Raymond S. Kellis HS, AZ; Stephen Joseph Murray, Catalina
University, Ft. Collins, CO; Dr. Andrew Glendale, AZ; Margaret Aguilar, Deer Magnet HS, Tucson, AZ; Dwight
Ray, Oregon Institute of Technology, Valley USD, Phoenix, AZ; Joni Lee Rawlings, Raymond S. Kellis HS,
Klamath Falls, OR; Dr. Doug Bartholomew, Raymond S. Kellis HS, Glendale, AZ; Tom Reeder, Ironwood
Dransfield, Cape Elizabeth, ME; Glendale, AZ; Jessica LaNae Batty, HS, Glendale, AZ; Eric Matthew Regh,
Francoise Benay, University of Sunrise Mountain, Peoria, AZ; Alan Deer Valley USD, Phoenix, AZ; Donna
Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Scott Chintis, Mountain View HS, Tucson,
Savill, Douglas HS, Douglas, AZ;
Gilbert, Swarthmore College, AZ; Geraldine Fisher, Desert View HS,
Michele Marie Schiff, Ironwood HS,
Swarthmore, PA; Dr. Katharine Semsar, Tucson, AZ; Sylvia Janie Garcia-Lohr,
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Flagstaff HS, Flagstaff, AZ; Joni Glendale, AZ; David Serafin, Cactus
Dr. Kevin Middleton, California State Giacomino, Buena HS, Bisbee, AZ; HS, Glendale, AZ; David Edwin
University, San Bernardino, CA; Kim Mary Frances Giannola, Flagstaff HS, Simmons, Page HS, Page, AZ; William
Nichols, Biological Sciences Initiative, Flagstaff, AZ; Amanda Lee Grunden, M. Sorensen, Cactus HS, Glendale, AZ;
Boulder, CO; Ronald LaCoss, University Boulder Creek HS, Anthem, AZ; Erik Erin Stuart, Boulder Creek HS, Anthem,
of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ann Hanchett, Safford HS, Safford, AZ; AZ; Kelly Neil Thomas, St. Johns HS,
Mackenzie, Miami University, Oxford, Carolyn Sue Harris, Bisbee HS, Bisbee, St. Johns, AZ; Wendy West, Desert
OH; Dr. Maureen Munn, University of AZ; Seth Hoopingarner, Peoria
Ridge HS, Gilbert, AZ; Brooke Nicole
Washington, Seattle, WA; Dr. Chris Ray, Transition Center, Peoria, AZ; Barry
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Horst, Douglas HS, Douglas, AZ; Judith White, Cactus HS, Glendale, AZ;
Sam Donovan, University of Pittsburgh, Hughes, Peoria HS, Peoria, AZ; Kristen Howard Yauney, Desert Ridge HS,
Pittsburgh, PA; Tammy A. Maldonado, Lee Kaus, Cactus HS, Glendale, AZ; Gilbert, AZ; Patricia Pauline Zint,
University of Colorado, Boulder, CO Jeffrey Landers, Page HS, Page, AZ; Ironwood HS, Glendale, AZ

Second Edition Contributors


Edward Drexler, Pius XI High School, FL; Melanie Hardel, Hartford Union State, MS (Chapter 7); Dr. Marvin
Milwaukee, WI; The Jane Goodall High School, Hartford, WI; Terry Druger, Syracuse University,
Institute, Silver Springs, MD; Tim Houchens, Joliet Central High School, Syracuse, NY (Chapter 1); Dr. Diane
Myles, University of Toronto, Toronto, Joliet, IL; Mary McClellan, Seattle Ebert-May, Michigan State
Ontario; Doug Niles, Delavan, WI; School District, Seattle, WA; Kimberly University, East Lansing, MI
Noethen, Cornell University, Ithaca, (Chapter 9); Dr. James J. Gallagher,
Pedagogical Advisors NY; Eugene O’Brien, Hartford Union Michigan State University, East
Scott Charleton, Lebanon High High School, Hartford, WI Lansing, MI (Chapter 3); Dr.
School, Lebanon, OH; Frank Burnette W. Hamil, Mississippi State
Girolami, Mason High School, Content Reviewers University, Mississippi State, MS
Mason, OH; Barbara Grosz, Pine Crest Dr. John G. Bailey, College of (Chapter 16); Dr. Craig Hanke,
Preparatory School, Fort Lauderdale, Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi University of Wisconsin, Green Bay,

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WI (Chapter 5); Dr. Ross Jilk, Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS Consultants
Rochester University, Kansas City, (Chapter 6); Dr. Montgomery
Dr. Robert D. Carlson, Marshfield
MO (Chapter 12); Carolyn W. Keys, Slatkin, University of California,
Clinic, Marshfield, WI; Ms. Diana
The University of Georgia, Athens, Berkeley, CA (Chapter 11); Dr.
Gordon, Vernier Software &
GA (Engage, Explain, Evaluate); Dr. Marshall Sundberg, Emporia State
Technology, Beaverton, OR; Dr. Eileen
Norman G. Lederman, Illinois University, Emporia, KS (Chapter
M. Lento, PASCO Scientific, Roseville,
Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 15); Dr. James H. Wandersee,
CA; Dr. Gerald Saunders, University of
(Chapter 2); Dr. Sarah H. Martin, Louisiana State University,
Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO; Mr.
University of Southern Baton Rouge, LA (Chapter 8); Dr.
Geof Smith, Ward’s Natural Science
Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS Richard E. Wilson, Rockhurst
Establishment, Inc., Rochester, NY; Dr.
(Chapters 13 and 14); Dr. Rhonda A. University, Kansas City, MO
Edward B. Whitney, Colorado
Patterson, University of Southern (Chapter 4)
Department of Labor, Denver, CO

First Edition Contributors


Contributors Advisory Board Martinez (Executive Committee),
University of California, Irvine, CA;
Robert A. Bouchard, College of Judy Capra, Jefferson County Public
Donald E. Mason, Mitchell High
Wooster, Wooster, OH; Edward Drexler, Schools, Golden, CO; Mack Clark,
School, Colorado Springs, CO;
Pius XI High School, Milwaukee, WI; Academy School District 20, Colorado
Laurence McCullough, Baylor College
Kim Finer, Kent State University, Springs, CO; Diane Ebert-May,
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, of Medicine, Houston, TX; Martin K.
Canton, OH; Ann Haley-Oliphant,
AZ; Philip R. Elliott, The Colorado Nickels, Illinois State University,
Miami University, Oxford, OH; Laura J.
Laughran, New Directions, Tucson, AZ College, Colorado Springs, CO; April Normal, IL; Floyd Nordland, Prof.
Gardner (Executive Committee), Emeritus, Purdue University, West
Consultants University of Northern Colorado, Lafayette, IN; S. Scott Obenshain,
Susan Speece, External Evaluator, Greeley, CO; Michele Girard, Peyton University of New Mexico,
Fresno City College, Fresno, CA; High School, Peyton, CO; Eville Albuquerque, NM; William O’Rourke,
Constance Bouchard, College of Gorham, University of Minnesota, Harrison School District, Colorado
Wooster, Wooster, OH; Ted Dunning, Minneapolis, MN; Joseph Graves, Springs, CO; Ann Pollet, Pueblo
New Mexico State University, Las Arizona State University—West, County High School, Pueblo, CO; Jerry
Cruces, NM; Irene Pepperberg, Phoenix, AZ; Ann Haley-Oliphant Resnick, Clara Barton High School,
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Bert (Executive Committee), Miami Brooklyn, NY; Parker A. Small, Jr.,
Kempers, Media Design Associates, University, Oxford, OH; Paul DeHart University of Florida, Gainesville, FL;
Inc., Boulder, CO; Will Allgood, Media Hurd, Prof. Emeritus, Stanford Gordon E. Uno, University of
Design Associates, Inc., Boulder, CO; University, Stanford, CA; Mary Kiely, Oklahoma, Norman, OK; Betty M.
Mark Viner, Media Design Associates, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; Vetter, Commission on Professionals in
Inc., Boulder, CO; Larry N. Norton, Douglas Kissler, Douglas County High Science and Technology, Washington,
Quantum Technology, Inc., Evergreen, School, Castle Rock, CO; Carole DC; Bruce Wallace (Executive
CO; Chester Penk, Quantum Kubota, University of Washington, Committee), Virginia Polytechnic
Technology, Inc., Evergreen, CO; Seattle, WA; Douglas Lundberg, Air Institute and State University,
Ward’s Natural Science Establishment, Academy High School, United States Blacksburg, VA; Harry Zimbrick, School
Inc., Rochester, NY Air Force Academy, CO; Michael E. District 11, Colorado Springs, CO

Reviewers
Douglas Allchin, University of Texas, Medicine, Washington, DC; David Colorado College, Colorado Springs,
El Paso, TX; Tom Anderson, Corbin, Monsanto Company, CO; Michael Fatone, United States Air
University of Illinois, Champaign, IL; Chesterfield, MO; Jorge Crisci, Museo Force Academy, CO; Kim Finer, Kent
James Botsford, New Mexico State de La Plata, Argentina; Mary Ann State University, Canton, OH; Steven
University, Las Cruces, NM; Robert A. Cutter, University of Colorado, Fleck, United States Olympic Center,
Bouchard, College of Wooster, Colorado Springs, CO; Hans Dethlefs, Colorado Springs, CO; Geoff Gamble,
Wooster, OH; Jack Carter, Prof. The Neighborhood Health Center— Washington State University,
Emeritus, The Colorado College, South, Omaha, NE; Edward Drexler, Pullman, WA; Barbara Grosz, Pine
Colorado Springs, CO; Frank Cassel, Pius XI High School, Milwaukee, WI; Crest School, Fort Lauderdale, FL;
Prof. Emeritus, North Dakota St. James Ebersole, The Colorado College, Topper Hagerman, Steadman-
University, Fargo, ND; Angelo Collins, Colorado Springs, CO; Diane Ebert- Hawkins Sports Medicine Foundation,
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; May, Northern Arizona University, Vail, CO; Jerry Harder, NOAA
Robert Cook-Degan, Institute of Flagstaff, AZ; Philip R. Elliott, The Aeronomy Laboratory, Boulder, CO;

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Jeff Hays, United States Air Force Mitton, University of Colorado, Retired, United States Air Force
Academy, CO; Werner Heim, Prof. Boulder, CO; Adrian Morrison, Academy, CO; James Short, Packer
Emeritus, The Colorado College, University of Pennsylvania, Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, NY;
Colorado Springs, CO; Barry Hewlett, Philadelphia, PA; Jamie Nekoba, James Siedow, Duke University,
Washington State University, Waiákea High School, Hilo, HI; Gene Durham, NC; Fran Slowiczek, San
Pullman, WA; Michael Hoffman, The O’Brien, Hartford Union High School, Diego City Schools, San Diego, CA;
Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Hartford, WI; John Opitz, Montana Susan Speece, Fresno City College,
CO; Michael Keelan, Medical College State University, Helena, MT; Carl Fresno, CA; Sam Stoler, National
of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; Rich Pierce, Harrington Cancer Center, Institutes of Health, Washington, DC;
Kulmacz, University of Texas Health Amarillo, TX; Tracy Posnanski, Richard Storey, The Colorado College,
Science Center, Houston, TX; Linda University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Colorado Springs, CO; Gordon E.
Lundgren, Bear Creek High School, WI; Ken Rainis, Ward’s Natural Uno, University of Oklahoma,
Lakewood, CO; Thomas Manney, Science Establishment, Inc., Norman, OK; Jeff Velten, New Mexico
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Rochester, NY; Barbara Saigo, Saiwood State University, Las Cruces, NM;
KS; Cheryl Mason, San Diego State Biology Resources, Montgomery, AL; Mariana Wolfner, Cornell University,
University, San Diego, CA; Jeffry Orwyn Sampson, Brigadier General Ithaca, NY

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