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Jean-Pierre Debenay

A Guide to 1,000
Foraminifera
from Southwestern Pacific
New Caledonia

PUBLICATIONS SCIENTIFIQUES DU MUSÉUM


A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera
from Southwestern Pacific:
New Caledonia
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera
from Southwestern Pacific:
New Caledonia

Jean-Pierre Debenay

IRD Éditions
Institut de recherche pour le développement
Marseille

Publications Scientifiques du Muséum


Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle
Paris

2012
Photos de couverture / Cover photographs
p. 1 – © J.-P. Debenay :
les foraminifères : une biodiversité aux formes spectaculaires / Foraminifera: a high biodiversity with a spectacular variety of forms
p. 4 – © IRD/P. Laboute :
îlôt Gi en Nouvelle-Calédonie / Island Gi in New Caledonia

Sauf mention particulière, les photos de cet ouvrage sont de l'auteur / Except particular mention, the photos of this book are of the author

Préparation éditoriale / Copy-editing


Yolande Cavallazzi

Maquette intérieure et mise en page / Design and page layout


Aline Lugand – Gris Souris

Maquette de couverture / Cover design


Michelle Saint-Léger

Coordination, fabrication / Production coordination


Catherine Plasse

La loi du 1er juillet 1992 (code de la propriété intellectuelle, première partie) n'autorisant, aux termes des alinéas 2 et 3 de l'article L. 122-5, d'une part, que
les « copies ou reproductions strictement réservées à l'usage privé du copiste et non destinées à une utilisation collective » et, d'autre part, que les analyses et
les courtes citations dans un but d'exemple et d'illustration, « toute représentation ou reproduction intégrale ou partielle, faite sans le consentement de l'auteur
ou de ses ayants droit ou ayants cause, est illicite » (alinéa 1er de l'article L. 122-4).

Cette représentation ou reproduction, par quelque procédé que ce soit, constituerait donc une contrefaçon passible des peines prévues au titre III de la loi précitée.

© IRD/MNHN, 2012
ISBN IRD : 978-2-7099-1729-2
ISBN MNHN : 978-2-85653-698-8
Contents/Sommaire

Foreword/Avant-propos ............................................................................................ 7

Acknowledgements/Remerciements ............................................................................... 9

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Regional setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Study area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Introduction to foraminifera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Foraminifera, their distribution and behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Systematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

Alphabetical index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

Abstract/Résumé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
To Guy Cabioch
without whom this book would not have been possible.

A Guy Cabioch
sans qui cet ouvrage n’aurait pas vu le jour.
Foreword/Avant-propos

The story began 35 years ago, in 1976, when I joined the geolog- L’histoire a débuté il y a 35 ans, en 1976, quand j’ai rejoint
ical team of the ORSTOM center of Nouméa (presently IRD l’équipe de géologie du centre Orstom de Nouméa (actuelle-
[Institut de recherche pour le développement]). I was teacher in ment IRD, Institut de recherche pour le développement).
a high school, but had the opportunity to participate in a Professeur dans un lycée, j’ai eu l’opportunité de participer à
research program on the sediments of the southwest lagoon of un programme de recherche sur les sédiments du lagon sud-
New Caledonia, in collaboration with F. Dugas. Using the newly ouest de Nouvelle-Calédonie, en collaboration avec F. Dugas.
arrived R/V Vauban, more than 800 samples were collected, over Profitant de l’arrivée du N/O Vauban, plus de 800 échantillons
an area about 3,000 km2, and analyzed – mostly grain size ont été prélevés, sur une zone d’environ 3 000 km2, et
analysis and microscopic observation. The result was the publi- analysés – principalement granulométrie et observation
cation of sedimentological maps together with maps showing microscopique. Il en résulta la publication de cartes sédimen-
the contribution of foraminifera and mollusks to the sediment. tologiques accompagnées de cartes montrant la contribution
Four sets of two maps at 1/50,000 were published concerning des foraminifères et mollusques à la constitution du sédiment.
the areas of Tontouta, Nouméa, Mont Dore and Prony, from Quatre jeux de deux cartes au 1/50 000 ont été publiés pour les
north to south, complemented by substantial explanatory notes. zones de Tontouta, Nouméa, Mont Dore et Prony, du nord au
A synthetic map was also published in the Atlas of New sud, complétés par des notices détaillées. Une carte synthétique
Caledonia (1981). These maps may be downloaded on the site: a également été publiée dans l’Atlas de Nouvelle-Calédonie
<http://www.cartographie.ird.fr/sphaera/>. (1981). Ces cartes peuvent être téléchargées sur le site :
This work coincided with a growth in scientific research programs <http://www.cartographie.ird.fr/sphaera/>.
focalized on the marine environment, which led to the publication Ce travail a coïncidé avec le développement de programmes
of numerous thematic charts, such as those included in the Atlas dédiés à l’environnement marin, ce qui a conduit à la publi-
of New Caledonia (1981). cation de nombreuses cartes thématiques, telles que celles de
Later, an extensive study of the foraminifera from the fraction l’Atlas de Nouvelle-Calédonie (1981).
0.5-2 mm of all the samples led to the writing and defense of a Plus tard, une étude détaillée des foraminifères de la fraction
PhD thesis (DEBENAY, 1986) and to the publication of several 0,5-2 mm des échantillons a abouti à la rédaction et la
related papers, between 1985 and 1988, while I had a position at soutenance d’une thèse (DEBENAY, 1986), et à la publication
the university of Dakar... Unfortunately, foraminifera from the de plusieurs articles, entre 1985 et 1988, alors que j’étais en
fraction 0.125-0.5 mm are still in their boxes and have never poste à l’université de Dakar… Malheureusement, les fora-
been studied. minifères de la fraction 0,125-0,5 mm sont toujours dans
I came back in New Caledonia in 1997 for a sampling campaign leur boîte et n’ont jamais été étudiés.
in mangrove swamps, with a view to a more general work on Je suis revenu en Nouvelle-Calédonie en 1997 pour une série
foraminifera from paralic environments (DEBENAY & GUILLOU, d’échantillonnages dans les mangroves, en vue d’un travail plus
2002). général sur les foraminifères des environnements paraliques
In 2006, together with G. Cabioch, we listed the works related to (DEBENAY et GUILLOU, 2002).
foraminifera from New Caledonia, and made the inventory of the En 2006, avec G. Cabioch, nous avons répertorié les travaux
585 species reported from the area in previous works (DEBENAY & portant sur les foraminifères de Nouvelle-Calédonie et
CABIOCH, 2007). At the same time, I came back on a position at the inventorié les 585 espèces citées par les auteurs précédents
IRD center of Nouméa where I carried out several works on (DEBENAY et CABIOCH, 2007). Je suis alors revenu sur un poste
foraminifera. au centre IRD de Nouméa où j’ai réalisé plusieurs études sur
Foraminifera are one of the most abundant groups in the lagoon les foraminifères.
of New Caledonia, as shown in the Compendium of marine Les foraminifères constituent l’un des groupes les plus
species from New Caledonia (PAYRI & DE FORGES, eds, 1987): abondants dans le lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie, comme
foraminifera (6%), algae (5%), molluscs (23%), arthropods (22%) cela a été montré dans le Compendium des espèces marines
and vertebrates dominated by fish (19%). Moreover, their tests de Nouvelle-Calédonie (PAYRI et DE FORGES, eds, 1987) :
often constitute the predominant part of the lagoonal sediments. foraminifères (6 %), algues (5 %), mollusques (23 %),
8 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Adding the fact that the Lagoons of New Caledonia have been arthropodes (22 %) et vertébrés, dominés par les poissons
inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List that will need an (19 %). De plus, leurs tests constituent souvent une part
increase of the ongoing research, and will increase public interest prédominante des sédiments. Si l’on ajoute l’inscription des
and appreciation for marine biodiversity, it appeared necessary to lagons de Nouvelle-Calédonie sur la Liste du patrimoine
provide a synthetic work on the present knowledge about New mondial de l’Unesco, qui va nécessiter un développement de
Caledonian foraminifera. la recherche et va accroître l’intérêt du public et sa compré-
hension de la biodiversité marine, il apparaissait nécessaire
de fournir un ouvrage synthétique sur la connaissance
actuelle des foraminifères néo-calédoniens.
Acknowledgements/Remerciements

The bulk of this work was scientifically and financially supported L’essentiel de ce travail a été soutenu scientifiquement et
by ORSTOM (Office de recherche scientifique et technique financièrement par l’Orstom (Office de recherche scientifique
outre-mer), later becoming IRD (Institut de recherche pour le et technique outre-mer), devenu IRD (Institut de recherche
développement). Many people have provided help and encoura- pour le développement). Nombreux sont ceux qui m’ont aidé
gement over the years, without which this book would not have et encouragé pendant ces années. Sans eux, ce livre n’aurait
been possible. My first thanks are for F. Dugas who, in 1976, gave pas vu le jour. Mes premiers remerciements sont pour
me the opportunity to participate in the bottom sediment F. Dugas qui, en 1976, m’a permis de participer à la carto-
mapping of the lagoon, and to J. Récy for accepting me in his graphie sédimentaire du lagon, et à J. Récy qui m’a accepté
research group during the three years it took me to complete this dans son équipe de recherche pendant les trois ans qu’a duré
project. I am grateful to the captain P. Furic and the crew of the ce projet. Je remercie P. Furic, capitaine du N/O Vauban, et
R/V Vauban for their assistance during the sampling cruises in son équipage pour leur aide pendant les campagnes de
the lagoon. Later, I benefited from the help and encouragement prélèvement dans le lagon. Ensuite, j’ai bénéficié de l’aide et
of L. Blanc-Vernet and B. Thomassin who co-supervised my thesis des encouragements de L. Blanc-Vernet et B. Thomassin qui
work, and J.-P. Margerel made available to me his unpublished ont codirigé ma thèse, et J.-P. Margerel m’a confié un exem-
work on the foraminifera of the bay of Saint Vincent. plaire de son travail inédit sur les foraminifères de la Baie de
For the second phase of my research in New Caledonia, since Saint-Vincent.
2006, my grateful acknowledgements are due to L. Ortlieb and Concernant la seconde phase de mes recherches en Nouvelle-
G. Cabioch for offering me a position in their research unit, and in Calédonie, depuis 2006, je remercie sincèrement L. Ortlieb et
the research team of Nouméa … despite my impending retirement. G. Cabioch pour m’avoir recruté dans leur unité de recherche
During this period, I had fruitful collaboration with several et dans l’équipe de Nouméa… malgré la proximité de mon
colleagues. Among them, G. Cabioch gave me core samples for départ à la retraite. Pendant cette période, j’ai pu avoir de
studying foraminiferal assemblages at a geological time scale; fructueuses collaborations avec plusieurs collègues :
D. Wirrmann took me on to collect, process and study sediment G. Cabioch m’a confié des échantillons de forages pour des
cores; C. Payri allowed me to get rich foraminiferal assemblages études à l’échelle géologique ; D. Wirrmann m’a embauché
from algal substrates; L. Della-Patrona provided me with samples pour collecter, préparer et étudier des carottes sédimentaires ;
from shrimp farms and, together with C. Marchand, samples C. Payri m’a permis d’observer les nombreux foraminifères
from mangrove swamps; J.-M. Fernandez gave me surface vivant sur des algues ; L. Della-Patrona m’a procuré des
samples and core samples from potentially contaminated areas; échantillons de fermes crevetticoles et, avec C. Marchand, des
B. Richer de Forges allowed me to get deeper samples from the échantillons de mangrove ; J-M. Fernandez m’a donné des
northern lagoon; and J.-L. Justine gave me the rare opportunity échantillons de surface et de carottes issus de zones potentielle-
to open a number of fish guts…, for him to collect parasites, and ment polluées ; B. Richer de Forges m’a permis d’accéder à des
me foraminifera. All of them are warmly thanked for that, and échantillons plus profonds du lagon nord ; J.-L. Justine m’a
for lively discussion on various research topics. donné la rare opportunité d’ouvrir un nombre respectable
During all this time, I also benefited from a large amount of de poissons… pour collecter, lui les parasites et moi les
technical help. Scanning electron micrographs were taken by, or foraminifères. Tous sont chaleureusement remerciés pour
with the help of M. Ndao, using the facilities of the university of cela et pour les discussions stimulantes sur divers sujets de
Dakar, M. Lesourd, using the facilities of the university of Angers, recherche.
O. Boudouma, using the facilities of university Pierre and Pendant toute cette période, j’ai aussi bénéficié d’une consi-
Marie Curie (UPMC Paris), and mostly S. Caquineau, using the dérable aide technique. Les photos au microscope électronique
facilities of LOCEAN, IRD, Centre Île-de-France, Bondy. ont été prises par, ou avec l’aide de M. Ndao, à l’université de
Underwater sample collection of algae was made by C. Payri, Dakar, M. Lesourd, à l’université d’Angers, O. Boudouma, à
J.-L. Menou and J. Butscher, the deep-water specimens being l’université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC Paris), et surtout
collected by J.-L. Menou and S. Beata during special high tech S. Caquineau, au centre Île-de-France IRD de Bondy (unité
TRIMIX divings, down to 125 m. Underwater fish collections are LOCEAN). Les algues ont été collectées en plongée par
10 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

due to M. Clarque, G. Mou-Tham and J. Butscher, while S. Tereua C. Payri, J.-L. Menou et J. Butscher, les échantillons profonds
and N. Colombani both captains of the R/V Coris provided étant collectés par J.-L. Menou et S. Beata au cours de plongées
technical assistance during the cruises. Back to the laboratory, spéciales TRIMIX, jusqu’à 125 m de profondeur. La capture
A. Di Matteo, A. Sigura and C. Dupoux provided assistance for sous-marine des poissons est due à M. Clarque, G. Mou-Tham
opening and processing fish guts. I thank T. Potiaroa and et J. Butscher, alors que S. Tereua et N. Colombani tous deux
H. Goguenheim for their help in preparing photographic plates, capitaines du N/O Coris assuraient l’assistance technique à
and J.-M. Boré and M. Vilayleck for making a movie about bord. Au laboratoire, les intestins de poissons étaient ouverts
foraminifera. et préparés avec l’aide d’A. Di Matteo, A. Sigura et C. Dupoux.
I owe a great debt of gratitude to a number of people from Je remercie T. Potiaroa et H. Goguenheim pour leur aide
administrative, technical and research staffs, and to my students dans la préparation des planches photographiques, et
who helped me over years during my work. Unfortunately, it is J.-M. Boré et M. Vilayleck pour la réalisation d’un film sur
impossible to mention them all here. Finally, I thank my wife, les foraminifères.
family and friends for having been patient with me, especially Je suis également redevable à de nombreux personnels
during the last months of writing this book. administratifs, techniques et de recherche, et à mes étudiants
The outcome of this book was possible thanks to the editorial qui m’ont aidé pendant ces années de recherche.
committee of IRD that accepted this publication, to T. Mourier Malheureusement, il est impossible de tous les nommer.
and his collaborators for their valuable editorial advices and Enfin, je remercie mon épouse, ma famille et mes amis pour
work, and to two anonymous referees for their thorough and leur patience à mon égard, particulièrement pendant les
careful reading and the detailed remarks that helped to improve derniers mois de rédaction.
significantly the initial manuscript. La réalisation finale de l’ouvrage a été possible grâce au
comité des éditions de l’IRD qui a accepté cette publication,
à T. Mourier et ses collaborateurs pour leurs précieux conseils
et travail éditoriaux, et à deux rapporteurs anonymes pour
leur lecture approfondie et leurs remarques détaillées qui ont
permis d’améliorer significativement le manuscrit initial.
Introduction

Why benthic foraminifera? Why this book?

Foraminifera have an evolutionary history that extends back to The aim of this book is to give an overview of the present knowl-
the Cambrian, more than 525 million years ago. Since then, they edge on foraminifera from New Caledonia. In order to make this
have radiated and evolved. To date, approximately 60,000 fossil knowledge accessible to people who are not familiar with New
and modern species have been validly recognized (LANGER, 2011), Caledonia, and/or with foraminifera, two introductory parts
and an estimated 10,000 species (including only 40-50 planktonic describe the regional setting and the characteristics of New
species) are still living (VICKERMAN, 1992), constituting the most Caledonia, and a third one provides an introduction to
diverse group of shelled microorganisms in modern oceans (SEN foraminifera. The fourth part gives a synthesis of the main results
GUPTA, 1999). These small-sized organisms, usually 0.1 to 1 mm, published on Recent foraminifera from New Caledonia, and the
may be very abundant, and tens of thousands living specimens
last and most important part presents the 1043 species in the
per square meter may be found in some environments (WETMORE,
form of an illustrated atlas with photos and information about
1995). Their mineralized tests (shells) usually get preserved in
the morphology and taxonomy of most of the species.
the sediment after the death of the organism and may constitute
a major, sometimes the dominant, part of many modern or fossil This inventory will be helpful to professional micropaleontolo-
sediments (fig. 1). They are easy to collect, and their high-densi- gists, researchers, and students, but its main objective is to offer
ty populations provide an adequate statistical base, even in small environmental managers and all person interested in lagoonal
volume samples, to perform environmental analyses, making environment and protection the access to this invaluable tool for
them a powerful tool for environmental assessment. environment monitoring that are benthic foraminifera. It will

1 cm

| Figure 1
Sand from a beach of Grande Terre. Arrows show some foraminifera, but much more can be seen.
12 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

also contribute to feeding international database programs, description of 168 species. Most of them are deposited at the Museum
increasingly needed with the growing interest in biodiversity. d’Histoire Naturelle de Genève (DEBENAY & DECROUEZ, 1989). Several
papers were published (DEBENAY, 1985a, 1985b, 1986, 1988a, 1988b,
1988c). During the same period, the foraminifera of Quaternary
Previous works about reefal paleoenvironments were studied (CABIOCH et al., 1986;
foraminifera from New Caledonia CABIOCH , 1988), as well as the benthic (VINCENT, 1986; VINCENT
& LAURIN, 1988; VINCENT et al., 1991) and planktonic (LAMBERT
The first study of foraminifera from the southwestern Pacific near et al., 1991) foraminifera of the Loyalty basin. Two PhD theses
New Caledonia was carried out by BRADY (1884) during the voy- also provided inventories of foraminifera from New Caledonia
age of H.M.S. Challenger (1873-1876), updated by BARKER and Polynesia (ADJAS, 1988), and from New Caledonia including
(1960). The nearest station was station 177, near Vanuatu Chesterfield islands (DEGAUGUE-MICHALSKI, 1993). Samples have been
(16°45’S-168°5’E). However, studies concerning directly New collected in coastal marshes and mangrove swamps for a more
Caledonia began much later, with partial and local inventories in comprehensive study about the foraminifera of paralic environments
coastal samples (GAMBINI, 1958, 1959; RENAUD-DEBYSER, 1965; (DEBENAY & GUILLOU, 2002). Finally, an illustrated catalogue of the
TOULOUSE, 1965, 1966). Samples of recent and fossil sediments species from the Baie de Saint-Vincent has been prepared by Margerel
collected during the Singer-Polignac mission (1960-1965) were and is available on the web site of the University of Provence:
further used for several studies of foraminiferal assemblages http://mdp.cerege.fr/forams-index.php?position=0&der=&nbr=10.
(COUDRAY & MARGEREL, 1974; COUDRAY , 1976; MARGEREL, 1981). All the works reported above were used to prepare an inventory of
These samples allowed MARGEREL (1984) to make the first the foraminifera species that live in the waters from around New
detailed inventory of foraminifera from the Baie de Saint-Vincent Caledonia (DEBENAY & CABIOCH, 2007). At that time, 585 species
(southwest of New Caledonia). This inventory, unfortunately still were identified. Since 2009, several works have been published
unpublished, described 289 species. On the occasion of the sedi- about epiphytic foraminifera (DEBENAY & PAYRI, 2010), predation
mentological study carried out by the IRD in the southwestern by fish (DEBENAY et al., 2011), foraminifera as indicator of
lagoon of New Caledonia, mentioned above, more than 800 sur- environmental changes (DEBENAY & FERNANDEZ, 2009), colonization
face sediment samples were collected (fig. 2). They allowed the of new environments by foraminifera (DEBENAY et al., 2009a),
first exhaustive study of large foraminifera (> 0,5 mm), with the and foraminifera in shrimp ponds (DEBENAY et al., 2009b).

Bay of
Saint Vincent

Loyalty Basin

Nouméa

Prony

22° 30’ S

Isle of
Pines
Coral Sea

22° 30’ S

166° 30’ E 167° 00’ E 167° 30’ E


| Figure 2
Location of stations collected between 1976 and 1978.
Regional setting

Geographic and geological Lansdowne Bank and Fairway Ridge; and seamounts along the
setting Loyalty, Norfolk and Lord Howe ridges. Matthew and Hunter
volcanic islands are located father to the southeast, on the
Located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean, about 1,500 km East of southern part of the Vanuatu volcanic arc.
Australia, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of New Caledonia The main island, Grande Terre, is the third largest island in the
covers around 1,400,000 km2, extending over 1,200 km N-S Pacific (after New Guinea and New Zealand). It is of continental
(between latitudes 15° and 26° S) and 1,800 km W-E (between origin and has a mountainous axis that reaches a maximum
longitudes 156° and 174° E) in the Southwest Pacific. It is altitude of 1,629 m. The Belep islands and Isle of Pines are also
schematically composed of a series of NW-SE trending ridges and mostly continental islands. The Loyalty islands are uplifted atolls
basins, formed during the geological history of the area, which built on a line of volcanic seamounts, nowhere rising much
began around mid-Cretaceous time. higher than 130 m. Maré in the south has some volcanic rocks
The New Caledonia archipelago comprises: the Grande Terre (the but is primarily composed, as the others islands, of uplifted lime-
largest island, 400 km-long and 50 km wide), extending to the stone. The Chesterfield islands and Bellona reefs are coral cays
Belep islands and the d’Entrecasteaux Reefs to the north and the along the perimeter of the plateaus, forming large atolls. The
Isle of Pines to the south (fig. 3), and supported by the New wide Landsdowne Bank is mostly sandy and 70-80 meters in
Caledonia Ridge, which is the northern extension of the Norfolk depth, but includes a small reef in the north, while the Fairway
Ridge; the Loyalty islands, on the Loyalty Ridge; Chesterfield and reefs, supported by the Fairway Ridge come close to the surface
Bellona plateaus, supported by the Lord Howe volcanic chain; and dry at low tide (fig. 3).

18° S
d’Entrecasteaux
Huon Atoll Reefs
Surprise

19° S New
Bampton Reefs Caledonia
Belep Islands
Avon
20° S Loyalty Islands
Landsdowne Ouvea
Bank

North Bellona Reefs Lifou


21° S

Mare
Observatory Cay

South Bellona Reefs


22° S
Nouméa

Isle of Pines

160° E 162° E 164° E 166° E 168° E

| Figure 3
Location of the main islands and reefs of the New Caledonia archipelago. In dark blue: the main lagoons.
14 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

A prominent dynamic regional feature is the subduction zone upwelling on daily Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variations.
between New Caledonia and Vanuatu, where the Australian plate This process, however, is strongly modulated by the seasonal
dips under the Vanuatu volcanic arc. The resulting lithospheric variations of the subsurface stratification.
deformation (bulge) of the Australian plate explains the uplifted
reefs of Grande Terre, Isle of Pines and Loyalty Islands (DUBOIS Climatic conditions
et al., 1974). in the southwest Pacific Ocean
The climate of the southwest Pacific region, primarily oceanic, is
controlled by large-scale atmospheric circulation features that
Oceanography and climate include the trade wind regimes, the Hadley and Walker circula-
tions, the seasonally varying tropical convergence zones, the
Hydrological conditions
semi-permanent subtropical high-pressure belt, and the zonal
in the southwest Pacific Ocean
westerly winds to the south (fig. 5).
Water circulation in the southwest Pacific follows complex path- In January, the prominent feature is the trough of low pressure
ways due to its strong interaction with the complex bathymetry of that extends eastward from the monsoonal low centered over
the region. The southern part of the South Equatorial Current northern Australia, while a high-pressure dome sits over southern
divides into jets: North/South Vanuatu Jet, and North/South Australia in July. The resulting monsoon regime is felt west of
Caledonian Jet. Those jets feed the western boundary current 170°W throughout the Vanuatu archipelago and the northern
system: the East Australian Current to the south and the New part of New Caledonia. The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ)
Guinea Coastal Current that itself feeds the Equatorial that extends from east of Papua New Guinea southeastward
Undercurrent to the North, through the Solomon Straits (fig. 4; toward 120°W, 30°S maintains one of the most expansive and
GANACHAUD et al., 2007). persistent cloud bands on earth. South of 30°S, the atmospheric
Surface waters of the EEZ are fed to the south by a branch of the circulation is characterized by the presence of an anticyclonic
East Australian Current that brings cold and salted waters and to belt (MAES et al., 2007). Under the combined effects of the seasonal
the north by warm and less salted waters coming from the South shifts in the SPCZ and the monsoon regime, the climate in New
Equatorial Current. The result is that the west coast receives Caledonia has typically a wet season that extends from January to
cooler waters (1-2°C) than the east coast (ROUGERIE, 1986). The April with a transition season from June to July and then a dry
characteristics of these waters are strongly influenced by the season from August to December.
seasonal variability of the water circulation (VEGA et al., 2005). The main signals at interannual timescales are linked to the
Strong cooling events off the western barrier reef of New variability of the ENSO phenomenon. The signature of El Niño
Caledonia have been attributed to wind-driven coastal upwelling. events in the oceanic region around New Caledonia is character-
ALORY et al. (2006) developed a simple one-dimensional model ized by a 20-50% decrease in precipitation (NICET & DELCROIX,
based on a heat budget in the mixed layer. This model suggests 2000), which may be related to the shifts in the position of the
that upwelling is the dominant process at daily timescale, and SPCZ in response to ENSO anomalies (FOLLAND et al., 2002;
that the surface heat fluxes have a smaller influence than FISCHER et al., 2004).

0° S

10° S 10° S

20° S 20° S

30° S 30° S

A B
40° S 40° S
140° E 150° E 160° E 170° E 180° 170° W 160° W 150° E 160° E 170° E 180° 170° W 160° W

| Figure 4
A) General circulation in the southwest Pacific (from GANACHAUD et al., 2007);
B) Average surface water circulation (from Kesler in VEGA et al., 2005).
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 15

120° E 140° E 160° E 180° 160° W 140° W

20° N Hawaian Is.


NORTH EAST TRADES
Mariane Is.

July
INTERTRO
PICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE
Marshall Is.

Kiribati

Phoenix Is.
NEW Solomon Is.
GUINEA SO
UT
H
PA DIVERGENT
CI EASTERLIES
FIC
SOUTH EAST TRADES C O Northern
N VCook Is.
Samoa ER
Vanuatu GE
NC Society Is.
Fiji EZ
20° S Southern ON
Cook Is. E
AUSTRALIA
Tonga
New Caledonia
Austral Is.

H H
TRAVELING ANTICYCLONES AND TROUGHS
40° S NEW H
ZEALAND

DISTURBED WESTERLIES L
L L
120° E 140° E 160° E 180° 160° W 140° W

20° N Hawaian Is.


Mariane Is. NORTH EAST TRADES

January
Marshall Is.
I N T E RT ROP IC AL C O N V E R G E N C E Z O N E

Kiribati
0° NORTH WESTERLY MONSOON
Phoenix Is.
NEW Solomon Is.
GUINEA
Tuvalu
DIVERGENT
EASTERLIES
Northern
TROUGH S O U T H Samoa
OON PA C I Cook Is.
FIC C
ONS Vanuatu O NV E
M Fiji RGE
20° S L Southern
NC
EZ
AUSTRALIA ON
Tonga Cook Is. E
New Caledonia Austral Is.

SOUTH EAST TRADES

H NEW H
40° S H ZEALAND

TRAVELING ANTICYCLONES H AND TROUGHS

DISTURBED WESTERLIES
L L
| Figure 5
The southwest Pacific climatic conditions. Dashed lines represent the seasonal position of the convergence zones
(from Salinger et al., 1995; in MAES et al., 2007).
16 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

New Caledonia, located in the trade wind zone typically experiences drastic environmental changes obviously had significant effects
easterly to south easterly winds of 10 to 20 knots, but local topogra- on the New Caledonia marine biodiversity. Modern reefs could start
phy has strong effects on local wind patterns. The axial mountain growing when the substratum began to be flooded by the post-
range also affects rainfalls and, excluding the mountains, the glacial sea-level rise. Their morphology results from i) substrate
East Coast and the southeast parts of New Caledonia are the availability (preexisting reefs), ii) the postglacial rate of sea-level
wettest. variations from around - 120 m at 20/23 ka to the present sea-level
with a peak up to + 2 m at 5,5 ka due to isostatic readjustment,
Sea-level variations and iii) the growth strategy of living communities. During the
same time, species progressively colonize the lagoon. However, in
During the last million years, sea level had 100 kA cyclic high the region, sea surface temperatures may not have been suitable
(sometimes 5 to 10 m above present-day sea level) and low for corals before around 8 ka, which can explain the late (8,2 ka)
(120-130 m below present-day sea level) stands, leading to several formation of postglacial reefs in New Caledonia (CABIOCH, 2001).
emersions and submersions of the reefs and lagoons (CHEVILLOTTE Another alternative hypothesis is the lack of suitable substrate
et al., 2005; CHARDON et al., 2008; LE ROY et al., 2008). These (accommodation space) before 8 ka.
Study area

Lagoons and reefs approximately 2,000 km2, with a mean depth of 17.5 m. It
widens progressively towards the southeast from 8 km wide north
Reefal structures follow the eastern and western coast of Grande of Baie de Saint-Vincent, reaching 20 km near Nouméa and a
Terre, and extend beyond the island, 50 km southward and maximum of 65 km at its southern end. The barrier reef consists
200 km northward. Bounded offshore by a barrier reef built on of a series of arched reefs separated by deep passes (> 60 m). It
the border of the island shelf, the lagoons cover a total area of curves sharply to the north at its southern extremity, following
23,400 km2 (TESTAU & CONAND, 1983) (fig. 3). the edge of the great axial thalweg that prolongs the Bay of Prony
They have an average depth of 40 m along the east coast and of (fig. 3).
25-40 m along the west coast. They are connected to the sea by The lagoon can be subdivided into an external zone that
deep passes opened at the mouth of submarine valleys downcut comprises a series of shallow (10-20 m) indurated plateaus
by the rivers during the last glacial regression 20,000 years ago. downcut by the submarine valleys, and an internal zone, which
Extended lagoons are also found in the Chesterfield Archipelago, corresponds to the large and deep (40 m) lagoonal depressions.
d’Entrecasteaux Reefs and Loyalty Islands (mainly Ouvea). The back-reef area is characterized by large hydraulic sand dunes.
New Caledonian reefs include both oceanic (d’Entrecasteaux, The large bays, which indent the shoreline, are characteristic of
Loyalty and Chesterfield) and continental reefs (Grande Terre and a submerged coastline. The numerous intra-lagoonal reefs are
Isle of Pines). These reefs offer a large diversity of formations, arranged along three alignments roughly parallel to the coast
explained by the diversity of environmental forcing, and provide (THOMASSIN, 1984).
a rich framework that itself supports a large diversity of shallow
modern habitats and communities. There are 8 times more Hydrodynamics
lagoonal and sedimentary areas (~31,300 km2) than reef
Water movements in the southwestern lagoon of New Caledonia are
areas (~4,500 km2). New Caledonia is clearly a region of high
controlled mainly by tidal and wind forcings. The semi-diurnal
complexity, a hotspot of reef diversity, though it is not the most
tide (maximum tidal range = 1.8 m) propagates from the south
complex area (ANDRÉFOUËT et al., 2007, 2009).
to the north (DOUILLET, 1998), while southeasterly trade winds
The prominent feature of New Caledonia is its 1,500 km long drive a general northwest drift (DOUILLET et al., 2001). Models
barrier reef, cut by deep passes, and including a 1,300 km long suggest that oceanic waters enter the lagoon at its southern end,
subtidal domain. This is the longest stretch of barrier reef world- emptying through the passes. Field observations have shown that
wide, since the Great Barrier Reef in Australia is not a linear the wind-driven surface current to the northwest, which enters
barrier reef for most of its length, but an assemblage of platform the lagoon mostly through scattered reefs of the southeast, is
reefs of various sizes and shapes. The spatial organization of balanced by a subsurface return current to the southeast. During
Grande Terre reefs is not very diverse with an onshore-offshore each rising tide, oceanic water inflows mostly through the passes,
sequential zonation of fringing-patch-barrier reefs for most of its but also to a lesser extent over the barrier reef, and between the
perimeter, but more complex spatial organizations are found in scattered reefs of the southeast. Except when trade winds blow
the south lagoon due to higher abundance of patch reefs and wide suddenly stronger, a reversal of surface currents and undercurrents
shallow lagoons. The north sector is characterized by a very wide can be observed in some passes and in the lagoon during the shift
lagoon (Grand Lagon Nord) bounded by a continuous barrier of tidal flow: during flood tides the flow is E or NE in the passes,
reef, but depleted from patch reefs (ANDRÉFOUËT et al., 2007). NW or W in the lagoon; during ebb tides, the flow is SW or W in
passes and SE in the lagoon (ROUGERIE, 1986).
At a long-term scale, models indicate that tidal water mainly
The southwest lagoon enters the southwest lagoon at the south, between Ouen Island
and the barrier reef. One part flows directly to the ocean through
General features Boulari pass while the other part flows northwards and leaves the
The southwestern lagoon of New Caledonia has been extensively lagoon through Dumbéa pass. The velocity of the long-term
studied and therefore deserves a particular presentation. It covers transport generated by the tidal circulation is around 1 cm s-1,
18 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

whereas wind-induced velocity is 10 cm s-1 or higher (OUILLON In the inner bays, the sediment is red or brown in color, with
et al., 2010). Over the reef, the tidal flow may alternatively enter more than 8% of Fe2O3. In the outer bays, the depressions and
and leave the lagoon during trade wind episodes, but oceanic the submarine valleys, it is ochre as long as the percentage of
water may flow continuously toward the lagoon under west wind Fe2O3 is over 2%. In the external parts of the depressions and of
or weak wind. Freshwater inputs are mainly from the Dumbéa River, the submarine valleys bioclasts are colored in grey by iron pyrites.
Boulari River, and Pirogues River. Inside the southwest lagoon, the At the transition between the depression and the external plateaus
inter-annual variability is less marked than the seasonal one, which and sand dunes, sediments are yellow, due to the oxidation of
is well marked for most parameters (LEBORGNE et al., 2010). bioclasts previously colored by iron pyrites after reworking of
sediments (DEBENAY, 1987). The back reef hydraulic sand dunes
Sediments are white. Continental inputs are stocked close to the river
mouths and in the bays, elsewhere remaining noticeable only in
Sedimentary deposits are mainly of bioclastic origin. The finest submarines valleys.
sediments occur between the river mouths and the passes, in the
In the coarsest fractions (> 0.5 mm), Mollusks (Gastropods,
depression and the submarine valleys, where the proportion of silt
Pelecypods) and Foraminifers constitute the bulk of bioclastic
and clays is the higher (fig. 6). Coarser sediments are found near
material with locally coralline algae, Halimeda and/or coral
the patch reefs, due to the direct input of coarser grains from the
detritus (Debenay, 1985a). The contribution of coral debris to the
reefs, and in shallower areas, including back reef areas, due to
sediment is significant only close to the reefs. Generally, sedimen-
the winnowing of the sediment by waves and currents. According
tation of grains coarser than 63 µm within the lagoon is the
to the color of sediments, the lagoon appears to be divided into
result of in situ organic production combined with low hydrody-
four main areas roughly parallel to the coast and the barrier reef
namic control that lead to only weak sediment transport, as
(fig. 6). The color was shown to be directly related to continental
reported from other lagoons of New Caledonia (CHEVILLON, 1996).
iron-rich inputs, the zonation showing a decrease of these inputs
seaward (DEBENAY, 1987). Tests of foraminifera are often among the major constituents of
the sediment. Even in the coarser fraction (> 0,5 mm), they are
abundant, frequently making up more than 10% of the sediment
(fig. 7), this proportion sometimes reaching 80% or more.

Nouméa

Bay of More than 10% of foraminifera


in the fraction 0.5 - 2 mm
Saint Vincent
Islands
Barrier Reefs
Patch Reefs
Sediment
color
White
Yellowish Nouméa
Light gray
Prony
Dark gray Islands
N
Ochre Barrier Reefs
0 5 km
Red brown Patch Reefs
Coral Sea

Nouméa
| Figure 7
Contribution of foraminifera to the coarser (> 0.5 mm) fraction
of the sediment (after DEBENAY, 1985a).

Silt and clays


< 5%
5 - 25% Islands
N
25 - 50% Barrier Reefs
> 50% Patch Reefs 0 5 km

| Figure 6
Color of the sediment and silt and clays content
(from DEBENAY, 1987).
Introduction to Foraminifera

Abridged History in the sediments, their fairly continuous evolutionary development


since the Cambrian, they can be used for accurately dating rocks.
The first mention of foraminifera can be found in the antiquity, They have long been ignored by marine biologists, and if biological
when Herodotus, in the Vth century before Christ, reported the studies began at the end of the 19th century, they only developed
accumulation of lentil-like forms in the pyramids of Gizeh, in the 1980s, little being known about their biology.
ignoring that they were large fossil foraminifera (Nummulites). Resulting from their extensive use by geologists, emphasis was
The organic origin of these fossils was discovered far later, by given to the mineralized test of the foraminifera that were
Leonardo da Vinci (XVth century), and the first specific study was mainly known as shelled organisms living in marine and paralic
carried out by Linaeus (1766), who recognized 15 species. In 1826, environments. Recent studies, however, revealed the presence of
Alcide d’Orbigny produced the first classification of foraminifera naked species (lacking test) living in freshwater environments
that included 5 families, 52 genus and 552 species. He regarded and even in damp rainforest soil (e.g., PAWLOWSKI et al., 1999;
them as minute cephalopods, whose chambers communicate by MEISTERFELD et al., 2001; HOLZMANN et al., 2003).
pores (foramina) and not siphons, giving them the name
“foraminifères”. Later on (1835), F. Dujardin discovered their true
nature and recognized them as protozoa. Works on foraminifera General characteristics
developed during the end of the 19th century and the 20th century,
involving numerous scientists. Among them must be mentioned Foraminifera are single-celled organisms (protoctists). Their size
workers such as Carpenter, Brady, Cushman, Loeblich and Tappan, typically ranges from 0.1 to 1 mm, although some species may be
who carried out much pioneering works. as large as several centimeters, sometimes exceeding 10 cm in
Foraminifera have been extensively studied by geologists, and diameter. In most species, the cell is protected by a test (shell),
particularly used in oil industry, to find potential oil deposits. Due which may be uni- or multilocular. The shell is referred to as a test
to their abundance, the good preservation of their mineralized tests because it is covered by some of the protoplasm of the unicellular

100 µm 100 µm 100 µm 10 µm

10 µm

a b c e

| Figure 8
Pseudopodia. a) phase-contrast microscope image of Massilina secans showing pseudopodia extruding from the single aperture of the test;
b) phase-contrast microscope image of Ammonia beccarii showing bunches of pseudopodia extruding from sutural spaces;
c) same as (b), but under a Scanning Electron Microscope;
d) detailed view of (c) showing pseudopodia anchoring the test on the substrate;
e) phase-contrast microscope image showing the pseudopodial network of Heterotheca lobata
(photos c and d from V. Le Cadre; photo e from K. G. Grell in DEBENAY et al., 1996).
20 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

organism. The protoplasm of the cell is composed of endoplasm thus to colonize most of the photic water column.
and ectoplasm. The endoplasm is the central part of the proto- Parasitism by foraminifera has been reported for several species
plasm that contains the nucleus or nuclei and in which the since it was first documented by LE CALVEZ in 1947. In New
major metabolic processes take place. The ectoplasm is the outer Caledonia, a small species, Metarotaliella tuvaluensis, may
zone of cytoplasm, from which a reticular network of pseudopodia, potentially parasite several miliolid species. It attaches to the tests
reinforced by a micro-tubular cytoskeleton, may emerge through of partially grown miliolid individuals, resulting in malformation
a single or many openings in the test – but never through the of the chambers added after the attachment and modification of
pores (fig. 8). This pseudopodial network is used for locomotion, the test morphology (fig. 9).
anchoring, catching and transport of food, removal of excretory
products, gas exchange, test building, and many other functions.
Pseudopodia characteristically have small granules streaming in
both directions, and as they form a network, they are called
granuloreticulopodia.

Position in the trophic web

Foraminifera are heterotrophic protists that are often considered


as a key group in the marine food web (ALTENBACH, 1992) since
they are one of the dominant members of benthic communities
in both shallow and deep-sea environments (ALONGI, 1992;
GOODAY et al., 1992; MOODLEY et al., 2000), and are often major
contributors to meiofaunal biomass (MURRAY, 2006). They exhibit
100 µm
a great variety of feeding mechanisms, which are in relation with
their ecology and their test morphology. Many benthic
foraminifera are omnivorous opportunistic feeders that consume | Figure 9
Metarotaliella tuvaluensis on a deformed test of miliolid.
organic detritus, unicellular algae, protists (including other
foraminifera), and metazoans (HAYNES, 1981). Some branching
forms are suspension feeders and utilize their pseudopodia to
capture food from the water column. Sediment dwellers may
The status of foraminifera as a key group in the marine food web
absorb dissolved organic matter via their pseudopodia, but they
does not result only from their abundance, but is also due to the
are mostly deposit feeders, gathering organic detritus and bacteria
fact that their feeding sources are mostly inaccessible for the
with their pseudopodia. Some species may form a “spiders web”
macrofauna. In turn, foraminifera are preyed upon by many dif-
with their pseudopodial network and capture small metazoans,
ferent organisms. Incidental predation is common, due to deposit
such as copepods. Despite this variety of diet, most of the
feeders ingesting sediment-dwelling foraminifera or herbivorous
foraminifera are deposit feeders (LIPPS, 1983), and bacteria
organisms that ingest epiphytic foraminifera. Some more or less
constitute an important element in their diet (GOLDSTEIN &
selective predators have been identified, including nematodes
CORLISS, 1994), due to their high nutritional value. They also have
(SLITER, 1971), polychaetes (LIPPS & RONAN, 1974), mollusks
a prominent role in cycling indigestible organic detritus and
(e.g., LANGER et al., 1995; GLOVER et al., 2003), echinoderms (e.g.,
making them available to deposit feeders. Several littoral benthic
MATEU, 1969), arthropods (e.g., RAINER, 1992), and fish (e.g.,
foraminifera have been shown to selectively ingest bacteria (LEE
TODD, 1961; LIPPS, 1988; DEBENAY et al., 2011). This predation
et al., 1966; LEE & MULLER, 1973), and even a bacteria farming
may have a significant impact on foraminiferal populations as
strategy has been inferred by LANGER & GEHRING (1993).
demonstrated for deep-sea scaphopods (LANGER et al., 1995) and
A number of benthic and planktonic foraminifera that inhabit the fish (e.g., PALMER, 1988).
photic (lighted) zone, mostly in tropical waters where sunlight is
plentiful and trophic resources somewhat restricted, host unicellular
algae that provide the foraminifera with carbohydrates. It is thought Reproduction and growth
the large size of some tropical benthic foraminifera partly results
from these endosymbiotic associations. Endosymbiotic algae The life cycles of only a few species are known among the approx-
may be from diverse lineages such as the green algae, red algae, imately 10,000 living species of foraminifera. There are a great
golden algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates. Some foraminifera variety of reproductive strategies, but foraminiferal life cycle
are kleptoplastic, retaining chloroplasts from ingested algae to commonly involves an alternation between haploid and diploid
conduct photosynthesis (BERNHARD & BOWSER, 1999). This diversity generations. This type of alternation of generations is known
in the endosymbionts and the resulting diversity of the photopig- mostly in plants. Although they are mostly similar in form, the
ments used by the algae allow the symbiont-bearing foraminifera generations differ in the size of the initial chamber, known as the
to successfully utilize a wider range of the light spectrum and proloculus (fig. 10).
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 21

often confusing and sometimes erroneous, even in specialized


100 µm
literature. For a detailed description, see LEE et al. (2000).
In some species, the foraminifera change their way of life during
the life cycle. For example, several species of Rosalina,
Neoconorbina and Cymbaloporetta that live in tropical areas
Protoculus have a benthic agamont, while the gamont constructs a float
chamber and becomes planktonic before releasing the gametes
(fig. 12).

| Figure 10 Planktonic gamont


releasing gametes
A classical example of dimorphism in foraminifera
with the macrospheric – or megalosheric – form
Fusion
(big proloculus – top) and the microspheric
(small proloculus – bottom) in Amphicoryna scalaris. Empty cyst

0.1 mm
Development
Haploid individuals, named gamonts are usually uninucleate. of float chamber
They divide to produce numerous amoeboid or flagellated
gametes that fuse to produce zygotes. Zygotes develop into diploid,
generally plurinucleate, individuals, and named agamonts. The
Encystment
agamonts tend to have a small proloculus and are therefore
termed microspheric (fig. 10). After meiosis they fragment to
asexually produce new gamonts, which commonly form a larger
proloculus and are therefore termed megalospheric or macros-
pheric. Generally, they also are smaller in size. Multiple rounds | Figure 12 Gamont
of asexual reproduction between sexual generations are not Life cycle of a
Neoconorbina-like
uncommon in benthic forms. In this case, the agamont undergoes species
a mitotic division instead of meiosis and produces another diploid that constructs
generation, called schizont (fig. 11; see also Marginopora a float chamber Agamont
and has a
vertebralis on fig. 42). The schizont may undergo meiosis and planktonic stage
form gamonts or it may enter a cycle of successive asexual (drawing
from Myers,
reproductions by multiple fission of a diploid multinucleated in LOEBLICH
cytoplasm. These processes are complex and their explanation is & TAPPAN, 1964).

JUVENILES
Meiosis

SCHIZONT JUVENILES
Fission macrospheric
multinucleate
Growth diploid

Meiosis
Growth

Growth AGAMONT
macrospheric GAMONT
multinucleate macrospheric
JUVENILES diploid uninucleate
haploid

Fission
Gametogenesis
Growth mitosis
Fusion
ZYGOTE
GAMETES

| Figure 11
Schematic representation of the life cycle of foraminifera with the usual alternation of generation (solid lines),
and the alternative multifission (broken lines) (simplified from LEE et al., 2000).
22 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Three types of sexual reproduction are known in foraminifera: The test


gametogamy, gamontogamy (or plastogamy), and autogamy. In
gametogamy, the biflagellate gametes are released into the Composition and structure
surrounding seawater and fuse outside the gamontic test. In
gamontogamy, two or more gamonts join their apertural faces Some naked foraminifera have recently been identified, but most
that partially dissolve, forming a limited space where the of the known species have a test. Because foraminifera were first
flagellated or amoeboid gametes fuse (fig. 13). In autogamy, the studied by geologists, their classification has been based primarily
gametes produced by the same gamont fuse inside the gamontic on characters of the test, mainly wall composition and structure,
test. chamber shape and arrangement, the shape and position of the
apertures, surface ornamentation.
Three basic wall compositions are recognized: organic, aggluti-
nated, and secreted calcium carbonate. An exception is the genus
Miliammellus, the only genus of the Suborder Silicoloculinina,
which as the name suggests has a test composed of silica. Some
organic specimens were observed living in algae, but owing to the
peculiarity of these species and to the fact that organic tests are
not preserved in dried samples, they are not taken into account in
this study.
100 µm Agglutinated tests are made of accumulated foreign particles
collected in the sediment and cemented together by a variety of
cements, e.g., organic, calcareous or made of ferric oxide (fig. 15).
| Figure 13 Some species use all particles available, selecting them randomly,
Plastogamic pair of Punctobolivinella unca.
while others pick specifically selected grains (e.g., sponge spicules,
coccoliths, mica flakes) (fig. 16).
Some species of foraminifera live only a few weeks before death Calcareous tests may be subdivided into three major groups:
or reproduction, while large tropical species such as Marginopora microgranular (an extinct group that will not be considered
vertebralis may live several years. here), porcelaneous, and hyaline. Two peculiarities must
After the fusion of gametes or the fission of the mother cell, the also be mentioned: the test of the suborder Spirillinina is
zygotes or the daughter cells of shelled species construct a small constructed of an optically single crystal of calcite and the
initial chamber (proloculus), calcified around the protoplasm suborder Carterinina is believed to secrete spicules of calcite,
(fig. 14). While the cell grows, the chamber increases in size in which are then cemented together to form the test.
monolocular species, and new chambers are added in multilocu- Porcelaneous tests are opaque, due to the refraction of light by
lar species. At the beginning of the growth, one chamber is built the thick, randomly arranged middle layer of crystal needles,
almost every day. The construction of new chambers involves enclosed between the thin inner and outer well-ordered
complex processes, including the participation of pseudopodia, veneers (fig. 15). They are imperforate and composed of high
and differs depending on the nature of the test. It is impossible to magnesium calcite. Hyaline tests are glassy. They are termed
present these processes in this book, even if some aspects will be perforate because the wall is penetrated by fine pores (fig. 15).
evoked in the following chapter about the test. The pores are closed on the inner face of the wall by an organic
membrane, and hence do not allow direct communication
with the exterior, but facilitate gas exchanges. Hyaline tests of
recent foraminifers are mainly calcitic, rarely aragonitic
Proloculus (order Robertinida).
Basically, calcareous tests are composed of colloidal crystallites
that result from nucleation in oversaturated media controlled by
the cell (see discussion in DEBENAY et al., 1996). In porcelaneous
tests, nucleation occurs in the Golgi vesicles, and crystallites
group into needles. Needles are transported toward the area of
test wall construction where they are deposited in random
0.1 mm
arrangement (HEMLEBEN et al., 1986), and secondarily form the
platelet layer (DEBENAY et al., 1996). In hyaline tests, nucleation
occurs on an organic membrane (e.g., TOWE & CIFELLI, 1967;
| Figure 14 HOTTINGER, 1986), where crystallites group into radial columns
Growth of Sorites orbiculus:
left, the proloculus and its tubular extension (flexostyle); to form the test wall. A new lamella may be added to the initial
center, the first chambers adding around this “embryo”
attached on a macroscopic alga; wall when a new chamber is constructed, resulting in multil-
right, an adult specimen on Gelidium sp. amellar tests (fig. 15).
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 23

A B C D

100 µm 100 µm 1µm 10 µm

100 µm 100 µm 1 µm 1 µm

1 µm

100 µm 100 µm 1 µm

| Figure 15
Nature and structure of the test. 1) agglutinated; 2) calcareous hyaline; 3) calcareous porcelaneous
- A) light microscopy; B) SEM view of a test; C) detailed view of the surface showing the glue
between foreign grains on an agglutinated test, the pores on a hyaline test, and the rhombohedral
platelets on a porcelaneous test; D) sections showing the foreign grains in an agglutinated test, the
lamellae in a hyaline test, and the irregularly arranged calcitic needles covered with rhombohedral
platelets in a porcelaneous test.

Chamber arrangement
Some species build tests with a single chamber (unilocular), but
most species build multilocular tests with multiple chambers that
are added as the cell grows. Chambers are connected with each
other by small openings called foramina (Foraminifera got their
name from these foramina). The final chamber communicates
with the exterior through one or several openings called apertures.
The living cell fills all the chambers except for one or two of the
most recently constructed. While the cell grows, the chamber
increases in size in unilocular species, and new chambers are
added in multilocular species, following a great variety of
arrangements. The most common types of chamber arrangements
are shown on figure 17.
A B C
Besides these general categories, there are many variations in the
test morphology. For example, planispiral tests may be involute
| Figure 16 (the chambers in a coil cover laterally those of the preceding coil,
Examples of agglutinated tests:
A) with irregular coarse grains; the chambers of the last coil only visible) or evolute (all coils
B) with fine grains;
C) with selected sponge spicules. visible) (fig. 18 A, B). Chambers may be irregularly added as
Scale bar = 100 µm. illustrated in a few examples in figure 18 (C, D, E). In milioline
24 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Monolocular
The living cell is enclosed in a chamber of variable morphology, 1 2 3
generally with an aperture, which is here at the end of a neck (1).

Monolocular tubular
The unique chamber is a tube, which can be straight, planispirally
enrolled (2) or irregularly (streptospirally) enrolled (3).

4 5 6
Serial
The chambers of the plurilocular test are arranged
in a unique linear series (uniserial - 4), two series (biserial - 5)
or three series (triserial -6). The aperture is on the last chamber.

Spiral 9
Chambers are spirally arranged, either in one plane,
the test being symetrical (planispiral - 7), or in three dimensions, 8
giving the test a trochoid morphology, like a snail shell
(low trochospiral -8 and high trochospiral - 9). 7

Milioline
Tubular chambers are spirally arranged, each chamber
being one-half coil in length.
The coil may be within a single plane (spiroloculine - 10),
or each successive chamber may be placed at an angle
from the previous one, leaving visible the three (triloculine - 11) 10 11
or the five (quinqueloculine) last chambers.

Discoidal
After a generally planispiral initial stage, annular chambers 12
divided into chamberlets are added within a single plane(12).

Complex morphology
The morphologies described above may combine into more
complex morphologies. For example, a triserial initial stage
may change into an uniserial arrangement during growth (13),
a spherical chamber may be added to a trochospiral test (14),
planispirally arranged chambers may be followed by uncoiled,
uniserially arranged chambers (15).
13 14 15

| Figure 17
Most common types of chamber arrangements (from DEBENAY & DELLA-PATRONA, 2009).

arrangements, spiroloculine enrolments may be evolute et al., 1980). The function of these structures in the biology of
(Spiroloculina – fig. 18 F1) or involute (Pyrgo – fig. 18 F2). In foraminifera is still poorly known.
quinqueloculine enrolments, successive chambers are added at an Various morphological adaptations of the test are known. As an
angle less than 180° (fig. 18 F3), and in triloculine arrangements example, it is possible to mention two test morphologies inter-
they are added at an angle more than 180° (fig. 18 F4). preted as adaptations for conducting light to the internal algal
The internal structure of the test may be very complex, resulting symbionts. In peneroplids, blunt ribs roughly parallel to the
from various patterns of addition of chambers, their subdivision periphery of the shell concentrate light by refraction, and symbionts
into chamberlets, and complex communications with each other. group in these areas of light concentration (fig. 19 A). In oper-
This is particularly obvious in large discoid foraminifera (e.g., culinids, transparent pillars conduct light to the symbionts, even
HOTTINGER, 1978), but even small tests may reveal a complex in involute tests where the first coils are covered by following ones
organization when they possess a canal system (e.g., BILLMANN (fig. 19 B).
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 25

| Figure 18
More information on chamber arrangement.
A) planispiral involute;
B) planispiral evolute;
C) numerous domelike chambers added in successive layers,
alternating in position, with prominent radial spines;
D) somewhat irregular chambers separated by stolonlike necks;
E) chambers added in irregular cycles;
F) milioline arrangements:
1- spiroloculine evolute, 2- spiroloculine involute, 3- sigmoid,
A 4- quinqueloculine and 5- triloculine,
chambers are numbered and successive planes are indicated (blue);
white arrow = growth of the last chamber, green arrow = direction
of coiling. Scale bar = 100 µm.

100 µm

Apertures
As shown above, foraminiferal tests are characterized by their
B morphology and chamber arrangement, but they are also char-
acterized by their aperture, which allows the cell to communicate
with the exterior. Apertures may have a great variety of positions
100 µm on the test. Some of the common apertural positions are shown
in figure 20.
| Figure 19 Apertures also have a great variety of morphology, the role of
Adaptation of the test for conducting light to endosymbionts:
A) concentration of light by refraction through ribs of the test; which in the biology of foraminifera has to be elucidated. Some
B) conduction of light through transparent pillars. of these morphologies are illustrated in figure 21.
26 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

| Figure 20
Some of the common positions of the aperture:
Terminal, at the end of the last formed chamber;
Interiomarginal, at suture between the distal wall
of the last formed chamber and the preceding coil –
basal, at the base of the distal wall in planispiral
and serial tests – extraumbilical, at the suture
of the last formed chamber on the umbilical side
of a trochospiral test, but not connected
with the umbilicus;
Interio-areal, near the base of the distal wall,
but not at the suture with the preceding coil;
Umbilical, located into the umbilicus;
Latero-marginal, at the periphery of the last formed
chamber, but slightly on one side of the test;
Areal, on the distal wall of the last formed chamber.
Scale bar = 100 µm.

| Figure 21
Some of the morphologies of the test aperture. Scale bar = 100 µm.

Unfortunately, it was not possible, within the scope of this Where and how to collect
guide, to provide more detailed information about test struc- foraminifera
ture and morphology. The reader will find this information in
the “Illustrated glossary of terms used in foraminiferal As indicated above (fig. 1), foraminifera tests are abundant in
research” (H OTTINGER , 2006), also available online: tropical sands. They can be easily observed and picked under a
<http://paleopolis.rediris.es/cg/CG2006_M02/>. dissecting microscope. For small specimens, and if they are too
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 27

rare to be picked from the gross sample, they can be concentrated


1 cm
by selective flotation using sodium polytungstate solution, or
perchloroethylene, easier to get in local stores. The dry sand is
poured over the heavy liquid. Then the floating tests are collected
on filter paper and dried in an aired place. The number of tests
collected with this method is often amazing. After they have been
picked, they can be ordered in special microslides.
Observation of living foraminifera is easy when considering large
species that can be seen even by snorkeling. They are abundant
on sea grass (fig. 22), and large individuals can be found on the
sediment. The presence of detritus, gathered by the pseudopodia
around the test, indicates that they are living. Large foraminifera
are also visible by naked eye on coral rubble or shells, where they
can be quite abundant.
The observation of smaller species needs a dissecting microscope.
Some species are quite easy to observe, like Amphistegina radiata,
but most species constitute a cyst with the detritus gathered by the
pseudopodia. They live hidden in this cyst that is both a protection
and a nutritional reserve (fig. 23). In this condition, it becomes | Figure 22
Living Marginopora vertebralis on sea grass
quite difficult to detect their presence. (the arrow indicates one of the tens of individuals).

A B 100 µm

| Figure 23
Lobatula lobatula attached on Halimeda:
A) the cyst has been partly destroyed;
B) the cyst has been entirely cleaned off.
Foraminifera,
their distribution and bevahior

This part summarizes results obtained during a first comprehensive fraction, one hundred and sixty eight species were found, and
study in the SW lagoon (1976-1979), and in a series of studies their distribution over the 800 samples was examined.
carried out since 2006 in various parts of New Caledonia. For
Since 2006, several hundreds of samples were collected in
ancient works, species names have been changed, when necessary,
mangrove swamps, shrimp farms, in the deeper parts of the
in agreement with actual species concepts.
northern lagoon and on the northern shelf (down to 700 m), on
macroalgae, and even within fish guts (fig. 24). The results of
these studies, published in several papers are summarized below,
Material and methods together with unpublished data.
During the first studies, more than 800 samples were collected Sediment samples collected since 2006 were washed through a
over an area of about 3,000 km2 in the southwestern lagoon and series of three sieves with mesh size 2 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.063 mm;
on the southern shelf (fig. 2). Each was subjected to grain size macroalgae were examined under a dissecting microscope for
analysis, a general observation of sand grains under a dissecting observing attached foraminifera, then washed over the sieves for
microscope, counting of the tests according to their nature in the collecting free-living species; gut contents of reef fish were observed
fraction 0.125-0.5 mm, and a detailed specific analysis of under a dissecting microscope. All the three fractions (> 2 mm,
foraminiferal fauna in the fraction coarser than 0.5 mm. In this 0.5-2 mm, and 0.063-0.5 mm) were observed.

d’Entrecasteaux Concalis
18° S
Huon Atoll Reefs G. Cabioch
Self-collection
Surprise Algae
Shrimp farms
19° S New Mangrove swamps
Bampton Reefs Caledonia
Belep Islands
Avon
20° S Loyalty Islands
Landsdowne Ouvea
Bank

North Bellona Reefs Lifou


21° S

Mare
Observatory Cay

South Bellona Reefs


22° S
Nouméa

Isle of Pines

160° E 162° E 164° E 166° E 168° E

| Figure 24
Location of samples collected since 2006: Concalis, samples from the northern shelf provided by B. Richer de Forges;
G. Cabioch provided samples from Surprise Island (d’Entrecasteaux reefs); macroalgae were provided by C. Payri; shrimp-farm samples
were provided by L. Della Patrona; mangrove samples were collected during several field trips, and provided by C. Marchand.
30 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Foraminifera This distribution is partly explained by the influence of depth and


in the southwestern lagoon mud content, as it can be seen on ternary plots (DEBENAY, 1988a).
Porcelaneous species are dominant in the shallower areas while
General distribution the proportion of hyaline tests increases with increasing depth.
The proportion of agglutinated species increases significantly in
The global contribution of foraminifera to the sediment has been the deepest samples. In the lagoon, porcelaneous tests are
presented above (fig. 7). In the fraction > 0.5 mm, the species dominant in sands (< 5% silt and clay) but, when mud content
richness appears to be related to oceanic influence with more increases, they are rapidly replaced by hyaline tests, which
than 25 species on the southern shelf, near the passes, and in the become dominant (> 50%) when the proportion of silt and clay
axis of the lagoon. The lower richness is found in the bays, with reaches 25%. On the island shelf, where the mud content of the
fewer than 5 species in the bays of Saint Vincent and Prony. sediment is often > 25%, hyaline tests are always dominant. The
Diversity provides consistent information on the impact of proportion of agglutinated tests increases with decreasing mud
marine influence with Shannon index above 3.5 in areas of higher content.
richness (fig. 25). This shows that foraminiferal assemblages are
sensitive to marine influence, and that they can be used to indicate This distribution also clearly appears along transects through the
the areas of maximum marine influence on the bottom of the lagoon (figs 27 and 28). The transects also show change in the
lagoon. This information will be complemented below by the assemblages from north-west to south-east, with an increasing
observation of the distribution of some selected species. proportion of hyaline species.
Considering the nature of the test in the fraction coarser than The distribution of foraminifera in the fraction 0.125-0.5 mm is
0.5 mm, hyaline tests are more abundant in bays, deeper depres- somewhat different with a higher proportion of agglutinated
sions and on the southern shelf while porcelaneous tests are species widely distributed in the lagoon, except in the bays and
dominant in the external part of the lagoon and in the back-reef on the southern shelf. Porcelaneous species are abundant in
zone (fig. 26) (DEBENAY, 1985a, 1987). Agglutinated species are back-reef areas and around patch reefs while hyaline species are
less abundant and more irregularly distributed, from back-reef dominant in the bays and on the deeper parts of the southern
areas to the southern shelf. shelf (fig. 29).

Bay of Bay of
Saint Vincent Saint Vincent

Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 25
Species richness and diversity (Shannon index) of foraminiferal assemblages in the fraction > 0.5 mm (from DEBENAY, 1986, 1988a).

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 26
Distribution of agglutinated, hyaline and porcelaneous foraminifera in the fraction > 0.5 mm (from DEBENAY, 1985a).
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 31

As for the coarser fraction, this distribution is partly explained by


the influence of depth, as shown by a ternary plot (DEBENAY,
Nouméa 1986). Hyaline species are dominant in the shallower areas,
which correspond mostly to the bays. In the other samples, the
Prony proportions of porcelaneous and agglutinated tests are similar,
with an increasing proportion of hyaline tests with depth. The
increase of mud content in the sediment also leads to an increasing
proportion of hyaline tests, but this trend is less obvious than in
the coarser fraction (DEBENAY, 1986).

| Figure 27
Location of the three transects.

Northwestern transect
271 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 100%
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Agglutinated 10
0
Agglutinated species Depth (m) SHALLOW SMALL DEPRESSION PATCH REEF
except Textulariidae 0
Textulariidae 10
20
30
Agglutinated
Median transect
Nubeculariidae 851 848 847 846 800 768 772 792 791 790 789 779 780 100%
Miliolidae 90
80
Soritidae 70
60
Alveolinidae 50
40
30
20
10
0
Agglutinated Depth (m)
EXTERNAL PLATEAU LAGOONAL DEPRESSION BAY
0
Planorbulinacea
and Acervulinacea 10
Amphisteginidae 20
Calcarinidae 30

Elphidiidae Southeastern transect


SHE SH
Nummulitidae 40 31 28 22 19 12 10 79 81 103 104 9392109110 113 114 100%
90
Anormalinidae 80
70
Miscelaneous 60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Depth (m) INSULAR MARGIN BAY OF PRONY
External bay Reef External bay
0

20

40

60

| Figure 28
Distribution of foraminifera coarser than 0.5 mm along the three transects (from DEBENAY, 1985a).
32 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 29
Distribution of agglutinated, porcelaneous and hyaline foraminifera in the fraction 0.125-0.5 mm.

Distribution of selected species first set of maps concerns species found on the southern shelf, or
in the south-western part of the lagoon, subjected to marine
The better represented species have been grouped according to influence resulting from the prominent SE to NW drift of waters
their location in the lagoon, on the basis of factor analyses and from penetration of marine waters through the passes (fig. 30).
carried out on their relative abundance in several sets of samples Hyaline species are dominant, and species of Amphistegina are
(DEBENAY, 1985a, 1988a) (table 1). well represented.
These groupings, however, are of limited value due to the highly Other species are more widely distributed in the lagoon, but their
complex environment, with an enormous variety of ecological distribution areas are still connected to the southeast and/or to
niches and of environmental parameters that are acting in this the passes, which indicates, on the one hand, the influence of the
wide carbonated lagoon with reefs, deep depressions and various penetration of oceanic water on these species, and on the other
continental inputs. For example, the two dominant species in hand the areas of the lagoon subjected to oceanic influence
bays: Flintina bradyana is dominant in the bays opening into (fig. 31).
the lagoon while Operculina philippinensis (as O. bartschi) is Another set of species is mostly distributed in the back-reef
limited to the bay of Prony and its vicinity. More detailed analyses area, or around patch reefs (fig. 32). They are dominated by
will be necessary to relate species to environmental factors that, porcelaneous species.
unfortunately, were not available at the time of this study.
The two most abundant species in the lagoon are Marginopora
The distribution of forty-seven, frequent enough species has been vertebralis and Alveolinella quoyi, which are widely distributed,
mapped. Maps have been grouped according to the location of together with a few species (fig. 33), while other species, also
the species, even if this grouping is debatable due to the high distributed all over the lagoon, are present only in discontinuous
complexity in the distribution of some species (figs 30 to 36). The patches (fig. 34).

Southern shelf Depressions Reef environments


Amphistegina papillosa Heterolepa praecincta Amphistegina lessonii
Ammobaculites reophaciformis Elphidium craticulatum Textularia oceanica
Nubeculina advena Operculinella sp. Marginopora vertebralis
Heterolepa praecincta Spiroloculina communis Spirosigmoilina bradyi
Neoeponides procerus Operculina gaimardi Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis
Placopsilina bradyi Sahulia barkeri
Baggina indica Bays
Lenticulina gibba Flintina bradyana Coastal areas
Lenticulina vortex Operculina philippinensis Coscinospira hemprichii
Pegidia dubia Heterolepa praecincta Peneroplis pertusus
Planulina ornata Elphidium craticulatum Peneroplis planatus
Textularia agglutinans
High energy areas Triloculina tricarinata
Amphistegina radiata
Septotextularia rugosa

| Table 1
Groups of species determined by factor analyses (from DEBENAY, 1985a, 1988a).
Bold = dominant species; small letters = accessory species.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 33

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent

Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
0 - 10%
Présent 10 - 20% Présent
> 20%

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent

Présent 0 - 10% Présent


> 10%

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 30
Species from the southern shelf directly influenced by the open sea,
and from areas of the lagoon mostly under marine influence coming through SE reefs and passes.

As shown by the factor analyses (table 1), Flintina bradyana is The information given by the maps is synthesized in table 2.
dominant in the bays that open into the lagoon. Its distribution This distribution, as it appears on the maps, results from the
area also extends in the submarine valleys that prolong the bays combined influence of all environmental parameters. Among
and in the adjacent depressions. Another species, Heterolepa them, the oceanic influence appears to have a prominent role.
praecincta, has a similar distribution, but to the south of the Two other parameters are known to influence foraminiferal
lagoon (fig. 35). Nummulites venusta is mostly found in the assemblages: depth and grain size of the sediment, which are
depressions of the lagoon, together with other, most widely somewhat interrelated due to decreasing energy with depth. Both
distributed species. data were available and the distribution of the most abundant
Heterolepa praecincta is hardly found farther northwest than and frequent species with depth and grain size was examined. For
Nouméa peninsula. Other species, such as Amphistegina radiata, graphing the distribution of species with these two parameters,
show the same tendency (fig. 30) while others (e.g., samples were grouped into classes with a class interval of 5 m for
Pseudomassilina australis and Quinqueloculina agglutinans) depth, and of 5% for grain size. The frequency of each species
have an inverse distribution, being hardly found farther southeast (% of samples where the species is represented) was calculated for
than Nouméa peninsula (fig. 36). each class of samples.
34 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 31
Species widely distributed, but mostly connected to the SE open area and to passes.

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
0 - 10% Présent 0 - 10%
> 10% > 10%

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 32
Species mostly found behind the barrier reef and/or around patch reefs.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 35

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent 0 - 10% 0 - 10%
> 10% > 10%

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
0 - 10% Présent Présent
> 10%

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 33
Species widely distributed over the study area.

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent
Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 34
Species irregularly distributed in discontinuous patches.
36 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Bay of Bay of Bay of


Saint Vincent Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 35
Species mostly found in bays and depressions.

Bay of Bay of
Saint Vincent Saint Vincent
Présent Présent

Nouméa Nouméa

Prony Prony

Coral Sea Coral Sea

| Figure 36
Species mostly found to the NW of Nouméa.

Insular margin Barrier reef and patch reefs Scattered species


Ammobaculites reophaciformis Amphistegina lessonii Amphisorus hemprichii
Amphistegina bicirculata Hauerina diversa Parasorites orbitolitoides
Amphistegina papillosa Marginopora vertebralis Peneroplis pertusus
Heterolepa praecincta Spirosigmoilina bradyi Peneroplis planatus
Lenticulina gibba Quinqueloculina granulocostata Quinqueloculina parkeri
Neoeponides procerus Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis Textularia agglutinans
Nubeculina advena Sorites orbiculus Textularia foliacea
Placopsilina bradyi Spiroloculina antillarum Quinqueloculina arenata
Reophax irregularis Textularia oceanica Quinqueloculina neostriatula
Triloculina tricarinata
Lagoon under oceanic influence Bays and depressions
Acervulina mabahethi Flintina bradyana
Amphistegina papillosa Heterolepa praecincta
Amphistegina quoii Wide distribution Nummulites venosus
Amphistegina radiata Alveolinella quoii
Calcarina hispida Elphidium craticulatum NW of Nouméa
Sphaerogypsina globula Marginopora vertebralis Pseudomassilina australis
Heterostegina operculinoides Coscinospira hemprichii Quinqueloculina agglutinans
Nubeculina advena Spiroloculina communis
Operculina ammonoides Sahulia barkeri SE of Nouméa
Operculina gaimardi Amphistegina radiata
Pyrgo denticulata Heterolepa praecincta
Textularia conica

| Table 2
Species ordered following their distribution as it appears on the above maps.
Some species may appear in two environments.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 37

Distribution related to depth Distribution related to mud content


Thirty species have a distribution strongly related to depth Eighteen species have a distribution related to the mud (silt
(fig. 37). Shallow-water species, limited to the lagoon, are rarely and clay) content of sediments (fig. 38). Seven are primarily
found deeper than 40 m: Textularia pseudogramen, associated with sand: Pseudomassilina macilenta, Textularia
Spiroloculina antillarum, Pseudomassilina macilenta, agglutinans, Amphistegina lessonii, Spirosigmoilina bradyi,
Peneroplis planatus, Spirosigmoilina bradyi, Marginopora Pseudomassilina australis, Textularia oceanica, and
vertebralis, Quinqueloculina neostriatula, Pseudomassilina Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis. Eight are found in silty sand:
australis, Pseudohauerina orientalis, Amphisorus hemprichii, Quinqueloculina neostriatula, Pseudohauerina orientalis,
Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis, Peneroplis pertusus, and Alveolinella quoii, Amphisorus hemprichii, Operculina
Flintina bradyana. Most of them are encountered on the gaimardi, Nummulites venosus, Amphistegina bicirculata
plateaus behind the barrier reef or around the patch reefs (e.g., S. and Ammobaculites reophaciformis. Three species are more
bradyi and S. antillarum [fig. 32]), but others are found in abundant in silty clay: Lenticulina gibba, Placopsilina bradyi,
shallow bays (e.g., F. bradyana [fig. 35]). Some species are and Flintina bradyana. Typical species from sandy areas are
found at intermediate depths: Alveolinella quoii, Nummulites found on the indurated plateaus or around the patch reefs, e.g.,
venosus, Amphistegina lessonii, Heterostegina depressa, Spirosigmoilina bradyi (fig. 32). Quinqueloculina neostriatula,
Anomalinella rostrata, and Operculina ammonoides. Other more irregularly distributed in the same area, can also be found
species are rare in the lagoon, found only in the deepest areas: near the fringing reefs (fig. 34). Species present in silty clay can
Amphistegina quoyi, Heterolepa praecincta, Amphistegina be abundant on the deep island shelf, e.g., Placopsilina bradyi
papillosa, Amphistegina radiata, Amphistegina bicirculata, and Lenticulina gibba (fig. 30), or in the bays and the inner
Lenticulina gibba, Ammobaculites reophaciformis, lagoonal depression, e.g., Flintina bradyana (fig. 35).
Nubeculina advena, Heterostegina operculinoides,
Neoeponides procerus, and Cycloclypeus carpenteri. These
species are found mostly on the southern shelf (fig. 30).

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Depth (m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Silt and clay (%)

Textularia pseudogramen Pseudomassilina


macilenta
Spiroloculina antillarum
Pseudomassilina Textrularia agglutinans
macilenta
Peneroplis planatus
Amphistegina lessonii
Spirosigmoilina bradyi
Marginopora vertebralis Spirosigmoilina bradyi
Quinqueloculina
neostriatula
Pseudomassilina australis Pseudomassilina australis
Pseudohauerina orientalis
Textularia oceanica
Amphisorus hemprichii
Schlumbergerina
alveoliniformis Schlumbergerina
alveoliniformis
Peneroplis pertusus
Flintina bradyana Quinqueloculina
neostriatula
Alveolinella quoii
Pseudohauerina orientalis
Nummulites venosus
Amphistegina lessonii
Alveolinella quoii
Heterostegina depressa
Anomalinella rostrata Amphisorus hemprichii
Operculina ammonoides
Amphistegina quoii Operculina gaimardi
Heterolepa praecincta
Nummulites venosus
Amphistegina papillosa
Amphistegina radiata Amphistegina bicirculata
Amphistegina bicirculata
Lenticulina gibba Ammobaculites
reophaciformis
Ammobaculites
reophaciformis Lenticulina gibba
Nubeculina advena
Heterostegina
operculinoides Placopsilina bradyi
Neoeponides procerus
Cycloclypeus carpenteri Flintina bradyana

| Figure 37 | Figure 38
Distribution of species with depth Distribution of species with the proportion of silt and clay
(from DEBENAY, 1988a). (from DEBENAY, 1988a).
38 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Foraminifera indicators connection with the passes, and even behind the barrier reef for
of water circulation Gypsina globula, shows their dependence on oceanic inputs.
Comparison between their distribution areas, elongated and
The distribution of several species led to the distinction of four curved to the NW, and the water circulation described by ROUGERIE
foraminiferal biofacies and to the partition of the studied area (1986) suggests that they are distributed along the trajectory of
into four zones from the southeast to the northwest, which were subsuperficial oceanic water penetrating the lagoon through
interpreted as the result of decreasing oceanic influence, with a passes (fig. 39).
major role of Nouméa peninsula (DEBENAY, 1988b). The above
chapters show that the distribution of several species follows this The distribution patterns of foraminifera illustrate the double
trend, with Heterolepa praecincta and Amphistegina radiata water circulation prevailing in the lagoon (ROUGERIE, 1986).
that extend hardly farther northwest than Nouméa peninsula, Planktonic foraminifera, living in the open sea, are transported
while Pseudomassilina australis and Quinqueloculina agglu- into the lagoon by superficial water masses pushed toward the
tinans have an inverse distribution, being hardly found farther NW, through the scattered SE reefs, by the SE dominant trade
southeast than Nouméa peninsula (fig. 36). The hypothesis of winds. This constitutes the main penetration axis of oceanic
decreasing oceanic influence is further reinforced by the distribution waters into the lagoon. On the other hand, benthic species are
of planktonic tests in the 0.125-0.5 mm fraction (DEBENAY, 1988b). under the influence of subsurface waters, that penetrate mainly
Relatively abundant on the southern shelf, they rarely compose through the passes and circulate at the bottom of the lagoon.
more than 10% of the thanatocoenoses in the lagoon itself, but Their distribution gives a clear picture of the impact of these
are frequent in submarine depressions and valleys located waters on the benthos, with a flow curved towards the NW by the
between Ouen Island and Nouméa peninsula, and connected to general drift that affects the external part of the lagoon, following
the pass of Boulari. Northwest of Nouméa, their only distribution the external edge of lagoonal depressions.
area is connected to the pass of Dumbea. Since foraminiferal tests will be preserved in the sediment, the
This distribution is obviously related to low energy deep and/or image of the double water circulation given by foraminiferal
protected environments. It also indicates that surface oceanic thanatocoenoses will be fossilized. It shows how, in turn, fossil
waters, which transport the planktonic tests, mainly come foraminifera may provide a valuable tool for understanding
through the scattered reefs located south of Ouen Island and are hydrodynamics of fossil lagoonal environments.
pushed up to the Bay of Boulari. Most of the planktonic tests are
deposited before reaching Nouméa peninsula and its seaward Foraminifera indicators
extending shallows. The connection of distribution areas with the of sediment transport
passes of Boulari and Dumbea indicates that surface waters also
As it has been discussed above, it is highly probable that only weak
penetrate through these passes. The water circulation deduced here
postmortem displacement of tests occurs inside the lagoon, and that
from the distribution of foraminifera is in good agreement with
the distribution of thanatocoenoses reflects the position of living
the hydrodynamics described by Rougerie (in DUGAS & DEBENAY,
assemblages. In bays, however, strong river flows during storms
1981b).
or cyclones may lead to seaward sediment transport, including the
The distribution of several benthic species appears to be more transport of foraminiferal tests. In the Bay of Prony, a foraminifera,
closely related to oceanic influence, and among them Gypsina Operculina philippinensis, is abundant in the fraction > 0.5 mm
globula and Pyrgo denticulata are the most significant (figs 30 where it can compose up to 65% of the assemblages. The tests are
and 31). The distribution of their tests on the southern shelf, in generally well preserved and living specimens are frequent,
suggesting that this species lives in the bay (DEBENAY, 1988c).
Bay of
Outside the bay, eroded tests have been found, their relatively bad
Saint Vincent
preservation suggesting that they are allochthonous, presumably
transported out from the bay (fig. 40 left).
The distribution of the test, west and east of the entrance of the bay
can be explained by the strong alternating tidal currents through
Woodin channel and along the southern coast of Grande Terre.
Nouméa
The presence of tests on the deeper southern shelf, to the south,
Prony suggests a gravity-driven sediment transport on the southern shelf,
down to deeper low energy areas. The last area of test deposition,
along the south-east coast of Ouen Island, indicates a southward
Coral Sea longshore transport. The distribution of silt and clay is consistent
with the sediment transport direction deduced from the distribution
of O. bartshi, and the combination of both sets of information
allows a better comprehension of sedimentary dynamic in front
| Figure 39 of the bay (fig. 40 right). This approach should be of interest
Marine influence, as shown by foraminifera,
mainly Pyrgo denticulata and Gypsina globula owing to the Goro Nickel Mining Project that is developing in the
(from DEBENAY, 1988b). area and will require an extensive environmental assessment.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 39

| Figure 40
Sediment transport from the Bay of Prony (arrows),
deduced from the distribution of Operculina philippinensis (as O. batschi),
the color of the sediment, and the silt and clay content (from DEBENAY, 1988c).

Foraminifera porcelaneous miliolids (Quinqueloculina seminula), associated


in paralic environments with the tolerant hyaline Ammonia tepida, become abundant.
They are also dominant in small hypersaline pools of the salt
At the time of redaction of this book, studies are in progress about marshes. Jadammina macrescens and Trochammina inflata
foraminifera living in estuaries, coastal lagoons and mangrove are dominant in upper marshes. The change from the subtidal
swamps. A set of samples of foraminifera from mangrove swamps microfauna to the fauna living on the marsh corresponds to a
were collected in 1997, and their distribution was used for a more water-to-land transition that is sometimes used, in fossil deposits,
general study about foraminifera in paralic environments for reconstruction of past sea level. However, this approach, which
(DEBENAY & GUILLOU, 2002). seems highly reliable in temperate salt marches, is doubtful in
mangrove swamps (DEBENAY & GUIRAL, 2006).
Together with foraminifera collected in mangrove swamps of
Queensland (Australia), they allowed to establish a general sketch
of the foraminiferal zonation in these environments. Calcareous
species are dominant in the external part of the mangrove swamp Foraminifera and algae
open to the sea, where Rhizophora grows (fig. 41). Among them,
Helenina anderseni is abundant in areas of low salinity. Inside A study was carried out in 2007-2008 with two objectives: 1) to
the mangrove forest, agglutinated species are dominant, with provide the first inventory of epiphytic foraminifera living on a large
mainly Arenoparrella mexicana, Haplophragmoides wilberti number of well identified macroalgae (Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta,
and Caronia exilis, but in the hypersaline Avicennia zone, and Phaeophyceae) in reefal environments; 2) to compare data

| Figure 41
Schematic representation of foraminifera distribution in mangrove swamps.
40 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

from the same macroalgae collected in different settings in order When considering the entire dataset, the only strong relationship
to enhance the knowledge of epiphytal foraminiferal ecology (even if not a strict one) between macroalgae and foraminifera
(DEBENAY & PAYRI, 2010). was the presence of spinose rotaliids, soritids and Amphistegina
A total of 152 species of epiphytic foraminifera were identified on in filamentous thalli and three-dimensional mats. Apart from
81 substrates (75 samples of macroalgae belonging to 55 species this exception, the nature of the substratum is generally over-
and 6 samples of coral rubble) (fig. 42). shadowed by other factors such as light, depth and hydrodynam-
Only four of the 75 macroalgae were devoid of foraminifera. On ics in governing the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages.
the other specimens, average density was 10 individuals per cm2, For instance, macroalgae that have a wide bathymetric range
with higher densities, whatever the depth, on thalli consisting of harbor completely different communities at different depths.
a tridimentional network of branches or filaments (Gelidiopsis Among them, thalli of Homeostrichus sp. collected at 30 and 60
intricata, Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium, Melanthalia m had only 3 of their 33 species in common, thalli of Halimeda
concinna, Rhodomelacae and Sphacelariacea), as well as on the discoidea from 3 and 38 m had only 2 of their 27 species in com-
flabellate Udotea geppiorum. Species richness, recorded by in mon, and thalli of Udotea geppiorum from 1 and 24 m had only
situ counts on fresh thalli preserved in seawater (average = 9), 3 of their 30 species in common. Typically observed were the
was the lowest on Sargassum spp. (< 5), and the highest on a dominance of large symbiont-bearing miliolids or rotaliids at
Distromium/Homeostrichus association (26). Fifty-five species shallow depths, the presence of smaller rotaliids at all depths, and
were recorded on the same sample after washing and sieving the the occurrence of cryptic species adapted to shaded environments
macroalgae. in deeper samples.

1 2

3 4

5 6

7 8

| Figure 42
Examples of epiphytic foraminifera on their substrates.
Scale bar = 0.5 mm except for figure 4 where scale bar = 5 mm.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 41

Comparisons of different types of macroalgae from the same depth mostly Cymbaloporetta to grow in the algal turf (fig. 43 left).
did not reveal any relationship between structural characteristics Before reproduction, individuals of this foraminifera genus reach
of the macroalgae and foraminiferal communities. Geographic their Tretomphalus phase by constructing a float chamber, and
origin appears to have a greater impact, as shown by the Q-mode then becoming planktonic (fig. 43 right).
hierarchical clustering of selected foraminifera living on shallow The fish feeds by combing the protected algal turf with its teeth,
(0-3 m) macroalgae (DEBENAY & PAYRI, 2010). Cluster 1 included catching the small organisms (including Foraminifera) that live
samples from coastal areas impacted by organic enrichment, and in the filamentous thalli. As it feeds during the day, the
cluster 2 samples were from areas of low anthropic impact off Tretomphalus are collected before becoming planktonic, at night.
Grande Terre. Clusters 3 and 4 group all the macroalgae collected As the individual biomass provided by Foraminifera is very small,
in the Chesterfield Archipelago, a high-energy oceanic atoll. a great number of individuals must be ingested to provide a
This study also reveals that some foraminiferal species might significant nutritional input. An average of 1,600 tests was found
have quite different life modes between environments and in the digestive tract of the three individuals of Pomacentrus
regions. For example, Sorites orbiculus was considered to use amboinensis studied, which represents about 0.025 g of biomass
only a limited number of macroids with bare, flat surfaces in (fig. 44 left). However, the diet of the fish also comprises other
Florida Bay and on the Great Barrier Reef (FUJITA & HALLOCK, organisms, such as worms (fig. 44 right), and seasonal studies
1999; LOBEGEIER, 2001), and to be permanently fixed to the blades will be necessary to determine how Pomacentrus amboinensis
of macroalgae and seagrasses in Japan (SARASWATI, 2002). In New adapts to the seasonal changes in its feeding resources, since the
Caledonia, it was found on a variety of substrata and appeared to production of Tretomphalus is seasonal.
have the same free-living behavior as Marginopora and Sediment feeders, which accidentally ingest great quantities of
Amphisorus. In accordance with the results of WILSON & RAMSOOK empty tests (up to 4,000 in a fish gut), have no impact on the
(2007), this study also shows that temporal availability of the foraminiferal population, but play a prominent role in the dis-
substratum (e.g., seasonal growth of algae) might play a role. persion of empty tests. They may introduce significant changes
in the thanatocoenoses, potentially introducing some bias in
paleoenvironmental interpretations. Incidental predators of living
Foraminifera in fish diet foraminifera are either herbivorous, which do not digest the
foraminifera or carnivorous, which ingest and digest insignificant
During 2007-2008, a systematic investigation of foraminifera in foraminiferal biomass. Foraminifera, still living after their transit
the gut contents of coral reef fish was carried out. It was the first through the digestive tract of herbivorous fish, are defecated with
investigation on a large number of individuals: 247 fish, belonging a significant effect on the dispersion of living individuals over
to 83 species (DEBENAY et al., 2011). The objectives were to: provide
information on the ingestion and digestion of foraminifera by fish;
determine the impact of predation on foraminiferal assemblages;
determine if some fish species could be considered as selective Cymbaloporetta squammosa
in the thallus of Chamaedoris sp.
consumer of Foraminifera; determine if the consumption of
Foraminifera can provide significant biomass to fish.
The abundance of benthic Foraminifera in marine environments,
where they are often major contributors to meiofaunal biomass
(MURRAY, 2006), makes them a potential food source. Some
predators have been identified, including nematodes, poly-
chaetes, mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods and fish. However,
most are incidental predators that ingest foraminifera together
with their food (e.g., deposit feeders, herbivorous), and little is 1 mm
known about selective predation of foraminifera. The presence of
1 mm
foraminifera in the gut of coral reef fish had already been inci-
dentally reported, but only two systematic studies had been carried
out (TODD, 1961; LIPPS, 1988). Based on a small number of fish,
they mostly detected incidental predation. One study, however,
reported a noticeable contribution of foraminifera in the diet of a
nocturnal surface-feeding fish (HOBSON & CHESS, 1973).
During the study reported here (DEBENAY et al., 2011), 291 species
of Foraminifera were identified from more than 20,000 specimens
Tretomphalus squammosus
examined. The only significant nutritional input from with its float chamber
Foraminifera to fish was given by the planktonic Tretomphalus in the thallus of Chamaedoris sp.
phase of some benthic species (fig. 13), which was selectively
ingested by Pomacentrus amboinensis. This territorial fish | Figure 43
Cymbaloporetta growing in an algal turf, at its benthic stage
protects its territory against other fish, allowing foraminifera, and at its Tretomphalus stage (from DEBENAY et al., 2011).
42 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Shrimp farming often produces a flow of effluent, containing


1 mm
feces, uneaten feed and a large number of chemicals that are
used to prevent and treat infections. It contributes to serious
organic and chemical pollution of water and bottom sediment in
the surrounding environment, but also leads to self-pollution
problems in pond production.
Semi-intensive shrimp farming is widely distributed along the
west coast of New Caledonia Main Island (Grande Terre).
Seawater pumped from the nearby ocean filled the ponds at the
beginning of the growth cycle. Its daily renewal varies with
increasing shrimp biomass, from 0% to 30% per day, keeping
Accumulation of Tretomphalus salinity between 32‰ and 39‰ and supplying the ponds with
smaller, mostly juvenile, foraminifera. The growing cycle lasts
about four months. Shrimp postlarvae are introduced at a density
of 18-20 individuals m2 about two weeks after the ponds have
been filled, and are fed with pelleted food that comprises 0.025%
of mineral premix (Zn sulfate, Mn sulfate, Cu sulfate). Feeding rates
range from about 6 kg per ha per day at the time of introduction
of post larvae to about 60 kg per ha per day before shrimp harvest.
Chemicals such as Copper compounds (elimination of external
protozoans and filamentous bacterial diseases in post-larval
1 cm Accumulation
of worm remains shrimps), formalin (antifungal agent and control of ectoparasites),
or antibiotics are not used, contrary to what is generally done.
| Figure 44 Nevertheless, the risk of environmental- and self-pollution by the
Top: Tretomphalus collected in the gut of P. amboinensis;
bottom: digestive tract of a specimen of P. amboinensis. accumulation of organic matter exists, and an impact assessment
is needed outside the ponds, as well as inside.
A study using foraminifera as bioindicators is actually in progress,
larger areas. Such dispersion probably plays a major role during in mangrove swamps receiving effluent from a shrimp farm.
the seasonal periods of growth of algae and seagrass, and the Another study was carried out in 2006-2007 in three selected
subsequent colonization by epiphytic communities. Carnivorous shrimp farms with different characteristics. Sediment samples
fish ingest a small number of tests, which are generally altered by were collected weekly at ten stations during a whole growing
the acidic phase of digestion and have no impact on foraminiferal cycle. This study showed how foraminifera colonized the ponds
assemblages. The selective predation does not seem to significantly (DEBENAY et al., 2009a), and how foraminifera are impacted by
impact upon foraminiferal populations. Even if Tretomphalus spp. organic accumulation (DEBENAY et al., 2009b).
are selectively preyed on, the populations of their epiphytic benthic The pioneering species are Ammonia tepida (dominant species)
phases (Rosalina, Neoconorbina and Cymbaloporetta) are still and Quinqueloculina seminula, which appeared a few days after
highly abundant (DEBENAY & PAYRI, 2010) and do not show any the initial filing and increased during the first 10 weeks, due to
negative impact of predation. their high reproduction rates. Their populations then stabilized
due to drop of redox and consumption by shrimp. Only a few
colonizers subsequently appeared despite the high rate of water
Environmental assessment renewal, which was attributed to the isolation of the pond.
Despite the number of environmental parameters measured, only
using foraminifera:
oxygen and reactive organic matter correlated with the microfauna
an example in shrimp farms on a weekly timescale. Ammonia tepida was the most tolerant of
organic influx, but its relative abundance dropped once the
Morphological abnormalities in foraminiferal tests have long been
organic matter flocculated and settled, leading to disoxic conditions
reported, and considered as related to environmental stress, with
in the sediment. Conversely, Q. seminula was able to climb
emphasis on pollution. Both organic and inorganic (mostly heavy
through the floc and reach the oxygenated layer, where its relative
metal) pollutants are often suspected to have a major impact on test
abundance increased (DEBENAY et al., 2009a).
deformation. Conversely, authors dealing with this topic consider
that foraminiferal abnormalities are potentially valuable indicators The most remarkable feature was the proportion of abnormal
of pollution, despite the uncertainties still existing about the rela- foraminiferal tests collected in the shrimp ponds of New
tionship between the level of morphological abnormalities and Caledonia (fig. 45). It exceeded what had ever been reported from
the nature and magnitude of pollution. These uncertainties result other areas subjected to pollution or environmental stress, often
mostly from the fact that the response of foraminifera to stress from exceeding 50% and even 80% (DEBENAY et al., 2009b).
highly changing natural parameters such as salinity, temperature Previous studies that also reported high rates of test abnormali-
or pH superimposes onto the impact of pollution. ties sometimes suggest the role of organic matter as responsible
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 43

for increased abnormalities. In this study, it appeared that the


nature of organic matter rather than its quantity acts on test
abnormalities. Reactive organic matter deposited on the bottom
of the ponds (e.g., dead algae, shrimp faeces and feed residues),
1 2 3 which comprises most of Easily Oxidized Material and induces a
high oxygen demand, appears as the most likely responsible for
the high proportion of deformed tests. This finding should help
in better management of aquaculture ponds, foraminifera being
used as early warning bioindicators for noxious effects of the
4 5 6 7
accumulation of Easily Oxidized Material, before it leads to
shrimp mortality.

Foraminifera
and environmental changes
100 µm
8 9 10 At a human scale
A 54 cm long core was collected in the Bay of Sainte Marie,
| Figure 45 adjacent to the town of Nouméa, in order to investigate human
Foraminifera from shrimp ponds
1-2: Ammonia tepida, spiral side, impact on sedimentation rates, inputs of contaminants due to
1) normal test, 2) abnormal test; mining activity, and the impact of urbanization on this coastal
3 Ammonia tepida, complex abnormal test;
4-5: Elphidium excavatum, 4) normal test, 5) abnormal test; environment (DEBENAY & FERNANDEZ, 2009). The area selected is
6-7: Caronia exilis, 6) normal test, 7) abnormal test; subjected to urban effluent, and to the input of sediments and
8-10: Quinqueloculina seminula, 8) normal test, 9) abnormal test, brackish water that are transported by wind-driven currents from
last chambers making less than half a whorl,
10) abnormal test, last chamber making more than half a whorl. the estuary of the Coulée River (FERNANDEZ et al., 2006). During the
Scale bar = 0.1 mm (from DEBENAY et al, 2009b). 1950’s, open-cast mining exploration for nickel led to an increasing
input of heavy-metal-rich terrigenous particles in the bays near
Nouméa. Simultaneously, the population of Nouméa increased
dramatically, which may have impacted the neighboring bays.
In surface samples, corresponding to the present conditions,
sedimentary inputs from the Coulée River clearly appear in the

| Figure 46
Boulari and Sainte Marie bays: location map; distribution maps of silt and clay, and Ni, indicative of river input;
distribution maps of the diversity index of foraminiferal assemblages, porcelaneous species and Ammonia tepida.
44 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

distribution of silt and clay, and Ni content (fig. 46). The influence These paradoxical results may be explained by the partial closure
of the river on foraminiferal assemblages can be seen in a lower of the connection between the Bay of Sainte Marie and the Bay of
diversity in front of the estuary, and a lower proportion of porce- Boulari by embankments and sediment accumulation. The
laneous tests in the Boulari Bay. The proportion of Ammonia resulting decrease of the water input from the Bay of Boulari, and
tepida, known to be tolerant to adverse conditions, including consequently from the Coulée River, led to a decrease of freshwater
organic and chemical pollution, and to fresh water input, increases influence and a correlated increase of marine influence in Sainte
towards the mouth of the Coulée River. In Sainte Marie Bay, high Marie Bay. The extension of Nouméa city that was accompanied
relative abundances of A. tepida are associated with organic matter by improvement of the sewage system, a better control of the
content close to or over 20%, which may be (at least partly) related runoff, and embankments in coastal marshes led to a decrease of
to the sewage origin of labile organic matter. freshwater and pollutant inputs and enhanced this process.
Sediment accumulation rates were determined from the decrease in Even if the correlation is doubtful, due to the uncertainties in the
excess 210Pb radioactivity (fig. 47). Two linear regressions of excess sedimentation rates, major rainy events that took place in
210Pb versus accumulated sediment yield different sedimentation
Nouméa since 1940 are correlated with an increase of Haynesina
rates and allow this major environmental change to be dated at depressula, a species tolerant to low salinity. It is inferred that
1956 ± 5 years taking into account the overlaying potentially H. depressula indicates a stronger freshwater impact in the Bay
bioturbated layer. In the core samples, the strengthening impact of Sainte Marie.
of terrigenous loadings from La Coulée River upward is revealed
Finally, the general trend (that can be divided into four main
by an increasing proportion of silt and clay, and of Ni (fig. 47). The
stages) may be explained by both changes in anthropogenic
concomitant increase of organic-bound Zn results from the growth
influences and natural conditions (DEBENAY & FERNANDEZ, 2009). This
of Nouméa city with an extensive use of galvanized corrugated
study showed that anthropic activities, associated with climatic
iron roofs.
events, may have multiple and contradictory impacts on coastal
On the basis of the observations on recent sediment, and of previous environments that could be assessed only by a set of complementary
knowledge about foraminiferal behavior, the trends expected for tools (i.e. geochemistry and bioindicators)
foraminiferal assemblages were: a progressive decrease of species
diversity, a concomitant decrease of porcellaneous tests, and an
At a geological scale
increase of A. tepida, correlative with increasing contamination.
The exact opposite trends were found instead (fig. 47), indicating a Foraminifera were part of a multiproxy analysis of three littoral
change towards less restricted environmental conditions, i.e. under cores from western New Caledonia (WIRRMANN et al., 2011). This
stronger marine influence and lesser freshwater and pollutant study showed that, since the late Holocene sea-level rise, the main
impact. controlling factors of environmental changes were sea-level

210PB Silt Ni Zn Density Shannon- Number of % of


LN(Val-Bdf) and Clay (mg kg-1) (mg kg-1) (nb individuals) Weaver porcelaneous Ammonia
(%) index individuals tepida
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100
150
200
250
300
45
50
55
60
65

10

15

20

15
25

35

10
20
30
40
50
60
-5

-4

-3

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28 1956 + 5
30 AD
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
Depth (cm)

| Figure 47
Changes in chemical and foraminiferal parameters along the core N12 in Sainte Marie bay
(modified from DEBENAY & FERNANDEZ, 2009).
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 45

change, ENSO variability and extra-tropical phenomena, such as Quinqueloculina spp. and Elphidium spp. indicate a noticeable
the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) marked by a tendency for La marine influence in an open bay. The lack of foraminifera
Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. around 85-80 cm suggests a drying out of the water body. The
presence of gypsum in the sediment is consistent with this
The foraminiferal assemblages, which were mostly represented in
hypothesis. In the section 80-35 cm, an organic-rich sediment
one of the cores, are typical of coastal bays subject to alternating
containing rare fragments of foraminiferal tests dominated by
variable inputs of freshwater and seawater. They contributed to
Ammonia tepida with a few Quinqueloculina spp. indicates a
the results of this study by giving indications on sea-level changes
separation from the sea. It could represent a eutrophic brackish
(fig. 48).
pond, but reworking of tests from underlying sediments is also
At the base of the core, the foraminiferal assemblage is dominated possible. Among this section, the abnormally rich assemblage
by Ammonia tepida and Bolivina striatula, characterizing with marine species, between 70-65 cm, indicates a landward
coastal environments subject to the influence of continental waters. transport of sediments presumably due to a cyclone or a tsunami.
The lack of foraminifera between 185-165 cm together with the This event is consistent with the observation of an extreme event
absence of thecamoebians suggests a drying out of the water body. in the south of the Grande Terre dated around 4,000 cal yr BP
Between 160-90 cm, the noticeable proportion and the variety of (STEVENSON et al., 2001).

Simplified Number Species richness


lithology of tests
core G4 50 cm-3
0 0
00 00 ,20 ,60
cm 0 0 4 8 1 1 0 10 20 30 0 20 40 60 0 5 10 15 20 0 4 8 12 0 5 15 25 0 10 20 30
% Haynesina depressula

% Quinqueloculina spp.

% Murraynella globosa
20
% Bolivina striatula
% Ammonia tepida

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260
| Figure 48
Changes in foraminiferal assemblages along a core extracted on the western coast of the Grande Terre
(adapted from WIRMANN et al., 2011).
Taxonomy

Introduction siphonata (Seiglie), reported from Venezuela. It shows that some


species have a high dispersal potential, while others have not
The main purpose of this guide is to illustrate with SEM and light (e.g. BICCHI et al., 2002; PARKER & GISCHLER, 2011).
microscope photographs most of the species found hitherto
around New Caledonia, and to allow consistent identification of
the taxa. How is the guide organized?
The guide illustrates and describes 1,043 taxa. Among them,
665 had not been reported around New Caledonia before the The mode of presentation aims to facilitate the identification of
compilation published in 2007. They are marked with a + in the foraminiferal species, even by non-specialists. In this objective,
taxonomic list. Two new species are described: Triloculina species are not presented in accordance with the usual classification
elongotricarinata and Hoeglundina neocarinata, a new of foraminifera, which would be obscure to non-specialists,
species name is proposed for Calcarina exuberans, and a new but they are grouped on the basis of (1) the nature of the test
genus name is proposed for Quirimbatina rimosa instead of and (2) the dominant morphological feature as it appears at first
Mimosina rimosa. More than 140 taxa have not been determined sight. The nature of the tests remaining the major criterion,
at a specific level and are recorded under open nomenclature. A sections are devoted to each of the main type of test: agglutinated,
high proportion of them are presumably new species, but more porcelaneous, and hyaline. In each section, species are arranged
specimens are needed before proposing new species names. in alphabetical order.
Including the 158 species reported before this work, and not In order to facilitate a preliminary determination, a photographical
found during this study (noted in bold and marked with a * in summary is provided. The name indicated near the pictures allows
the taxonomic list), the number of benthic foraminifera species the reader to get, via the alphabetical index, to the description of
found hitherto around New Caledonia reaches 1,201. Some of the the species. Each species is illustrated by SEM pictures, supple-
previously reported species have been synonymized with species mented by light microscope photographs when observations
illustrated here. Their name is indicated between square brackets through the transparent test are useful. Brief descriptions of
in the taxonomic list. Other previously reported species could external morphological characters are given to assist in the
probably be synonymized, such as Borelis pulchra d’Orbigny correct identification of species and its generic placement. As often
with Borelis schlumbergeri (Reichel), or Alveolinella boscii as possible, the description is directly based on the original type
Defrance with Alveolinella quoii (d’Orbigny), but illustrations description, or on a publication that has referred to the original
often lack and comparisons are not possible. description and figures. Even if some illustrations may slightly
Most of the species collected in New Caledonia had been reported differ from the description, due to intraspecific or ecophenotypic
from the central and western Pacific, and/or the Indo-Pacific area. variation, the descriptive information has not been altered, since it
Species from these areas are figured in several studies of taxonomic would be very useful having all of the descriptive information at
importance from Australia (e.g., COLLINS, 1958; BACCAERT, 1987; hand to check identifications when using this book as a guide, as it
YASSINI & JONES, 1995; PARKER, 2009), New Zealand (e.g., HAYWARD is intended. Information is also given on the ecological distribution
et al., 1999, 2010), Sahul shelf and Timor sea (LOEBLICH & TAPPAN, of the species, but it must be considered as merely indicative since
1994), Papua New Guinea (HAIG, 1988), South China sea (SZARECK, it is based on a very heterogeneous set of data: for example, the
2001), East China (ZHENG, 1979, 1988), Japan (e.g., UJIIÉ, 1990; distribution of shallow larger species have been investigated
HATTA & UJIIÉ, 1992a, b). They are also figured in other studies, for over 800 samples, deeper species have been collected in about
example, from Solomon Islands (HUGHES, 1977), French Polynesia 10 samples. After the name of each species, is given the page
(LE CALVEZ & SALVAT, 1980, VENEC-PEYRÉ & SALVAT, 1981; BICCHI et al., number where the systematics of the species can be found. It has
2002), the Maldives (PARKER & GISCHLER, 2011). Some species had been separated from the description in order to lighten the
been reported from remote areas, such as the spectacular presentation for non-specialists. Supra specific descriptions (e.g.,
Quinqueloculina erinacea Mikhalevich, reported from the genera, families) are not given in this guide since they can be
tropical Atlantic (MIKHALEVICH, 1983; thanks are due to V.I. found in LOEBLICH & TAPPAN (1988) or on the site of the geological
Mikhalevich for checking this species), or Rotaliammina survey of Iran: http://www.gsi.ir/Product/Lang_en/Page_48
48 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

At the end of the Taxonomy section, the taxonomic list mostly the milioline arrangement of the porcelaneous species makes the
follows the suprageneric classification of LOEBLICH & TAPPAN (1992). distinction easy, except two particular cases: 1) Nubeculina
Agglutinated foraminifera, however are classified following advena, a porcelaneous species can be difficult to distinguish from
KAMINSKI (2004), except for the subfamilies Carterininae and some rectilinear agglutinated tests such as Reophax if its porce-
Zaninettinae, both considered as families and grouped in the laneous neck is not well developed (fig. 50); 2) Miliammina spp.
order Carterinida. Generic assignments are mostly based on the have a milioline arrangement, as Quinqueloculina spp., and
concepts of LOEBLICH & TAPPAN (1988), taking into account some may be confused with the species of Quinqueloculina that bear
specialized works such as PATTERSON & RICHARDSON (1987) for agglutinated material, particularly in SEM pictures (fig. 51). The
unilocular forms, NOMURA (1983) for Cassidulinidae, HAYWARD distinction can be done by the agglutinated tooth of Miliammina,
et al. (1997) for Elphidiidae, REVETS (e.g., 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996) and the brownish color of its cement when the observation is
for various groups, and following PARKER (2009) in including done under a dissecting microscope.
Affinetrina, Agglutinella, Cycloforina, Lachlanella, Praemassilina,
Siphonaperta, and Varidentella into Quinqueloculina. The
thorough discussions provided by this author about the taxonomic
attribution of most of his 404 species were also very useful. The
list of synonymies is provided with up to four references for each
species (except a few species that needed a little more), including
reference to the original type description, and publications that
have illustrated the species.

How to use the guide?

First, the nature of the test must be determined. The characteristics


of each type of test are described above (fig. 15), but observations
must be careful since nature is never as simple as we would like
it to be: hyaline tests that are generally transparent and shiny
when the foraminifera is living, may become milky-white and
nearly opaque after death. On the other hand, porcelaneous tests,
usually milky-white and opaque may be thin and translucent,
particularly in paralic low-pH environments. Consequently, it is
1 2
sometimes difficult to make the difference between hyaline and
porcelaneous tests (fig. 49).
Agglutinated foraminifera with brownish organic cement are quite | Figure 50
easy to recognize, but agglutinated tests with calcareous cement may 1 Reophax, an agglutinated foraminifera;
2 Nubeculina, a porcelaneous foraminifera
be difficult to distinguish from porcelaneous tests that are covered with a coating of agglutinated grains.
with a surface layer of arenaceous material. Generally, however, Scale bar = 100 µm.

1 2 3 4

| Figure 49
1 Typical white and opaque porcelaneous test;
2 Translucent porcelaneous test;
3 Typical transparents and shiny hyaline test;
4 Whitish and translucent hyaline test. Scale bar = 100 µm.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 49

appearing so at first sight. The tests of some species have complex


or obscured architectures and cannot be placed in either of the
above groups. A specific section has been devoted to these species.
Comparing the studied species with the illustrations displayed in
the summary will allow a preliminary identification. The validity
of this identification will be confirmed or not by consulting the
description that can be reached through the alphabetical index of
taxa at genus and species level.
1 2
The scale bar on each photo (0.1 mm) helps in comparing the
species. Taking into account the size of the test is particularly
important when the morphology changes during the growth
(ontogeny). An example may be given by Nummulites venosus.
Adult tests of this species are almost involute with smooth surface
and sutures limbate, very slightly raised (fig. 52C) while young
specimens are more evolute, have a rough surface and sutures
strongly raised (fig. 52A).

What might be puzzling


to specialists and non-specialists?
| Figure 51
Foraminifera with a milioline arrangement
of chambers:
The classification used in this guide, based on the morphology as
1 Quinqueloculina, a porcelaneous foraminifera it appears at first sight, is believed to facilitate the determination of
with a coating of agglutinated grains; species for non-specialists, even if it may lead to some contradictions.
2 Miliammina, an agglutinated foraminifera.
Scale bar = 100 µm. For example, the species of Amphistegina, which are lenticular and
generally appear symmetrical, are classified as planispiral, while
they really are low trochospiral. Similarly, the symmetrical evenly
When the nature of the test has been recognized, a preliminary flattened sides of the species of Nonionoides give the impression
determination of the species can be made using the photographical that the coiling is planispiral while it is low trochospiral. Conversely,
summary. The summary is organized in sections: the first one for the test of Conicospirillinoides is planispirally enrolled, but the
agglutinated tests, the second one for the porcelaneous tests. The wall, extending on one face into a high spiraling band surrounding
very diversified hyaline species are presented in different sections a deep umbilical depression, results in a dissymmetrical test. It gives
based on the dominant morphological feature, and grouping the impression of a trochospiral coiling, justifying the placement
respectively unilocular, uniserial, biserial, triserial, trochospiral of this genus in the section “Hyaline species Trochospiral (or
and planispiral tests, or tests with different arrangement, but appearing so)”.

100 µm

| Figure 52
Growth of Nummulites venosus:
A juvenile; B dissected adult showing a younger stage corresponding to a previous whorl; C adult.
50 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

The following example shows that serious ambiguities still exist Photographical summary
in foraminiferal classification. The gamonts of some species of
the Rosalinidae (simple trochospiral tests) and Cymbaloporidae Agglutinated species
(a trochospiral stage followed by annular series of chambers)
develop a subhemispherical final float chamber and adopt a The 174 agglutinated species are presented on three pages
planktonic stage of life (fig. 13). The genus Tretomphalus (plates 1 to 3). They are arranged in order of increasing
was originally proposed by M OEBIUS (1880) for species that complexity of the tests. First are the unilocular tests: tubular
differed from “Discorbina” (forms with a simple trochospiral rectilinear, tubular coiled, flask-like and subspherical. The
test) only in possessing the float chamber. The type species was following plurilocular tests are successively:
T. bulloides = Rosalina bulloides d’Orbigny, 1839 (BANNER – uniserial throughout;
et al., 1985). – mostly uniserial but with a different initial portion either
biserial, triserial or spiral;
The inflated float chamber was such a conspicuous feature of
the test of Tretomphalus that subsequent identifications have – biserial throughout;
been mostly based upon it, including in this genus species of – mostly biserial but with a different initial portion either triserial
Rosalinidae as well as species of Cymbaloporidae. CUSHMAN or spiral;
(1934) recognized two groups of species, one with a trochospiral – triserial throughout;
coiling, very definitely connected with “Discorbis”, and the other – trochospirally coiled;
that would probably be described as Cymbaloporetta in the early
– planispirally coiled;
stages. Despite that, there is still much confusion about
Tretomphalus, all the more that LE CALVEZ (1977) illustrated – with a milioline arrangement;
Rosalina bulloides (= Tretomphalus bulloides) with specimens – trochospiral, but with a particular test made up of agglutinated
that were not topotypes, and that were Cymbaloporidae with a spicules.
balloon chamber instead of Rosalinidae. More recently, BANNER The last species have irregular attached tests, the morphology of
et al. (1985) grouped the species with a float chamber into which greatly depends on the substrate.
four taxa depending on the chamber arrangement of the coiled
portion, and on the structure of the float chamber. Two (two
subgenera) belonged to Rosalinidae: Rosalina (Tretomphalus) Porcelaneous species
and Neoconorbina (Tretomphaloides); and two (one genus and The 233 porcelaneous species are presented on five pages
one subgenus) belonged to Cymbaloporidae: Cymbaloporetta (plates 4 to 8). Owing to the complexity of this group, morpho-
and Cymbaloporetta (Millettiana). HANSEN and REVETS (1992) logical subgroups have been made. They are successively:
suggested that the float chamber is not a taxonomically valid
– spiral, surface smooth or slightly ornamented;
characteristic. They considered Tretomphaloides a junior
synonym of Neoconorbina and Tretomphalus a junior synonym – discoidal;
of Rosalina. PARKER (2009) suggested reinstating Tretomphalus – elongated, mostly rectilinear;
for Rosalina-Neoconorbina-like species that develop a float – planispiral, elongated along the axis of coiling;
chamber with Tretomphaloides as a junior synonym. He observed – planispiral, then uncoiled, striate;
that the apertural position in these species, inset slightly from the
– milioline, then spiral, a few chambers per whorl, later may be
periphery, is intermediate between Neoconorbina and Rosalina.
uncoiled, aperture simple;
This short summary about the status of Tretomphalus clearly
shows that only future studies that combine lifecycle studies with – milioline, then spiral, a few chambers per whorl, aperture mul-
morphological and molecular systematics can truly resolve this tiple, a trematophore;
issue. – milioline, then spiral, two chambers per whorl or more than
two chambers per whorl;
Actually, only the planktonic stage of Millettiana milletti
– planispiral evolute;
(Cymbaloporidae) is easily distinguished from other species
with a float chamber due to its vermicular overgrowths and – planispiral involute;
irregularly positioned pores. Its benthic stages have thickened, – triloculine;
limbate sutures on the spiral side and chambers are mushroom- – quinqueloculine, test smooth or moderately rough;
shaped on the umbilical side. Other species with a float chamber – quinqueloculine, test ornamented;
have been tentatively attributed to species of Neoconorbina
– quinqueloculine test striate / costulate;
(trochospiral hyaline forms) or Cymbaloporetta (other hyaline
forms) on the basis of only morphological characteristics of the – cryptoquinqueloculine;
coiled portion. – quinqueloculine, test agglutinated or distinctly rough;
– milioline with apertural flap;
This example, which is not unique in Foraminifera, shows that
a substantial improvement of nomenclatorial stability is still – milioline, more than 5 chambers visible;
necessary. – attached or irregular.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 51

Agglutinated species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 1
52 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Agglutinated species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 2
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 53

Agglutinated species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 3
54 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Porcelaneous species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 4
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 55

Porcelaneous species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 5
56 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Porcelaneous species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 6
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 57

Porcelaneous species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 7
58 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Porcelaneous species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 8
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 59

Hyaline unilocular species Hyaline triserial species


The 128 hyaline unilocular species are presented on two pages The 28 hyaline triserial species are presented on one page
(plates 9 and 10). They are arranged roughly in the following (plate 13). In all the species placed in this group, the triserial
order: arrangement is dominant and clearly observed, even if the last
– test compressed, flask-shaped, the aperture produced, rounded, chambers of some species are more loosely arranged, tending to
with or without a neck; become biserial, or even uniserial.
– test compressed, subcircular to ovate in side view; aperture
symmetrical, flush or slightly produced, with or without lips; Hyaline trochospiral species
– test compressed, subcircular to ovate in side view; aperture The 181 hyaline trochospiral species are presented on five pages
asymmetrical, flush or slightly produced, with or without lips; (plates 14 to 18). Typically trochospiral species have been tenta-
– test globular, circular in cross section, with a very short neck, tively grouped on the basis of the following criteria:
surface ornamented by longitudinal costae; – tests very transparent, shiny due to their composition made up
– test elongate circular in cross section, with a long cylindrical of a unique crystal of calcite; the whole test or at least its initial
neck, surface smooth or ornamented by longitudinal costae; stage made up by an undivided coiled tubular chamber that
– test compressed, subcircular to ovate in side view; aperture may be asymmetrically planispiral (e.g., Conicospirillinoides),
produced on a lipped neck; low trochospiral (e.g., Mychostomina), or high trochospiral
(e.g., Patellina);
– test elongate circular in cross section, with a long cylindrical
neck, paired costae separated by a deep depression subdivided by – tests with the umbilical face ornamented with radial rows of
bridges into oval segments; granules (e.g. Pileolina, Glabratella);

– test globular circular in cross section, with a very short neck, if – test low trochospiral with flattened umbilical face (e.g. Ammonia,
at all, surface ornamented by a reticular pattern of costae; Neoconorbina);
– spiral side partially involute (e.g., Pseudononion);
– test globular, the apertural end somewhat truncated.
– surface of the test with depressed, thinner areas (e.g.
The last species are plurilocular, but generally appear as if they
Mississippina);
were unilocular and for this reason have been grouped with
unilocular species. – chambers increasing rapidly in size as added in a flaring
trochospiral coil (e.g., Cancris);
– spiral side flattened and umbilical side convex (e.g., Planulina,
Hyaline uniserial species Cibicides);
The 50 hyaline uniserial species are presented on one page – test biconvex (e.g. Hoeglundina);
(plate 11). Most of the species are typically uniserial, elongated, – aperture surrounded by radiating groves (e.g. Heronallenia);
rectilinear or slightly curved. However, are also included in this
– test high trochospiral (e.g. Elongobula);
group some tests with particular characteristics:
– surface strongly ornamented, the ornamentation obscuring the
– chambers strongly overlapping, the last chamber occupying
sutures and even the chambers (e.g. Calcarina);
most of the test surface;
– chambers distinct, strongly hispid and may be spinose (e.g.,
– test compressed with chambers increasing rapidly in width
Murrayinella);
giving the test a flabelliform shape;
– test with a subspherical balloon chamber.
– initial portion with a different arrangement, mostly planispiral.
Unfortunately, due to the complexity of this group, this grouping
is only tentative and does not include all the species. A careful
Hyaline biserial species observation will be necessary.

The 53 hyaline biserial species are presented on one page


(plate 12). Most of the species placed in this group are obviously Hyaline planispiral species
biserial, with typically the two series of chambers. The 111 hyaline planispiral species are presented on two pages
The non-typical species have: (plates 19 and 20). They can be grouped on the basis of the
– a test biserially arranged, but simultaneously twisted (e.g., following criteria:
Fursenkoina); – test composed of a proloculus followed by a unique tubular,
– an early portion typically biserial, but later chambers planispirally arranged chamber;
becoming cuneate and tending to be uniserial (e.g., Sagrinella, – test compressed, involute, chambers increasing slowly in size as
Siphouvigerina); added, sutural bridges over the sutures;
– a very low trochospiral test that appears as if it was biserially – test compressed, involute, chambers increasing slowly in size as
arranged (Krebsina). added;
60 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyaline unilocular species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 9
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 61

Hyaline unilocular species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 10
62 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyaline uniserial species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 11
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 63

Hyaline biserial species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 12
64 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyaline triserial species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 13
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 65

Hyaline trochospiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 14
66 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyaline trochospiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 15
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 67

Hyaline trochospiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 16
68 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyaline trochospiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 17
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 69

| Plate 18
Hyaline trochospiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.

– test compressed, involute, chambers increasing rapidly in size Other hyaline species
as added in a flaring coil;
The 85 hyaline species that could not be included within the
– test much compressed, flattened, evolute, at least in the later preceding groups are presented on two pages (plates 21 and 22).
portion; They include:
– test compressed, involute, lenticular, aperture terminal, radi-
– test biserially arranged and spirally enrolled (e.g.,
ate, with a larger slit on the apertural face;
Globocassidulina);
– test lenticular, very low trochospiral, appearing as if it was
– test biserially arranged, coiled in the early portion, later uncoiled
planispiral (Amphistegina);
biserial (e.g., Ehrenbergina);
– test planispiral in the early portion, tending to uncoil, becom-
– test with uniserial or biserial arrangements, but twisted or
ing uniserial in the later portion.
distorted, which make the arrangement difficult to be identified;
– test composed of multiple chamberlets variously arranged into
discoidal, spherical, branching or irregular tests.
70 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyaline planispiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 19
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 71

Hyaline planispiral species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 20
72 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Other hyaline species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.


| Plate 21
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 73

| Plate 22
Other hyaline species. Scale bar = 0.1 mm.
74 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Description Alveolophragmium Ammobaculites crassaformis


of agglutinated Alveolophragmium zealandicum Test elongate, early coiled portion slight-
species Test spheroidal, planispiral involute with ly compressed, diameter wider than recti-
slightly depressed umbilical areas; linear portion; chamber not distinctly
All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM) marked, rectilinear ones of about equal
around 6 chambers in the last whorl;
wall coarsely agglutinated, surface size, usually slightly longer than wide;
Acupeina rough; aperture an elongate slit at the sutures of the coiled section not distinct,
Acupeina triperforata base of the last formed chamber with a those of the rectilinear portion slightly
Test elongate, large, early stage coiled, thin lip. depressed; wall made up of coarse sand
chambers enlarging gradually as added, grains, surface rough; aperture terminal,
Northern shelf, 500 m.
later stage uncoiled and rectilinear, central, of irregular shape.
Systematics p. 260.
sutures radial, curved and depressed in Northern shelf, 500 m.
the early stage, nearly straight in the Systematics p. 256.
adult; wall finely agglutinated; aperture
single and interiomarginal in the
enrolled stage, becoming terminal and
multiple in the uncoiled stage, with often
three rounded openings.
Mangrove swamps.
Systematics p. 257.

Ammobaculites
Ammobaculites agglutinans
Test elongate, early planispiral portion
relatively small, compressed, excavated at
the umbilici, with rounded periphery;
linear portion cylindrical, slightly
increasing in size toward the distal end,
up to 6-7 chambers; wall made up of
coarse sand grains, surface rough; aper-
ture terminal, central, simple.
Bays, coastal lagoons.
Systematics p. 256. Ammobaculites exiguus
Aggerostramen Test small, elongate, early portion close
Aggerostramen rustica coiled, later rectilinear, rounded in sec-
Only isolated chambers of this multilocu- tion; wall coarsely agglutinated; aperture
lar test have been collected. Chambers terminal, rounded.
polyhedral, more or less angular, con- Coastal lagoons, mangrove swamps,
structed almost entirely of sponge estuaries.
spicules neatly cemented together, with Systematics p. 256.
some long spicules that project beyond
the chamber itself; in the early stages,
chambers attached to the substrate in
uniserial series, later chambers some-
what irregular in arrangement, intercon-
nected by tubular stolons; aperture a
simple opening, or at the end of stolon-
like necks.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 253.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 75

Ammobaculites Ammobaculites villosus Ammodiscus pacificus


reophaciformis Test elongate; early coiled part larger in Very large test, often more than 2 mm in
Test elongate, early portion a small, diameter than the later uniserial part; diameter; globular proloculus followed
indistinct coiled stage, later and by far the uniserial part with a constant diameter by planispirally enrolled, undivided
larger part uncoiled, linear, circular in throughout; chambers indistinct, except tubular second chamber, later coils
transverse section, and progressively the last ones, which are slightly inflated; covering about two fifths of the previous
increasing in size; chambers fairly distinct; wall coarsely agglutinated, the aggluti- ones; tubular chamber not compressed,
sutures slightly depressed; wall composed nated grains including sponge spicules; increasing slightly in diameter as growing;
of angular fragments, smoothly finished; aperture terminal somewhat obscured by wall agglutinated smoothly finished, with
aperture circular, terminal, simple, occa- the agglutinated grains. a great amount of reddish-brown cement;
sionally on a slight neck. Northern shelf, 600 m. aperture semicircular at the open end of
Southwestern lagoon, strong currents, Systematics p. 256. the tubular chamber.
40 m. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 256. Systematics p. 253.

Ammolagena
Ammobaculites Ammolagena clavata
cf. A. subcatenulatus Ammodiscus Test commonly attached to shell fragments,
Test small with an elongate cylindrical Ammodiscus gullmarensis up to 1 mm in length, large ovoid pro-
rectilinear stage of constant diameter, loculus followed by a narrower tubular
positioned symmetrically above the coiled Test free, small, consisting of several chamber, generally rectilinear at it first
initial stage; coil somewhat compressed, slightly overlapping whorls; sutures dis- stage; wall finely agglutinated, smoothly
slightly larger in diameter than the recti- tinct; test flattened, slightly biconcave, finished, reddish-brown in color; aperture
linear stage; wall coarsely arenaceous, tending to irregular coiling in last terminal, rounded.
mostly composed of fragments of sponge whorls; periphery rounded; wall aggluti-
nated with fairly large amount of cement; Northern shelf, 600 m.
spicules, inflated and circular in cross Systematics p. 253.
section; chambers indistinct, sutures aperture semicircular at the open end of
obscured by the coarse agglutinate; the tubular chamber.
aperture terminal, in the middle of the Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
apertural face. This species resembles Systematics p. 253.
Ammobaculites cf. A. subcatenulatus,
but differs in the less distinct chambers
and the agglutinated sponge spicules.
Coastal bays.
Systematics p. 256.
76 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Ammomarginulina Ammosphaeroidina Ammotium salsum


Ammomarginulina ensis Ammosphaeroidina Test free, compressed, ovate in outline,
Test much compressed, enrolled and sphaeroidiniformis planispirally enrolled and evolute in the
planispiral in early stage, later uncoiled Test free composed of a spiral earlier early stage, with a tendency to uncoil;
with oblique sutures; wall coarsely arena- portion, the later portion of the adult sutures strongly oblique, later chambers
ceous, surface rough; aperture terminal, made-up of usually three large globose extending back toward the proloculus at the
produced on a neck. chambers, a large one on one side and inner margin; wall coarsely agglutinated;
two smaller ones on the other side; wall aperture simple, rounded, terminal, at
Northern shelf, 600 m.
rather coarsely agglutinated; aperture at the dorsal angle of the final chamber.
Systematics p. 256.
the inner side of the last formed chamber. Coastal lagoons, estuaries, mangrove
Northern shelf, 600 m. swamps.
Systematics p. 257. Systematics p. 256.

Ammotium
Ammotium fragile
Test small, compressed, planispirally
Ammoscalaria enrolled and evolute in the early stage,
Ammoscalaria compressa later uncoiled, rectilinear; sutures distinct,
Test elongate, much compressed; periphery curved back toward the proloculus at the Arenoparrella
subacute; chambers indistinct, increasing inner margin, becoming chevron-like in Arenoparrella mexicana
rapidly in size as added, later becoming the later chambers; wall thin, fragile finely
broad and chevron-shaped; wall coarsely agglutinated; aperture ovate, terminal, at Test free, in a low trochospiral coil,
agglutinated, surface rough; aperture the dorsal angle of the final chamber. chambers increasing gradually in size,
narrow, terminal, elongate, produced. sutures radial, periphery rounded; wall
Coastal lagoons, mangrove swamps. finely agglutinated, surface smooth and
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 256. polished; primary aperture a straight to
Systematics p. 256. curved slit surrounded by a thin and
delicate lip, beginning near the base of
the apertural face and directed upward
across the median plane with an angle to
the plane of coiling, supplementary
openings present at the apex of the final
chamber.
Mangrove swamps, marshes.
Systematics p. 259.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 77

Armorella Bolivinopsis Carterina


Armorella sphaerica Bolivinopsis elongata Carterina spiculotesta
Test free, unilocular, approximately Test very long; early planispiral portion Tests trochospiral throughout with
spherical, furnished with a variable small and compressed, composed of 7- chambers increasing rapidly in size; the
number of extended tubes of different 8 chambers; biserial rectilinear portion last whorl comprises only 2-3 chambers;
length, with an aperture at the end of very long with numerous chambers, deep umbilicus that may be filled up with
each tube, but frequently does not possess increasing gradually in width and in a spicular mass that may extend into a
characteristic appendages, broken tube thickness, thickest along the median line peripheral flange; the first (about 10)
leaving little trace; wall firm, but thin, and thinning toward the margin that is chambers are brownish in color, the other
constructed of fine sand, generally subacute; sutures oblique, slightly ones been yellowish or white; wall made
smooth owing to its homogeneous con- depressed; wall finely arenaceous, of spicules that are elongated, fusiform,
struction, but incorporated sand grains polished; aperture an arch at the base of somewhat parallel to the periphery on the
may be larger than the thickness of the the last-formed chamber. spiral side and radial on the umbilical
wall, projecting and giving a rough Northern shelf, 600 m. side.
appearance to the test. Systematics p. 257. Coral-reef lagoon and outer reef 10-100 m,
Northern shelf, 600 m. crawling under coral rubble or algae,
Systematics p. 252. protected from sunlight.
Systematics p. 282.

Caronia
Caronia exilis
Short triserial initial stage with minute
subglobular chambers; later biserial with
about 6 pairs of appressed globular Clavulina
Bigenerina chambers separated by depressed sub- Clavulina difformis
Bigenerina nodosaria horizontal sutures; test rather coarsely Test elongate with a short triangular tris-
Test elongate, the early portion composed agglutinated; aperture a symmetrical erial stage; the later uniserial stage polyg-
of a biserial group of chambers, consider- interiomarginal elongate arch at the base onal to rectangular in cross section;
ably flattened, increasing progressively in of the last chamber. chamber walls slightly concave, extend-
size; later portion composed of an unise- Coastal lagoons, mangrove swamps, ing back along the angles of the test,
rial series of chambers, circular in cross estuaries. resulting in a lobate outline; sutures dis-
section, usually less in width than the Systematics p. 259. tinct, depressed; wall roughly textured;
biserial portion; wall usually coarsely aperture terminal, centered, with a single
arenaceous; aperture terminal, small, valvular tooth.
rounded. Coral-reef lagoon, mostly near coral
Northern shelf, 200 m. reefs.
Systematics p. 263. Systematics p. 262.
78 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Clavulina multicamerata Clavulina subangularis Cribrostomoides


Test elongated with an initial trihedral Test elongated with an initial portion Cribrostomoides jeffreysii
section with sharp periphery, later triserial becoming uniserial; test triangular Test free, discoid, planispirally enrolled,
becoming cylindrical; early portion trise- in cross section, the angles carinate; sides and partially evolute; wall thick, coarsely
rially arranged; the rectilinear stage is slightly concave; sutures weakly distinct; agglutinated, and firmly cemented; aper-
circular in cross section, with chambers chambers strongly curved backwards at ture an oval to slitlike areal opening
uniform in size and separated by distinct, each corner; wall rather coarsely arena- slightly above the base of the apertural
depressed sutures; wall coarsely arena- ceous, smoothly finished; apertural face face, bordered by a well-developed lip.
ceous; aperture rounded with a tooth on convex; aperture central, rounded with a
Rare, but widely distributed in areas opened
the last formed chamber. simple toothplate.
to the sea.
Coral-reef lagoon, Bay of Prony, 10-30 m, Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 257.
rare. Systematics p. 262.
Systematics p. 262.

Cribrostomoides
spiculotestus
Test free, compressed, planispiral, not
completely involute; umbilical region
Connemarella depressed, periphery rounded, broadly
Connemarella rudis lobulate; chambers slightly inflated,
Test conical, with early triserial arrange- increasing gradually in size as added;
ment followed by broad and low biserial sutures distinct, slightly depressed and
chambers that increase rapidly in slightly curved; wall thin, composed of
breadth and height in the early portion, fine sand grains and sponge spicules of
less rapidly later; apertural face flattened, various sizes, surface neatly finished;
Clavulina pacifica circular; sutures horizontal obscured by aperture crescentic, areal, slightly above
the agglutinate material; wall coarsely the base of the apertural face, bordered by
Test elongated with an initial portion a well-developed lip.
triserial becoming uniserial at about one agglutinated with calcareous cement;
third from the pointed apical end; test aperture a broad low arch, in a reentrant Outer coral reef, 100 m.
triangular in cross section; chambers at the base of the apertural face. Systematics p. 257.
slightly inflated and strongly curved Northern shelf, 600 m.
backwards at each corner; sutures distinct Systematics p. 262.
in the triserial portion, depressed in the
uniserial part; wall finely arenaceous;
apertural face slightly convex; aperture
central, rounded with a simple toothplate.
Coral-reef lagoon, mostly near coral reefs.
Systematics p. 262.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 79

Cribrostomoides Cyclammina trullissata Diffusilina


subglobosus Test nautiloid, biconvex, flat centrally, Diffusilina humilis
Test subglobose, initially streptospirally planispiral, involute, distinctly depressed Test attached, irregular in outline, up to
coiled, later planispiral involute; umbilical in the umbilicus; peripheral margin 3 mm or more in diameter, flattened;
area usually depressed; 5-7 broad chambers; more or less rounded; 9-11 chambers in wall agglutinated, including sponge
periphery moderately lobulate; sutures the last whorl, separated by slightly spicules, smoothly finished; upper surface
radial; aperture an elongated slit at the depressed, straight to slightly sigmoidal with a few scattered pustules constructed
base of the apertural face sutures; wall arenaceous, very smoothly of sand and mud particles similar to the
Northern shelf, 700 m. finished, polished, except the apertural rest of the wall but lacking cement, so
Systematics p. 257. face; color brown; aperture crescentic, at that the interstitial pores could serve as
the base of the last-formed chamber. an aperture.
Northern shelf, 700 m. Widely distributed, 0-100 m.
Systematics p. 260. Systematics p. 251.

Cyclammina
Cyclammina subtrullissata
Test nautiloid, compressed, planispiral,
involute, slightly depressed in the umbili-
cus; peripheral margin more or less Cylindroclavulina
rounded; 6-9 chambers in the last whorl, Cylindroclavulina bradyi
separated by slightly depressed, somewhat Test stout, cylindrical, the early triserial
sinuate sutures; wall arenaceous with portion not well shown exteriorly, the
heterometric grains, surface smoothly later uniserial section large, with distinct Discammina
finished, colour brown; aperture crescentic, depressed sutures; wall composed of hetero- Discammina compressa
at the base of the last-formed chamber. metric sand grains, usually with a smooth Test planispiral, compressed, lenticular,
Northern shelf, 600 m. exterior; aperture at the end of a short somewhat involute, depressed in the
Systematics p. 260. neck, usually 3 or 4 radiate slits. umbilicus; peripheral margin acute or
Bay of Prony 10-30 m. somewhat rounded; chambers and sutures
Systematics p. 263. not distinct; wall coarsely agglutinated,
surface rough, color brown; aperture
crescentic, at the base of the last-formed
chamber.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 256.
80 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Dorothia Dorothia sp. 1 Eggerella


Dorothia pseudoturris Test free, elongate, early stage trochospiral Eggerella australis
Test elongate, tapering, circular in end enrolled, then reduced to biserial and The test is small, conical and with early
view; apex bluntly pointed, apertural end rounded in section; biserial portion chambers obscure, trochospirally arranged,
concave; early stage trochospiral enrolled, slightly arched, with numerous distinct then becoming triserial, inflated; wall
then reduced to biserial; chambers chambers; sutures depressed; wall rather coarsely arenaceous; aperture at
numerous, slightly inflated increasing agglutinated, solid; aperture an arch at the inner margin of the apertural face.
very slowly in size so that test has nearly the inner margin of the final chamber.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
parallel sides; sutures indistinct, very Northern shelf, 200 m. Systematics p. 261.
slightly depressed; wall coarsely aggluti- Systematics p. 261.
nated, rough; aperture a rather small
arch, in the center of the inner margin of
the last formed chamber.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 261.

Dorothia rotunda Duquepsammia Eggerella bradyi


Test short, stout and subrotund; earlier Duquepsammia bulbosa Test pyramidal, rounded in transverse
triserial chambers globose, quickly fol- Test compressed, the early portion coiled, section, trochospiral then triserial;
lowed by biserial subglobose chambers, involute, nearly circular, the later portion chambers distinct, inflated, subsphaerical,
slightly compressed laterally; wall arena- narrower, biserial, rectilinear; wall increasing regularly in size as added;
ceous, mostly rounded grains; aperture a smoothly finished; aperture at the base of sutures distinct, depressed; wall very finely
crescentic slit in a slight depression of the the last-formed chamber tending to arenaceous, smooth, light gray in color;
apertural face. become terminal. aperture an elongated slit at the inner
Northern shelf, 300 m. margin of the last formed chamber,
Northern shelf, 700 m.
Systematics p. 261. occasionally with a thickened lip.
Systematics p. 258.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 261.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 81

Eggerella pusilla Gaudryina collinsi Gaudryina quadrangularis


Test elongate, slightly tapering, rounded Test elongate; large triserial early stage, Test elongate, tapering abruptly at the initial
in transverse section, sides nearly parallel with almost triangular shape in transverse end; early stage triserial and triangular in
for most of their length; arrangement section and bluntly rounded angles; section with acute angles and sutures
trochospiral in the earliest stage, soon sutures indistinct; biserial portion of obscure, later becoming biserial and
becoming triserial; chambers distinct, nearly uniform width throughout, quadrangular in cross-section; apertural
slightly inflated, increasing very slightly rounded or broadly oval in section end of the test abruptly truncated; wall
in size as added in the adult; sutures composed of 4-5 pairs of the same size; agglutinated, solid, more or less smoothly
distinct, depressed, sometimes filled and chambers, with distinct, slightly finished; aperture an elongate orifice at
obscured; wall finely arenaceous; aperture depressed sutures; wall coarsely arena- the inner margin of the final chamber
arched, at the inner margin of the last ceous, roughly finished; aperture high, with in end view a sort of rounded lip
formed chamber. narrow, in a deep re-entrant of the inner above and a depression on either side.
Coastal bays. margin of the last chamber. Deeper parts of the coral-reef lagoon and
Systematics p. 261. Northern shelf, 600 m. outer reef, 30-100 m.
Systematics p. 260. Systematics p. 260.

Gaudryina Gaudryina convexa Gaudryina robusta


Gaudryina attenuata Test triangular in outline, broad at the Test large, stout, early portion sharply
Test elongate, somewhat sinuate or twisted, apertural end and rapidly tapering to the triangular, triserial, sides somewhat
commencing with a sharply triangular initial end, one face nearly flat, the other concave; later chambers biserial, rounded;
series of chambers arranged triserially, strongly convex and with deeper sutures; wall made up of fine sand grains; surface
followed by an irregular biserial arrange- apertural end obliquely truncate; wall somewhat rugose; sutures slightly
ment and finally by two or three pairs rather coarsely arenaceous; aperture depressed; aperture a low slit at the base
of subglobular chambers; wall roughly elongate, at the base of the last chamber of the last chamber, in a deep re-entrant.
finished; aperture a low opening at the in a distinct depression. Northern shelf, 600 m.
base of the last-formed chamber. Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 260.
Outer reef, 100 m. Systematics p. 260.
Systematics p. 260.
82 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Gaudryina tenuis Gaudryina sp. 2 Glomospira gordialis


Test elongate, composed of numerous Test elongate, tapering abruptly at the Proloculus followed by undivided tubular
chambers; early portion triserial, trian- initial end; early stage triserial and trian- second chamber that is streptospirally
gular in cross section, with sharp angles; gular in section with keeled angles and coiled to somewhat irregularly planispiral;
biserial chambers numerous, nearly as sutures obscure; later becoming biserial, wall finely agglutinated; aperture at the
high as broad, in later development each one keel dividing so that a quadrangular open end of the tube.
chamber running nearly to the opposite cross section with acute angles results; Coastal lagoons, estuaries.
side of the test; wall roughly finished; apertural end of the test abruptly truncat- Systematics p. 254.
aperture at first a slit at the base of the ed; wall agglutinated, solid, smoothly fin-
last formed chamber, becoming more ished; aperture an elongate orifice at the
nearly circular in the chambers reaching inner margin of the final chamber with a
the opposite side. narrow lip.
Northern shelf, 600 m. This species resembles G. austinana
Systematics p. 260. Cushman, from the cretaceous.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 260.

Haddonia
Haddonia torresiensis
Test large, attached, early stage coiled,
later uncoiled, uniserial, irregular, but
complete specimens are missing; chambers
broad and low, irregular in size and
shape, at least twice as wide as high; wall
coarsely agglutinated, with considerable
cement, wall pierced by numerous large
pores aligned perpendicular to the surface;
aperture terminal, areal, an irregular slit.
Southwestern lagoon, outer reef, 50-100 m.
Glomospira Systematics p. 261.
Glomospira fijiensis
Gaudryina sp. 1 Proloculus followed by an undivided
Test elongate, conical, early stage triserial tubular chamber that is irregularly strep-
and subtriangular in section, later tospirally coiled; wall finely agglutinated;
becoming biserial and rounded in section; aperture at the open end of the tube.
chambers increasing regularly in size as Sometimes referred to G. glomerata, but
added, giving a very regular conical differs from this species in lacking the
shape to the test; wall agglutinated, meandering enrolment of the tube.
roughly finished; aperture an arch at the Coastal lagoons, mangrove swamps.
inner margin of the final chamber, Systematics p. 254.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 260.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 83

Haplophragmoides Haplophragmoides wilberti Hormosinella


Haplophragmoides canariensis Test planispirally enrolled, involute, Hormosinella distans
Test planispiral and partially involute, biumbilicate, sides somewhat flattened, Test elongate; chambers distinct, fusiform,
laterally compressed; peripheral edge chambers inflated and margin weakly tapering at the two ends into long and
rounded and slightly lobulate; chambers lobulate; wall thin, finely agglutinated, slender stolonlike tubes; aperture terminal.
slightly inflated and with rounded smoothly finished; aperture an elongate
Because of the elongate slender tubes
periphery, 5-9 in the last whorl; sutures equatorial slit at the base of the apertural
between adjacent chambers, the tests are
distinct in the early stage later becoming face.
delicate and only isolated chambers were
depressed; umbilical area depressed; wall Coastal lagoons, mangrove swamps, found.
finely arenaceous, usually thin and marshes.
Northern shelf, 700 m.
smoothly finished; aperture arched, situated Systematics p. 256.
Systematics p. 254.
at the inner margin of the last chamber,
surrounded by a projecting border. The
relatively large aperture observed in the
specimens from New Caledonia corresponds
to the initial description by d’Orbigny.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 255.

Hemisphaerammina
Hemisphaerammina bradyi
Test attached, a single hemispherical
chamber; wall agglutinated, smooth due
to considerable cement; no apparent Hyperammina
aperture, communication with the exterior
probably occurs through interstitial Hyperammina friabilis
pores. Test elongate, subcylindrical, straight,
Haplophragmoides pusillus often tapering toward the apertural end;
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
Test small, planispirally enrolled, involute Systematics p. 252. rather large globular proloculus followed
becoming slightly evolute, compressed by an elongate, sub-cylindrical second
and biumbilicate, chambers inflated and chamber, slightly less in diameter than
margin distinctly lobulate; wall thin, the proloculus; wall thick, loosely
with moderately coarse agglutinate, exte- cemented, composed of sand grains with
rior slightly rough; aperture an elongate a varying amount of sponge spicules;
low equatorial slit at the base of the aperture rounded, at the end of the
apertural face, with a slight lip. chamber.
Coastal bays, shallow coastal areas. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 256. Systematics p. 253.
84 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyperammina Jadammina Karreriella sp. 1


novaezealandiae Jadammina macrescens Test elongate, stout, early stage trochospiral
Test elongate, cylindrical, unbranched, Test free, a flattened trochospiral coiling enrolled, with up to five chambers per
internally undivided; wall agglutinated that tends to be nearly planispiral in the whorl, then reduced to triserial and later
formed of cemented sponge spicules adult, chambers increasing gradually in biserial, increasing very slowly in size so
longitudinally arranged on the outer size as added, sutures radial to slightly that test has nearly parallel sides, circular
surface; aperture at the end of the tube. curved, periphery rounded; wall finely in section; wall finely agglutinated and
Northern shelf, 250 m. and sparsely agglutinated on a proteina- canaliculate; aperture slightly above the
Systematics p. 253. ceous base; primary aperture a low interi- base of the apertural face, surrounded by
omarginal equatorial slit, with one or a distinct lip.
more supplementary areal openings in Northern shelf, 600 m.
the lower portion of the apertural face, Systematics p. 261.
each bordered by projecting lip.
High marshes.
Systematics p. 259.
Hyperammina
spiculifera
Test elongate, basal end clavate, cylindrical
portion slightly and gradually tapering to
the apertural end; lines of growth distinct,
slightly depressed; wall consisting of
broken sponge spicules; external surface
rough; aperture terminal rounded.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 253.

Karreriella Lagenammina
Karreriella bradyi Lagenammina arenulata
Test stout, somewhat elongate, tapering Test free consisting of a single oval, flask-
very slightly until near the initial end shaped chamber; wall coarsely arenaceous,
where it tapers abruptly to the somewhat formed of closely agglutinated sand
blunt end; triserial portion nearly circular grains of variable size and roughness;
in cross section, of few chambers; the aperture a terminal, rounded, projecting
later biserial portion making up about opening, without a distinct neck.
three fourths of the test, slightly com- Outer coral reef, 100 m.
pressed; chambers overlapping, broadly Systematics p. 252.
elliptical in cross section, inflated;
sutures depressed; wall finely arenaceous,
smooth; aperture oval, slightly back from
the inner margin of the last chamber,
with a border raised somewhat and
thickened, supplementary apertures
present on the apertural face.
Jaculella Northern shelf, 600 m.
Jaculella obtusa Systematics p. 261.
Test elongate, tubular, proximal end
closed, obtusely rounded, distal end
slightly broader; wall thick, agglutinated,
with firmly cemented grains, surface
rough; aperture at the open end of the
tube.
Northern shelf, 700 m.
Systematics p. 253.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 85

Lagenammina Latentoverneuilina Marsipella


cf. L. bulbosa Latentoverneuilina Marsipella cylindrica
Test free consisting of a single oval indiscreta Test tubular, slender of nearly uniform
chamber; wall coarsely agglutinated, Test triserial throughout, but becoming diameter; wall composed almost entirely
formed of big fragments of shells; aper- more loosely triserial with growth, until of sponge spicules, usually in fragments,
ture terminal, rounded, on a slender the final chamber appears uniserial, laid side by side lengthwise of the test and
neck. This species resembles L. bulbosa triangular in section but with distinctly strongly cemented; apertures at the end of
as shown by HAYWARD et al. (2010), but rounded angles, septa somewhat obscure the tube.
lives in shallower waters. externally; wall very thick, agglutinate of Outer reef, 100 m.
Outer coral reef, 100 m. varied sized particles, with a smoothly Systematics p. 251.
Systematics p. 252. finished and polished surface; aperture in
the adult terminal, rounded, simple and
slightly produced on a thick-walled
apertural neck.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 260.

Martinottiella
Martinottiella bradyana
Test elongate, cylindrical, not tapering;
early trochospiral coil with four to five
chambers per whorl, later reduced to
triserial, biserial, and an elongate final
uniserial stage with chambers numerous,
fairly distinct, increasing somewhat in
height as added; sutures distinct, but very
slightly depressed; wall arenaceous,
Lagenammina spiculata slightly roughened; apertural face convex,
Test unilocular, rounded or oval; wall aperture terminal, central, rounded,
agglutinated, mostly composed of sponge produced on a distinct neck.
spicules, including projecting spicules; Northern shelf, 600 m.
aperture somewhat produced. Lituotuba Systematics p. 261.
Northern shelf, 700 m. Lituotuba lituiformis
Systematics p. 252.
Test free, early portion with irregular to
planispirally coiled tubular chamber,
finally becoming uncoiled and irregularly
rectilinear; wall finely agglutinated
with a yellowish-brown cement, surface
smoothly finished; aperture rounded at
the open end of the tubular chamber.
Southeastern coast of the Grande Terre
30 m.
Systematics p. 255.
86 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Martinottiella sp. 1 Miliammina obliqua Nouria


Test elongate, cylindrical; early trochos- Ovate quinqueloculine test with early Nouria armata
piral coil with four to five chambers per chambers lying oblique to the central Test highly compressed, 3 to 5 chambers
whorl, later reduced to triserial, biserial, axis; sutures depressed and distinct, visible, rapidly increasing in size and
and an elongate final uniserial stage with periphery rounded; wall thin made up arranged biserially; sutures nearly flush
chambers numerous; sutures indistinct; of well-cemented fine grains; aperture and obscure; wall consisting of coarse
wall finely arenaceous; apertural face terminal and crescentiform. and irregular fragments neatly cemented
convex, aperture terminal, a large arcuate Estuaries, marshes, coastal lagoons. together; smooth surface; marginal edges
slit with a prominent lip, but without a Systematics p. 254. acute and usually smooth with sponge
distinct neck. spicules built into the test and projecting
Northern shelf, 500 m. at the periphery, directed backward from
Systematics p. 261. the aperture; aperture a terminal slit,
sometimes with a slightly raised border.
Deep coastal bays, and southwestern
lagoon.
Systematics p. 258.

Monotalea
Monotalea salsa
Early stage biserial, later uniserial and
rectilinear; uniserial cylindrical chambers
radially-symmetrical in cross section,
separated by horizontal sutures; uniserial
stage increasing only little in size in course
of growth; wall finely agglutinated, thin; Nouria harrisi
aperture terminal, large, rounded.
Test fusiform, circular to sub-circular in
Mangrove swamps, marshes. section; only two or three chambers visible,
Systematics p. 258. spirally arranged around the long axis of
Miliammina
the test, the ultimate chamber terminating
Miliammina fusca in a somewhat produced neck; sutures
Test with a quinqueloculine arrangement, slightly depressed, but well marked,
elongate and ovate in section, with a owing to the divergent angles at which
rough surface; wall composed of well- the spicules are arranged in adjacent
sorted agglutinated grains; aperture chambers; wall constructed entirely
terminal ovate with a small simple, of sponge spicules, arranged roughly
agglutinated tooth. parallel to the long axis of the test;
Low salinity estuaries and coastal lagoons. aperture terminal, rounded.
Systematics p. 254. Southeastern coast of the Grande Terre
and northern shelf, 60-600 m.
Systematics p. 258.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 87

Nouria polymorphinoides Pelosina Plotnikovina


Test elongate, oval in cross section, early Pelosina cylindrica Plotnikovina timorea
part spirally arranged around the long Test elongate, cylindrical, straight or Test elongate, broadest about half to two
axis of the test, later biserial with strongly slightly curved; diameter nearly uniform thirds the distance from the proloculus;
overlapping chamber sides; sutures flush from end to end, extremities rounded; early stage triserial, triangular in section,
but distinct; wall coarsely agglutinated, wall thick formed of fine grains and later biserially arranged; peripheral parts
but usually neatly cemented; aperture embedded shell fragments arranged of biserial chambers cut off from the main
terminal, ovate. perpendicular to the axis; interior surface chamber lumen, and commonly broken
Southwestern lagoon, near the barrier and quite smooth. Aperture simple, situated at to appear as supplementary openings;
patch reefs. the end of the test. sutures nearly horizontal; wall smoothly
Systematics p. 258. Northern shelf, 300 m. finished; aperture a low arch at the base
Systematics p. 251. of the final chamber.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 262.

juvenile

Paratrochammina
Paratrochammina
cf. P. simplissima
Test free, chambers in a trochospiral coil,
periphery rounded; generally 3 coils with
4-5 chambers in the last-formed coil;
sutures slightly depressed, oblique on the Plotnikovina transversaria
spiral side, radial on the umbilical side; Test elongate, with short early triserial
wall agglutinated, smoothly finished; Placopsilina and triangular stage and later biserial
aperture single, interiomarginal, umbilical- Placopsilina bradyi stage, with a rhomboid section, chambers
extraumbilical, extending across the broad and low, lateral extremities distinct-
Test attached, early stage planispirally
umbilicus over the margin of the penul- ly produced at the chamber angle, an
enrolled, later uncoiled, uniserial, in an
timate chamber, but often obscured by internal vertical partition then isolating
irregular course over the base of attach-
agglutinated material deposited in the a small distal chamberlet, the tip of the
ment; chambers distinct, regularly added,
umbilical depression. chamberlets commonly broken to leave a
inflated, rounded in section, increasing
Southwestern lagoon and outer reef, very little as added; wall coarsely aggluti- small opening at the surface; sutures
20-100 m. nated, but surface fairly smooth; aperture slightly depressed, straight, at a slight
Systematics p. 258. terminal, rounded. angle from the horizontal; wall finely
Coral-reef lagoon and outer reef, 30-90 m. agglutinated; aperture a low basal arch
Systematics p. 257. with a distinct lip.
Outer reef and deep parts of the lagoon,
30-100 m.
Systematics p. 262.
88 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Polystomammina Pseudobolivina Pseudoclavulina


Polystomammina lobatula Pseudobolivina brevis Pseudoclavulina serventyi
Test low trochospiral of 2-3 whorls; Test leaf-shaped, median portion thickest, Test elongate and composed by numerous
periphery rounded, lobulate; spiral side thinning towards the periphery that is chambers; initial trihedral portion small;
somewhat involute, umbilical region narrowly rounded; chamber not very uniserial part subcylindrical, slightly
depressed; chambers inflated, elongate, distinct, increasing rapidly in size as tapering, and consisting of numerous
increasing rapidly in size as added; added, the final pair making up more globular chambers; sutures horizontal,
umbilical ends of chambers flaplike; than half the length of the test; wall thick fairly distinct, depressed; wall coarsely
sutures distinct, depressed, slightly curved; composed of sand grains; surface rough; arenaceous and roughly finished; aperture
wall finely arenaceous, smoothly finished; aperture a high interiomarginal arch terminal that may consist of more than
primary aperture slitlike, at the base of the extending up the final chamber face. one opening in the middle of the rounded
final chamber, supplementary aperture Northern shelf, 600 m. apertural end, but may be obscured by
an arched opening at the proximal side Systematics p. 258. the agglutinated material.
of the umbilical chamber extension. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 262.
Systematics p. 259.

juvenile

Pseudobolivina
cf. P. nasostoma
Test slender and elongate, biserial, tending
Psammosphaera to become uniserial, slightly compressed,
Psammosphaera parva slightly twisted and curved; periphery
Test unilocular composed of a small round, initial end acute; chambers
subsphaerical chamber; wall agglutinated, numerous, the early ones small and
the agglutinate including an elongated compressed, increasing rapidly in width Pseudogaudryina
spicule projecting on both sides of the but slowly in height, the later chambers Pseudogaudryina concava
test. inflated, increasing rapidly in height;
Test triangular in section throughout
sutures depressed; wall finely agglutinated,
Northern shelf, 600 m. with slightly concave faces and sharp,
thin, delicate; aperture subcircular, at the
Systematics p. 252. somewhat serrate edges; chambers not
end of an elongated projection.
inflated, sutures indistinct, later chambers
Northern shelf, 700 m. developing a slightly overhanging margin
Systematics p. 258. giving the appearance of excavations in
the lower part of the chamber; wall
agglutinated; aperture a slit in a shallow
re-entrant in the middle of the inner
margin of the last chamber.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 262.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 89

Pseudogaudryina pacifica Recurvoides Reophax


Test elongate, triangular in section with Recurvoides contortus Reophax agglutinatus
acute angles, tapering gradually from the Test free, subglobular, streptospirally Test large and stout, composed of several
blunt initial end to the broadly rounded enrolled, with few chambers per whorl, chambers, obscured by the coarse agglu-
apertural end; triserial portion short, bis- later whorls may tend to be trochospiral tinate; wall composed almost entirely of
erial portion with dissimilar chambers, or planispiral, or may show an abrupt agglutinated foraminiferal tests held
one series being roughly triangular in change in plane of coiling from previous together with a light grayish cement;
section and the other quadrangular in whorls, earliest chambers not visible aperture at the end of a slightly protu-
section, maintaining the triangular test externally from either side; wall aggluti- berant neck.
shape; chambers distinct, not inflated, nated, thin, surface may be roughly Northern shelf, 700 m.
sutures nearly horizontal; the last formed finished; aperture small, areal, with Systematics p. 254.
chamber often rounded; wall arenaceous, bordering lip.
rather smoothly finished; aperture elon-
Northern shelf, 600 m.
gate, slightly arched, in a deep reentrant
Systematics p. 257.
of the inner border of the last chamber.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 262.

Reophanus
Reophanus oviculus
Test composed of a few pyriform chambers
arranged in a rectilinear series, each
having a more or less prolonged tubular
neck; tests often broken with no more
than three chambers found together; wall
arenaceous, often rough externally with Reophax bacillaris
Pseudothurammina Test elongate, regularly tapering, some-
projecting sponge spicules incorporated
Pseudothurammina limnetes with the sand; aperture terminal rounded, what curved in the megalospheric form,
Test unilocular, subglobular with finely at the end of a long neck. with a decided angle in the microspheric
agglutinated silt grains; aperture at the Northern shelf, 600 m. form; microspheric form very tapering to
end of 1 to 3 tubular projections projecting Systematics p. 254. the initial end, megalospheric form with
from the chamber. early chambers larger than those imme-
Low salinity coastal lagoons and low diately succeeding, giving to the test the
marshes. appearance of Clavulina; chambers
Systematics p. 252. numerous (up to 30), short, indistinct in
the earlier portion, later separated by
depressed sutures; wall finely arenaceous;
aperture terminal indistinct. The figure
represents a megalospheric form.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 254.
90 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Reophax communis Reophax fusiformis Reophax longicollaris


Test small, elongate; 7-8 chambers Test elongate, subcylindrical, consisting Test straight or slightly curved; chamber
gradually and uniformly increasing in of a round proloculus followed by three few, usually 3; proloculus small; chambers
size; sutures horizontal, depressed; wall elongated chambers; wall agglutinated, increasing rapidly in size as added, the
arenaceous, rough; aperture terminal, formed of coarse shell fragments, last one tapering very early and drawn
not clearly defined. cemented with fine matrix; surface rough out into an elongated neck; sutures
Northern shelf, 600 m. and sutures often obscured by the agglu- oblique, slightly constricted, obscured by
Systematics p. 255. tinated particles; aperture is round and the agglutinated grains; wall consisting
terminal. of grains of different sizes, surface rough;
Southwestern lagoon, 30-40 m. aperture elliptical at the end of the neck.
Systematics p. 255. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 255.

Reophax dentaliniformis
Test long, arranged in a straight line, Reophax irregularis Reophax nana
slender and tapering, circular in cross Test large, straight, almost cylindrical; Test small elongate, with few rounded
section; around 6 subcylindrical cham- chamber gradually increasing in size, chambers in slightly irregular series; wall
bers that have a little overlap onto the apertural end slightly tapered; horizontal coarsely agglutinated; aperture terminal,
preceding chambers; ultimate chamber sutures faintly indicated; wall rough with rounded, produced on a slight neck.
tapering gradually into a distinct neck; large to small particles; aperture terminal,
wall irregularly agglutinated, but neatly Coastal lagoons, estuaries, shrimp ponds.
produced, centered. Systematics p. 255.
finished; aperture terminal, rather large,
produced, rounded. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 255.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 255.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 91

Reophax pseudodistans Reophax scotti Reophax subfusiformis


Test elongate, straight or arcuate, con- Test small, elongate, flexible when moist, Test elongate, fusiform, straight or arcuate;
sisting of a few subcylindrical chambers easily broken; chambers inflated, sub- chambers 3 to 6, rapidly increasing in
connected by long and slender stolonlike circular to slightly compressed in cross size so that the last-formed one makes up
tubes; wall composed of sponge spicules section, subtriangular in appearance with a large part of the test; wall composed of
firmly cemented side by side longitudi- flat to slightly concave base, sides initially numerous large sand grains, surface
nally; aperture terminal. parallel tapering rapidly towards apertural rough; aperture terminal, at the end of a
Northern shelf, 600-700 m. end; chambers increasing slowly in size; short tapering neck.
Systematics p. 255. coarse agglutinate; aperture terminal, Northern shelf, 600 m.
lipped, slightly protruding. Systematics p. 255.
Muddy, deep coastal bays, very rare.
Systematics p. 255.

Reophax scorpiurus Reophax spiculotestus


Test uniserial, composed by 4-6 chambers. Test consisting of a linear series of oval
The early ones are generally slightly and chambers in a straight or curved line,
irregularly arcuate, indistinct, later increasing rapidly in size towards the
separated by horizontal depressed apertural end; ends of chambers con-
sutures, becoming more globular; tracted; walls rough externally, composed Reophax sp. 1
chambers increasing rapidly in size, largely of sponge spicules, for the most Structure of the test obscured by the
final chamber often fusiform, tapering part laid lengthwise of the test; aperture coarse shell fragments cemented on the
gradually to the aperture; wall coarsely fairly large, terminal. surface; aperture terminal, at the end of a
arenaceous; aperture simple, terminal Northern shelf, 700 m. distinct neck.
and rounded, at the end of a short neck. Systematics p. 255. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Northern shelf and Bay of Prony, 15-200 m. Systematics p. 255.
Systematics p. 255.
92 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Rhizammina Rotaliammina siphonata Sahulia


Rhizammina algaeformis Test attached, low trochospiral, with a Sahulia barkeri
Test tubular, branching but usually spiral side slightly convex and evolute, Test free, biserial throughout and forming
broken; wall thin, flexible, with embedded dark brown in the first whorls, becoming a low cone with circular outline, sutures
sand grains, tests of planktonic light brown later; 6-10 chambers in the nearly horizontal; chambers very broad
foraminifera and fragments of other final whorl, increasing gradually in size and low; wall finely agglutinated, thin;
small organisms; aperture at the end of as added; umbilical side concave with a aperture a low and nearly straight slit
the tube. depressed umbilicus; mushroom shaped across the center of the flattened terminal
on the umbilical side, often with collapsed face, with a distinct flaplike lip bordering
Northern shelf, 600 m.
chamber walls and with siphon-like the opening, apertural reentrant present
Systematics p. 252.
projections towards the umbilicus; nor- at the ends of the lip.
mally the siphon-like projections do not
Southwestern lagoon, 15-50 m.
have sutures in common with adjacent
Systematics p. 263.
projections; wall thin, flexible with little
or no agglutinated material; apertures, at
the end of each siphon-like projection.
Outer reef, 50-100 m.
Systematics p. 259.

Rotaliammina
Rotaliammina chitinosa
Attached test, dark brown in color, with
chambers arranged in trochospiral
coiling, increasing gradually in size
throughout four whorls; only 5 to
8 chambers in the final whorl; chambers
with a petaloid shape on the umbilical
side, but chamber walls often collapsed or
missing; walls made of relatively coarse
and irregular agglutinated material,
Sahulia peritubula
entirely organic on the umbilical side; Test a low cone, broader than high;
test surrounded by a thin organic flange sutures fairly distinct, marked by the
with agglutinated material that is rapidly Saccorhiza openings of a single row of short periph-
destroyed after death; aperture hardly Saccorhiza ramosa eral tubes; wall coarsely arenaceous, sur-
distinguishable, terminal on the produced Test free with an ovoid proloculus that is face rough; apertural face nearly circular,
end of the chambers and facing the generally broken; the following tubular aperture a short slit at the base of the last-
umbilicus. chamber branches irregularly; wall formed chamber, with a narrow lip.
Outer reef, and Bay of Prony, 10-100 m. agglutinated with sand grains and Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 259. sponge spicules, some of them arranged Systematics p. 263.
perpendicular to the wall so that they
project laterally; apertures at the end of
the tubes.
Outer reef, 80 m.
Systematics p. 253.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 93

Septotextularia Siphoniferoides Siphotextularia crassisepta


Septotextularia rugosa Siphoniferoides siphoniferus Test broad, much compressed, in end view
Test large, up to 2 mm in length, stout, Test elongate, early stage triserial and quadrangular, composed of relatively few
biserial throughout, the lower margin of sharply triangular, later biserial, chambers chambers, the earlier low and broad, the
each chamber deeply incised just anterior with fistulose projections at the lateral later comparatively high; borders of
to the septa, and with about four backward angles, and later chambers with similar chambers much thickened, and appearing
directed projections on each chamber projections on the chamber faces, that form as raised portions with depressed areas
that overlap the sutures; sutures slightly small chamberlets external to the main between; wall coarsely agglutinated;
arched; wall agglutinated, canaliculate, chamber wall and cavity, chamberlets aperture a short slit, some distance from
thick, coarse grained; aperture a low arch closed to the exterior in well-preserved the inner base of the last chamber, with a
at the base of the apertural face. specimens but commonly broken; wall raised lip.
Southeastern coast and southwestern agglutinated, that of the sides of the test Northern shelf, 600 m.
lagoon, 15-30 m. itself distinctly canaliculate but wall of the Systematics p. 265.
Systematics p. 265. tubular projections, septa, and apertural
face non-canaliculate; aperture a low
arch at the base of the apertural face.
Southwestern lagoon, near the passes.
Systematics p. 262.

Siphotextularia flintii
Test triangular in outline, irregularly
juvenile rhombic in end view, somewhat com-
juvenile pressed laterally, rapidly enlarging in size
from the early portion; chambers low and
broad, inflated, separated by rather deep
Septotrochammina sutures; wall finely agglutinated,
Septotrochammina gonzalesi Siphotextularia smoothly finished; aperture slightly
Test attached, depressed trochospiral,
Siphotextularia blacki above the inner base of the last chamber,
chambers numerous, umbilicus open, Test large, widening regularly from the with a slightly raised lip.
numerous radial secondary septa of four acute initial end, compressed; faces of the Northern shelf, 600 m.
to five orders produced by invaginations test concave, borders of chambers much Systematics p. 265.
from the peripheral wall; wall thin, flexible, thickened and appearing as rounded
proteinaceous, incorporating a very small keels; wall finely agglutinated, coarser
amount of agglutinated silt; aperture agglutinate on the keels; aperture elon-
interiomarginal, at the umbilical tip of gate, above the inner base of the last
the final chamber. chamber, with a raised lip.
Outer reef, 100 m. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 259. Systematics p. 265.
94 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Siphotextularia cf. S. foliosa Siphotextularia mestayerae Siphotextularia


Test compressed, leaf-shaped, initial end Test biserial throughout, compressed with subplanoides
narrowly rounded; test thickest in the gently convex sides; chambers rounded, Test biserial throughout, quadrangular
median line, narrowing out towards the somewhat quadrangular in section; sutures in section, median region concave; initial
periphery; chambers distinct, slightly straight and sloping, depressed in the end obtuse, chambers rapidly widening
inflated; later chambers increasing rapidly later chambers; wall finely agglutinated; and increasing rapidly in height; periphery
in height but slightly in width as added; aperture areal, a short oblique slit, pro- truncate with peripheral angles subacute
sutures depressed, sigmoid; wall finely duced on a tubular neck. to acute; sutures distinct, depressed; wall
arenaceous, surface smooth; aperture Northern shelf, 600 m. finely agglutinated; aperture an elongate
slightly above the base of the apertural Systematics p. 265. slit, slightly above and perpendicular to
face, oblique, lipped. This species differs the base of the apertural face, with a lip.
from the typical S. foliosa in having a Northern shelf, 600 m.
larger aperture. Systematics p. 265.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 265.

Siphotextularia pulchra
Test compressed, periphery rounded
Siphotextularia heterostoma throughout, lobulate, initial end broadly
Test elongated, laterally compressed, rounded; chambers wider than high, Siphotrochammina
particularly in the median line, triangular increasing gradually in width, slightly
in lateral view, with rounded edges in end Siphotrochammina lobata
inflated; sutures depressed, curved, those
view; chambers increasing in breath, of the early portion not very distinct; Test free, low trochospiral, chambers ovate,
more rapidly in height in later stages; wall finely arenaceous, smooth, coarser increasing gradually in size as added,
some specimens have a triserial initial agglutinate in the initial portion; aperture sutures gently curved, periphery rounded,
stage; most of the tests appear twisted a transverse elliptical slit, slightly above much lobulate; wall light brown in color,
with respect to the axis; sutures distinct, the base of the apertural face, with finely and sparsely agglutinated on a
oblique; wall rather smoothly finished; prominent lips. proteinaceous base, the early whorl darker
aperture an elliptical slit parallel to the brown and with very little agglutinated
Northern shelf, 600 m. material; aperture interiomarginal, at the
lateral compression, at the end of an Systematics p. 265.
everted neck. end of a siphon-like lobe projecting from
Northern shelf, 600 m. the umbilical margin of the chamber
Systematics p. 265. and directed forward.
Mangrove swamps, crawling on the aerial
roots of the mangrove trees.
Systematics p. 259.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 95

Spiroplectammina Spirotextularia floridana Technitella


Spiroplectammina biformis Test elongate, two to three times as long Technitella melo
Test free, elongate, compressed; large as wide in the adult, much compressed, Test unilocular, oval, slightly tapering at
early planispiral coil of few chambers periphery acute, the ends of the chambers the ends; wall composed almost entirely
followed by biserially arranged chambers, forming tubular projections, often broken, of long sponge spicules arranged length-
the coil of greater breadth than the first showing a hollow truncate area; the initial wise of the test, firmly cemented; color
few pairs of biserial chambers; wall end rather sharply pointed, the apertural grayish-white; aperture small, subcircular
coarsely agglutinated; aperture a low end broadly rounded; chambers numerous, at one end of the test, surrounded by the
arch at the inner margin of the final thickest near the center, increasing some- end of spicules.
chamber. what in height toward the apertural end;
Northern shelf, 600 m.
sutures indistinct, slightly if at all
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 252.
depressed; wall finely arenaceous, smooth;
Systematics p. 257.
aperture small, at the base of the inner
margin of the last-formed chamber.
Southwestern lagoon and northern shelf,
50-600 m.
Systematics p. 258.

Textularia
Textularia agglutinans
Test elongate, tapering, very little com-
pressed, periphery rounded; chambers
inflated, increasing in width and height
Spirotextularia toward the apertural end rather uniformly;
Tawitawia sutures distinct, depressed, usually about
Spirotextularia fistulosa right angles to the long axis of the test;
Test with planispiral coil of one whorl, Tawitawia immensa wall rather coarsely agglutinated, but
then biserial; each chamber laterally Test biserial, flattened, very large, more smoothly finished; aperture an elongate slit
produced, forming a distal chamberlet than 4 mm in length; chambers low, in a well-marked depression of the inner
separated from the main chamber lumen strongly overlapping in the axial area; margin of the last-formed chamber.
by a secondary septum; wall agglutinated, wall coarsely agglutinated; aperture a slit Widely distributed in the southwestern
surface smoothly finished; aperture on the apertural face of the last chamber. lagoon and southern shelf, 0-80 m.
interiomarginal, a low arch against the Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 263.
previous chamber. Systematics p. 265.
Southwestern lagoon and northern shelf,
20-600 m.
Systematics p. 258.
96 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Textularia calva Textularia conica Textularia dupla


Test very large, elongate, roughly trian- Test usually wider than high, triangular Test compressed, about as broad as or
gular in outline, broadly ovate in end in outline, broadly oval in end view, broader than high, triangular in side
view; initial portion slightly compressed; slightly compressed, apex bluntly pointed; view; apertural face flattened or slightly
chambers numerous, low and broad, sutures slightly arched, nearly horizontal, concave (convex in young stages);
increasing in height regularly as added; chambers broad and low; wall arenaceous, periphery subacute, irregularly serrate;
sutures somewhat depressed, straight and smooth or slightly roughened; aperture a chambers low and broad, much over-
slightly oblique; wall coarsely arena- low and nearly straight slit at the base of lapping, later ones becoming slightly
ceous, roughly finished except on the the apertural face, with a distinct flaplike inflated; sutures indistinct in the early
apertural face where it is rather smoothly lip bordering the opening. part, becoming slightly depressed; nearly
finished; aperture a low broad opening Widely distributed in the southwestern horizontal; wall finely granular, surface
at the base of the inner margin of the lagoon, in areas under open-sea influence. somewhat rough; aperture a low arched
last-formed chamber. Systematics p. 263. slit at the base of the last chamber,
Northern shelf, 600 m. bordered by a lip.
Systematics p. 263. Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 264.

Textularia fistula
Textularia candeiana Textularia cushmani Test elongate, the early chambers some-
Early portion of the test narrow, much Test elongated, slender, narrowly triangular what compressed, later rounded in section;
compressed, the edges almost carinate, in lateral view, sub-quadrangular in cross early chambers with lateral fistulose
tapering gradually to the apex; chambers section with rounded margins, biserial projections that become extended into a
numerous, those of the early portion throughout; about 20 chambers increasing projecting peripheral border in later
somewhat compressed, later ones enlarging rapidly in the earlier portion, more chambers; wall coarsely arenaceous; aper-
rapidly, with the final ones much inflated; gradually so in the later portion, the ture slitlike in a well marked depression
sutures of the later portion fairly distinct peripheral margins becoming nearly of the inner border of the last-formed
and oblique, depressed; wall rather parallel; sutures depressed, nearly per- chamber.
coarsely arenaceous; aperture a broad, pendicular to the axis, often indistinct; Northern shelf, 600 m.
low arch at the base of the last chamber, aperture a short low slit at the base of the Systematics p. 264.
bordered by a narrow lip on the upper inner margin of the last formed chamber.
margin. Northern shelf, 200 m.
Widely distributed in the southwestern Systematics p. 264.
lagoon and on the northern shelf, 20-
200 m.
Systematics p. 263.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 97

Textularia foliacea Textularia kerimbaensis Textularia occidentalis


Test elongate, biserial throughout, narrow, Test V-shaped in outline, somewhat laterally Test biserial throughout, laterally com-
laterally compressed, oval in end view; compressed, with the periphery subacute; pressed, increasing gradually in width,
periphery rounded; seven to nine pairs of suboval to subcircular in apertural view; with a triangular outline in lateral view,
chambers increasing regularly in width chambers relatively low and strongly sub-rectangular cross section with
so as to give a leaf-shaped outline to the embracing, with a lateral concavity just rounded margins; chambers wider than
test; sutures depressed but at time very above the suture; sutures curved back- high, sutures depressed, oblique; wall
obscure, straight and oblique; wall wards near the margin; wall composed of coarsely agglutinated, roughly finished;
coarsely agglutinated with agglutinated rounded agglutinated grains, smoothly aperture an arch at the base of the
material highly heterogeneous in size, finished; aperture a slit in a depression at apertural face, in a slight re-entrant.
surface rough; aperture small, a low arch the base of the apertural face, with a distinct Differs from T. foliacea by a much more
at the base of the apertural face. flaplike lip bordering the opening. flaring test.
Widely distributed in the southwestern Widely and irregularly distributed, 5-200 m. Widely distributed in the southwestern
lagoon. Systematics p. 264. lagoon, 5-50 m.
Systematics p. 264. Systematics p. 264.

Textularia lateralis
Test characterized by a sub-triangular
shape with a neat, even outline; chambers
Textularia goessi broad and low; sutures horizontal and
Test broadly conical in outline, tapering slightly depressed; wall finely agglutinated. Textularia oceanica
abruptly to the apex with margins slightly Southwestern lagoon, rare, 5-40 m. Test biserial throughout; laterally com-
convex, subcircular in end view; chambers Systematics p. 264. pressed; chambers wider than high,
low and broad without internal division; rounded, increasing gradually in size;
sutures limbate, distinct; wall more or sutures depressed, oblique obscured by
less coarsely agglutinated, but usually the agglutinated material; wall coarsely
smoothly finished; aperture linear in a agglutinated, very roughly finished;
depression at the base of the apertural aperture an arch at the base of the
chamber. apertural face, in a slight re-entrant.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Southwestern lagoon and southern shelf,
Systematics p. 264. in the back-reef area and near patch
reefs, 5-60 m.
Systematics p. 264.
98 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Textularia porrecta Textularia pseudosolita Textularia stricta


Test elongate tapering very gradually Test compressed, flabelliform, periphery Test long and narrow, up to 6 mm long,
towards the initial end; peripheral margin subacute; initial end narrowly rounded, composed of numerous high chambers;
rounded, lobulate; 11-13 pairs of rounded rapidly widening toward the apertural early portion somewhat compressed, the
chambers in biserial arrangement on a end; chambers distinct, broader than later portion almost circular in cross
sometimes curved axis; sutures depressed, high, not inflated, the upper margin section with inflated chambers giving a
almost perpendicular to the longitudinal slightly protruding; sutures slightly lobular outline to the test; sutures
axis; wall composed of angular fragments depressed, curved upwards; wall finely depressed; wall arenaceous, smoothly
fitted edge to edge; surface smoothly agglutinated with a small amount of finished; apertural end somewhat acute;
finished; aperture small crescentic at the coarse grains, surface neatly finished; aperture an elongated slit along the base
base of the last chamber. apertural face with the middle portion of the last chamber.
Northern shelf, 600 m. depressed; aperture an elongated slit in Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 264. this depressed portion. Systematics p. 264.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 264.

Textularia semialata
Test compressed, rapidly broadening,
triangular in side view; chambers broader
than high, the proximal outer angle of
the adult chambers more or less projecting
and extending backward; wall of fine
sand, very smoothly finished; aperture an Textularia subantarctica
Textularia pseudogramen arched opening at the inner margin of Test a low cone, as broad as high, strongly
the chamber, with a distinct overhanging compressed laterally, periphery acute to
Test biserial, large, elongate, chambers
lip; color gray. carinate; initial end broadly rounded in
rapidly increasing in size in the earlier
portion, then remaining of almost con- Southwestern lagoon and northern shelf, side view; sutures distinct, very slightly
stant dimension for 2/3 of the test; 10-200 m. depressed; wall finely arenaceous, surface
periphery subacute in the early portion, Systematics p. 264. smooth; apertural face ovate, aperture a
later thickening; chambers numerous short slit in a depression at the base of the
(about 10 pairs) separated by distinct last-formed chamber, with a narrow lip.
sutures; wall coarsely agglutinated, Northern shelf, 600 m.
surface rough; apertural face smoothly Systematics p. 264.
finished; aperture a low arch at the base
of the apertural face.
Southwestern lagoon and northern shelf,
5-500 m.
Systematics p. 264.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 99

Textularia cf. T. truncata Textularia tubulosa Textularia sp. 2


Test biserial throughout, subtriangular in Test compressed, increasing rapidly and Test elongate, the early chambers somewhat
side view, subrhomboidal in end view and constantly in breadth, initial end rounded, compressed, later rounded in section;
provided with a subrounded keel; chambers apertural end truncate; chambers numerous low and broad chambers,
increasing rapidly in the earlier portion, numerous, low and broad; sutures excavated just above the suture, with a
more gradually so in the later one; obscure in the earlier portion, later projecting peripheral border in their
sutures slightly depressed; apertural end slightly depressed; periphery of each upper part; sutures straight, nearly hori-
truncated, subrhomboidal; aperture a chamber with an elongate, conical pro- zontal, slightly oblique upwards; wall
low arch at the base of the apertural face, jection, often broken at the tips, those of coarsely arenaceous but smoothly finished;
with a distinct flaplike lip bordering the the early portion directed backward, the aperture a short slit-like opening in a well
opening. later ones extending straight outward; marked depression of the inner border of
Northern shelf, Chesterfield, Bay of Prony, wall arenaceous, with sand-grains of the last-formed chamber, with a lip.
10-200 m. various sizes and much cement; surface Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 265. rough; aperture small, at the inner border Systematics p. 265.
of the last-formed chamber, in a reentrant.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 265.

Textularia sp. 3
Textularia truncatiformis Test elongate, tapering, very little com-
pressed, periphery rounded; chambers
Test elongate, slightly compressed, initial inflated, increasing in width and height
end rounded, increasing slightly in width toward the apertural end rather uniformly;
and thickness; periphery broadly rounded, sutures indistinct in the early portion,
a great part of the test of almost equal Textularia sp. 1
deeply incised in the later portion, about
width, the two sides being nearly parallel; Test stout, biserial throughout, subconical right angles to the long axis of the test;
chambers numerous, the early ones not in general shape, subcircular in end wall coarsely agglutinated, surface
distinct, the later ones distinct, wider view; periphery broadly rounded; about rough; aperture a slit in a well-marked
than high; wall composed of very coarse 10 chambers in the adult, not inflated; depression of the inner margin of the
grains; apertural end obliquely truncate, sutures indistinct, slightly depressed, last-formed chamber.
aperture a low slit at the base of the last slightly curved, nearly perpendicular with
chamber. the test axis; wall coarsely agglutinated, Northern shelf, 600 m.
roughly finished, even on the flattened Systematics p. 265.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 265. apertural end; agglutinated material
composed of large grains interspersed
with finer grains; aperture a low arch at
the base of the inner margin of the last
formed chamber, in a re-entrant. This
species is quite similar to Textularia sp.
“M” of HOTTINGER et al. (1993).
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 265.
100 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Textularia sp. 4 Thurammina Tritaxilina


Test biserial throughout, subtriangular in Thurammina papyracea Tritaxilina caperata
side view, ovate in end view; chambers Test spherical; wall extremely thin and Test free, elongate, early stage triserial,
increasing rapidly in the earlier portion, delicate, composed of fine sand grains roughly triangular in cross section, later
more gradually so in the later one, so that and sponge spicules, rather smoothly becoming biserial or uniserial and circu-
the sides are nearly parallel; sutures finished; apertures very small and incon- lar in cross section; wall thick, finely
slightly depressed, nearly horizontal; spicuous. agglutinated, smoothly finished; surface
apertural end truncated, subcircular; with a wrinkled appearance due to the
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
aperture a low arch at the base of the thickening of the chamber wall just
Systematics p. 252.
apertural face, with a distinct flaplike lip above the sutures; aperture like textularia
bordering the opening. in the early stage, later terminal, and
Northern shelf, 600 m. rounded, with peripheral teeth projecting
Systematics p. 265. into the aperture.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 262.

Textularia sp. 5 juvenile

Test broadly conical in outline, with Trilocularena


straight margins, subcircular in end view;
chambers numerous, low and broad; Trilocularena patensis
sutures limbate, distinct; wall more or Test ovate in outline, elongate tubular
less coarsely agglutinated, smoothly chambers a half coil in length added in
finished, but the smooth surface coating triloculine arrangement, only the final
often eroded; aperture a long rectilinear three more rarely four visible at the
slit at the base of the apertural chamber. exterior; wall finely agglutinated; aperture Tritaxis
Northern shelf, 600 m. large, rounded or ovate, at the end of the Tritaxis fusca
Systematics p. 265. final chamber.
Test typically attached, low conical, cir-
Mangrove swamps, brackish coastal cular in outline, umbilical face concave;
lagoons. chambers trochospirally arranged with
Systematics p. 254. only three chambers per whorl in the
adult; wall finely arenaceous, smooth;
aperture slit like at the inner basal margin
of the last formed chamber, protected by a
valvular lip.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 258.

juvenile
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 101

Trochammina Trochammina xishaensis Trochamminopsis


Trochammina carinata Test small, high trochospiral of 4-5 whorls; Trochamminopsis quadriloba
Attached test, planoconvex with relatively periphery broadly rounded, lobulate; Test trochospiral, chambers increasing
high chambers arranged in trochospiral ventral side more or less flattened, umbil- gradually in size as added, chambers
coiling, increasing slowly in size ical region depressed, closed; chambers indistinct on the spiral side due to a very
throughout four whorls; only 5 to 7 subglobular increasing gradually in size coarse agglutinate, four chambers with
inflated chambers in the final whorl; as added, four in the final whorl; sutures radial sutures on the umbilical side,
sutures distinct, radial; wall made of depressed, radial; wall finely agglutinated, periphery rounded; aperture an interi-
relatively coarse and irregular aggluti- incorporating a few sponge spicules, the omarginal, umbilical-extraumbilical
nated material, smoothly finished; test umbilical side more neatly finished than arch obscured by the coarse agglutinate.
surrounded by a thin broad flange of the spiral side; aperture a low arch at the
South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
the same material as that of the wall; base of the final chamber on the umbilical
Systematics p. 259.
aperture hardly distinguishable, ventral, side.
at the inner end of the margin of the South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
last-formed chamber. Systematics p. 259.
Outer reef, 50-100 m.
Systematics p. 258.

Valvulina
Valvulina oviedoiana
Trochammina sp. 1 Test subconical, stout, triserial, triangular
Test low trochospiral, chambers low, in section; about 15 chambers, initially
increasing gradually in size as added, with angular margins, becoming rounded;
sutures radial, periphery rounded; wall chambers increasing rapidly in size as
coarsely agglutinated; aperture an interi- added; sutures depressed; agglutinate
omarginal, umbilical-extraumbilical composed of well-sorted, rounded particles;
arch with narrow bordering lip. aperture an interiomarginal arch, at the
junction of the chambers of the final
South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
Trochammina inflata whorl with a prominent flaplike tooth
Systematics p. 259. projecting from the midpoint of the
Test trochospiral, chambers inflated,
sutures radial depressed, distinct; periphery apertural rim.
rounded; wall finely agglutinated, surface Chesterfield, in algal thalli, 15 m.
smooth; aperture an interiomarginal, Systematics p. 263.
umbilical-extraumbilical arch with narrow
bordering lip.
High marshes, mangrove swamps,
coastal lagoons rich in organic matter.
Systematics p. 258.

Trochammina sp. 2
Test trochospiral, chambers rounded in
section, increasing gradually in size as
added, sutures radial, periphery rounded;
wall with moderately coarse agglutinate;
aperture an interiomarginal, umbilical-
extraumbilical arch with narrow bordering
lip.
South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
Systematics p. 259.
102 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Verneuilina Zaninettia manaarensis Description


Verneuilina novozealandica Test beginning with a very low-convex of porcelaneous
Test elongate, tapering, sharply triangular trochospiral stage of about 10 chambers species
throughout, sides flattened or concave, increasing in size slowly, arranged in 2 coils,
angles somewhat carinate; chambers with oblique sutures; second stage with All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM)
fairly distinct, not inflated, of uniform chambers added irregularly, becoming
shape, regularly increasing in size; rapidly elongate-crescentic, subdivided by Adelosina
sutures distinct, slightly depressed, secondary septa; last stage an irregularly
contoured flange with spicules irregularly Adelosina mediterranensis
strongly curved; wall coarsely arenaceous,
roughly finished; aperture a narrow dispersed; the first stage and part of the Test elongated, about 2 times as long as
opening at inner margin of the last second stage are dark brown, then broad; oral and aboral ends protruding;
formed chamber, with a slight lip. becoming yellowish or white; wall made periphery bicarinate; wall imperforate,
up of typically “rounded-rectangular” ornamented by parallel, longitudinal
Northern shelf, 600 m. striae; aperture produced on a long neck,
truncated spicules arranged irregularly.
Systematics p. 260. rounded with a peristomal rim and a
Coral-reef lagoon and outer reef, 10-100 m,
crawling under coral rubble or algae, small bifid tooth.
protected from sunlight. Southwestern lagoon, rare.
Systematics p. 282. Systematics p. 268.

Zaninettia
Zaninettia conica
On the spiral side, the first stage of the test
is a small, high, conical trochospire,
consisting of about 2 whorls, flattening
out toward the periphery, with a subcircular Unidentified species Alveolinella
outline; it is dark brown to blackish; test Test very low trochospiral; chambers few, Alveolinella quoii
shallow-concave on the umbilical side, three in the last whorl; spiral side partially Test large (up to 20 mm in length),
with a deep axial depression. The following involute; sutures depressed, radial; wall fusiform, planispiral, involute, elongated
chambers are yellowish or white, they rather coarsely agglutinated, but very along the coiling axis; chambers narrow,
make up the flattened second ontogenetic smoothly finished, polished; aperture an spanning the width of the test, thickening
stage, at first also in a trochospire, are interiomarginal extraumbilical slit. toward the poles and gradually increasing
crescentic with secondary septa; the Outer reef, 100 m. in size as added; more than 15 chambers
chambers become increasingly elongated per whorl in adult specimens; wall with
and irregularly added, giving an irregu- numerous longitudinal costae; apertural
larly lobed outline to the test; no peripheral face with several rows of openings.
flange was observed; chambers symmetric, Widely distributed in the southwestern
petal-shaped, on the umbilical side; walls lagoon, 0-50 m.
made up of typically “rounded-rectangular” Systematics p. 281.
truncated spicules arranged irregularly.
Coral-reef lagoon and outer reef, 10-100 m,
crawling under coral rubble or algae,
protected from sunlight.
Systematics p. 282.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 103

Ammomassilina Amphisorus Articulina


Ammomassilina Amphisorus hemprichii Articulina alticostata
alveoliniformis Test discoidal biplane or with moderately Test elongate, early portion milioline,
Early stage quinqueloculine, latter thickened margins; Chambers annular, latter a linear series of elongate chambers,
chambers planispiral, one-half coil in concentric in the adult, subdivided into each chamber tapering towards the distal
length; periphery rounded; wall porcela- two layers of chamberlets by alternating end and somewhat rounded at the proxi-
neous, with an agglutinated surface radial partitions (septula); early stage mal end; section circular with slightly
layer; aperture at the end of the final planispiral with about six undivided compressed final chambers; several
chamber, with a short tooth, or becoming chambers and up to ten additional spiral longitudinal costae; aperture terminal,
multiple, with a trematophore. chambers subdivided by septula before highly compressed, with a thickened lip.
From bays to outer reef, 5-30 m. becoming annular; aperture of numerous Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon and
Systematics p. 279. slits on the peripheral margin, elongated Bay of Prony, 5-30 m.
across the margin, and aligned in two Systematics p. 280.
alternating rows.
After death, the external wall of the
chamberlets is often eroded, leaving
concentric series of minute cavities.
Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon,
mostly between 15 and 25 m.
Systematics p. 282.

Ammomassilina
clypeoarenulata
Test flattened, sutures obscured by the
coarse agglutination; periphery broadly
rounded, planispiral arrangement
obscuring any early quinqueloculine Amphisorus sauronensis
chambers; wall coarsely agglutinated, This species differs from A. hemprichii by
roughly finished; aperture terminal, additional medial rows of apertures on
rounded, with a small bifid tooth, at the the peripheral apertural face. These
end of short neck that is agglutinated apertures vary from irregularly shaped,
as the rest of the test. often fusing with neighboring apertures Articulina cf. A. carinata
Northern shelf, 600 m. to circular. They are absent in juveniles, Test elongate, laterally compressed; early
Systematics p. 279. both species having similar juvenile ovoid portion milioline, latter with a few
stages. uncoiled, elongate, flattened chambers;
Outer reef and Chesterfield, 5-45 m. wall imperforate, surface smooth or with
Systematics p. 282. faint costae; aperture terminal, ovate,
bordered by a prominent everted lip.
Bay of Prony, 15 m.
Systematics p. 280.
104 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Articulina pacifica Articulina sagra Biloculinella inflata


Early portion milioline, latter with a few Test elongate, composed of two portions: Test biloculine in the adult, chambers wide,
vase-shaped chambers laterally com- a milioline earlier section, and later an shallow, periphery rounded; wall smooth;
pressed; test covered with prominent uniserial one; triloculine portion generally aperture terminal with a broad apertural
longitudinal costae, usually 13 to 15; elliptical, the uniserial portion compressed, flap, leaving only a thin opening.
apertural end slightly contracted, and then consisting of 1-3 vase-shaped chambers, Northern shelf, 200 m.
expanded into a strong, very prominent increasing progressively in size; wall Systematics p. 274.
everted lip. longitudinally costate; aperture elliptical,
Widely distributed in the southwestern with a thick everted lip.
lagoon, 5-30 m. Outer reef, 30 m.
Systematics p. 280. Systematics p. 280.

Borelis
Borelis schlumbergeri
Test planispiral involute elongate along the
coiling axis; surface ornamented by low
wavy ridges located along the chamberlet
sutures, and by faint pustules in between
the ridges; 4-6 chambers per whorl sepa-
rated by depressed sutures; chambers
divided into 20-40 chamberlets in the
adult; apertural face with one basal row
of circular to irregularly quadrangular
Articulina queenslandica apertures; each aperture rimmed with
Test elongate; early portion milioline, peristomal material; a rectangular to
latter uniserial with up to 4 cylindrical faintly bifid mask hides partly each
chambers, slightly, if at all, widened at Biloculinella apertural opening.
the base; wall porcelaneous; 4 or 5 longi- Biloculinella globula Lifou, Loyalty Islands, 5 m.
tudinal costae on the first uniserial Systematics p. 281.
chamber, up to 12 on the last one; aperture Test biloculine in front view oval with
terminal, rounded, with a narrow everted greatest width at two thirds distance from
lip. the aperture, in end view globular;
chambers much inflated, sutures slightly
Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon, depressed; wall smooth; aperture semi-
5-30 m. circular with a simple flat tooth filling a
Systematics p. 280. large part of the opening.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 274.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 105

Cornuloculina Cornuspira involvens Cornuspira polygyra


Cornuloculina inconstans Test slightly biconcave with a rounded Test small, flattened, circular in outline;
Test free, thin; early portion a planispirally peripheral edge, composed of a proloculus composed of a globular proloculus
coiled, non-septate tube, later tending to followed by an undivided, planispiral, followed by an undivided, planispiral,
becoming spiroloculine in arrangement somewhat embracing, second chamber; slightly embracing second chamber
(2 chambers per whorl), or forming con- tubular chamber increasing gradually in increasing very slowly in diameter, with
volutions of several irregularly arcuate size; number of coils greatly variable; up to 12 convolutions; surface smooth;
chambers; periphery bordered by a broad adherent specimens may be irregular in aperture terminal.
thin wing; aperture terminal, rounded. shape; surface often irregular; aperture Northern shelf, 200 m.
terminal. Systematics p. 266.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 268. Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 266.

Cornuspiramia
Cornuspiramia
cf. C. antillarum
Test attached; globular proloculus fol-
Cornuspira Cornuspira planorbis lowed by a spiral tubular second cham-
Cornuspira foliacea Test circular composed of a globular ber; later chambers irregularly uncoiled
Test flattened, early portion of the tubular proloculus followed by an undivided, and branching, elongate, cylindrical to
chamber of nearly uniform dimensions, planispiral, evolute second chamber; wall pyriform, attached side flattened, with a
but in later development rapidly increasing with a smooth imperforate surface; aper- marginal keel, free surface convex; wall
in height and forming a broad flat test; wall ture at the open end of the tube. imperforate, milky-white at the periph-
smooth except for occasional thickening From coastal lagoons to outer reef, 0-50 m. ery; aperture terminal. The uncoiled
over the lines of growth; aperture a long Systematics p. 266. chambers are hardly preserved in the sed-
slit at the end of the tubular chamber. iment.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Southern lagoon and outer reef, 3-125 m.
Systematics p. 266. Systematics p. 267.
106 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Cornuspiroides Cribrolinoides Edentostomina


Cornuspiroides striolatus Cribrolinoides curta Edentostomina cultrata
Test large, flabelliform; proloculus fol- Test quinqueloculine, subcircular in lateral Test compressed, planispirally enrolled,
lowed by an undivided tubular second view, triangular in cross section; wall ovate in outline, with a carinate periphery;
chamber in numerous planispiral whorls imperforate, smooth, surface ornamented chambers elongate and narrow, rapidly
that gradually enlarge at first, later with longitudinal costae more prominent enlarging, one-half coil in length; aperture
whorls enlarging more rapidly, flaring at the peripheral margins than on the terminal, oval, with an everted lip; no
and uncoiling, as test becomes wide, sides of the chambers; aperture terminal, tooth.
flattened, and flabelliform; wall milky arched, with peristomal rim; protruding South of the Grande Terre, 40 m.
white in color, surface with distinct tooth, simple in the juvenile stage, later Systematics p. 268.
transverse growth lines that are strongly bifid, increasingly complex during
arched in the flabelliform stage of growth, ontogeny. The ultimate stage has been
also with numerous fine longitudinal described as resulting in a complex
striae; aperture a narrow elongate slit at cribrate opening. This ultimate stage was
the open end of the flattened tube. not observed in New Caledonia.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Southern shelf, 60-70 m.
Systematics p. 266. Systematics p. 268.

juvenile

Edentostomina milletti
Cribromiliolinella Test compressed, ovate in outline, periphery
Cribromiliolinella subvalvularis acute; planispirally enrolled with the
Coscinospira Test ovate in outline, rounded in section; antepenultimate chamber only just visible
Coscinospira hemprichii three chambers visible from the exterior; between the embracing later chambers;
Crosier-shaped test with a shallow umbilical wall imperforate; aperture terminal, with sutures slightly excavate; chambers rapidly
depression in the early involute portion; a flap, the opening extending around the enlarging, one-half coil in length; aperture
uniserial portion cylindrical; sutures flap and up the chamber as an irregularly terminal, elliptical, surrounded by a
radiate, curving backwards near the triradiate opening, the rays of the opening thickened lip, with no tooth.
margin in the coiled portion, straight, also secondarily bifurcating in well- Bay of Prony, 30 m.
transverse in the uncoiled portion; developed specimens Systematics p. 268.
surface covered with strong acute ribs, Northern shelf, 600 m.
perpendicular to the sutures, alternating Systematics p. 274.
irregularly from one chamber to the
other; the ribs fuse with the peristomes of
the multiple aperture that occupy the
center of the apertural face.
Widely distributed in the southwestern
lagoon, 0-45 m.
Systematics p. 281.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 107

Edentostomina sp. 1 Euthymonacha Fischerinella


Test compressed, ovate in outline; rapidly Euthymonacha polita Fischerinella diversa
enlarging; chambers of one-half coil in Test made up of an irregular row of Proloculus followed by a spiral chamber
length, planispirally enrolled; last two loosely attached chambers, cylindrical in of nearly a complete whorl; latter tro-
chambers visible from both sides of the shape and typically of uniform size; chospirally enrolled chambers, gradually
test; periphery carinate; wall smooth, sutures deeply incised; no initial coil enlarging and progressively more
with faint transverse striae; aperture ter- observed; numerous pseudopores aligned numerous per whorl; only the final whorl
minal, produced on a short neck, simple, parallel to the longitudinal axis giving a visible from the umbilical side, sutures
oval, with an everted lip. This form is striated appearance; aperture terminal with radial; aperture ovate at the open end of
larger than E. cultrata and E. milletti, an everted, crenulated lip that projects the final chamber.
and chambers are relatively shorter. out of the test. Submarine valleys in the southwestern
Northern shelf, 200 m. Widely distributed in the southwestern lagoon, bay of Prony, southern shelf,
Systematics p. 268. lagoon and Chesterfield, 0-30 m. 20-70 m.
Systematics p. 281. Systematics p. 266.

Fischerinella helix
Erichsenella Test conical, globular proloculus followed
Erichsenella schauinslandi by spiral chamber of nearly a complete
Test cryptoquinqueloculine in the early whorl, then with gradually enlarging
chambers, later chambers uniserial, more trochospirally enrolled chambers, pro-
or less regularly arranged; early-coiled gressively more numerous per whorl, up
stage usually inflated; later chambers to four or five in the final one; spiral side
flattened on one side and inflated on the convex evolute with all whorls visible;
other side with a rounded peripheral only chambers of the final whorl visible on
Fischerina
margin; aperture Miliolinella-like in the the flattened umbilical side with slightly
Fischerina pellucida depressed umbilicus; spiral suture
early stage, a large terminal opening that
is bordered by a crenulate lip in the adult Test discoidal, planispirally enrolled; depressed, sutures between chambers
stage. globular proloculus followed by enrolled flush to slightly depressed, radial; wall
nonseptate tubular chamber of about one imperforate, smooth or ornamented with
Isle of Pines, 5 m. faint striae; aperture rounded or ovate at
whorl, then by two or more whorls with
Systematics p. 280. the open end of the final chamber.
up to eight chambers each; sutures radial
to slightly curved; each whorl partially From 50 to 600 m.
overlapping the earlier one on both sides Systematics p. 266.
of the almost symmetrical test; wall thin
and imperforate, smooth; aperture at
the open end of the final chamber, often
arcuate in form due to the slightly
involute coiling.
South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
Systematics p. 266.
108 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Flintina Hauerina earlandi Hauerina pacifica


Flintina bradyana Test globular to sub-globular or slightly Test robust, early quinqueloculine
Test ovate with a broadly rounded compressed; coiling triloculine to quin- chamber arrangement becoming almost
periphery, early stage with a triloculine queloculine in early stages, becoming planispiral with two chambers per
arrangement, latter becoming planispiral, almost planispiral in the final whorl; whorl during ontogeny; acute to angular
with 2-3 chambers per whorl; surface aperture a complex trematophore that periphery; wall roughly textured with
with longitudinal striae; aperture large protrudes from the end of the last weak ribbed ornament; cribrate aperture
with a bifid tooth in the early stage, latter chamber. becoming more complex during
becoming more complex. Bays, 5-15 m. ontogeny.
Shallow muddy bays, 5-20 m. Systematics p. 270. Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon,
Systematics p. 275. 5-30 m.
Systematics p. 270.
juvenile

Hauerina
Hauerina diversa Hauerina fragilissima Inaequalina
Test with rounded outline, slightly Test partially involute with a highly Inaequalina affixa
biconvex, periphery subacute; initial stage compressed discoid shape; surface of the
quinqueloculine, adult stage planispiral Test elongated with tapering ends; one
wall unevenly pitted; aperture terminal, side flat, the other deeply concave;
with 3-4 crescent-shaped chambers in the cribrate.
last coil, increasing gradually in size, periphery carinate; chambers triangular
slightly overlapping those of the preceding Southwestern lagoon, rare, 20-30 m. in cross section, with concave sides,
coil; surface ornamented with longitudinal Systematics p. 270. planispirally enrolled, increasing rapidly
anastomosing and transverse microstriae; in size as added; wall smooth and polished;
aperture terminal, elliptical, cribrate. aperture rectangular at the end of a
compressed extension of the last chamber,
Back reef areas and around patch reefs, without tooth.
5-20 m.
Systematics p. 270. Bay of Prony and outer reef, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 268.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 109

Inaequalina? sp. 1 Marginopora Miliolinella


Test elongate, asymmetrical, slightly Marginopora vertebralis Miliolinella circularis
concavo-convex, with a long neck and a Test discoidal, large, biconcave; cyclic Test milioline with 3 inflated chambers
produced aboral end; coiling planispiral, chambers subdivided into a complex set visible; test circular in outline, periphery
evolute, with two chambers per whorl, of chamberlets; larger tests commonly rounded; wall smooth; aperture terminal,
visible on both sides; chambers with an with a central hole due to the erosion of a large, low arch opening surrounded by
oblique outer margin; sutures depressed; the thinner early portion; wall calcareous, a flared, well-developed lip and with a
surface ornamented by irregular longitu- imperforate; aperture of numerous small plate-like tooth.
dinal costae that may continue on the circular openings randomly scattered Bays, 0-20 m.
neck; aperture rounded, produced on over the peripheral wall. Systematics p. 275.
neck, with a small lip and a short tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 0-45 m.
This species is retained in Inaequalina
Systematics p. 282.
despite the presence of a distinct tooth,
uncharacteristic for the genus. As dis-
cussed by PARKER (2009), the bilateral
asymmetry is considered as the prominent
characteristic.
Southwestern lagoon, 35 m.
Systematics p. 268.

Miliolinella labiosa
Test much broader than long, irregular
in outline, surface largely composed of
the two last-formed chambers; chambers
Miliola often somewhat irregular; periphery
rounded; surface smooth but dull;
Miliola? sublineata aperture irregular, a sinuous arch, with a
Test rounded in outline, elliptical in smoothly finished narrow bordering lip
end view, periphery broadly rounded; but without a true tooth.
chambers in the adult spirally arranged, Northern shelf, Chesterfield, 2-200 m.
about 3 chambers in a whorl, irregular Systematics p. 275.
in outline; sutures depressed; wall orna-
Inaequalina? sp. 2 mented with thin longitudinal costae;
aperture terminal, cribrate. This species
Test ovate, concavo-convex, with a very
possesses the cribrate aperture character-
deep concave side; oral and aboral ends
istic of the genus, but the pitted surface,
produced; coiling planispiral, evolute,
also considered as characteristic, is not
with two chambers per whorl, visible on
visible on all specimens (here visible on
both sides; chambers subtriangular in
the left specimen, not on the right one),
section, with an acute edge on the con-
making the position of this species
cave side; sutures depressed; wall smooth,
questionable.
but surface irregular; aperture rounded,
produced on neck, with a small lip and a Northern shelf, 600 m.
short tooth. This species is retained in Systematics p. 280.
Inaequalina despite the presence of a
distinct tooth, uncharacteristic for the
genus. As discussed by PARKER (2009), the
bilateral asymmetry is considered as the
prominent characteristic.
Southwestern lagoon, 35 m.
Systematics p. 268.
110 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Miliolinella oceanica Miliolinella cf. M. semicostata Miliolinella cf. M. vigilax


Coiling quinqueloculine throughout; Test milioline with five chambers visible, Test large, oval in front view, roughly
chambers angular with one carina or two ovate to subcircular in lateral view, ovate in triangular in end view, with a rounded
carinate shoulders; wall roughly textured; cross section; margins broadly rounded; periphery; sutures distinct but not
large aperture at the end of the final chambers inflated, widest towards the depressed; wall opaque and smooth;
chamber bordered by an everted lip aboral end that is slightly produced, aperture broad with large apertural flap
surrounded by irregular minute ribs, rounded to flattened; sutures depressed; that leaves only a narrow opening.
and almost closed by an irregularly wall smooth, dull; several low, somewhat Northern shelf, 200 m.
shaped flap-like tooth. The form with one anastomosing longitudinal costae Systematics p. 275.
carina was considered as a different extending along the periphery; aperture
species (M. quinquangula) by LOEBLICH large with prominent lip, provided with
& TAPPAN (1994). an apertural flap.
Chesterfield, outer reef, 2-45 m. This species differs from the typical
Systematics p. 275. Miliolinella semicostata in the lack of the
typical prominent angular longitudinal
costae
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 275.

Miliolinella webbiana
Test circular in outline, compressed, with
a prominent longitudinal costate orna-
ment; arrangement quinqueloculine in
early stages, latter almost planispiral;
chambers triangular in cross section;
large aperture at the end of the final
Miliolinella subrotunda chamber bordered by an everted lip, pro-
vided with a prominent flap-like tooth
Test milioline; 3-5 inflated chambers
that occupies about one half of the aper-
Miliolinella pilasensis visible, strongly overlapping previous
tural base.
ones, arranged almost planispirally in
Test subcircular in lateral view, somewhat adults; wall smooth, sometimes translu- Bay of Prony, 25 m.
compressed; periphery rounded; sutures cent; aperture somewhat triangular in Systematics p. 275.
depressed; last formed chamber inflated profile; low and broad flap-shaped tooth
at its initial end, tapered towards the in front of the aperture, that may lack in
aperture; wall imperforate, smooth and some specimens.
polished; aperture a low arch with an
apertural flap that leaves only a long From coastal lagoons to passes, 0-40 m.
narrow opening. Systematics p. 275.
Southwestern lagoon and bays, 2-45 m.
Systematics p. 275.

juveniles
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 111

Miliolinella? sp. 1 Miliolinella sp. 4 Monalysidium confusa


Test surectangular in outline, somewhat Test ovate in side view, subcircular in end Test compressed, planispirally enrolled
compressed, periphery rounded, 5 chambers view, with 3 chambers visible externally, and involute in the early stages, later
visible; apertural end bent, overlapping the the last two chambers making up most of uncoiled; about height chambers in the
aboral end of the previous chamber; wall the test; surface smoothly finished; coiled section with sutures radial, slightly
imperforate, smooth; aperture terminal, aperture at the truncated end of the last arcuate, thick; chambers of the uncoiled
an arch, with a thickened peristome and chamber, a narrow slit between a slightly section low, but more inflated; wall
a very low apertural flap. thickened rim and the robust semicircular calcareous, with faint ribs aligned with
Bay of Prony, 30 m. flap-like tooth. the direction of coiling, separated by
Systematics p. 275. Northern shelf, 600 m. regular rows of large pits; aperture areal,
Systematics p. 275. centered, with a prominent lip, radiate
with several teeth projecting centrally.
Chesterfield, 1 m.
Systematics p. 281.

Monalysidium
Miliolinella sp. 2 Monalysidium acicularis
Test subcircular in side view; in end view, Early stage planispiral, biconvex with
center of the test oval, but with two very inflated chambers, somewhat compressed,
high and thick carinae; wall smooth, latter uniserial, cylindrical, long and thin;
polished; aperture triangular, at the end wall with longitudinal costae separated
of the final chamber, under a crest-like by irregular rows of large pseudopores; Nodobaculariella
carina, provided with a relatively small aperture becoming increasingly complex Nodobaculariella convexiuscula
triangular flap-like tooth. with growth, with crenulations folding Test compressed, broadly elliptical or
Northern shelf, 200 m. irregularly inwards, forming a dendritic nearly circular, slightly biconvex; periph-
Systematics p. 275. pattern. eral edge sharp or carinate; chambers
South of the Grande Terre, 40 m. few in number, broad, embracing,
Systematics p. 281. sutures obscured; surface marked by
partial, irregular, longitudinal costae;
aperture placed at one side of the median
peripheral line, oval, bordered by a
thickened or everted lip.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 266.

Miliolinella sp. 3
Test subsphaerical with 3 chambers visible
externally, increasing regularly in size as
added; surface smoothly finished; aperture
a narrow slit between the edge of the aper-
ture and the robust triangular flap-like
tooth, flush with the surface of the test.
Northern shelf, 500 m.
Systematics p. 275.
112 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Nodobaculariella japonica Nubeculina Nubeculinita


Test flattened, broad, with carinate Nubeculina advena Nubeculinita decorata
periphery; chambers of one-half coil in Test elongate, chambers of the initial Test attached, elongate, early stage enrolled,
length, slightly overlapping in the latter stage hardly visible, followed by a some- later irregular chambers forming two or
whorls, final chamber uncoiled in adult; what irregular series of chambers with more branches attached throughout;
wall imperforate, with longitudinal distinct sutures; coarsely agglutinated wall imperforate, milky white; aperture
costae; aperture elongate, terminal on the wall with porcelaneous cement and a terminal, against the attachment.
final chamber, with a bordering everted distinct porcelaneous neck; aperture Southwestern lagoon and outer reef,
lip. terminal at the end of the neck, with an 3-100 m.
Back reef sands, 15 m. everted peristomal rim that has a few Systematics p. 267.
Systematics p. 267. teeth projecting inward.
South of the Grande Terre, 20-80 m.
Systematics p. 267.

Nubeculinita ramosa
Test attached, elongate, early stage
enrolled, later irregular chambers forming
two or more branches growing upright,
free of the attachment; wall imperforate,
milky white; aperture consists of one or
Nodophthalmidium more terminal openings.
Nodophthalmidium gracilis Passes of the southwestern lagoon and
Test elongate; initial stage globular Chesterfield, 3-90 m.
(proloculus followed by a planispirally Systematics p. 267.
enrolled second chamber); latter a few
uncoiled and rectilinear flasklike
chambers strongly tapering towards the Nubeculinella
distal end; wall imperforate, thick with Nubeculinella sp. 1
longitudinal costae; aperture ovate, Test attached; proloculus followed by a
terminal and somewhat produced. first chamber coiling around it, a half
Coastal bay, 10 m. coil in length; later chambers irregular
Systematics p. 267. in size and shape, uniserially arranged;
wall imperforate, smooth milky-white;
aperture terminal, semicircular, against
the substratum. This fragile test was not
found in the sediment. Nummoloculina
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. Nummoloculina contraria
Systematics p. 267. Test ovate in outline, biconvex; periphery
broadly rounded, with two to five chambers
per whorl added in a single plane in
adult; lateral wall extensions from each
chamber overlap the preceding chambers;
wall thick, surface smooth and polished;
aperture semicircular to subtriangular, at
the end of the final chamber, with a small
flap.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 279.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 113

Nummoloculina sp. 1 Nummulopyrgo sp. 1 Parrina


Test ovate in outline, biconvex; periphery Test biloculine in the adult, spherical; Parrina bradyi
broadly rounded, with two to five chambers 2 last chambers visible, the last one Test elongate, early stage quinqueloculine,
per whorl added in a single plane in making up more than 3/4 of the test latter with a few irregular uncoiled
adult; lateral wall extensions from each surface; sutures flush, indistinct; wall chambers; wall imperforate, smooth;
chamber overlap the preceding chambers; imperforate, smooth; aperture semicircular, aperture terminal with two or more
wall thick, surface smooth and polished; nearly closed by a broad apertural flap openings usually produced on short
aperture semicircular at the end of the with a thickened margin, leaving only a necks on the final chamber.
final chamber with a thick peristome thin crescentic opening.
Southern shelf, 60 m.
marked by shallow, radial grooves, and SNorthern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 280.
provided with a broad spatulate tooth Systematics p. 268.
extending from the base of the opening.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 279.

Peneroplis
Parasorites Peneroplis pertusus
Parasorites orbitolitoides Highly variable morphology characterized
by a compressed biconvex planispiral coil,
Test discoidal, flat, and smooth; thickness often becoming fan-shaped or uniserial
hardly increased towards the periphery; in latter stages; test with numerous low
planispiral coiled early stage, later costae perpendicular to the sutures;
chambers annular, subdivided into one apertures multiple, terminal, a series of
layer of chamberlets by alternating radial irregular vermicular slits in young speci-
partitions; wall smooth and polished; mens that may become a row of square to
apertures small, round, in one row,
Nummulopyrgo rectangular openings in larger specimens.
sometimes in a slight depression, at the
Nummulopyrgo globulus periphery. Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon and
Test subspherical, chambers one-half coil Chesterfield, 0-40 m.
Southwestern lagoon and Chesterfield, Systematics p. 281.
in length with a rounded periphery; wall 0-60 m.
imperforate, smooth; aperture terminal, Systematics p. 282.
broad, nearly closed by a broad apertural
flap, leaving only a thin crescentic opening.
South of the Grande Terre, 35 m.
Systematics p. 268.

juvenile

juvenile
114 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Peneroplis planatus Planispirinella involuta Pseudohauerina orientalis


Test very flat; early stage planispiral and Planispirinella involuta differs from Test oval in outline; early chambers
involute; last whorl fanning out, chambers P. exigua in its more involute test inflated, with a quinqueloculine arrange-
rapidly increasing in width with nearly throughout growth; additional lamellae ment, latter planispiral with usually
constant height; test with numerous obscure the previous whorls; wall imper- more than two chambers per whorl,
blunt or faint ribs perpendicular to the forate, smooth; aperture terminal, slit-like, partially evolute; reticulate ornament
sutures, with no ribs in the umbilical at the end of the final chamber. more intense than in P. involuta with
depression; ribs separated by a single row of Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon and transverse ribs that correspond internally
large pits with circular outline; apertural Chesterfield, 0-40 m. to septula; apertures lyre-shaped in the
face and its shoulders covered with Systematics p. 266. juveniles, a full cribrate trematophore in
numerous small pits; aperture a linear the adults.
arrangement of irregularly oval openings. Southwestern lagoon, 0-40 m.
Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon and Systematics p. 281.
Chesterfield, 0-40 m.
Systematics p. 281.

Pseudohauerina
Pseudohauerina involuta Pseudohauerinella
Test subcircular in outline, lenticular, Pseudohauerinella dissidens
chambers in the early stage milioline, Test small robust, elongated, fusiform to
latter planispiral with usually more sub-polygonal in contour; both ends
than two chambers per whorl, distinctly truncated and not produced; chamber
involute; interior partially subdivided by arrangement quinqueloculine with grad-
numerous radial septula; wall ornamented ually increasing angle between successive
Planispirinella
with slightly curved ribs that correspond chambers; chambers slightly compressed,
Planispirinella exigua to the internal septula and numerous strongly plicated; sutures depressed;
Test discoidal, flattened, planispirally longitudinal striae; aperture terminal, in walls rough, ornamented with irregular
coiled with about three, hardly visible, the juvenile stage an opening with simple microstriae and irregularly distributed
chambers per whorl; whorls partially tooth, in the adult stage a convex cribrate pits; aperture at the end of the last
evolute, becoming more so in latter aperture. chamber, truncated, subcircular with an
chambers; an additional lamella covers Southwestern lagoon, 0-40 m. elongate bifid tooth; the thickened peri-
the umbilical areas with subsequent Systematics p. 280. stomal margin may produce two lateral
chamber additions, obscuring the previous infolds.
whorls; wall imperforate, smooth; aperture Northern shelf, 600 m.
a high ovate opening in the face of the Systematics p. 281.
final chamber.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
Systematics p. 266.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 115

Pseudolachlanella Pseudomassilina Pseudomassilina pacificiensis


Pseudolachlanella eburnea Pseudomassilina australis Test sub-elliptical to circular in lateral
Test cryptoquinqueloculine, elliptical in Test elliptical to circular in lateral view, view, broadly subtriangular in end view;
lateral view, slightly compressed, with strongly flattened; initial milioline coiled the early quinqueloculine stage indistinct,
rounded periphery; aboral end strongly chamber arrangement, latter planispiral latter stage planispiral with two to three
overlapping preceding chambers; sutures with two to three chambers per whorl, chambers per whorl, laterally embracing
depressed; wall smooth and polish; aperture slowly increasing in width; wall penetrated the previous chambers; wall transversally
an elongate slit almost completely filled by numerous minute pits; aperture large plicated; aperture large and compressed,
by a large projecting tooth. and compressed, without tooth but with without tooth but with an everted lip.
Coastal lagoons, bays. an everted margin. Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
Systematics p. 275. Southwestern lagoon, 5-45 m. Systematics p. 276.
Systematics p. 275.

Pseudomassilina robusta
Test elliptical in lateral view, triangular
Pseudolachlanella slitella in end view; early stage milioline, latter
Test elongate, periphery subrounded; planispiral with two chambers per whorl,
chambers one-half coil in length, early Pseudomassilina macilenta slowly increasing in width; wall thick,
stage cryptoquinqueloculine latter nearly Test elliptical to circular in lateral view, very roughly finished, with an anasto-
planispiral; chambers broadly overlapping; flattened; early stage quinqueloculine, mosing ornamentation and numerous
wall imperforate, surface smooth; aperture latter planispiral with two to three large pits; aperture large and compressed,
a very narrow, curved, elongate slit with chambers per whorl, slowly increasing in without tooth but with a slightly everted
parallel sides, provided with a long slender width; wall ornamented with longitudinal, margin.
tooth with short, thickened termination. somewhat oblique costae; aperture large Southwestern lagoon, 15 m.
Bays, 5-20 m. and compressed, without tooth but with Systematics p. 276.
Systematics p. 275. an everted margin.
Southwestern lagoon, 5-30 m.
Systematics p. 276.

juvenile
116 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Pseudomassilina? sp. 1 Pseudotriloculina linneiana Pyrgo


Test elliptical in lateral view, lenticular in Test cryptoquinqueloculine typically with Pyrgo anomala
end view; chambers arranged planispirally three visible chambers, elongate, tapering Test ovate in outline, slightly produced
with two somewhat oblique chambers per toward either end; surface ornamented by towards the aperture, inflated and subcir-
whorl, slowly increasing in width; wall a few very prominent, raised, longitudinal cular in cross section; periphery obtusely
thick, with smooth longitudinal costae, ridges, with deep depressions between; angled to subrounded; wall smooth;
roughly finished and pitted between the periphery rounded or slightly ovate; aper- aperture terminal, subcircular, with a
costae; aperture compressed, with a ture large with thickened peristomal rim pronounced bifid tooth.
slightly everted margin that is folded at and large bifid tooth.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
the contact with the penultimate chamber. Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon, Systematics p. 276.
This species resembles some young stages 5-30 m.
of Pseudomassilina spp., but differs in Systematics p. 276.
the folded margin of the aperture.
SNorthern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 276.

Pyrgo comata
Pseudotriloculina subgranulata
Test biloculine, involute, subglobular, the
Test cryptoquinqueloculine with usually
chambers very much inflated, in end
only three chambers visible in the final
Pseudotriloculina whorl; chambers inflated, wall finely
view subcircular; sutures distinct, incised;
Pseudotriloculina wall ornamented with numerous, fine,
granular, with surface undulations
cf. P. chrysostoma longitudinal costae; aperture oval, with a
resulting in a rough surface; aperture
tooth provided with winglike extensions.
Test cryptoquinqueloculine, ovate in lateral large with thickened peristomal rim and
and end views, somewhat compressed; large bifid tooth. Northern shelf, 600 m.
periphery broadly rounded; 3 chambers Systematics p. 276.
Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon,
visible, with the last two making up most 5-30 m.
of the test surface; aboral end rounded with Systematics p. 276.
chambers tapering towards the aperture;
sutures distinct but very slightly depressed;
wall smooth and shiny; aperture slightly
produced, a high arch that does not extend
down to the suture of the penultimate
chamber, narrowing along the stem of the
long tooth that has a T-shaped extremity.
The shape of the aperture, with the lips juvenile

extending towards the stem of the tooth,


is different from the specimens shown by
HAYWARD et al. (1999). However, the differ-
ence in size suggests that the specimens
found in New Caledonia may be juveniles.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 276.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 117

Pyrgo denticulata Pyrgo oblonga Pyrgo rotaliara


Test biloculine, involute, sub-circular in Test biloculine, involute in the adult, Test biloculine, involute, subcircular in
outline, with a carinate peripheral margin pear-shaped in outline, with a rounded outline, strongly biconvex; chambers
and a serrated aboral margin; wall peripheral margin; wall smooth; aperture helmet-shaped in cross section; periphery
smooth; aperture at the end of the last at the end of the last chamber, ovate to acute, subcarinate, the carina of the
chamber, ovate, provided with a broadly subcircular, provided with a T-shaped previous chambers sometimes visible along
T-shaped tooth with prominent lateral tooth with a relatively narrow base. the suture; surface smooth; aperture at
extensions and a narrow base. Outer reef, 30 m. the end of a distinct and compressed
Southwestern lagoon in areas under Systematics p. 276. neck, with a thickened rim connected
open-sea influence, 10-60 m. with the carina, and provided with a
Systematics p. 276. narrow bifid tooth.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 277.

juvenile
Pyrgo phlegeri
Test biloculine, involute, subcircular in
outline, biconvex lenticular in end view, Pyrgo sarsi
Pyrgo depressa somewhat truncated at the aboral end; Test nearly circular in end view, ellipsoid
Test nearly circular in front view, com- periphery acute, subcarinate; surface in end view, the ends slightly truncated
pressed, toward the periphery extending smooth; aperture distinctly produced, and the periphery angled, somewhat
out into a thin carina; median portion an elongated slit restricted by a highly produced; wall smooth; aperture broad,
rotund, in end view lenticular; wall protruding, elongated bifid tooth with with the tooth curved, concave in the
smooth; aperture broad, the tooth two short pointing extensions. middle, the ends extended and the
extending nearly the whole width of the Northern shelf, 600 m. aperture curving in a circle about them.
aperture, living only a slit-like opening. Systematics p. 277. Northern shelf, 600 m.
SNorthern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 277.
Systematics p. 276.

Pyrgo rasheedi
Test ovate in young to spherical in adult
specimens, biloculine; periphery rounded;
last chamber envelops half of penultimate
Pyrgo inornata chamber; wall smooth; aperture rounded
Test biloculine, involute in the adult, with a tooth projecting from the apertural
ovate in outline, slightly produced face; tooth changes from slightly bifid
towards the aperture, strongly biconvex through hoof-shaped bifid to reindeer
and subcircular in cross section; periphery horn-shape toward the full-grown adult
rounded; surface smooth; aperture oval, stage. Only young specimens were found
provided with a broad tooth with lateral in this study.
extensions and a wide base. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 276. Systematics p. 277.

juvenile
118 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Pyrgo striolata Pyrgo tainanensis Pyrgo sp. 2


Test biloculine, involute in the adult, Test biloculine, involute in the adult, sub- Test biloculine, involute in the adult, ovate
almost rectangular in outline; chambers spherical; chambers very much inflated in outline, slightly produced towards the
thicker towards the aboral end with a and rotund; wall with about ten longitu- aperture, inflated and subcircular in cross
carinate peripheral margin and a serrated dinal costae, only some of them reaching section; periphery obtusely angled to sub-
aboral margin; sutures sigmoidal in lateral the end of the test; aperture wide at the end rounded; aperture terminal, subtriangular,
view; ornamentation highly variable with of the last chamber, provided with a small with a thick Y-shaped tooth.
distinct longitudinal costae; aperture low peristomal lip and a broad plate-like Northern shelf, 600 m.
and wide at the end of the last chamber, tooth with large wing-like developments Systematics p. 277.
provided with a peristomal lip and a at the ends.
broad plate-like tooth with prominent Northern shelf, 600 m.
lateral extensions. Systematics p. 277.
Southwestern lagoon and Bay of Prony,
10-30 m.
Systematics p. 277.

Pyrgo sp. 3
Distinguishing features:
Test biloculine, involute in the adult,
Pyrgo vespertilio ovate, elongate, tapering gradually to the
Test subspherical, the apertural end apertural end, somewhat truncate;
broadly truncate; wall smooth except for chambers somewhat obliquely added;
a few small longitudinal ridges; aperture periphery rounded, sutures depressed; wall
Pyrgo subpisus elongate partially closed by a large flat imperforate, smooth; aperture elliptical
Test biloculine, involute in the adult, tooth with broadly rounded ends. This provided with a flattened T-shaped tooth
globular, circular in outline, periphery species, with longitudinal ridges is very with a thick base in the adult, a simple
acute; wall smooth or with fine striae; similar to the species illustrated by tooth in younger stages.
aperture elongate, broadly elliptical, with CUSHMAN (1921). Northern shelf, 600 m.
a raised rim and a large plate-like tooth Southern shelf, 70 m. Systematics p. 277.
with the ends broadly rounded; apertural Systematics p. 277.
opening narrow, sinuate.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 277.

Pyrgo sp. 4
Pyrgo sp. 1 Test biloculine, involute in the adult,
Test biloculine, involute in the adult, subcircular in outline, slightly produced
subspherical; wall with 4-6 high irregular towards the apertural end, inflated and
costae; aperture low and wide at the end subcircular in cross section; periphery
of the last chamber, provided with a obtusely angled, sutures depressed; surface
broad plate-like tooth with prominent ornamented by a few longitudinal costae;
lateral extensions aperture subtriangular provided with
Northern shelf, 600 m. T-shaped tooth with a thin base.
Systematics p. 277. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 277.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 119

Pyrgoella Quinqueloculina arenata Quinqueloculina barnardi


Pyrgoella irregularis Test quinqueloculine; periphery rounded; Test robust, oval in lateral view and
Test biloculine, involute in the adult, Chambers broadly rounded, tapering triangular in cross section; margins
subglobular; hardly visible suture line at towards each end; wall coarsely aggluti- acutely rounded to truncated, or even
the contact between the last chamber and nated, the agglutinate often obscuring bicarinate; wall ornamented with
the previous one; wall smooth and highly sutures and chamber arrangement; numerous fine striae; aperture com-
polished; aperture a triangular opening aperture terminal, circular, at the end of pressed, Lachlanella-type with a long
almost completely closed by a plate like a distinct neck, provided with a slightly simple tooth.
tooth bent outward all along its free protruding tooth, thickened at the tip. Widely distributed in the southwestern
margin. This deformed specimen shows Southwestern lagoon and Chesterfield, lagoon, 5-75 m.
more than two chambers. 5-60 m. Systematics p. 270.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 270.
Systematics p. 277.

Quinqueloculina bassensis
Test with a cryptoquinqueloculine coiling;
Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina auberiana chambers sudquadrangular in section with
Quinqueloculina agglutinans Test broadly oval; chambers sharply two carina and a convex peripheral margin
Test slightly elongate, quinqueloculine, angled to slightly sub-rounded, faint between the carina; wall matte, ornamented
with broadly rounded, somewhat truncated carina may be present; faces curved, or with weak anastomosing striae; a small
periphery; chambers distinct, rounded in S-shaped in end view; sutures distinct; amount of finely agglutinated matter may
transverse section; sutures visible wall smooth; aperture an arch of variable be attached to the test surface; aperture
although often obscured by the arenaceous height, with a simple tooth which may compressed, Lachlanella-type with a
material; wall with the surface coarsely protrude slightly above the periphery. distinctly bifid tooth and a peristomal lip.
arenaceous and roughly finished; aperture Northern shelf, 600 m. Islet in the southwestern lagoon, 5 m.
slightly produced, lachlanella type, with Systematics p. 270. Systematics p. 270.
a slight lip and a bifid tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 5-25 m.
Systematics p. 270.
120 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Quinqueloculina bicarinata Quinqueloculina boroi Quinqueloculina bradyana


Test quinqueloculine, subcircular in lateral Test elongate, slightly compressed, ovate Test robust, slightly longer than broad;
view, triangular in cross section; in cross section, periphery rounded, with chambers angular, somewhat plicated
described by CUSHMAN (1921) with “two 3 to 5 chambers visible from the exterior laterally with the outer peripheral angle
somewhat rounded carinae at the outer of the test; sutures depressed; chambers sinuous; apertural end truncated, aboral
border of each chamber that coalesce with the greater width at the basal end end angular; aperture narrow, Lachlanella-
towards either end”, but shown by HAIG that is somewhat extended; apertural end type with a simple tooth, which allows the
(1988) to range from strongly bicarinate to truncated, compressed; wall smooth; distinction with Q. distorqueata.
acutely monocarinate; wall occasionally aperture a narrow arch without tooth. Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
slightly striate longitudinally; aperture Near an islet of the southwestern lagoon, Systematics p. 271.
ovate, flush or slightly protruding, with a 5 m.
weakly reverted lip and a strong T-shaped Systematics p. 271.
tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 5-30 m.
Systematics p. 270.

Quinqueloculina
carinatastriata
Test elongate, oval in side view, subtrian-
gular in cross section; ornamented with
Quinqueloculina bosciana slightly oblique costae and a pronounced
Test elongate, truncated at the apertural peripheral carina; aperture terminal, cir-
end, rounded at the aboral end, periphery cular to slightly oval, produced on a short
Quinqueloculina bicornis rounded; sutures distinct; aperture termi- neck with a peristomal lip and a short
nal, circular, produced on a broad short tooth that thickens towards the tip.
Test quinqueloculine, broad, of moderate to
large size, ovate in lateral view; chambers neck with a short bifid tooth. As noticed Bays, outer estuaries, shrimp ponds, 0-20 m.
quadrangular in cross section, with three by HAIG, 1997, this species resembles Systematics p. 271.
strong longitudinal carinae; surface Quinqueloculina haigi in its chamber
densely ornamented by fine, but strong, arrangement (being cryptoquinqueloculine
longitudinal costae; aperture terminal, to quinqueloculine in New Caledonia),
elongated, narrow and keyhole-shaped and apertural detail, but lacks the distinct
bordered by a low flange with a long pseudopores that give Q. haigi a pitted
tooth, bifid at the tip. surface.
This species resembles Q. bicornis by its Coastal areas, bays, shrimp ponds, 0-10 m.
general shape, its surface ornamentation Systematics p. 271.
and its aperture. It differs by the three
strong carinae.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 271.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 121

Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina


collumnosa crassicarinata cuvieriana
Test elongate, periphery angled and Test subcircular in lateral view, triangular Test ovate to subcircular in side view;
projecting, the last formed chamber in cross section; very prominent, acute, chambers not inflated, periphery acutely
extending out beyond the outline of the keels; wall smoothly finished; aperture angled; sutures distinct, slightly incised;
test at both ends; chambers undulate; produced on a short neck, circular with surface ornamented with longitudinal
wall smooth; apertural end much con- an everted apertural lip and a short simple striae that run along the entire length of
tracted, ending in a narrow, angled, tooth. the test and are slightly anastomosing;
cylindrical neck; aperture small, rounded South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. aperture flush with the peripheral margin,
with an everted lip and a small tooth. Systematics p. 270. without a neck, a rounded arch provided
Southwestern lagoon, 10 m. with a simple tooth.
Systematics p. 270. Southwestern lagoon, 5-30 m.
Systematics p. 270.

Quinqueloculina crenulata
Test elongate, slender, about three times Quinqueloculina debenayi
as long as broad; chambers not much
inflated; sutures distinct; wall ornamented Test fusiform in side view, laterally
Quinqueloculina corrugata compressed. Chambers one-half coil in
by very coarse, obliquely curved, short
Test quinqueloculine, elongated, periphery costae, extending inward from the length, slightly inflated, arranged in a
truncated; sutures depressed; surface peripheral angle, and sloping toward the quinqueloculine pattern; five chambers
marked by a series of transverse ridges base of the chamber; aperture produced visible from the exterior; sutures slightly
and alternating excavations; aperture on a prominent neck. depressed; chamber margins subrounded
elongated, slightly produced and recurved, in early stages, later tending to become
with a peristomal lip and a long tooth Southwestern lagoon, 35 m. carinate; surface with minute anasto-
that may be bifid at the tip. Differs from Systematics p. 270. mosing microridges; aperture terminal,
Q. parkeri in the truncated periphery subcircular, bordered by a thickened
and the produced aperture. collar-like peristomal rim and provided
Southwestern lagoon, 5-30 m. with a tooth with short bifid termination.
Systematics p. 270. Bays of the southwestern lagoon, 0-5 m.
Systematics p. 270.
122 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Quinqueloculina delicatula Quinqueloculina distorqueata Quinqueloculina exmouthensis


Test elongate with angular peripheral Test quinqueloculine, subelliptical in Test small, robust, elongate, about one
margins that are typically convex; margins lateral view, nearly as broad as long; and a half to two times higher than wide,
acutely rounded or truncate; basal end chambers longitudinally distorted, giving broadly oval in lateral view, broadly tri-
broadly rounded, apertural end produced the test an irregular twisted shape; aboral angular in cross section; peripheral
and truncated with a short neck; surface end produced, with two distinct carinae margins truncated; oral end produced,
rough; aperture rounded, provided with a that merge about the middle of the test aboral end rounded; coiling distinctly
thickened rim and a small bifid tooth. into a single carina; test rough, covered quinqueloculine with five chambers
Southwestern lagoon, 5-35 m. irregularly with agglutinated material; visible in the final whorl; chambers
Systematics p. 271. aperture terminal rounded, at the end of maintain approximately even width and
a short neck, with a slightly everted lip height over length, becoming restricted at
and a stout bifid tooth. the oral end; sutures distinct, incised; wall
Dispersed in the southwestern lagoon, smoothly finished, matte, ornamented
5-30 m. with faint striations; aperture terminal,
Systematics p. 271. circular, produced on neck that may be
quite long, provided with a small bifid
tooth.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 272.

Quinqueloculina disparilis
Test short and broad, periphery broadly
rounded or somewhat truncate, the outer
side of the chamber with longitudinal
costae, the sides almost smooth, with fine, Quinqueloculina erinacea
indistinct striae; aperture not produced, Test small, elliptical in lateral view;
subcircular, provided with a bifid tooth. periphery rounded; prominent spinose
Northern shelf, 600 m. ornament, with 4-5 longitudinal rows of
Systematics p. 271. conical spines; aperture rounded, slightly
produced, with a small thick tooth some-
what bifurcated at the tip.
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Systematics p. 272.
Quinqueloculina exsculpta
Test elongated, quinqueloculine; chambers
inflated and sutures deeply excavated;
wall smoothly finished; aperture produced
on a neck that may be long and curved in
adults, ovate, provided with a very short,
bifurcate tooth.
Lifou, Loyalty Island, 5 m; Bay of Prony,
15 m.
Systematics p. 272.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 123

Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina inaequalis Quinqueloculina latidentella


granulocostata Test elongated, somewhat compressed; Test ovate in outline, flattened, periphery
Test elongated, quinqueloculine, but the chambers with a quadrangular periphery. broadly rounded; chamber arrangement
last two chambers almost in the same Test with 2 strong costae making carinated quinqueloculine; sutures depressed,
plane; chambers with 4-5 strong costae, shoulders that reach both ends of the slightly oblique; chambers maintaining a
three on the peripheral margin, two of chamber; aperture rounded, with a peris- roughly even width over their length,
them making carinated shoulders that tomal lip, provided with two opposite only slightly inflated at the aboral end;
reach the aboral end of the chamber T-shaped teeth. surface smooth to moderately rough;
and join towards the aperture; aperture Lifou, Loyalty Islands, 5 m. aperture terminal, flush with the oral end
subtriangular, slightly produced, with a Systematics p. 272. of the test or slightly projected, surrounded
peristomal lip, provided with a protruding, by a peristomal rim and provided with a
U-shaped bifurcated tooth. low bifid tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 5-30 m. Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 272. Systematics p. 272.

Quinqueloculina jugosa
Test quinqueloculine, elliptical in lateral
view, elongated with a rounded periphery;
juvenile wall imperforate, ornamented by numer-
ous, low, longitudinal costae somewhat
anastomosing; aperture terminal, circular,
Quinqueloculina haigi produced on a short neck, bordered by a
peristomal rim and provided with a short
Test elongated, periphery rounded, ovate T-shaped tooth.
in cross section; chambers one half coil
in length, early stage cryptoquinquelocu- Coastal lagoons, shrimp ponds.
Systematics p. 272.
line later with 3-4 chambers visible from Quinqueloculina lizardi
the exterior; sutures very slightly Test elongate, compressed, elliptical in
depressed, hardly visible; wall finely lateral view, quinqueloculine, 3-5 cham-
pitted; aperture circular at the projected bers visible; test surface strongly pitted;
end of the last chamber, provided with a aperture terminal, slightly compressed
non pitted rim and a short simple tooth with a small tooth.
with thickened termination.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Northern shelf, 200 m. Systematics p. 272.
Systematics p. 272.
124 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina


massiliniformis neostriatula parallela
Test sub-circular in lateral outline in Test highly variable in shape, broadly Test roundly quadrate, compressed,
adult tests, higher than wide; coiling subelliptical in lateral view, quinquelocu- periphery rounded; in side view the two
quinqueloculine in early stage, becoming line with last chambers overlapping; sides of the test nearly parallel. Chambers
spiroloculine in final stage; peripheral periphery rounded to angular; chambers inflated, rather straight, widest and
margin truncated with angular edges; may be weakly to strongly transversely curved at the basal end; sutures slightly
oral end truncated, aboral end slightly plicated; wall ornamentation varies from depressed; wall smooth with faint
produced; sutures depressed, curved; wall faint microstriae to more prominent lon- transverse lines; apertural end truncate,
matte, smooth but with a fine rough finish; gitudinal anastomosing costae; aperture aperture highly arched with a broad
aperture flush, sub-circular, with thickened terminal, a large crescentic opening with slightly bifid tooth that is broken on the
peristomal rim, provided with a tooth a smooth peristomal ring and a small illustrated specimen.
about half the height of the apertural flattened bifurcate tooth. Isle of Pines, 5 m.
opening, T-shaped in the adults. Widely distributed in the southwestern Systematics p. 272.
Southwestern lagoon, coastal areas, 5-10 m. lagoon, 0-35 m.
Systematics p. 272. Systematics p. 272.

Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina parkeri


neocylindrica Test robust, periphery subacute; sutures
Test small, elongate, subcylindrical, depressed; aboral end produced; surface
slightly compressed, subcircular in cross Quinqueloculina with pronounced transverse ribbing;
section, with nearly parallel sides and cf. Q. oblonga aperture rectangular, Lachlanella-type
periphery broadly rounded; chambers Test elongate, subelliptical in lateral view, with a lip that can be slightly everted;
strongly overlapping leaving 3 chambers oval in cross section, quinqueloculine; large single tooth that is thickened to
visible externally; chambers widest at sutures slightly depressed; wall smooth and slightly bifid at the tip. Differs from
the basal end, subglobose, gradually shiny; aperture terminal, ovate, without Q. corrugata in the acute periphery and
narrowing towards the apertural end; thicken rim and provided with a bifid the truncated apertural end.
sutures slightly depressed; wall smooth; tooth with long base and short branches. Southwestern lagoon, 5-25 m.
apertural end truncated; aperture highly Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. Systematics p. 272.
arched, almost filled by a massive tooth. Systematics p. 272.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 272.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 125

Quinqueloculina parvaggluta Quinqueloculina polygona Quinqueloculina


Tests ovate in side view, subtriangular Test elongate; chambers distinct; sutures quinquecarinata
in end view; chambers distinct, with slightly depressed; each chamber polygonal Test small and elongated; chambers with
constant width throughout their length, in cross section, the periphery usually sharply acute and carinate peripheral
quadrate in cross section with straight concave, with a projecting carina at either margins; wall smooth and glossy; aperture
sides and truncated periphery; wall with angle; surface usually dull; apertural end produced on a short neck, sub-circular,
agglutinated matter present mostly along extending into a cylindrical neck, aperture provided with a small bifid tooth.
the sides and the central portion of the circular with an everted lip, and a single Bay of Prony, 10-30 m.
peripheral face of each chamber; aperture bifid tooth. Systematics p. 273.
ovate to rounded, produced on a short Lifou, Loyalty Island, 5 m.
cylindrical, smoothly finished neck; Systematics p. 273.
provided with a small bifid tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 273.

Quinqueloculina pittensis Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina rariformis


Test quinqueloculine, ovate to subcircular pseudoreticulata Test quinqueloculine, elongate, fusiform;
in side view; peripheral margins angular Test elongate, quinqueloculine; periphery periphery rounded; sutures concealed; wall
to subacute; chamber sides slightly convex; broadly rounded to sub-acute; surface imperforate; ornamentation irregular;
sutures slightly to deeply depressed; wall showing a broad range of ornament with longitudinal ridges in coarse reticular
surface roughly finished with agglutinated basically rather regular reticulation on pattern covering the entire test; aboral
grains incorporated into the wall; aperture the periphery that may become obsolescent end produced; aperture produced on a
a low arch with a peristomal rim and a on the side of the chambers; apertural distinct neck, rounded, with a peristomal
short bifid tooth. end projecting and contracted to form a ring, lacking distinct tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 5-60 m. neck, variable in length, ending in an Southwestern lagoon, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 273. almost circular aperture, surrounded by a Systematics p. 273.
phialine lip and provided with a bifid
tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 15 m.
Systematics p. 273.
126 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina


cf. Q. rugosa schlumbergeri semireticulosa
Test quinqueloculine, subrectangular in Test elongate with five chambers visible; Test small, two to three times as long as
lateral view; chambers acutely angled, chambers carinate, carinae typically broad, periphery rounded, the basal end
quadrangular in cross section, periphery thickened and truncate; surface smooth; broadly rounded, the apertural end
and sides flattened or slightly concave; aperture at the end of a short neck, somewhat more contracted; chambers
wall with anastomosing broken lines, round, provided with a short, distinctly distinct, slightly inflated; sutures slightly
extremely rugose, but without agglutinated bifid tooth. depressed; wall ornamented by a somewhat
material; aperture terminal, produced on Northern shelf, 200 m. reticulate pattern, the main elements of
a neck, bordered by a peristomal rim and Systematics p. 273. which are composed of oblique costae,
provided with two teeth, a long bifid one somewhat irregularly sinuous, the
at the inner margin and a shorter bifid depressed areas between broken up by
one at the outer margin. transverse ridges into a series of elongate
The specimens from New Caledonia have pits; aperture very slightly produced,
two teeth, as those from New Guinea (HAIG, occasionally with a very short neck;
1988), while Cushman indicates a simple aperture nearly circular with a very short,
tooth in the north Pacific and draws a simple tooth.
single bifid tooth in the Philippine. Shallow bay in the southwestern lagoon,
Southwestern lagoon, 5-60 m. 0-5 m.
Systematics p. 273. Systematics p. 273.

Quinqueloculina seminula
Test elongate, 2 times as long as broad,
cryptoquinqueloculine to quinqueloculine,
ovate in lateral view, ovate in cross section,
with rounded periphery; oral end truncated,
aboral end inflated, slightly produced;
sutures slightly depressed; wall is smooth,
Quinqueloculina polished and glossy; aperture without a
cf. Q. sagamiensis neck, arched-shaped with a thickened
Test elongate, slightly compressed, nearly rim but no lip, provided with a small Quinqueloculina subcuneata
twice as long as broad, irregularly trian- tooth, often bifid. Test short, almost circular in side view,
gular in end view; chambers inflated, Coastal lagoons, marshes, estuaries, bays. subtriangular in end view with five
periphery rounded; sutures obscured by Systematics p. 273. chambers visible from the exterior;
the ornamentation, sinuous; surface chambers wedge-shaped, almost sharp
ornamented by several prominent longi- at the peripheral angles; wall polished,
tudinal costae, running from the base of ornamented with raised costae irregularly
the chamber to the base of the stout distributed on the test; aperture an oval
cylindrical neck; aperture subcircular, arch with a simple tooth thickened at the
with a single tooth, tip.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m. Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Systematics p. 273. Systematics p. 273.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 127

Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina Quinqueloculina


subparkeri cf. Q. sulcata transversestriata
Test subcircular to elliptical in lateral view, Test elongate, chambers distinct, early Test elongate, compressed, 2-3 times as
compressed, subtriangular in end view, stages with a single angle at the periphery, long as broad; periphery subacute; sur-
quinqueloculine, approaching spirolocu- later becoming truncate with two angles, face ornamented by numerous obliquely
line in the later stages; wall matte, with and in the adult typically with three transverse costae; aperture produced on a
slightly roughened appearance; dominant raised costae; sutures not depressed but short neck, rounded, with a small simple
ornament a transverse ribbing that may fairly distinct; both ends of the last- tooth.
be associated to a weak longitudinal costate formed chamber protruding; apertural Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
ornament at the periphery, appearing end considerably extended, tapering with Systematics p. 274.
almost reticulate; aperture without a a rounded opening, a definite lip, and a
neck, but with a thickened peristomal lip, simple to slightly bifid tooth, slightly
arch-shaped with a short protruding protruding. The status of this species is
tooth, often bifid. rather unclear.
Southwestern lagoon, 35 m. Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 273. Systematics p. 274.

Quinqueloculina tropicalis
Quinqueloculina subpolygona Test elongate, slightly compressed,
periphery rounded, but last chamber may
Test elongate, somewhat compressed, be somewhat truncated; chambers sub-
about 2 times as long as broad; chambers cylindrical with their maximum diameter
with a quadrangular periphery; test with at the aboral end, giving a rectangular
3-5 strong costae, two of them making outline to the test; wall dull, surface
carinate shoulders that reach the peris- ornamented with irregular ridges, this
tomal and aboral ends of the chamber; ornamentation described as granular by
aperture subquadrangular, Lachlanella Quinqueloculina tantabiddyensis
C USHMAN (1924); aperture terminal,
type, with a peristomal lip, provided with Test small, elongate, about 3 times as
circular, or triangular when the margin
a long narrow tooth with a small bifid long as broad, typically quinqueloculine
of the last chamber is truncated, with a
end. with five chambers visible in final whorl;
thickened rim and provided with a bifid
Southwestern lagoon, 5-35 m. rounded periphery; sutures depressed,
tooth.
Systematics p. 273. subparallel to test axis; oral end truncated,
aboral end rounded; wall smooth and Shallow bay in the southwestern lagoon,
glossy; aperture produced, Lachlanella- 0-5 m.
type, without peristomal lip, provided with Systematics p. 274.
an elongate tooth terminally thickened
or slightly bifurcate at the tip.
Bay of Prony, 15-25 m.
Systematics p. 274.
128 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Quinqueloculina tubus Quinqueloculina venusta Quinqueloculina zhengi


Test subcircular in lateral view, triangular Test fusiform, obviously quinqueloculine, Test small, elongate, 2-3 times longer
in cross section; periphery acute; sutures one and a half as long as wide; chambers than broad, quinqueloculine; oral and
distinct and incised; wall ornamented by prominently triangular in transverse aboral ends produced, peripheral margin
characteristic deep grooves between section, the peripheral margin bluntly sharpened and becoming bicarinate
prominent ornaments; grooves becoming angular; sutures depressed; wall smooth; towards the oral and aboral ends; wall
less incised towards the oral and aboral apertural end produced to form a short surface finely striate; aperture terminal,
ends; aperture terminal, arch-shaped or contracted, conical neck nearly circular on a neck, sub-circular with bordering
rounded and produced on a short neck, in section; aperture rounded, with a thickened everted peristomal rim, provided
with a somewhat everted lip and thick thickened rim and short simple tooth. with small bifurcate tooth with short
triangular-shaped tooth. Northern shelf, 600 m. stem.
Northern shelf, 200 m. Systematics p. 274. Bay of Prony, 15-25 m.
Systematics p. 274. Systematics p. 274.

Quinqueloculina
Quinqueloculina cf. Q. victoriensis
vandiemeniensis Test about twice as high as wide, with
Test small, elongate, subrectangular in rounded peripheral margins; chambers Quinqueloculina sp. 1
outline, sutures and sides roughly in quinqueloculine arrangement; surface
parallel; chambers in quinqueloculine ornamented with sharp longitudinal Test quinqueloculine, longer than broad,
arrangement; margin subacute; oral and costae; aperture somewhat everted, an elliptical in side view, somewhat com-
aboral ends truncated; surface smooth; elongated arch with a long bifid tooth. pressed; sutures fairly distinct, chambers
aperture terminal, not produced, provided The specimens from New Caledonia are polygonal in section; periphery keeled, the
with a thickened rim and a short bifid similar to those from Ningaloo Reef, keel dichotomously branching towards
tooth. Australia (PARKER, 2009). the aboral end; periphery concave
between the keels; wall smooth; aperture
Northern shelf, 200 m. Northern shelf, 200 m. subcircular at the end of a short neck,
Systematics p. 274. Systematics p. 274. and with a short, anvil-shaped tooth.
Bay of Prony, 15-25 m.
Systematics p. 274.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 129

Quinqueloculina sp. 2 Quinqueloculina sp. 4 Quinqueloculina sp. 6


Test ovate in lateral view, with truncate Test elongate with five chambers visible Test quinqueloculine, ovate in lateral view,
apertural end, triangular in cross section; in the adult, apertural end considerably triangular in cross section; chambers
five chambers visible; early chambers extended out beyond the main body of arcuate, tapering towards either end;
with rounded periphery, last chamber the test; chambers distinct, elongate, with periphery with two sharp carinate margins,
truncate with angular margins; wall concave faces between two to three raised generally converging into a single carina
smooth; aperture highly compressed costae; a longitudinal furrow, parallel to towards the aperture; periphery deeply
provided with a long thin tooth that is the costae is gouged out on each face; depressed between the margins; wall
bifid at the tip. both ends of the last-formed chamber smooth; aperture rounded, produced on a
Bay in the southwestern lagoon, 10 m. extending beyond the previous chambers, neck, with a peristomal rim, not reflected,
Systematics p. 274. the apertural end tapering, with a rounded and a short simple tooth. This species
opening provided with a small T-shaped resembles Q. bicostata by its ornamenta-
tooth, slightly protruding. The longitudinal tion, but differs from the later species in
furrow is the main distinctive feature for possessing a long cylindrical neck.
this species. Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Chesterfield, 15 m. Systematics p. 274.
Systematics p. 274.

Quinqueloculina sp. 3
Test elongate about two and a half longer
than broad, somewhat triangular in end
view, with five chambers visible in the
adult; chambers narrow with bicarinate
margin; the two carinae merge towards
the apertural end, giving a single high
carina; oral end truncated and slightly
produced, aboral end rounded and pro-
duced; sutures slightly depressed; wall Quinqueloculina sp. 5 Quinqueloculina sp. 7
finely striate, roughly finished; aperture Test ovate to subquadrate in side view, Test small, ovate in lateral view, quinque-
terminal with a tall oval shape, with ovate in end view; periphery broadly loculine, with rounded peripheral margin;
thickened peristomal lip; long thin tooth rounded; 5 chambers visible, with the last chamber subcylindrical with uniform
thickened at the tip. Quinqueloculina two making up most of the test surface; diameter throughout length; sutures
sp. 3 resembles Quinqueloculina sp. 22 aboral end rounded, sides nearly parallel; depressed; wall coarsely agglutinated;
of PARKER (2009), but differs from this sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall aperture rounded with a lip and a short
species in the merging of the two carinae smooth and shiny; aperture at the trun- bifid tooth.
towards the aperture. cated end of the last-formed chamber, a Chesterfield, 20 m.
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. high arch with a thickened rim and a Systematics p. 274.
Systematics p. 274. prominent, widened Y-shaped tooth.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 274.
130 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Quinqueloculina sp. 8 Rectomassilina Sigmamiliolinella


Test quinqueloculine, ovate in lateral view, Rectomassilina tricarinata Sigmamiliolinella australis
roughly triangular in cross section; Test small, elongate; proloculus followed Test with sigmoiline coiling with 6-7
chambers in young specimens triangular by chambers one half coil in length, early semi-tubular chambers visible in the final
in cross section, with one peripheral keel; ones in quinqueloculine arrangement, whorl; last chambers involute; test some-
later chambers becoming quadrangular then added in single plane on alternate what compressed with acute periphery in
in cross section with two lateral carinae, sides, as in Massilina, with acute borders; the early stages; surface covered with a
and even a third, central, longitudinal later chambers in rectilinear, uniserial supplementary calcite coating, except
carina; wall imperforate, smooth; aperture row, with triangular transverse section on the external angle of the chambers;
terminal, circular at the end of a cylindrical and a carina at each angle; aperture, at aperture at the end of the last formed
neck, with peristomal rim and Y-shaped the end of the last chamber preceded by a chamber, semicircular, bordered by a thick
protruding tooth. constricted neck. lip and provided with a flap-shaped tooth
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. Northern shelf, 600 m. of the same shape, a little in front of the
Systematics p. 274. Systematics p. 268. aperture.
Southwestern lagoon, 25-70 m.
Systematics p. 279.

juvenile

Sigmoilina
Quinqueloculina sp. 9 Sigmoilina obesa
Test quinqueloculine, subcylindrical,
Test broadly oval in side view, with the
elongated in lateral view, ovate in cross
aboral end somewhat projecting, elliptical
section; chambers rounded in cross
in cross section; last chamber occupying
section; wall imperforate, ornamented by
about 3/4 of the visible surface; sutures
regularly parallel longitudinal costae
curved, but slightly depressed; two surfaces
prolonging on the long cylindrical neck;
inequilaterally convex, and periphery
aperture terminal, circular at the end of Schlumbergerina broadly rounded; surface smooth, may be
the neck, with a short simple tooth.
Schlumbergerina alveoliniformis polished; aperture a curved slit limited by
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. a simple tooth.
Test with elongate tubular chambers one-
Systematics p. 274.
half coil in length, added in more than Northern shelf, 200 m.
five planes from the earliest stage, slightly Systematics p. 279.
inflated; sutures depressed; wall aggluti-
nated; aperture terminal, provided with a
trematophore with numerous small
rounded openings.
Widely distributed in the shallower areas
of the southwestern lagoon (5-25 m).
Systematics p. 280.

juvenile
aperture broken
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 131

Sigmoilinella Sigmoilopsis Sinuloculina


Sigmoilinella tortuosa Sigmoilopsis arenata Sinuloculina lunata
Test compressed, distinctly sigmoiline, Test compressed, subrhomboidal in lateral Test subspherical, slightly laterally
twisted; test ornamented by two prominent view, quinqueloculine; chambers sub- compressed; early chambers triloculine,
peripheral carinae and a few subordinate cylindrical with greater width in the basal later ones biloculine, the last-formed
carinae; wall smoothly finished: aperture one third; periphery and basal end chamber making up about 3/4 of the
terminal produced on a long neck, with rounded; sutures depressed; apertural end entire surface of the test; suture distinct;
short slightly bifid tooth. drawn out into an extended cylindrical wall polished; aperture crescentiform
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. neck with a narrow lip; wall agglutinated, with a thickened rim, and limited by a
Systematics p. 279. made of particles deeply embedded in semicircular flap-like tooth.
cement; aperture circular, small, with a Northern shelf, 200 m.
short simple tooth. Systematics p. 277.
Southern shelf, 70 m.
Systematics p. 279.

Sorites
Sorites orbiculus
Sigmoilopsis elliptica Test discoidal biplane, thin; chamberlets
Sigmoilinita Test elongate, fusiform; chambers with adding in annular, concentric pattern,
rapidly changing planes in early stages, giving the sutures a characteristic scal-
Sigmoilinita costata later arranged in one plane; chambers loped appearance; wall smooth; apertures
Test fusiform in outline, slightly com- tubular, cylindrical; surface covered with a ovate or 8-shaped, bordered with a small
pressed; chambers of uniform diameter, layer of fine arenaceous matter; aperture rim, usually one on each side of the
arranged in a sigmoid pattern, later terminal, at the end of a cylindrical neck, chamberlets, positioned in a medial row
tending to become planispiral; periphery rounded with a thickened lip. on the peripheral margin.
rounded; sutures distinct, very slightly Lifou, Loyalty Islands, 5 m. Southwestern lagoon and Chesterfield,
depressed; surface costate; aperture semi- Systematics p. 279. 1-40 m.
circular, produced on a neck, with a Systematics p. 282.
peristomal rim and a short tooth.
Bay of Prony, 25 m.
Systematics p. 279.
132 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Spiroloculina Spiroloculina antillarum Spiroloculina caduca


Spiroloculina acescata Test elongate, ovate to fusiform in lateral Test biloculine, evolute, elongated,
Test elongate, elliptical, much compressed, view; chambers nearly circular in cross broadly elliptical, much compressed;
somewhat variably depressed in the middle; section, but with subangular shoulders chambers of the adult with a sharp
chambers distinct, earlier ones rectangular between the peripheral and lateral walls; translucent keel, usually somewhat lobu-
in transverse section, periphery truncate, surface ornamented by longitudinal lated; sutures slightly depressed, surface
the angles sharply keeled, later chambers costae, often continuous, extending from of the chambers sometimes with irregular,
much compressed with a single keel; the aboral end to the aperture, sometimes raised costae, more or less oblique in
sutures distinct, little depressed; wall anastomosing; aperture circular at the position; surface smooth, shining; aperture
smooth, glossy; apertural end extended end of a cylindrical neck with a slight lip at the end of a long cylindrical neck,
into a cylindrical neck with a distinct and a small distinctly bifid tooth. rounded, with a simple tooth.
phialine lip and tooth. Shallow reefal areas, 0-25 m. Southwestern lagoon, 35 m.
Southwestern lagoon, 35 m. Systematics p. 269. Systematics p. 269.
Systematics p. 268.

Spiroloculina attenuata
Test fusiform, elongate, biloculine, evolute,
Spiroloculina angulata strongly biconcave; chambers subtrape-
Test elongate, elliptical in lateral view, zoidal in transverse section; peripheral
both ends of the chambers projecting; wall slightly concave, separated from the Spiroloculina clara
chambers angular in cross section; sur- lateral walls by acute carinae; carinae of Test very much compressed, periphery
face ornamented by longitudinal costae previous chambers visible at sutures; sur- truncate and concave, both ends promi-
extending from the aboral end to the face ornamented by minute longitudinal nently projecting; sides of the chambers
aperture; aperture terminal, produced on anastomosing microstriae; aperture at the thickened and opaque, the central portion
a cylindrical neck with a thin peristomal end of a long cylindrical neck, rounded thin and translucent; sutures distinct, not
rim and small tooth, bifid at the tip. or subtriangular, with a slightly everted much depressed; wall smooth; aperture
Shallow areas near patch reefs, rare, 1-10 m. peristomal rim and two bifib teeth, a rounded, at the end of a neck, with a
Systematics p. 268. large one attached to the base of the tooth or sometimes two opposite teeth.
opening and an additional smaller one Southwestern lagoon, 35 m.
projecting down from the roof of the Systematics p. 269.
aperture.
Southwestern lagoon, near patch reefs,
2-5 m.
Systematics p. 269.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 133

Spiroloculina communis Spiroloculina corrugata Spiroloculina elegantissima


Test strongly built, ovate, biconcave, Test ovate to fusiform in lateral view, Test elongate, fusiform in lateral view;
periphery truncate with sharp angles, slightly biconcave; chambers U-shaped in sides flattened, chambers very regularly
carinated in earlier chambers; sutures transverse section, strongly convex, with arranged, proloculus prominent, ellipsoid;
distinct; wall smooth to slightly orna- a rounded margin; wall covered with chambers subtrapezoidal in transverse
mented by minute longitudinal micros- costae that are arranged with an angle to section with angular shoulders between
triae; aperture circular, produced on a the chamber margin so that they are not the peripheral and lateral walls, and with
cylindrical neck, with a peristomal rim, a continuous from the basal end to the a unique carina in old individuals;
protruding bifid tooth attached to the apertural end; aperture at the end of a sutures incised; surface ornamented by
base of the opening and an additional distinct neck covered with costae, rounded, minute depressions, dull; aperture ovate,
tooth projecting from the top of the bordered by a peristomal rim and provided at the end of an elongated slender neck,
aperture into the opening. with a scoop-shaped bifid tooth. with no lip nor tooth.
Widely distributed in the southwestern Southwestern lagoon, 35 m. Chesterfield, 10 m.
lagoon, 5-70 m. Systematics p. 269. Systematics p. 269.
Systematics p. 269.

Spiroloculina depressa Spiroloculina eximia


Spiroloculina convexa Test in side view elliptical or rounded, in Test elongate, elliptical, periphery convex,
end view with the sides nearly parallel, the opposite faces concave, ends of the
Test ovate to fusiform in lateral view; the periphery flattened or even slightly chamber projecting; sutures fairly distinct,
chambers subtrapezoidal in transverse convex; chambers with the periphery and the outer angle of each chamber projecting
section with a strongly convex peripheral the inner margin raised, the intermediate above the inner portion of the adjacent
margin separated from the lateral walls space more or less depressed, giving the next-formed chamber; wall surface gran-
by acute shoulders; wall roughly textured appearance of having limbate sutures; ular, dull; aperture circular, produced on
and may appear partly agglutinated; wall smooth and dull; aperture nearly a cylindrical neck, with a slightly everted
aperture at the end of a distinct neck, circular, at the end of a short neck, with a peristome and a protruding bifid tooth.
rounded, bordered by a peristomal rim small lip and a single tooth with a bifid
and provided with a short bifid tooth. Southwestern lagoon, 35 m.
tip. Systematics p. 269.
Bay of Prony, 20-30 m. Surprise Island, 10 m.
Systematics p. 269. Systematics p. 269.
134 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Spiroloculina fragilis Spiroloculina Spiroloculina regularis


Test minute, fragile, less than twice as cf. S. neocircularis Test subcircular in outline, with slightly
long as broad, depressed in the central Test biloculine, evolute, ovate to subcir- rounded peripheral margins and concave
portion, periphery rounded; chambers cular in lateral view, compressed, slightly sides; chambers of even width and height
very distinct, numerous, narrow, arched, biconcave; chambers few in number; over their length and only slightly
tubular, gradually increasing in size as periphery rounded, ornamented by lon- embracing; last chamber only projecting
added; successive coils separated or loosely gitudinal, somewhat oblique, costae; a little beyond the general circular contour
connected; deeply depressed sutures; aperture produced on a short neck, with of the whole test; sutures flush with the
apertural end projecting into a long neck; a poorly developed phialine lip and a surface; surface smooth; aperture broad
wall dull ornamented with faint longitu- bar-shaped tooth. and low, at the end of the last chamber,
dinal ribs; aperture at the end of the neck, Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. with the edges slightly thickened and a
circular, with a lip, with or without a Systematics p. 269. low tooth. The figured specimen is eroded
short bifid tooth. and covered of secondary deposits leading
Southwestern lagoon and Bay of Prony, to an abnormally rough surface.
10-25 m. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 269. Systematics p. 269.

Spiroloculina nummiformis Spiroloculina samoaensis


Test biloculine, evolute, broadly ovate in Test strongly compressed with a tapering
lateral view, flat, slightly biconcave; neck and a sharply-keeled margin; wall
chambers bicarinated in early stages, white and glossy; surface ornamented by
Spiroloculina mayori later chambers strongly monocarinate; fine raised costae, oblique and somewhat
surface ornamented by minute longitudinal anastomosing, fusing at the margin;
Test fusiform, periphery convex, the anastomosing microstriae; aperture at the aperture rounded, at the end of the neck,
opposite faces strongly concave, shoulders end of a neck, bordered with a peristomal provided with a bifid tooth.
of the chamber projecting laterally in rim and provided with two short bifid
thin wide keels; sutures fairly distinct; South of the Grande Terre, 35 m.
teeth. Systematics p. 269.
wall surface ornamented with minute
ribs; aperture hemicircular, produced on Bay of Prony, 10-20 m.
a neck flattened internally, with a minute Systematics p. 269.
tooth.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 269.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 135

Spiroloculina subimpressa Spiroloculina sp. 2 Spirosigmoilina


Test biloculine, evolute, about twice as Test elongate, fusiform in lateral view; Spirosigmoilina bradyi
long as wide; periphery truncate with chambers with carinate shoulders between Test subcircular, very compressed; early
angular subcarinate margins; sides of the the peripheral and lateral walls; sutural chambers arranged in a sigmoiline coil,
chambers convex; wall roughly textured gaps at the base of each chamber; leading to a raised central portion; later
with minute, longitudinal, incised lines; chambers quadrate in cross section; chambers narrow and low, planispirally
aperture produced on a cylindrical neck, surface ornamented by irregular longitu- arranged, each chamber one-half coil in
with a peristomal lip; short protruding dinal costae; aperture circular at the end length, ornamented by regulate crenula-
bifid tooth attached to the base of the of a cylindrical neck with a slight lip and tion; aperture a simple terminal opening
opening and additional smaller bifid a small simple tooth. with a short simple tooth.
tooth attached to the top of the aperture. Surprise Island, 10 m. Southwestern lagoon, 10-30 m.
Southwestern lagoon, 35 m. Systematics p. 270. Systematics p. 279.
Systematics p. 269.

Spirosigmoilina parri
Test subcircular, very compressed; early
chambers arranged in a sigmoiline coil,
Spiroloculina sp. 1 Spirophthalmidium leading to a raised central portion; later
Test elongate, ovate in lateral view; Spirophthalmidium scabrum chambers compressed, planispirally
chambers with angular shoulders arranged, each chamber one-half coil in
Test small, proloculus followed by undi- length; wall smooth; aperture at the end
between the peripheral and lateral walls; vided tubular enrolled second chamber,
sutural gaps at the base of each chamber; of the last-formed chamber, surrounded by
then by planispirally enrolled chambers of a raised lip formed by the slight outward
surface ornamented by parallel longitu- a half coil in length; chambers somewhat
dinal costae, extending from the aboral bending of the chamber’s wall, and with
overlapping previous whorls, widest at the a short simple tooth.
end to the aperture; aperture circular at base and tapering toward the aperture;
the end of a cylindrical neck with a slight wall imperforate, surface appearing warty Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
lip and a small Y-shaped tooth. with numerous tiny projections; aperture Systematics p. 279.
Surprise Island, 10 m. rounded, at the end of a produced neck.
Systematics p. 270. South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
Systematics p. 268.
136 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Triloculina Triloculina bertheliniana Triloculina earlandi


Triloculina affinis Test fusiform in outline, triangular in Test, with three visible chambers in the
Test triloculine, with three visible chambers transverse section with three visible adult, fusiform, more than two times
in the adult, somewhat longer than wide, chambers in the adult; peripheral margin longer than broad; periphery broadly
triangular in transverse section; periphery broadly rounded with angular edges; wall rounded; surface finely costate; wall
convex with rather sharply formed ornamented with numerous, slightly smooth with a matte finish; aperture
angles; wall smooth; aperture subcircular, elliptical shallow pits evenly distributed subcircular to ovate at the end of a broad
with a protruding bifid tooth. over the surface of the test, forming a neck, provided with a short bifid tooth.
definite pattern; aperture terminal, a Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
triangular-arch with a bifid tooth. Systematics p. 278.
Systematics p. 277.
Outer reef, 50 m.
Systematics p. 277.

Triloculina elongotricarinata
n. sp.
Diagnosis. A slender, elongate Triloculina,
Triloculina barnardi triangular with rounded angles in cross
Test slightly longer than broad, triangular section, with a glossy surface and a high
in cross section, with sharp carinae; surface arch-shaped aperture with a long tooth
ornamented by low longitudinal costae Triloculina bicarinata thickened or bifid at the tip; triloculine
that may be weak or strong; wall smooth Test longer than broad, triloculine; sutures arrangement with three chambers always
and polished; aperture produced on a somewhat depressed, chambers distinct visible.
short neck, roughly triangular with a with a truncate periphery; whole surface Description. Test triloculine, with three
pronounced everted lip and an elongate ornamented by reticulations; aperture visible chambers in the adult, more than
tooth, slightly bifurcated at the tip. elongated, with a definite thin lip, slightly two times longer than broad; chambers
Bay in the southwestern lagoon, 10 m. everted, tooth elongate, narrow, extending triangular in cross section with isometric,
Systematics p. 277. above the outline of the aperture, bifid at slightly convex sides; acute margins; wall
the tip. smooth and polished; aperture high-arch
Southwestern lagoon, areas with strong shaped, provided with a long thin tooth
currents, < 20 m. somewhat thickened or bifid at the tip.
Systematics p. 278. This species differs from T. tricarinata by
its strait chambers and by its much more
elongated test.
Southwestern lagoon and Bay of Prony,
10-30 m. Systematics p. **.
Derivation of name. The name elon-
gotricarinata is given in reference to the
resemblance of this species to T. tricari-
nata, but with a more slender and elon-
gated form.
Material. Holotype - MNHN F62324,
paratypes - MNHN F62325, MNHN
F62326, MNHN F62327, MNHN F62328,
MNHNF62329; from 30 m water depth in
the Bay of Prony, south of New Caledonia.
Remarks. The species of Triloculina with
a triangular section and more or less sharp
angles are numerous and quite difficult
to be identified. This species, however,
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 137

with its high arch-shaped opening with Triloculina latiformis Triloculina rotunda
tall bifid tooth, as in T. tricarinata, and its Test triloculine, subcircular in side view; Test broadly rounded, somewhat longer
slender, elongate shape appears different with three visible chambers in the adult, than wide, with three visible chambers in
from other known species. Specimens with subtriangular in transverse section; the adult, the two last chambers making
the typical characteristics are abundant sutures deeply depressed; chambers arcuate up most of the visible test surface; cham-
enough to justify the creation of a new with tapered initial end and extended bers rotund; sutures very slightly
species. overhang, increasing rapidly in size; wall depressed; surface of the test smooth and
smooth and polished; aperture subcircular, shining; aperture rounded, with a slight-
with a protruding, slightly bifid tooth. ly thickened lip and a short protruding
Southwestern lagoon, 10 m. bifid tooth.
Systematics p. 278. Outer reef, 35 m.
Systematics p. 278.

Triloculina fichteliana
Test with three visible chambers in the
adult, ovate in lateral view, somewhat Triloculina serrulata
compressed with periphery broadly Test triloculine, with three visible chambers
rounded; chambers distinct; sutures in the adult, subovate in lateral view,
slightly depressed; wall ornamented by roughly triangular in end view; chambers
regular, well-spaced longitudinal costae; trapezoidal in transverse section; peripheral
aperture ovate, with a slightly everted Triloculina marshallana margins slightly convex, separated from
peristomal rim and a narrow tooth, Test triloculine, with three visible chambers the lateral walls by strongly protruding
thickened or bifid at the tip. in the adult, somewhat longer than wide; carinate shoulders; surface covered with
Northern shelf, 200 m. periphery broadly convex with angular anastomosing microstriae; aperture termi-
Systematics p. 278. shoulders; wall smooth and polished; nal, rounded, with a thick peristomal
aperture terminal, produced on a projecting rim, provided with a strong bifurcated
apertural neck, with an everted peristomal tooth projecting from a flattened base.
rim; aperture subtriangular with a thin Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
bifid tooth. Systematics p. 278.
Southwestern lagoon, back reef areas, or
near patch reefs, 10-20 m.
Systematics p. 278.
138 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Triloculina striatotrigonula Triloculina tricarinata Triloculina trigonula


Test ovate in side view, subtriangular in end Test triloculine, with three visible chambers Test triloculine, with three visible chambers
view with convex sides, as in Triloculina in the adult, slightly longer than broad; in the adult, somewhat longer than wide;
trigonula; surface ornamented with chambers triangular in cross section with periphery broadly convex with angles
regular longitudinal striae; aperture isometric straight sides; acute to carinate rounded; wall smooth; aperture terminal,
rounded with a short bifid tooth. margins; wall smooth, often polished; without a neck; a basal arch-shaped
Northern shelf, 200 m. aperture high-arch-shaped provided with opening with a rather broad bifid tooth.
Systematics p. 278. a tall bifid tooth. South of the Grande Terre, 35 m.
Sparsely distributed in the southwestern Systematics p. 278.
lagoon, 5-60 m.
Systematics p. 278.

Triloculina wiesneri
Triloculina terquemiana Triloculina cf. T. tricarinata Test subcircular in lateral view; chambers
Test elongate with three chambers visible Test triloculine, with three visible chambers rounded to slightly angular; wall smooth
in the adult, ovate to subcircular in lateral in the adult, slightly longer than broad; on the sides of the chambers, periphery
view, subtriangular in cross section with chambers triangular in cross section with ornate by longitudinal costae; aperture
somewhat rounded angles; peripheral isometric straight sides; acute to carinate circular, without a neck, provided with a
chamber walls slightly convex; chambers margins; wall smooth, often polished; bifid tooth.
may be laterally prominent; surface of aperture low-arch-shaped provided with
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
the test ornamented by fine longitudinal large tooth, thickened or T-shaped at the
Systematics p. 278.
costae; aperture somewhat produced, tip. This species differs somewhat from
elongated, narrow, provided with a thin the typical T. tricarinata, which has a
tooth with long base, bifurcated at the tip. high arch-shaped opening with tall bifid
Surprise Island, 10 m. tooth.
Systematics p. 278. Widely distributed in the southwestern
lagoon, 5-60 m.
Systematics p. 278.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 139

Triloculina sp. 1 Triloculinella hornibrooki Vertebralina


Test ovate in outline with three chambers Test with a quinqueloculine chamber Vertebralina insignis
visible in the adult; aboral end acutely arrangement, elongate, ovate to subrec- Test compressed, planispiral, nearly
rounded, apertural end truncate; chambers tangular, with almost parallel sides; symmetrical bilaterally; margin angular
rectangular in cross section with peripheral periphery rounded; chambers narrow and or partially carinate; usually three
chamber walls slightly convex; wall rounded; sutures depressed; oral end chambers in the last whorl but last cham-
roughly textured with minute, longitudinal, truncated and aboral end rounded, bers tend to uncoil; surface ornamented
incised lines; aperture flush with the protruding; wall shiny and smooth; with irregular costae, more prominent and
peripheral margin, a high arch, provided aperture terminal, rounded, without oblique on the first chambers, forming
with a thin tooth with long base, Y-shaped neck, with a plate-like tooth at the base of an irregular reticulate ornament on the
at the tip. the opening. last chambers; aperture terminal, a long
Northern shelf, 200 m. Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. slit on the median line of the last chamber
Systematics p. 278. Systematics p. 278. with strongly everted lips, the lips of the
preceding chambers visible at the sutures.
Southwestern lagoon, mostly back reef
areas, 5-20 m.
Systematics p. 267.

old specimen

Triloculinella
Triloculinella chiastocytis
Test elongate with typical milioline
arrangement with three chambers visible
in the adult; characteristic inflated aboral
end, and oblique sutures; periphery Tubinella
broadly rounded; aperture small, partly Tubinella funalis
closed by a curved flap-shaped tooth. Test, elongate, cylindrical early stage Vertebralina striata
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m. bulbous, rounded at the base made up Test compressed, slightly trochospiral in
Systematics p. 278. of two closely appressed chambers, later the early stage; last chambers broad, a few
uncoiled, with indistinct tubular cham- of them unrolled; surface ornamentation
bers separated by faint sutures; wall varies from almost smooth to heavily
imperforate; surface with very fine longi- striated; aperture terminal, asymmetric
tudinal striae; aperture at the open end due to the shorted wall on the umbilical
of the last-formed chamber. side of the test, bordered by a thickened
Southwestern lagoon and Bay of Prony, lip.
2-25 m. Southwestern lagoon, dispersed, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 280. Systematics p. 267.
140 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Webbina Zoyaella Description


Webbina rugosa Zoyaella dissimilis of hyaline species
Test attached, elongate ovate proloculus Test discoidal, compressed, proloculus unilocular
followed by a few ovate and inflated followed by streptospiral enrolled tubular (or appearing so)
chambers, attached surface flattened, second chamber, later planispiral and
upper surface convex, a peripheral keel evolute, slightly overlapping in the early All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM)
against the attachment; wall, milky white, whorls; last whorl with about eight
imperforate, surface somewhat rough chambers quite uniform in shape and Buchnerina
with faint transverse growth wrinkles; size; periphery lobulate; wall imperforate,
aperture terminal. smooth; aperture a more or less high arch Buchnerina milletti
Outer reef, 50 m. at the open end of the final chamber. Test elongate, laterally compressed,
Systematics p. 267. South of the Grande Terre, 50 m. periphery with a small distinct keel;
Systematics p. 266. test covered with rather large, evenly
distributed perforations; aperture slightly
projecting, surrounded by recessed
grooves.
Bays, 5-20 m.
Systematics p. 293.

Wiesnerella
Wiesnerella auriculata
Test ovate, flattened, quinqueloculine,
periphery carinate; chambers overlapping
more on one side than the opposite, side
changing alternately; wall imperforate,
smooth; aperture a large circular opening Unknown Fischerinidae
at end of final chamber on the less over- Test composed of tubular chambers of
lapping side, bordered by a broad everted irregular shape, irregularly coiled, about
lip. three chambers per coil; sutures appear
Southwestern lagoon, 20-70 m; northern as irregularly spaced thickenings; surface
shelf, 200 m. with numerous unevenly distributed
Systematics p. 267. pseudopores and irregular longitudinal
juvenile
striae; aperture terminal, at the end of the
last chamber.
Buchnerina radiatomarginata
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Test ovate in outline, tapering towards the
aperture, with a single thickened carina
and a small projection at the basal end;
wall smooth with radiate ornament on
the lateral faces, around a clear unorna-
mented central patch; aperture produced,
surrounded by recessed grooves.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 294.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 141

Buchnerina schulzeana Buchnerina yokoyamae Cerebrina


Test oval, compressed, subcarinate, sides Test subcircular in outline, tapering Cerebrina claricerviculata
flat; surface ornament consisting of towards the aperture; central part of the Test compressed, elongate; prominent
transverse bars, horizontal in the middle test smooth, surrounded by three concentric primary peripheral carina separated from
and bent downwards at an angle near the sets of radial ornaments that change into two subordinate carinae by deep grooves;
periphery; aperture at the end of a wide horizontal ornaments near the aperture; lateral surface covered with distinct per-
and short neck with a rounded lip. aperture produced, surrounded by recessed forations that are irregularly distributed;
Northern shelf, 600 m. grooves. aperture produced, rounded, with distinct
Systematics p. 294. Northern shelf, 600 m. lips.
Systematics p. 294. Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 288.

Buchnerina sp. 1
Test subrectangular in outline, laterally
Buchnerina walleriana flattened; central part of the test slightly
Test ovate in outline, laterally flattened raised and surrounded by a slight groove Cerebrina cf. C. clathrata
slightly tapering towards the aperture, and a ring; keel well-developed; aperture
with three bluntly rounded carinae that produced, surrounded by recessed Test nearly circular, tapering slightly
thicken towards the aperture and are grooves. towards the oral end, compressed;
separated by deep grooves; aperture pro- peripheral margin extended into a thin
Coastal bay, 10 m. flat wing or carina, with an additional
duced, surrounded by recessed grooves. Systematics p. 294. projecting keel or ridge on each side
Coastal bay, 5-10 m. bordering the chamber. The body of the
Systematics p. 294. test biconvex, ornamented externally with
a series of regular, parallel, longitudinal
costae; aperture produced on a distinct
neck, rounded to ovate.
There is some uncertainty regarding the
identification of this species, and speci-
mens illustrated in literature are much
variable, and often differ from original
description.
South of the Grande Terre, 10-50 m.
Systematics p. 288.
142 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Cerebrina conformata Cerebrina cf. C. lacunata Cerebrina pilasensis


Test subspherical in contour, somewhat Species differing from C. lacunata by its Test with a subcircular lateral outline,
compressed; periphery surrounded by a much more inflated test, and by the orna- compressed, biconvex, tricarinate; aper-
sharp keel with two subordinate keels that ment that is reticulate as in C. lacunata tural end produced and sculpture with
taper out before reaching the apertural in the central, basal part of the test, and radiating longitudinal striae that extend to
end; central area transparent, ornamented more or less radiate elsewhere. the central inflated body; extended central
around the basal end with short radiating Northern shelf, 200 m. keel with two secondary crescent-shaped
longitudinal costae; aperture rounded, Systematics p. 289. rims; wall of the central area distinctly
slightly produced. perforated, perforations variable in size
Coastal bay, 10 m. and distribution; aperture terminal,
Systematics p. 289. roughly rounded.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 289.

Cerebrina neocastrensis
Test compressed, subcircular in outline,
except the produced apertural end;
Cerebrina lacunata periphery surrounded by a prominent
Test subcircular in outline, compressed, central keel with two raised lateral keels;
Cerebrina undulaticostata
with a reticulate ornament on the lateral central part of the test with coarse pits
surfaces; lateral carina extending from vertically aligned; aperture produced, Test free, tricarinate, compressed; central
the base to the aperture with two parallel rounded. area decorated with longitudinal costae
subordinate carinae on each side; basal of broken continuity, variable in length,
Bay to the south of the Grande Terre, 10 m.
end rounded; aperture ovate and produced width and position; marginal keel of
Systematics p. 289.
with a short entosolenian tube. variable width, thick, with greater part
transparent, tapering towards the base of
Bay of Prony, 20 m. the test; lateral keels form, sometimes
Systematics p. 289. together with longitudinal costae, two
ridges, which ornament the neck area on
both sides; a median ridge of variable
development may also form on the neck;
wall finely perforate, semitransparent;
aperture at the end of the neck, with wide
lips.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 289.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 143

Cerebrina sp. 1 Cushmanina Cushmanina neodesmorpha


Test elongate, ovate, laterally compressed; Cushmanina bricei Test flask-shaped, circular in section;
periphery tricarinate with a central keel Test ovate, circular in section; basal end initial end flat, broadly rounded; jagged
and two closely placed secondary keels; a broadly rounded, apetural end with a dis- contour due to prominent longitudinal,
third more central annular ridge tinct neck; wall hyaline, finely perforate, irregular, paired costae, projecting at
enclosed the central area of the test, surface with prominent paired longitudi- basal margin; costae tapering at the base
which is covered with irregular anasto- nal costae that continue to the edge of the of the neck; the depression between the
mosing costae; aperture produced on a aperture, ending in a reticular formation two costae of each pair is subdivided by
distinct neck, rounded. at the base of the neck; the deep depression bridges into irregular rounded segments
Coastal bay, 5-10 m. between the two costae of each pair is producing a chainlike appearance; adja-
Systematics p. 289. subdivided by bridges into oval segments cent pairs may coalesce irregularly with
producing a chainlike appearance; each other; aperture rounded at the end
aperture rounded at the end of the neck, of the tubular neck, with a phialine lip.
with a distinct lip. Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Bay of Prony, 20 m. Systematics p. 294.
Systematics p. 294.

Cerebrina sp. 2
Test flask-shaped, compressed, inflated
centrally, tricarinate; central keel inter-
rupted at the rounded basal end; apertural
end produced with a neck ornamented Cushmanina spiralis
with small beads; median keel increasing Test unilocular, fusiform, circular in
Cushmanina gemma section, with a distinct neck; wall cal-
slightly in width at base of the neck but
does not reach the end of the neck; wall Test elongated, circular in section; basal end careous, hyaline, surface with thick
transparent, finely perforated; each test broadly rounded or truncated, apertural prominent paired spiral costae; the
face sculpted with irregular raised longi- end with a long cylindrical neck; wall depression between the two costae of each
tudinal costae that may coalesce or be hyaline, finely perforate, surface with pair is subdivided by bridges into oval
joined by irregular transverse patterns; numerous low and rounded paired longi- segments producing a chainlike appear-
aperture slightly compressed, oval. tudinal costae; the depression between ance under a stereo microscope, but this
the two costae of each pair is subdivided pattern is covered by the edge of the costae
Bay to the south of the Grande Terre, 10 m. by bridges into oval segments producing
Systematics p. 289. and not visible on SEM micrographs;
a chainlike appearance under a stereo aperture rounded at the end of the neck
microscope, but this pattern is covered by that is often broken.
the edge of the costae and not visible on Coastal bay, 10 m.
SEM micrographs; aperture rounded at Systematics p. 294.
the end of the neck, with a distinct lip.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 294.
144 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Cushmanina striatopunctata Cushmanina sp. 1 Favulina


Test fusiform, circular in section, with a Test fusiform, circular in section with a Favulina favosopunctata
cylindrical neck; wall hyaline, surface distinct, very thin neck; wall calcareous, Test ovate, circular in section, tapering to
with blade-like, prominent, paired longi- hyaline, surface with a few prominent, produced apical end; wall ornamented
tudinal costae that continue along the longitudinal, slightly twisted paired by very fine hexagonal reticulations
base of the neck and extend backward, costae that fuse along the neck; the becoming smaller and irregular in shape
slightly projecting; the depression between depression between the two costae of each over the upper part of the test; aperture
the two costae of each pair is subdivided pair is subdivided by bridges into oval small, rounded on a slightly produced
by long bridges into rounded segments segments producing a chainlike appear- neck with a star-shaped collar.
producing a chainlike appearance under ance under a stereo microscope, but this
Northern shelf, 600 m.
a stereo microscope, but this pattern is pattern is covered by the edge of the costae
Systematics p. 294.
covered by the edge of the costae and not and not visible on SEM micrographs;
visible on SEM micrographs; aperture aperture rounded, at the end of the neck.
rounded at the end of the neck. Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Bay of Prony, 10 m. Systematics p. 294.
Systematics p. 294.

Favulina hexagona
Test unilocular, subglobular, circular in
section; wall calcareous, hyaline, surface
covered by elevated ridges forming
large hexagonal reticulations; aperture
rounded on a slightly produced neck with
a thickened collar-like rim.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 294.
Cushmanina Exsculptina
cf. C. tasmaniae Exsculptina discrepans
Test fusiform, circular in section with a Test with the main section roughly trian-
cylindrical neck; surface with a few thin gular in side view, the sides slightly
prominent paired spiral costae that convex and the greatest width near the
continue along the base of the neck; the base; basal periphery angled, ornamented
depression between the two costae of each by very short costae confined to the very
pair is subdivided by bridges into oval basal part; wall smooth; aperture at the
segments producing a chainlike appear- end of an elongate tapering neck with
ance; wall smooth; aperture rounded at weak longitudinal costae.
the end of the neck.
Isle of Pines, 5 m.
Bay of Prony, 20 m. Systematics p. 294.
Systematics p. 294.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 145

Favulina hexagoniformis Favulina scalariformis Fissurina cf. F. aperta


Test ovate, circular in section; initial end Test ovate to subcylindrical with rounded Test subcircular in side view, moderately
broadly rounded, the test later tapering ends; raised longitudinal costae are inter- compressed; periphery faintly keeled,
towards a small tubular hyaline neck; sected by more or less discontinuous broadly rounded; apertural edge broadly
wall covered by elevated ridges forming a transverse ridges that divide the test sur- truncate; test surface ornamented with
compact network of small hexagonal face into relatively regular sub quadrate rows of minute tubercles; aperture a long
units; aperture rounded at the end of the portions; aperture terminal, rounded. narrow fissure, approximately two thirds
neck. Northern shelf, 600 m. width of test; apertural lip thick, raised.
Bay to the south of the Grande Terre, 10 m. Systematics p. 295. This species resembles F. aperta, recorded
Systematics p. 294. in the Miocene of New Zealand, from which
it differs mostly by its ornamentation.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 292.

Favulina vadosa
Test globular, circular in section; initial
end broadly rounded, apertural end with Fissurina bispinata
a plate-like collar; wall ornamented with
large hexagonal reticulation, with Test rounded in outline, oval in section,
Favulina melo emphasis on the longitudinal part of the periphery with a weak keel; basal end
Test ovoid, circular in transverse section, pattern. Aperture small, rounded. with two short but prominent basal
ornamented by closely spaced longitudi- spines; wall calcareous, hyaline, finely
Coastal bay, 10 m. perforate, surface smooth; narrow bands
nal ridges connected by irregularly Systematics p. 295.
placed cross bars, straight or slightly near the margin of the test, opaque under
arched upwards; this reticulose mesh the dissecting microscope, whitish on SEM
thickens around the aperture forming a pictures; aperture terminal, symmetrical,
slight collar; aperture rounded, small. slit-like.
Bay of Prony, 20 m. Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 294. Systematics p. 292.

Fissurina
Fissurina cf. F. antiqua
Test ovoid compressed; periphery with a
double keel fusing near the aperture;
central part of the test surrounded by an
annular ridge that form one or two Y-shaped
structures (depending on the size of the
individual) in the apertural region; longi-
tudinal costae raise in the mid central part
of the test; wall smooth, finely perforated;
aperture elongated, slightly produced.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 292.
146 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Fissurina calcar Fissurina cf. F. castaniformis Fissurina colomboensis


Test compressed and circular in outline; Test small, compressed, subcircular in Test subcircular in contour, compressed
periphery surrounded by a wide keel with lateral view; posterior part with well- laterally, tricarinate, with grooves between
two subsidiary circular keels, one on each developed, wide double keels, with a deep lateral keels and central body of the test;
side; median keel bearing some short groove between them; keels extending basal end broadly rounded, apertural end
spines in the basal area; central portion over half the test or more; anterior part of tapering, slightly produced; surface-
of the test slightly raised and smooth, the test no keeled, non produced, broadly ornament of large beads, irregularly
elsewhere the surface is rough; the fissurine rounded: aperture a slit parallel with scattered over the lateral faces of the test;
aperture is not produced, but surrounded periphery. aperture slightly produced, an elongate
by lips in continuity with the subdivided Coastal bay, 10 m. slit with broad lips.
median keel. Systematics p. 292. South of the Grande Terre, 40-50 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 292.
Systematics p. 292.

Fissurina circularis
Fissurina castanea Test with a circular lateral outline and
Test small, compressed, subtriangular to slightly compressed lenticular profile in
subquadrangular, elliptical in transversal axial cross section; the base of the test is
section; margins rounded; surface bordered by a narrow rounded carina
smooth; in the lower part of the test an that extends about halfway up the test;
elliptical fimbriate carina, surrounds the aperture produced, having a width about Fissurina
test; aperture terminal. one third of the test width. cf. F. eumarginata oblata
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. Southwestern lagoon, 20 m. Test subcircular in contour; with a well-
Systematics p. 292. Systematics p. 292. developed keel; central body inflated,
highly translucent, finely perforated;
inflated area at the base of the produced
aperture; bands on each side of the inflated
central area, interrupted at the basal and
apertural ends of the test, opaque under
the dissecting microscope, whitish on
SEM pictures; aperture produced, a long
slit with tightly compressed lips.
Coastal Bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 292.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 147

Fissurina furcata Fissurina granulocostata Fissurina laureata


Test compressed and elongated with Test small, subcircular in outline; periph- Test compressed, oval, furnished with a
rounded ends; periphery surrounded by a ery with a narrow peripheral carina and median keel, with or without subsidiary
blunt keel with two smaller costae on two subordinate carinae; central part of the keels; costae diverge from the base and
each side; apertural collar ornamented test inflated, ornamented with irregular follow the line of curvature of the edge of
by 2-3 fine imbricating ridges; central costae that change into pearl-like bosses the test; they are most strongly marked
portion of the test slightly raised and flat; at the base, and become faint or may near the edge and more feebly in the
fissurine aperture is at the end of the disappear towards the aperture; aperture median area; and generally do not extend
ornamented collar. lenticular with slightly raised rim; the entire length of the test; the surface of
Bay to the south of the Grande Terre, 10 m. entosolenian tube straight, not reaching the test that is not covered with costae is
Systematics p. 292. half the length of the test. marked by strong punctuations; aperture
Northern shelf, 600 m. terminal, ovate, with lips.
Systematics p. 292. Southwestern lagoon, 20-30 m.
Systematics p. 292.

Fissurina laevigata
Test ovate in outline, lenticular in section,
periphery with a weak rounded keel; wall
finely perforate, surface smooth; aperture
Fissurina cf. F. globosocaudata terminal, ovate, bordered by two subtri-
Test globular, subcircular in outline, angular lips.
appearing somewhat elongated due to Northern shelf, 600 m.
the protruding apertural end; basal end Systematics p. 292. Fissurina lucida
ornamented by a short caudal projection Test pyriform, compressed, with rounded
irregularly truncated; surface of the periphery; basal end sometimes with a
chamber finely perforated; fissurine short projection; wall smooth and opaque
aperture slightly protruding. under the dissecting microscope, except
Coastal bay, 10 m. for the central area, which is clear and
Systematics p. 292. translucent.
Coastal bay, 5 m; shrimp ponds.
Systematics p. 292.
148 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Fissurina periperforata Fissurina pretiosa Fissurina subquadrata


Test pyriform with an ovate central region Test compressed, elliptical, lenticular in Test strongly compressed and subrectan-
surrounded by a peripheral keel that transversal section; apertural end trun- gular in outline; a broad peripheral rim
continues at the sides of the somewhat cated, with a prominent median part; is separated from the slightly inflated
produced, compressed, apertural neck; peripheral margin sharp, with a keel central portion of the test by two grooves
section lenticular; towards the base, lateral interrupted at the basal apex; marginal parallel to the periphery; wall smooth and
flange terminates in weak teeth; wall keel formed of a double wall, and having very finely perforate; slightly produced
smooth, distinctly perforate in peripheral a faint fimbriated aspect; surface smooth, fissurine aperture.
zone of the central body; aperture terminal, ornamented with an elliptical or slightly Southwestern lagoon, 35 m.
a slit at the end of the produced neck. oval rib, disposed around the test, and Systematics p. 293.
Northern shelf, 600 m. with another oval rib in the central part
Systematics p. 292. of the test; aperture an elongated slit,
bordered by a phialine lip and narrowed
in its central portion.
South of the Grande Terre, 40 m.
Systematics p. 292.

Fissurina plebeia
Test pyriform, compressed, lateral edges Fissurina sp. 1
obtuse; base broad and round in outline;
edges with a median keel and two lateral Test ovoid, laterally compressed; periphery
keels separated from the median one by Fissurina sidebottomi with a central keel that widen near the
lateral gaping depressions on either side; aperture; two secondary keels form an
Test slightly compressed, slightly mar- annular ridge on each side, and prolong
wall smooth; aperture fissurine, not ginated, subcircular in lateral view with
produced. into a costa toward the aperture; a weak
the apertural end tuncated; paired sub- annular ridge is discernable around the
Northern shelf, 600 m. marginal costae extend around the lower center of each face of the test; wall
Systematics p. 292. half margin of the test; margin narrow, smooth; aperture elongated, slightly
rounded, uniform in width; wall finely produced.
perforated; aperture a long slit with a
distinct annular lip. Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 293.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 293.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 149

Fissurina sp. 2 Fissurina sp. 4 Fissurina sp. 6


Test small, ovate in side view and in end Test compressed; body of the chamber Test ovoid, subquadrate in side view ovate
view, with rounded lateral edges; wall ovate, surrounded by a deep groove, then in section; wall finely perforate, surface
smooth, transparent, glassy with sym- a wide peripheral keel; the keel somewhat smooth; aperture a narrow equatorial slit
metrical slightly depressed areas parallel widening to the apertural area and ending with thick lips.
to the edge, extending up to mid point, into two large lateral projections and a Southwestern lagoon, 10 m.
opaque under the dissecting microscope, thinner central one to the basal end; wall Systematics p. 293.
whitish on SEM pictures; aperture an of the chamber coarsely perforated, keel
ovate fissurine opening on the center of finely perforated; aperture a narrow slit.
the broad blunt apertural end. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 293.
Systematics p. 293.

Fissurina sp. 3 Fissurina sp. 7


Test small, ovate with a broadly rounded Test subcircular in outline, compressed with
basal end and a truncated apertural end; two faces nearly parallel, only slightly
central area of the test slightly inflated, inflated centrally; basal end slightly
marginal edges bluntly keeled, the keel Fissurina? sp. 5 produced in a broad short caudal spine,
limited by narrow bands on the lower half Test minute, subcircular with flattened with laterally two additional spines;
of the test, opaque under the dissecting faces; initial end with a small stout spine, periphery thickened; wall finely perforated,
microscope, whitish on SEM pictures; apertural end slightly truncated; surface surface rough; apertural end indented
wall smooth, mostly transparent; aperture irregular, rough with coarse perforations; with a small aperture provided with a
a narrow fissurine slit, not produced. aperture an oval slit, not produced. short, straight entosolenian tube.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Northern shelf, 600 m. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 293. Systematics p. 293. Systematics p. 293.
150 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Fissurina sp. 8 Fissurina sp. 10 Homalohedra


Test quadrangular in outline, compressed, Test small, compressed, with a small Homalohedra acuticosta
only slightly inflated; central body bluntly rounded keel, ovate in lateral view with Test subglobular to pyriform, broadly
produced, forming a prominent caudal apertural end produced and basal end rounded, gradually tapering to the
extension; test keeled, the keel wider at the slightly indented; paired submarginal apertural end, the body of the test with a
basal end; wall finely perforated, surface costae extend around the test, being number of thin, elevated costae, running
smooth, shiny; apertural area prominent, interrupted at both ends; margin narrow, from the base to near the apertural end,
broadly produced; aperture a long slit rounded, uniform in width; wall finely where they become coalesced into a
between two thickened lips; entosolenian perforated; aperture terminal, between thickened collar extending in a short
tube very short. rounded thickened lips, with a very short neck containing the aperture; aperture
Northern shelf, 600 m. entosolenian tube. small, round at the end of a short neck.
Systematics p. 293. South of the Grande Terre, 40 m. Three various morphologies have been
Systematics p. 293. attributed to this species, depending on
the morphology of the basal projections
of the costae.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 295.

Fissurina sp. 11
Test nearly rounded in contour, compressed;
periphery with a wide keel ornamented
with four nearly symmetrical spinose
projections developed laterally and at the
Fissurina sp. 9 aboral end of the test; two secondary keels
Test pyriform, compressed, with a rounded form an annular ridge on each side; sur-
margin; greatest width at about 1/3 of the face smooth; aperture a slit between two
test from the base; wall transparent, finely thickened lips, continuous with the keel.
perforated, with translucent lateral bands Northern shelf, 600 m.
of coarser perforations; surface smooth, Systematics p. 293.
shiny; apertural area prominent, hyaline,
broadly produced, somewhat depressed
along the axis; aperture ovate between
two thickened lips; entosolenian tube
attached to one side, about half the test in
length.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 293.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 151

Homalohedra? costata Homalohedra williamsoni Hyalinonetrion


Test pyriform, tapering towards the aper- Test subglobular to pyriform, broadest Hyalinonetrion distomapolita
tural end and truncated at the aboral toward the basal end, apertural end Test elongate, fusiform subrhombic in
end, ornamented with a few rather tapering to a short slender neck; wall outline, thickest in the middle portion,
remote ribs or costae running nearly the ornamented with a few high platelike circular in cross section; the test tapers
length of the test, frequently not reaching costae, coalescing at the upper end and evenly in both directions assuming a
the apex, but ending in a ring of spinose forming a collar made up of a reticulate double conical appearance; surface
projections; costae most often rounded; network below the neck; aperture terminal, smooth; aperture rounded, at the end of a
aperture small and rounded. This species at the end of the neck, rounded. long neck, with a phyaline lip.
lacks the thickened collar characteristic Outer reef, 100 m. Coastal bay, 10 m.
of Homalohedra. Systematics p. 295. Systematics p. 289.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 295.

Homalohedra sp. 1
Test pyriform, tapering towards the aper-
Homalohedra gunteri tural end and truncated at the aboral
Test pyriform, more or less acutely pointed end, ornamented with a few rounded
at the apertural end; from a basal ring, costae running nearly the length of the
6-8 stout costae run up the sides of the test; aperture small and rounded, at the
test, then arch over and coalesce near the end of a small tubular neck. This species Hyalinonetrion elongata
apertural end; intercostal spaces are differs from Lagena acuticosta in the
concave; above the arch, one or two rows much-rounded costae and the lack of a Test very elongate, subcircular in section;
of alternating hexagonal pits form a ring thickened collar. It resembles, however the the central portion of the test, with parallel
around the neck; the test ends in a blunt species illustrated by CUSHMAN (1933a) as sides, gives a cylindrical appearance, the
oral extension with a rounded aperture. L. acuticosta in plate 8, fig. 9. basal end being almost symmetrical to
the long neck; wall calcareous hyaline,
Northern shelf, 600 m. Northern shelf, 600 m. finely perforated, surface smooth; aperture
Systematics p. 295. Systematics p. 295. terminal at the end of the neck.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 289.
152 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hyalinonetrion gracillima Lagena cf. L. laevicostata Lagena cf. L. pustulostriatula


Test elongate-fusiform with a long neck, Test flask-shaped, rounded; the ornamen- Test flask-shaped, ovate, elongated, tapering
basal end acute; wall calcareous hyaline, tation consists of longitudinal costae, into a short neck; basal end with a short
finely perforated, surface smooth; aperture some of them, intercalated with shorter spine; wall covered with fine, somewhat
is at the end of the neck, bordered with a costae, occur for the full length of the test anastomosing costae; basal end covered
phialine lip. and may continue along the neck; the with fine pustules, mostly concentrated in
Coastal bay, 10 m. neck shows a number of transverse costae the costae free area, but that may extend
Systematics p. 289. that intersect the longitudinal ones, between the costae up to half of the test;
forming a variable reticular pattern aperture at the end of the neck, with a
resembling Lagena cf. L. koreana distinct lip.
MCCULLOCH (1981, pl. 35, figs 1-2) and Coastal bay, 5 m.
Lagena sulcata, variety with ladder-like Systematics p. 289.
flanges of HERON-ALLEN & EARLAND (1932b,
pl. 10, fig. 15).
Northern lagoon, 600 m.
Systematics p. 289.

Lagena paucistriata
Test flask-shaped, aboral end marked by
a short and thick spine, test terminates in
Lagena a short wide neck; wall finely perforate Lagena spicata
Lagena fenestrata and covered with costae originating from Test rounded to flask-shaped; wall orna-
the aboral end and that may continue mented with numerous longitudinal
Test elongate, flask-shaped, with a along the neck; aperture a round crenulate costae sometimes continuing up the
rounded aboral end and a tapering aper- opening at the end of the neck, differing apertural neck; neck cylindrical or
tural end with a long neck; wall covered from the round aperture with a phialine tapering; aperture terminal, rounded,
with a fenestrate network attached to the lip of Lagena spicata. bordered with a phialine lip.
surface of the test; the fenestrules are
elongated; aperture at the end of the Northern shelf, 600 m. Bay, south of the Grande Terre, 10 m.
neck. Systematics p. 289. Systematics p. 289.
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Systematics p. 289.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 153

Lagena strumosa Lagena sp. 1 Lagenosolenia cervicosa


Test globular, flask-shaped, with an elon- Test large, globular with a short and thick Test flask-shaped, compressed, inflated
gate neck; basal end with a definite spine; basal spine and a short wide neck. The centrally, tricarinate; basal end rounded,
surface covered with fine longitudinal ornamentation consists of a few longitu- apertural end produced with a neck
striae, the neck shows several irregular dinal costae (6-8) occurring for about the sculptured with two or more fine longitu-
annuli and fine spines; aperture at the full length of the test; the neck shows a dinal costae; median keel increasing in
end of the neck, with a distinct expanded number of undulated annuli and termi- width at base of the neck to form a
lip. nates with a round crenulate opening. uniform curve to the phialine lip; wall
Bay, south of the Grande Terre, 10 m. Northern shelf, 600 m. finely perforate, surface rough; aperture
Systematics p. 289. Systematics p. 289. subcircular at the end of the neck.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 293.

Lagena tortilis Lagenosolenia


Test flask-shaped with initial end broadly Lagenosolenia bilagenoides Lagenosolenia favosa
rounded, apertural end with a long neck Test flask-shaped, compressed, ending in The body of the test is elongate-oval and
about one third of the entire length of the a long tubular neck terminating in a tapers to a narrow tubular neck of con-
test; wall ornamented by small spiral prominent phialine lip (neck often siderable length, but often broken; the
costae that converge at center of base, few broken); central part of the test inflated, periphery is surrounded by a wing of
continuing on the neck into longitudinal distinctly perforated; test surrounded by a moderate width, generally emarginated at
structure; the end of the neck is orna- bicarinate structure of uniform width the base in adult shells, and more or less
mented by several regular rings; aperture along the sides; the two carinae fuse near tubulated; two or three rows of reticulated
at the end of the neck, rounded. the base of the neck, the resulting carina ornament occur between the body of the
Bay of Prony, 10 m. ending above halfway point of the neck; test and the peripheral wing. Surface
Systematics p. 289. aperture rounded, terminal. smooth, aperture at the end of the neck
Bay of Prony, 20 m. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 293. Systematics p. 293.
154 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Lagenosolenia intricatissima Lagenosolenia peltatusella Lagenosolenia sp. 1


Test ovoid compressed but centrally Test ovoid with a smooth inflated central Test oval in outline, laterally compressed
inflated, bicarinate in part; basal end area and a thick broad lateral flange, with two paired carinae separated by a
broadly rounded, greatest width about widening slightly towards the aperture, granular equatorial groove; the internal
midpoint, then tapering to a well- with radiating ridges and a truncated carina changed into sculpture patterns at
developed neck; neck broad at base, margin; the truncated margin of the flange each end of the test, these patterns con-
hyaline, compressed; periphery with a shows pits at the position of the ridges; tinuing on the granular neck; surface
double keel fusing near the aperture, also aperture terminal, rounded on a slightly ornamented by minute irregular ridges;
fusing at basal end to form two short produced neck with a well-developed aperture terminal, rounded, with a distinct
spines; depressed areas between keel everted lip. lip.
edges granular or spinose; wall smooth, Coastal bay, 10 m. Bay of Prony, 20 m.
finely perforated with marginal, more Systematics p. 293. Systematics p. 293.
densely perforated, opaque bands; aperture
ovate, at the end of the produced neck;
entosolenian tube attached to dorsal face,
more than half the length of the test in
length.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 293.

Lagenosolenia quadrangularis
Test elongate, compressed, quadrangular Lagenosolenia sp. 2
in transverse section; basal end rounded,
sometimes mucronate; apertural end Test globular, flask-shaped, broadly
tapering and terminating in a short rounded at the base, the opposite end
apertural neck; flat lateral sides of the test abruptly narrowed to a stout, short neck;
Lagenosolenia neoauriculata surface somewhat rough throughout;
edged by paired carinae; the external
Test flask-shaped, compressed, unicari- carinae of each face fuse in a keel that aperture terminal, rounded, with a slight
nate for anterior half, with laterobasal extends along the neck; the internal lip.
loops; lateral structure interrupted at carinae form an incomplete rim, then Bay of Prony, 30 m.
central basal area, giving a triangular also extending along the neck; surface Systematics p. 293.
outline to the test; relatively long carinate smooth; aperture ovate, produced on a
neck, with a prominent phialine lip; wall neck.
of the central part of the test with rather
coarse perforations; aperture terminal, Bay of Prony, 20 m.
rounded. Systematics p. 293.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 293.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 155

Lagenosolenia sp. 3 Lagnea neosigmoidella Lagnea sp. 1


Test oval in outline, laterally compressed Test elongate, flask-shaped, compressed, Test large, in side view rounded, in end
with three complex carinae and a central sigmoid in cross section; wide peripheral view compressed, with a long, fine, cylin-
boss separated from the lateral carina by keel with numerous narrow, radiate drical neck; periphery furnished with a
a deep groove; the carinae continue over tubules; keel extends half way up the long median keel with tubes around the
the neck; surface ornamented by irregular tubular neck that is often broken; aperture apertural end of the test, only the tubes
ridges; aperture terminal, ovate, with a at the end of the neck with a phialine lip. occurring around the basal end of the
distinct lip. Northern shelf, 600 m. test; a thick subsidiary keel is present on
Bay of Prony, 20 m. Systematics p. 295. either side; wall smooth; aperture at the
Systematics p. 293. widening end of the neck, rounded.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 295.

Lagnea
Lagnea lagenoides
Test flask-shaped, usually much com-
pressed, the body portion ovate surrounded Lagnea parviauriculata
by a simple peripheral keel of varying Test unilocular, flask-like, slightly com- Oolina
width in different specimens, and with pressed, periphery broadly carinate, keel Oolina ampulladistoma
numerous radiating tubulations, giving with radiating tubules, extending com- Test subcylindrical to subspherical; aboral
it in side view a somewhat scalloped pletely around the periphery and at the end with a caudal spine; numerous and
appearance; body of the test smooth, and base of the neck, bifurcating in the lower prominent nodules, usually more abun-
usually nearly transparent; aperture part of the test but converging at the basal dant on the basal half of the test that is
projecting with a distinct neck, slightly end; wall calcareous, hyaline, surface rougher; test tapering forward to a distinct
tapering, but in some specimens at least smooth; aperture round, terminal, at the groove at the base of a convex apertural
with a distinct entosolenian tube. end of a long neck, with a thickened rim. formation; aperture small at the center of
Isle of Pines, 5 m. Coastal bay, 5 m. this formation.
Systematics p. 295. Systematics p. 295. Bay of Prony, 30 m.
Systematics p. 295.
156 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Oolina caudigera Oolina cf. O. stelligera Oolina sp. 1


Test globular to ovate characterized by a Shell pyriform, with a deep, circular Test subcylindrical; surface ornamented
narrow aboral spine; surface somewhat depression at the base, surrounded by a with several costae, thin at the base of the
irregular; aperture simple, surrounded by rim about one third the diameter of the test, thickening towards the apertural end
numerous small bosses. shell, varying considerably in depth; a and joining to form a smooth hyaline
Northern shelf, 600 m. number of ribs radiate from the rim, a blunt flat apertural end; aperture very
Systematics p. 295. few stronger and irregular ribs extend a small, round, in the center of a slightly
short distance on the rounded base, the depressed area. This species resembles
others extending to about two thirds the O. auberginiana YASSINI & JONES, 1995
height of the test; surface otherwise in its general morphology.
smooth, very finely perforated; aperture Northern shelf, 600 m.
terminal, at the produced apical end. The Systematics p. 296.
test resembles the final chamber of a
uniserial test, but the base is always
imperforate. This species differs from
O. stelligera in having a less marked
angle between the rim and the rounded
base of the test, and less regular and
prominent ribs present in this angle.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Oolina lineata Systematics p. 295.
Test ovate to pyriform, circular in cross
section, bluntly rounded at the basal end;
numerous fine and weak, closely spaced
longitudinal striae form the ornamentation;
aperture terminal and rounded.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 295.
Oolina sp. 2
Test subspherical; initial end broadly
rounded on all, but slightly produced
basally to form a short blunt caudal
spine; test tapering toward the apertural
end to form a truncated apertural ring;
all surface covered with numerous, raised
costae that are discontinuous and made up
of a series of contiguous short segments;
Oolina stellula aperture small, rounded in the central
Test unilocular, flask-shaped; wall cal- depression of the apertural ring.
careous, hyaline, surface smooth aperture Northern shelf, 600 m.
bordered by radial grooves, slightly Systematics p. 296.
Oolina spiroglobosa produced but without a distinct neck.
Test globose; wall ornamented by several Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
irregularly twisted costae that become Systematics p. 295.
indistinct near the base of the test; basal
end of the test terminates in a short spine;
aperture terminal, at the end of a short
lip-like structure.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 295.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 157

Palliolatella Palliolatella peponisema Palliolatella sp. 2


Palliolatella bradyiformis Test elongate subfusiform in outline, Test compressed, the central part circular
Test compressed, circular in side view, about 2.5 times as long as broad, greatest in side view; periphery furnished with a
with the central part of the test convex on breadth below midline; distinctly com- sharp prominent median keel and two
either side; periphery furnished with a pressed but chamber faces convex, neck lateral keels; median keel widening
sharp prominent median keel and two length up to one quarter that of chamber; toward the truncate apertural end of the
lateral keels; wall smooth; aperture slit- periphery ornamented by 3 keels, of which test and to the apex of the basal end; wall
like with two thick lips connected with the the central one is usually predominant smooth; aperture slit-like with two thick
median keel. on the upper part, and the outer pair lips connected with the median keel.
occasionally predominant on the lower Northern shelf, 600 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
part of test; central keel embraces the Systematics p. 293.
Systematics p. 293.
neck in a rather narrow flange, with the
upper surface and lip variably expanded
to form an acutely angled hood; central
keel may disappear at the base of the test,
or may persist, embracing the basal spine
as in the presented specimen; aperture
terminal, oval, with free straight
entosolenian tube of comparable length
to neck.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 293.

Palliolatella fasciata carinata Palliolatella sp. 3


Test compressed with a circular outline; Test compressed; central body of the test
periphery bordered by a narrow keel; circular in side view, with its central part
unornamented lateral surfaces limited by convex; periphery furnished with a sharp
two narrow peripheral costae that interrupt prominent median keel and two lateral
at each end of the test; aperture fissurine, keels; the median keel widens towards the
not produced. aperture, connecting to the lips, it ends in
two stout spines at some distance from
Coastal Bay, 5 m. the basal end where three smaller spines
Systematics p. 293. are present; surface rough, except in the
central part of the test; aperture rounded
in a depression between two thick lips
connected with the median keel.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 293.

Palliolatella sp. 1
Test free, circular in outline, compressed,
completely encircled by a wide carina;
wall smooth with relatively coarse perfo-
rations; aperture and neck enclosed by
the inflated carina.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 293.
158 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Palliolatella sp. 4 Parafissurina aventricosa Parafissurina himatiostoma


Test subcircular in side view with a some- Test inflated, subcircular in outline, lat- Test elongate, ovoid, tapering towards
what polygonal central area bordered by erally compressed, but not keeled; basal apertural end, basal end rounded, widest
a small costa; test dissymmetrical in end end flattened on a short distance, then in the middle; wall calcareous hyaline,
view with one side almost flat and the other inflating regularly, reaching the greatest finely perforated, surface smooth; aperture
one convex; periphery keeled; apertural width about mid point, then tapering is a small opening with unequally
area slightly produced, aperture fusiform toward a produced hood; aperture rounded developed lips; upper lip slightly elongate
surrounded by double lips connected with below the hood. and hood shape.
the keel. Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 296. Systematics p. 296.
Systematics p. 293.

Parafissurina
Parafissurina admiralis
Test ovate to subspherical, somewhat
longer than wide; keel uniform in width
and texture; apertural area produced with Parafissurina erecta
a relatively small lip on one side and a Test subquadrate, marginate but not
larger hood-like lip on the other side; carinate, much compressed; basal end
wall smooth, thick, transparent with quadrately rounded, apertural end slightly Parafissurina cf. P. kallima
heavily perforated peripheral areas, opaque produced; width about uniform from end to Test circular in contour, carinate, com-
under the dissecting microscope, whitish end; margin heavy, rounded, transparent, pressed but centrally inflated; keel
on SEM pictures; aperture a crescent-shape uniform laterally but wider and thicker prominent, transparent, of uniform width
slit with a long entosolenian tube. basally; wall transparent, thick, with central even at apertural end; wall transparent
Northern shelf, 600 m. area more hyaline; margin extending except an irregular white band (pores)
Systematics p. 296. vertically at the apertural end, furnishing near body margin; dorsal lip takes its
a shallow recess for the relatively short, origin on marginal keel that extends
ovate opening; entosolenian tube about forward, shorter ventral lip parallels
as long as the test, adhering to the dorsal dorsal lip, giving a slit-like aperture;
face. entosolenian tube adhering to the dorsal
South and southeastern lagoon, 50-100 m. face, about half the length of the test.
Systematics p. 296. This species matches well with the
description of P. kallima, but differs in its
shorter aperture and longer entosolenian
tube.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 296.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 159

Parafissurina minuta Parafissurina sp. 1 Procerolagena distoma


Test compressed roundly quadrangular, Test subcircular in outline, laterally com- Test elongated, generally with subparallel
about twice as long as broad; the two pressed, with a well-developed peripheral margins; surface ornamented with fine
sides of the peripheral margin parallel; keel bordered by two secondary keels longitudinal striae; aperture circular, at
wall transparent, very finely perforated; forming an annular ridge on each side; the end of a short, conical neck; aboral
aperture slit-like, about half the width of central part of the test rather coarsely opening.
the test, dissymmetrically placed towards perforated, ornamented by irregular Specimens found in New Caledonia are
one side of the test. ridges; aperture large, ovate, with the keel more or less curved and inflated, with
Bay of Prony, 30 m. forming two dissymmetrical lips, a raised very fine striae, as the specimen shown on
Systematics p. 296. one and a less developed one. pl. 58, fig. 14 of BARKER (1960).
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 296. Systematics p. 290.

Procerolagena
Procerolagena cylindrocostata
Test elongate, circular in cross section
and with a cylindrical central portion;
Parafissurina cf. P. reniformis apertural end tapering gradually into a
long slender neck with a lip (often broken);
Test subcircular in contour, truncated at basal end tapers rather quickly; two sets
the apertural end, compressed, slightly of costae form the ornamentation, one set
marginated; wall translucent, slightly along the full length of the chamber and
roughened; apertural end squared off half way up the neck, the other set occupies
into a straight line; aperture located in a the lower three-quarter portion of the
depression; entosolenian tube adhering chamber. Both sets may slightly project
to the dorsal face, about half the length of beyond the basal end of the test.
the test.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m. Systematics p. 289.
Systematics p. 296.
160 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Procerolagena cf. P. gracilis Procerolagena intricata Procerolagena oceanica


Test fusiform, elongate, ornamented with Test elongate-fusiform, flask-shaped with Clavate form with a long, tapering, nearly
4 or more high costae or plate-like ribs a long neck, basal end truncated with short cylindrical neck; greatest width near the
running the entire length of the test from spines; wall calcareous hyaline, finely base; wall ornamented by a few distinct
near the aperture to the apical end, where perforated, surface smooth with faint raised costae limited to the truncated basal
they unite in an apical spine; neck slender; costae on the lower portion of the test; portion of the test; base provided with a
surface smooth; aperture terminal, aperture rounded, at the end of the neck. number of short spines; aperture rounded,
rounded, small. Coastal bay, 10 m. at the end of the neck, surrounded by a
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 290. thick phialine lip.
Systematics p. 290. Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 290.

Procerolagena implicata Procerolagena meridionalis


Test fusiform and slightly curved with the Test fusiform, circular in cross section,
aboral end truncated; sides of the main basal end bluntly rounded, sometimes Pseudofissurina
body of the test nearly parallel, becoming with an apical spine; 8-12 costae extend Pseudofissurina sp. 1
rapidly tapering at the apertural end, with the entire test length, alternating with a Test small, subrounded in outline, com-
a distinct neck; wall ornamented with a second set of weaker and shorter costae; pressed, with inflated central body and
few longitudinal costae, some of them wall smooth; aperture at the end of an carinate periphery; wall finely perforate,
continuing from the base to the apertural elongated neck. surface smooth and unornamented; aper-
end; at the aboral end the costae project Coastal bay, 10 m. tural end truncated; aperture elongate,
slightly giving a spinose appearance; wall Systematics p. 290. about the diameter of the test in length, one
finely perforated; aperture small, rounded, margin somewhat produced, internally
at the end of the neck. provided with an entosolenian tube
Northern shelf, 600 m. attached to the dorsal wall and extending
Systematics p. 290. back nearly to the base of the chamber
before flaring terminally.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 296.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 161

Pygmaeoseistron Pygmaeoseistron hispidulum Sphaeridia


Pygmaeoseistron baukalionilla Test subglobular, broadly rounded at the Sphaeridia papillata
Test flask-shaped with a rounded base base, the opposite end abruptly narrowed Test globular, nearly spherical in shape,
and a subcylindrical neck; wall smooth to a slender, elongate neck of nearly with a thick wall; three to four rapidly
or with low costae developed on the basal uniform diameter; surface finely hispid enlarging and strongly enveloping
half of the test; aperture at the end of throughout; aperture terminal with a chambers, but usually hardly visible,
the neck, with a flared lip (broken on the slight lip. without apparent sutures; test covered
figured specimen). Coastal bay, 5 m. with coarse hemispherical papillae of
Bay of Prony, 20 m. Systematics p. 290. clear shell material, except over the oral
Systematics p. 290. area, covered by a large solid plug that
occupies about one fourth of the test
surface and is perforated by tubular and
bifurcating canals; wall finely perforate;
aperture consisting of the pores at the
ends of the tubular canals.
Southern shelf, 70 m.
Systematics p. 308.

Seabrookia
Seabrookia pellucida Stictogongylus
Test elliptical in side view, plano convex Stictogongylus rugata
in end view; periphery slightly carinate; Small globular test with a small trochos-
Pygmaeoseistron chasteri early stage low trochospiral, chambers piral early stage followed by a thick
Test flask-shaped with broadly rounded rapidly increasing in size, strongly walled inflated final chamber that makes
base, gradually tapering to the apertural embracing; only two chambers are visible up 9/10 of the test; sutures indistinct giv-
end; finely pitted surface; aperture at the in the last whorl, and generally appear as ing the test an unilocular appearance;
end of the neck. if it was unilocular with a carina; wall wall irregularly ridged with numerous
translucent, very finely perforated; aper- fine pores; apical region smooth, without
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. ture terminal, elongated, surrounded by pores, but with a few larger openings
Systematics p. 290. a rim. arranged in an incomplete spiral pattern.
Bay of Prony, 10-40 m. Coastal bay, 5 m.
Systematics p. 297. Systematics p. 326.
162 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Description Amphicoryna Amphicoryna sp. 1


of hyaline species Amphicoryna scalaris Test elongate, uniserial and slightly
uniserial Test straight or slightly curved consisting curved; chambers somewhat inflated,
of a straight linear series of subglobular irregular, overlapping previous chambers;
(or appearing so) sutures straight and constricted, surface
inflated chambers (3-6); chambers
increasing rapidly in size as added; final ornamented with fine costae broken up
All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM) into rows of small pustules: aperture
chamber drawn out into a fairly long
neck ornamented with annular costae; terminal, radiate, at the end of a pro-
Allassoida nounced neck with undulated concentric
initial end commonly mucronate; wall
Allassoida virgula ornamented by longitudinal costae ridges.
Test linear, straight or slightly curved, variable both in number and thickness; Northern shelf, 600 m.
slightly tapering toward the initial end; last chamber may be somewhat separated Systematics p. 287.
early stage with a few trochospirally from the rest of the test; aperture radiate,
arranged chambers, abruptly becoming at the end of the neck. This species is
uniserial with 4-5 gradually enlarging strongly dimorphic.
chambers; chambers of the linear portion Northern shelf, 600 m.
globular or pyriform; surface hispid Systematics p. 287.
throughout, with elongate acicular
spines at the base of the apertural lip and
at the base of the chambers; aperture
wide, slightly projected, with an everted
phialine lip.
Bay of Prony, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 302.

Bombulina
Bombulina echinata
Test elongate, ovate, circular in section,
uniserial throughout, chambers strongly
Amphicoryna separans embracing; sutures horizontal, flush and
Test short, the initial portion composed of obscure; wall calcareous, hyaline, surface
three globular but not inflated chambers finely hispid; aperture terminal, rounded
uniserially arranged; initial end broadly at the end of a short neck, bordered by a
rounded with a small apical spine; one or phialine lip.
more spherical supplementary chambers Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
are separated from the first chambers by a Systematics p. 296.
narrow tube; numerous strong costae run
the length of the test, terminating at each
chamber; aperture radiate located at the
end of a long regularly annulated neck.
Southern shelf, 70 m.
Systematics p. 287.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 163

Botuloides Dentalina Dentalina vertebralis


Botuloides pauciloculatus Dentalina decepta Test long, slender, slightly tapering, and
Test small, elongate, arcuate, circular in Test large, slightly curved, the initial end generally more or less curved; chambers
section, and sausage-shaped; proloculus with a single stout spine; later part of the numerous, outline even; surface marked
ovate with nearly parallel sides, about test slightly lobulate; chambers distinct, by distinct, continuous, longitudinal
2.5 times as long as broad, followed by inflated only in the later portion, increasing costae; sutures unconstricted, straight,
one chamber of similar form that partly in size rather gradually; sutures distinct, hyaline, and conspicuously thick, but not
overlaps the distal end of the protocols, and only the later ones depressed; earlier portion limbate; aperture terminal, radiate, at the
occasionally a second chamber; sutures ornamented with distinct longitudinal end of a tapering neck.
horizontal, straight, constricted; wall cal- costae extending across the sutures, later Northern shelf, 600 m.
careous, thin, transparent, finely perforate, portion smooth; aperture terminal, radiate, Systematics p. 284.
surface smooth; aperture small, round, slightly projecting, eccentric.
sometimes with a short tubular neck. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Bay of Prony, 30 m. Systematics p. 284.
Systematics p. 284.

Dentalina cf. D. flintii


Test elongate, slender, tapering, curved,
Chrysalidinella the initial end mucronate; chambers
Chrysalidinella dimorpha somewhat inflated, especially in the later Enantiodentalina
Test elongate, early stage pyramidal, later portion; sutures depressed in the later Enantiodentalina muraii
with nearly parallel sides and triangular portion of the test; surface ornamented by
longitudinal costae, faint on the earlier Test elongate, subcylindrical, straight or
or rarely quadrangular in section, early slightly arcuate, early chambers biserial,
chambers triserially arranged and chambers, running to the apertural end;
aperture radiate at the end of a tapering alternation clearly evident on the dorsal
enlarging rapidly; later chambers unis- edge but less clear on the ventral edge,
erial and rectilinear, sutures arched and neck.
later uniserial, with increasingly oblique
curving backward at the angles, apertural Bay of Prony, 30 m. sutures; wall finely perforate, surface
face domed; wall coarsely perforate, surface Systematics p. 284. smooth; aperture terminal on the produced
smooth; uniserial stage with a cribrate margin of the test, radiate.
aperture of numerous rounded pores
scattered over the terminal face, each Northern shelf, 600 m.
bordered with a small lip. Systematics p. 284.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
Systematics p. 304.
164 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Euglandulina Frondicularia sp. 1 Glandulina suezensis


Euglandulina striatula Test stout, tapering, compressed; lateral Test fusiform, circular in cross section;
Test subfusiform, circular in cross section; edges rounded and somewhat lobulate; early stage biserial, later uniserial; initial
initial end acute, greatest width about chambers few; sutures slightly excavated; end with a short hyaline tapering spine;
midpoint, apertural end rounded; sutures proloculus inflated; first chambers chambers strongly overlapping and rapidly
horizontal and flush, hardly visible; last- strongly reflexed later only slightly increasing in size as added; sutures
formed chamber more than half the curved, becoming horizontal; surface slightly depressed; wall smooth, more or
entire length of the test, tapering towards smooth; aperture terminal, radiate. less transparent; aperture terminal,
the aperture; wall ornamented by fine Northern shelf, 600 m. prominent, radiate.
costae; aperture radiate. Systematics p. 285. Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Coastal bay, 10 m. Systematics p. 296.
Systematics p. 296.

Frondicularia Glandulina sp. 1


Frondicularia kiensis Glandulina Test globular, circular in cross section;
Test elongate, narrow, tapering, compressed; Glandulina laevigata early stage biserial, later uniserial; initial
lateral edges rounded and somewhat Test fusiform, circular in cross section; end broadly rounded; chambers strongly
lobulate; chambers numerous; sutures early stage biserial, later uniserial; cham- overlapping; sutures slightly depressed,
slightly excavated; proloculus inflated, bers strongly overlapping and rapidly last chamber subspherical; wall smooth,
chambers immediately following it more increasing in size as added, the last more or less transparent; aperture terminal,
reflexed than the later ones, which are chamber occupying more than 2/3 of the large, prominent, finely radiate.
only slightly curved; surface smooth; test; sutures distinct, flush with the surface; Northern shelf, 600 m.
aperture terminal, radiate. wall smooth, more or less transparent; Systematics p. 296.
Northern shelf, 600 m. aperture terminal, prominent, radiate
Systematics p. 285. with 10-16 elongated slits.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 296.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 165

Grigelis Laevidentalina baggi Laevidentalina emaciata


Grigelis orectus Test elongate, circular in section, slightly Test elongate, tapering, slightly curved,
Test long and narrow; chambers pyriform, curved; proloculus round, somewhat composed of numerous short cylindrical
separated by elongate tubular necks; larger than the immediately following chambers, as high as broad; sutures but
sutures not noticeable; wall smooth; chambers; chambers distinct, inflated, slightly depressed in the early portion,
aperture at the end of a long neck. somewhat irregularly increasing in size later chambers more inflated with sutures
as added; sutures depressed, slightly somewhat depressed; initial end rounded;
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
oblique, limbate; wall smooth; aperture surface smooth; aperture terminal, radiate.
Systematics p. 284.
radiate, terminal, at the periphery of the Northern shelf, 600 m.
last-formed chamber. Systematics p. 284.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 284.

Laevidentalina communis Laevidentalina filiformis


Test elongate, slender, tapering, generally Test elongate, slightly arcuate; chambers
slightly curved, composed of numerous oval, sutures oblique; wall smooth; aperture
Laevidentalina sub-cylindrical chambers; chambers but terminal with radial slits, at the end of a
Laevidentalina advena slightly inflated in the initial portion, short neck.
Test elongate, only slightly tapering, cir- more so in the later portion, sutures Bay of Prony, 10-30 m.
cular in transverse section, composed of oblique; surface smooth; aperture terminal, Systematics p. 284.
few chambers, initial end broadly rounded, radiate, somewhat eccentric.
apertural end slightly drawn out; sutures Northern shelf, 600 m.
oblique, distinct, slightly depressed; wall Systematics p. 284.
smooth; aperture radiate, eccentric.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 284.
166 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Laevidentalina inflexa Laevidentalina sidebottomi Laevidentalina subsoluta


Test elongated, of medium size; initial Test elongate, very slightly tapering, not Test elongated, slightly arcuate; chambers
end rounded, followed by a few chambers compressed, slightly curved; chambers comparatively few in number, less than
in a straight line, later the test is slightly distinct, somewhat inflated, increasing in eight, globular and of nearly equal size;
curved; sutures slightly depressed and length as added, the diameter nearly sutures horizontal, deeply incised; initial
furnished with short longitudinal costae uniform throughout; sutures distinct, chamber often relatively large, and nearly
in the first chambers, later sutures much slightly oblique, limbate; wall translucent, always mucronate; wall smooth; aperture
more depressed and chambers inflated, smooth, very finely perforate; aperture produced, radiate, terminal.
more elongate, somewhat pyriform; wall radiate, terminal, at the peripheral angle. Northern shelf, 600 m.
very finely perforate, smooth; aperture Bay of Prony, 5-30 m. Systematics p. 284.
terminal, radial. Only specimens lacking Systematics p. 284.
the initial part were found.
Bay of Prony, 5-20 m.
Systematics p. 284.

Laevidentalina subemaciata
Test elongate, curved and tapering to the
rounded proloculus; chambers numerous, Laevidentalina sp. 1
low in the early portion, increasing in Test elongate, tapering gradually from
size as added; sutures flush and glassy in the acute initial end to the last-formed
earlier portion, becoming slightly chamber; initial end often with a stout
depressed and oblique in the final cham- spine; proloculus larger than the follow-
bers; wall smooth; aperture terminal and ing chambers; chambers not inflated
radiate. and sutures not depressed; wall smooth;
Laevidentalina mucronata
Northern shelf, 600 m. aperture radiate, terminal.
Test elongate, tapering from the initial Systematics p. 284.
end to the broadest last-formed chamber; Northern shelf, 600 m.
initial end acute, often with a short spine; Systematics p. 284.
chambers relatively few, not inflated;
sutures distinct, slightly oblique, but not
depressed; wall smooth; aperture terminal,
radiate, eccentric.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 284.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 167

Laevidentalina sp. 2 Lingulina Marginulinopsis


Test elongate, tapering, slightly curved, Lingulina galapagosensis Marginulinopsis bradyi
composed of numerous short and cylin- Test elongate, robust, strongly compressed; Test stout, elongate; early portion
drical chambers; sutures flush in the lenticular in section; initial end broadly planispirally coiled with sutures radial and
early portion, later chambers inflated, rounded, apertural end somewhat pro- periphery acute; later portion uncoiled,
subspherical with sutures somewhat duced; chambers uniserial and rectilinear, with chambers circular in section and
depressed, horizontal; initial end rounded; strongly overlapping earlier chambers; sutures straight, horizontal and slightly
surface smooth; aperture terminal, radiate, periphery but slightly lobulate, peripheral depressed; surface ornamented with faint
eccentrical. margin acute but not keeled; sutures costae that cross the sutures, last chambers
Northern shelf, 600 m. horizontal, gently curved, very slightly less ornamented; aperture radiate, some-
Systematics p. 284. depressed; wall glossy, milky white, finely what produced at the external angle.
perforate, surface smooth; aperture an Northern shelf, 600 m.
elongate terminal slit in the plane of Systematics p. 287.
compression, with produced lips.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 285.

Laevidentalina sp. 3 Marginulina Marginulinopsis tenuis


Test elongated, variously curved, not Marginulina similis Test beginning with a few and incon-
tapering, with only a few chambers; initial Test short, stout, somewhat tapering, with spicuous spiral chambers while the test is
end rounded; sutures in the first chambers a bluntly rounded initial end; early portion laterally compressed; later chambers
only slightly depressed, later sutures forming a portion of coil; uncoiled section subcylindrical, increasingly inflated; wall
much more depressed and chambers nearly circular in transverse section; smooth; aperture terminal, radiate.
inflated, subspherical or pyriform; wall length about three times the diameter of Northern shelf, 600 m.
very finely perforate, smooth; aperture the final chamber; around six chambers, Systematics p. 287.
terminal, radial, on a tubular neck. Old all slightly inflated, increasing in size as
microsperical specimens may have more added; sutures depressed; surface smooth;
chambers and be strongly curved. Similar aperture produced and marginal, radiate.
specimens were reported as L. inflexa by
Northern shelf, 600 m.
LOEBLICH & TAPPAN (1994). They resemble
Systematics p. 288.
this species, but differ by the lack of short
longitudinal costae in the sutures.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 284.
168 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Marginulinopsis? sp. 1 Pavonina Pseudonodosaria


Test elongate; early portion close coiled and Pavonina flabelliformis Pseudonodosaria discreta
planispiral, sutures radial and periphery Test free, fan-shaped, compressed; initial Test elongate, cylindrical, base tapering
acutely rounded; later portion uncoiled, stage biserial, rapidly becoming uniserial or broadly rounded, early chambers
with chambers circular in section and with embracing successive chambers; strongly overlapping and increasing
sutures straight, horizontal and slightly chambers laterally compressed and semi- rapidly in diameter, later ones enlarging
depressed; last chambers strongly bent annular; periphery sharply angular on both more slowly and less closely appressed,
backwards giving a peculiar aspect to the sides and irregularly keeled; apertural final chamber may be somewhat inflated,
test; wall finely perforate, surface with face truncated, keeled; sutures distinct, sutures straight, horizontal, flush or
longitudinal costae on the internal arched; pores very large, on low raised slightly depressed; wall finely perforated,
periphery; aperture terminal, radiate, at mounds, arranged in rows paralleling the surface smooth; aperture terminal, radiate.
the dorsal angle. Several specimens were chamber edges; aperture consisting of a Northern shelf, 600 m.
found with exactly the same morphology, series of large pores of different size Systematics p. 285.
suggesting that they are not only irregularly placed along the apertural
deformed specimens. face.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Southern shelf, 60 m.
Systematics p. 287. Systematics p. 305.
juvenile

macrospherical

Nodosaria
Nodosaria nebulosa
Test composed of two to three globulose Polymorphinella
chambers with depressed sutures; surface
smooth and unornamented; aperture Polymorphinella pacifica
terminal, radiate at the end of a smooth Test elongate, ovate in outline, compressed; microspherical
neck. early stage biserial, with plane of biseriality
Bay of Prony, 20 m. parallel to the compression, later uniserial,
Systematics p. 285. but some chambers are somewhat Pyramidulina
cuneate, alternating from one side to the
other; sutures distinct, sigmoid; wall finely Pyramidulina catesbyi
perforate, surface smooth; aperture radiate Two to three chambers with an elongate
at the external angle. last chamber projecting in a distinct
Northern shelf, 600 m. neck; well-developed aboral spine; wall
Systematics p. 291. ornamented with several continuous
longitudinal costae; aperture radiate at
the end of the neck.
Coastal bays, 5-20 m.
Systematics p. 285.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 169

Pyramidulina pauciloculata Pyramidulina sp. 1 Siphogenerina pacifica


Test nodose, composed of two or three Test elongate, initial end rounded; cham- Test nearly cylindrical, stoutly built,
closely set chambers followed by one or bers few, gradually becoming separated somewhat tapering, rounded at both ends;
two remote ones; chambers inflated, with one or two remote chambers; sutures chambers short and little inflated; sutures
sutures horizontal, depressed; wall orna- depressed, more so in the later chambers; slightly depressed, with a crenulated
mented by longitudinal costae, usually wall ornamented with a few somewhat appearance; wall coarsely perforated;
limited to the middle portion of the irregular longitudinal costae; aperture at aperture a wide circular opening with a
chamber; aperture terminal, radiate, at the end of an elongate tapering neck. thickened rim.
the end of a slightly swollen neck. Often last chambers were broken and found Northern shelf, 600 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. isolated in New Caledonia. A similar form Systematics p. 302.
Systematics p. 285. was reported as P. luzonensi by LOEBLICH
& TAPPAN (1994), not P. luzonensi (CUSHMAN,
1921).
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 285.

juvenile

Pyramidulina prava
Siphogenerina raphana
Test elongate, somewhat tapering; early
Test elongate, cylindrical, tapering slightly
chambers usually overlapping, and either
toward the initial end; initial end rounded,
2 or 3 in number increasing slightly in
oral end convex and broad; early chambers
size as added, followed by two or more
biserially arranged, later uniserial and
chambers obliquely placed, the obliquity Siphogenerina rectilinear for most of the test; sutures
becoming more pronounced as chambers Siphogenerina columellarensis distinct slightly depressed; wall ornament-
are added; sutures distinct, much con-
Test elongate, cylindrical; initial end, ed by several prominent longitudinal
stricted in the later portion of the test;
rounded or subacute, oral extremity convex costae regularly spaced and running the
wall ornamented by longitudinal costae,
and broad; early chambers biserially full length of the test; aperture circular,
in the earlier portion continuous over
arranged, then uniserial for most of the surrounded by a prominent lip.
adjacent chambers, later independent on
each chamber; aperture radiate, at the test; chambers rounded, not inflated; Bay of Prony, 10-30 m.
end of a cylindrical neck. sutures distinct, thick and slightly Systematics p. 302.
depressed; wall smooth, with short and
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m. faint costae across the sutures; aperture
Systematics p. 285. terminal, large, circular and surrounded
by a lip.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m, Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 302.
170 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Spirolingulina Vaginulinopsis Description


Spirolingulina sp. 1 Vaginulinopsis sublegumen of hyaline species
Test elongate, lenticular to ovate in section, Test elongate, nearly straight, early stage biserial
somewhat inflated medially, early stage planispirally enrolled and involute (less (or appearing so)
with planispirally enrolled chambers, so in macrospheric individuals), later
later chambers strongly overlapping, uncoiled and rectilinear, laterally com- All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM)
uniserial and rectilinear, sutures flush, pressed and ovate in section, sutures radial
radial to slightly curved in the enrolled in the early stage, nearly straight, Abditodentrix
stage, horizontal and sinuate in the recti- oblique, and slightly depressed in the
linear stage, curving backward slightly at uncoiled stage; wall calcareous, finely Abditodentrix pseudothalmanni
the midline of the sides and at the test perforate, surface smooth and unorna- Test elongate, biserial throughout, sides
margins; periphery carinate to rounded; mented; aperture terminal, radiate, at the flattened, edges truncate; chambers
wall finely perforate, surface smooth; external angle. enlarging gradually, sunken and concave
aperture terminal, an elongate slit bordered Northern shelf, 600 m. on the sides; sutures constricted laterally to
by low projecting rims. Systematics p. 288. result in serrate test margins; wall perforate
Northern shelf, 600 m. with pores of medium size; surface highly
Systematics p. 288. ornamented by elevated reticulations, except
on the apertural face; aperture basal, ovoid,
extending up the apertural face, without
a bordering lip but with an internal folded
toothplate at one side of the opening.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 299.

Vaginulina
Vaginulina reophagina
Test elongate, uniserial, arcuate, slightly
compressed and curved; large proloculus
followed by subrhomboidal chambers,
rectangular in section; each chamber
bears four costae, two on either side and
has a rounded base and a produced neck;
sutures very oblique, slightly depressed; Abditodentrix rhomboidalis
wall finely perforated, surface smooth;
Test small, biserial throughout, triangular
aperture radial at the tapering end of the
in lateral view, rhomboidal in end view;
last chamber.
periphery obliquely truncate, sides slightly
South of the Grande Terre, 20 m. concave, especially in the later stage;
Systematics p. 286. chambers rapidly increasing in size as
added; sutures depressed, slightly curved;
large scattered pores except for a narrow
imperforate region adjacent to the aperture;
aperture an areal slit, commencing a slight
distance above the base of the rhomboid
apertural face and extending obliquely
upward, bordered by a distinct lip.
Bay of Prony, 10-30 m; coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 299.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 171

Bolivina Bolivina robusta Bolivina striatula


Bolivina doniezi Test biserial, elongate, compressed; aper- Test elongate, gradually tapering from
Test small, broadest near the rounded tural extremity broad and rounded, test the somewhat rounded initial end to the
apertural end; chambers comparatively tapering to a point, and frequently termi- broad apertural end; chambers numerous,
few; wall smooth, but very coarsely perfo- nating in a long stout spine, at the initial distinct, slightly inflated; sutures very
rated, the earlier chambers with a few end; test thickest on the median line, and slightly depressed; early portion of the test
coarse perforations near the basal margin, sloping away symmetrically towards the less compressed than the later portion;
the later chambers with the coarse perfo- lateral edges; margin subacute; chambers surface ornamented by numerous longi-
rations scattered over the general surface; long, curved, obliquely set; sutures thick- tudinal striations occupying about half
chambers low, becoming higher as ened, usually limbate and somewhat the length of the test; final chambers
added, periphery rounded; sutures distinct, crenulated; aperture a small arch at the smooth, hardly punctate; aperture an
depressed, strongly oblique; aperture base of the apertural face. Only a few elongated opening, narrow at the base and
elongate, arched, in the median plane, at macrospheric specimens were found. widening in the upper portion, one side
the base of the last-formed chamber. Northern shelf, 600 m. with a thick rim, the other smooth and
Systematics p. 298. bending inwards to form the toothplate.
Coastal bays, 10 m.
Systematics p. 298. Coastal lagoons, estuaries, Bay of Prony,
5-40 m.
Systematics p. 298.

Bolivina spathulata
Bolivina glutinata Test compressed and highly flattened
Test elongate, compressed, broad; periph- with a lanceolate shape, slightly keeled
ery rounded; chambers provided with Bolivina subreticulata
and with a rounded initial portion;
irregular basal lobes distinct in the later sutures depressed; chambers numerous, Test small, few-chambered, compressed,
chambers only; sutures oblique, nearly not inflated, increasing gradually in size of rhomboidal shape; surface ornamented
straight, mostly obscured by the ornamen- as added, provided with a definite basal with an irregular network of raised lines;
tation; pores may be distinct in the last lobe near the median suture; wall aperture elliptical, extending from the
chambers; aperture elliptical, extending smoothly finished, but with a row of coarse base of the apertural face.
from the base of the last-formed chamber, perforations along the lower margin of the Northern shelf, 600 m.
with narrow rim and distinct toothplate. chamber and of the basal lobe; aperture a Systematics p. 298.
The original figures of Egger give little broad loop bordered by a rim and with a
guide for the identification of this species; distinct toothplate.
instead, illustrations by LOEBLICH & TAPPAN Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
(1994) and HAYWARD et al. (1999) were Systematics p. 298.
used.
Bay of Prony, 10 m.
Systematics p. 298.

juvenile
172 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Bolivina cf. B. suezensis Bolivina variabilis Bolivinellina


Test biserial, elongate, very slowly Test elongate of greatly variable size; test Bolivinellina pescicula
increasing in width, with nearly parallel gradually tapering, periphery rounded to Test much elongated, straight or slightly
margins in the adult; periphery rounded; subcarinate; chambers numerous, slightly curved, tapering very gradually to the
sutures oblique, nearly straight, obscured inflated; sutures distinct, depressed, but apertural end; apical end rounded;
by the ornamentation, which consists of somewhat obscured by the ornamentation; chambers numerous, very slightly com-
ribs and irregular ridges particularly wall unevenly pitted, pores surrounded pressed; chambers increasing in height as
prominent in the earlier portion; cham- by ridges forming a polygonal pattern; added; sutures slightly depressed, oblique;
bers provided with 3-4 basal lobes visible aperture a broad loop bordered by a thick wall smooth, conspicuously but finely
in the later portion of the test only; wall rim, with a distinct toothplate. perforated, with imperforated fields in the
coarsely perforated on the last chamber; Bay of Prony, 5-40 m. upper part of chambers; aperture loop-
aperture elliptical, extending from the Systematics p. 298. shaped with rim on one side and distinct
base of the apertural face, with narrow toothplate.
rim and toothplate.
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m. Systematics p. 299.
Systematics p. 298.

Bolivina sp. 1
Test elongate, slender, compressed tapering;
chambers biserially arranged, higher
than broad; periphery rounded; sutures
depressed, strongly oblique; wall distinctly
perforated, surface ornamented by longi-
Bolivina vadescens tudinal striations occupying about the
entire length of the test, except the last Bolivinellina translucens
Test compressed and highly flattened
chamber; aperture elliptical, extending Test small, elongate, slender, very slightly
with a lanceolate shape and a somewhat
from the base of the apertural face, with tapering, subcircular in cross section;
rounded periphery; less than twenty
narrow rim and toothplate. chambers biserially arranged throughout,
chambers; sutures very slightly depressed,
Coastal bay, 10 m. non inflated, gradually increasing in
appearing flush under light microscope;
Systematics p. 299. height as added; sutures very slightly
wall smoothly finished, distinctly perfo-
depressed, oblique and curved; wall
rated; aperture a broad loop bordered by
glossy, the anterior half of the chamber
a rim and with a distinct toothplate.
finely perforated, the posterior half
Bay of Prony, 5-40 m. coarsely perforated; aperture terminal,
Systematics p. 298. loop-shaped with narrow lip and an
internal toothplate.
Bay of Prony, 30-40 m.
Systematics p. 299.

juvenile
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 173

Cassidelina Cassidelina spinescens Cassidelina sp. 1


Cassidelina complanata Test elongate, biserial, compressed but Test elongate, ovate in section, chambers
Test elongate, slender, compressed, tapering with margins bluntly rounded, the apex higher than broad, slightly inflated, biserial
throughout, greatest breadth at the last bluntly pointed; chambers numerous, throughout, although plane of biseriality
pair of chambers; earliest portion some- inflated; periphery lobate; sutures oblique, twists somewhat about the test axis,
what twisted, later distinctly biserial; fairly deep; wall finely perforated; surface sutures slightly oblique, depressed; wall
chambers increasing in height and length smooth, except the portion at and just smooth, very finely perforate; aperture a
as added, later ones somewhat inflated; above the sutures, which is minutely broad loop with one margin higher than
sutures distinct, depressed, oblique, slightly spinose; aperture large, loop-shaped, with the other and a toothplate. This species
curved; wall smooth, finely perforate; one margin higher than the other. resembles the specimen presented as
aperture elongate, comparatively broad, South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. Fursenkoina rotundata by LOEBLICH &
slightly curved, extending to the base of Systematics p. 301. TAPPAN (1994) pl. 256, figs 7-8.
the inner margin of the last-formed Coastal bay, 10 m.
chamber with an elongated tooth. Systematics p. 301.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 301.

Cheilochanus
Cassidelina subcapitata Cheilochanus fimbriatus
Test elongate, compressed, increasing in Test small, highly compressed, sides flat-
Cassidelina davisi width toward the apertural end, periphery tened; gradually enlarging chambers
Test elongate, narrow, biserial and twisted; rounded; biserial arrangement through- biserially arranged; sutures distinct,
initial end acutely pointed with a promi- out, slightly twisted; chambers numerous, constricted at the lateral margin that has
nent spine; chambers high, increasing inflated, increasing rapidly in height; a fimbriate appearance; raised, slightly
rapidly in height as added; sutures sutures distinct, depressed, obliquely curved ridges extend from the medial line
depressed, oblique; wall smooth, finely curved; wall smooth, finely perforate; of the test to the periphery along sutures in
perforated; aperture a broad loop with aperture elongate, a curved slit, slightly the early stage; wall finely perforated; large
one margin higher than the other and a eccentric, one margin with a low rim, the ovate subterminal aperture bordered by a
toothplate. other bending inward. prominent flaring lip and turned slightly
Bay of Prony, 10-40 m. Bay of Prony, 30 m. toward one side of the test, without a
Systematics p. 301. Systematics p. 301. toothplate in the apertural opening.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 299.
174 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Fursenkoina Fursenkoina schreibersiana Krebsina


Fursenkoina earlandi Test elongate, only slightly compressed, Krebsina subtenuis
Test, elongate, compressed, biserial and periphery broadly rounded, initial portion Test thin, broadly elliptical in outline,
slightly twisted, strongly tapering; suture strongly twisted; chambers much longer slightly convex on both sides, composed
depressed, oblique and curved; periphery than wide, oblique and slightly inflated; of a high trochospiral coiling of strongly
lobulate; chambers slightly inflated, sutures distinct, slightly depressed; wall compressed chambers, presenting the
widened towards the terminal end, and the smooth, finely perforate; aperture elongate appearance of a biserial test; margin acute;
final pair, strongly compressed, occupying in the adult, often failing to reach the chambers few in number, long, curved,
about one third the test length; wall base of the apertural face, but continuing obliquely set; aperture on the oblique face
smooth, translucent; aperture a narrow onto the terminal end of the test. of the terminal chamber, surrounded by
curved slit, slightly eccentric, with a Southwestern lagoon, 40 m. radiating lines, and partially closed by an
distinct lip, extending up the face of the Systematics p. 306. apertural flap.
last chamber from its base. South of the Grande Terre, 30 m.
Bay of Prony, 30 m. Systematics p. 291.
Systematics p. 305.

Loxostomina
Loxostomina barkeri
Test elongate, about 4 times as long as
juvenile broad, compressed, tapering toward
Hopkinsinella both ends; periphery rounded, lobulate;
Hopkinsinella glabra wall perforate, heavily ornamented by
Fursenkoina pauciloculata Test elongate, laterally compressed, irregularly continuous longitudinal
flattened ovate in section; biserial striae; sutures depressed, obscured by the
Test small, elongate, oval or subcylindrical, arrangement but with tendency for final ornamentation; aperture rather large,
slightly compressed, tapering slightly; chamber to become terminal; chambers terminal, ovate, with a toothplate.
ends rounded; initial end mucronate; increasing in relative height as added,
chambers few in number, long, erect, but Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
sutures oblique, depressed; wall smooth; Systematics p. 301.
little inflated, irregularly arranged; aperture subterminal, on a short neck,
sutures distinct, slightly depressed, surrounded by a recurved lip.
strongly oblique; wall smooth, finely
perforate; aperture narrowly elliptical, Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
with the opening usually somewhat Systematics p. 301.
narrowed at the base of the chamber.
Bay of Prony, 10-40 m.
Systematics p. 306.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 175

Loxostomina costatapertusa Loxostomina limbata Lugdunum


Test elongate, lanceolate, biserial, ovate Test elongate, compressed, periphery Lugdunum hantkenianum
in section; chambers increasing rapidly lobulate; initial end rounded and occa- Test ovate to subtriangular in outline,
in height as added, final pair comprising sionally produced; sutures thickened and lenticular in section, nearly equally convex
about one third the test length; sutures limbate, only slightly depressed; early on both faces, surrounded by a delicate
obscured by the surface costae; surface biserial chambers ornamented by a few keel of varying width and completeness;
coarsely perforated, finely costate in the strong costae; aperture terminal, sur- peripheral keel may be entire or may be
early stage, the costae dying out in the rounded by a distinct thickened lip that is interrupted at each suture; chambers
upper part of the test; aperture terminal bordered on its outer margin by a row of rounded, inflated, in two more or less
with a distinct toothplate. shallow dimples; lip folded into the regular alternating series; wall finely
Bay of Prony, 10-30 m. toothplate at the top and the base of the perforated, surface generally ornamented
Systematics p. 301. opening. with short, longitudinal costae; aperture
Bay of Prony, 30 m. oval with a thick bordering lip, and often
Systematics p. 302. furnished with a projecting tooth.
Southwestern lagoon, 50 m.
Systematics p. 299.

Loxostomina sp. 1
Test elongate, moderately compressed,
periphery rounded, slightly lobulate; wall
coarsely but sparsely perforate, unorna-
mented except the last chamber; sutures
Loxostomina costulata flush to slightly depressed; aperture terminal Neocassidulina
Test elongate, compressed, ovate in section, at the end of the elongate and ornamented
last chamber, ovate, with a thick peripheral Neocassidulina abbreviata
often somewhat twisted; early stage biserial,
rim and a toothplate. Test elongate, biserial, compressed, oval
later tending to become uniserial; chambers
Northern shelf, 600 m. in end view, periphery rounded, initial end
increasing in height as added; surface
Systematics p. 302. rounded; sutures oblique, imperforate,
coarsely perforated with a few strong,
strongly limbate; wall coarsely perforated;
undulated costae; aperture terminal, oval
aperture a broad asymmetric loop, the
with a toothplate.
lower margin of the aperture folding
Bay of Prony, 30 m. inwards and joining the toothplate.
Systematics p. 302.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 306.
176 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Neocassidulina sp. 1 Patellinella Pseudobrizalina


Specimens showing similarities with N. Patellinella carinata Pseudobrizalina lobata
abbreviata, but differing from this Test conical, slightly compressed, com- Test elongate, depressed; apertural end
species in their smaller size, more elon- mencing with a short trochoid spiral of 3- obliquely truncate or rounded; initial end
gated test and coarser perforations are 4 chambers, later chambers added at obtuse, peripheral margin lobulate;
considered to belong to another species. 180° intervals, only the final pair visible chambers inflated, their outer margin
Northern shelf, 600 m. on the flat umbilical side; subacute mar- projecting and subangular; sutures
Systematics p. 306. gins set with fine apically directed spines; deeply sunk; surface, especially of the
wall transparent, finely perforate, with a later chambers more or less coarsely
row of coarser pores on the proximal side granulated; aperture elliptical with a
of each suture; aperture loop-shaped with thick peristomal lip and a toothplate.
a curved toothplate. Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
Bay of Prony, 30 m. Systematics p. 302.
Systematics p. 306.

Patellinella inconspicua
Test short, subconical, earlier portion tro-
Neocassidulina sp. 2 chospiral, later biserial, slightly com-
pressed laterally, earliest whorl with three
Test elongate, biserial, initial end round- chambers, later with two chambers, all
ed, but with a stout spine; apertural end visible on the convex spiral side, only the
broadly rounded; chambers increasing final pair visible on the flat umbilical
rapidly in width in the early stage, later Pseudopolymorphina
side; sutures flush or very slightly
slowly; only the two last chambers inflat- depressed; apertural end truncate, some- Pseudopolymorphina sp. 1
ed; periphery rounded; sutures flush with what concave; wall calcareous, finely per- Test compressed, oval but somewhat
the test in early portion, increasingly forate; aperture a broad umbilical arch. inequilateral in outline; two faces almost
depressed later; wall coarsely perforated, equally convex; both ends obtuse; cham-
surface ornamented by one or two rows of Bay of Prony, 30 m.
Systematics p. 306. bers arranged with regularity in two
tubercles paralleling the sutures and fus- alternating series, the last pair occupying
ing in the early portion of the test; aper- two thirds of the visible shell; sutures
ture loop-shaped, asymmetrical. depressed; wall finely perforate, surface
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. ornamented with solid costae that may be
Systematics p. 306. continuous from one chamber to the
other; aperture terminal, radiate, with the
central part cribrate.
South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
Systematics p. 291.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 177

Punctobolivinella Quirimbatina n.gen. Rugobolivinella


Punctobolivinella unca A new genus name is proposed for Rugobolivinella elegans
Earlier part of the test inflated medially, Mimosina rimosa HERON-ALLEN & Test compressed, outline flabelliform,
later becoming compressed, triangular EARLAND 1915, the morphology of which biserial throughout; globular proloculus
to ovate, biserial throughout; globular does not conform to the characteristics of followed by small early chambers, later
proloculus followed by small early Mimosina. ones narrow, moderately recurved,
chambers, later ones increasing rapidly, Type species: Mimosina rimosa HERON- increasing rapidly in breadth; sutures with
being strongly curved, lateral margin of ALLEN & EARLAND 1915, p. 650; pl. 50, thin raised ridges, often interrupted or
a few early chambers are produced into figs 5-11. broken into several beads before meeting
spinose projections; apertural end truncate, Diagnosis: biserial hyaline test with the medial rib; medial rib straight, single
ornamented with radiating rows of tiny coarse perforations; aperture a long fissure from the proloculus to one third of the
pustules; sutures thickened, imperforate extending all round the lower half of last test and passing upward into two medial
and limbate, later ones strongly recurved chamber in an axial position, and may ribs separated by a sinuose medial groove;
laterally; axis of the test marked by a be connected with the previous aperture periphery acute; lateral margins of a few
medial furrow between two irregular ribs; on the penultimate chamber. last chambers are produced into spinose
wall hyaline, distinctly perforate; aperture projections; terminal face truncate, with
Etymology: from the Quirimba Archipelago
cribrate, near the base of the apertural almost parallel sides tapering toward the
where it was first described.
face and may have a somewhat larger periphery; aperture cribrate, situated
opening on the suture. Remarks: This genus is maintained in around the suture between the two last
the family Trimosinidae. chambers sometimes with a somewhat
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
Systematics p. 299. larger opening on the suture.
Quirimbatina rimosa South of the Grande Terre, 30-60 m.
Test consisting of five to eight pairs of Systematics p. 299.
chambers biserially arranged after a
short initial stage that may appear as
triserial; chambers inflated and sutures
depressed giving a lobulate periphery to
the test; wall coarsely perforated, surface
smooth and glassy; aperture a long fissure
extending all round the lower half of last
chamber in an axial position; aperture of
the penultimate chamber may remain
visible.
Bay of Prony, 30 m.
Systematics p. 305. Rugobolivinella spinosa
Test compressed, triangular in outline,
Punctobolivinella cf. P. unca biserial throughout; globular proloculus
usually with a single spine; chambers
This species has similarities with the moderately curved medially, straight
gamont of P. unca from the Marshall toward the periphery, increasing regular-
Islands shown by HAYWARD (1990, pl. 116, ly in breadth, but very slowly in height;
figs 17-18), from which it differs by the sutures ornamented with raised ribs often
dense granular ornamentation that cut into riblets in the medial part of the
entirely covers the surface of the test, test; medial rib straight, single from the
obscuring the sutures. proloculus to one third of the test and
Northern lagoon, 200 m. passing upward into two medial ribs sep-
Systematics p. 299. arated by a straight medial groove; later-
al margins of all chambers are produced
into spinose projections; terminal end
truncate, widest medially and tapering
drawing from
Heron-Allen & Earland, 1915 toward the periphery; aperture cribrate,
situated around the suture between the
two last chambers sometimes with a
somewhat larger opening on the suture.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 299.
178 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Sagrina Sagrinella Sagrinella strigosa


Sagrina jugosa Sagrinella convallaria Test elongate, slightly tapering, compressed,
Test oblong, tapering, compressed; oral Test elongate, straight, tapering towards biserially arranged in the early stage, later
end elliptical, truncate; aboral extremity the initial end; periphery serrated; becoming loosely biserial and finally
subangular or rounded; chambers chambers numerous, inflated, with the uniserial, chambers triangular, sharply
numerous, 6 to 10 in each series; sutures peripheral margin acute, ornamented angled above the basal suture, with a
marked externally by stout raised bands with small spines; sutures deeply sunk; prominent ridge at the angle resulting in
of clear shell-material; aperture elliptical apertural end greatly projecting; aperture a serrate outline; sutures depressed,
with a distinct raised lip. terminal, large and variable in form. oblique; wall hyaline with large pores
in the lower part of the chambers below
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. Bay of Prony, 10-40 m.
the carinate angle; aperture large, oval,
Systematics p. 302. Systematics p. 302.
terminal, with a raised lip.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m.
Systematics p. 302.

Sagrina zanzibarica
Test elongate, biserial; early portion
somewhat compressed, periphery in end
view broadly rounded; test tapering
gradually throughout; chambers distinct,
somewhat inflated, low and broad in the Sagrinella durrandii Sigmavirgulina
early portion, later increasing in relative Test elongate, lanceolate, compressed, Sigmavirgulina basistriata
height; sutures distinct, depressed in the peripheral margin acute and serrated;
later portion, straight, slightly oblique; Test elongate, initial end only slightly
chambers slightly inflated, inferior margin twisted; test thinning out toward the
wall ornamented with numerous small, acute and projecting; sutures deeply sunk
short, blunt spinose projections, particu- periphery, with carinate margins; surface
and smooth, surface of chambers orna- ornamented with sparse longitudinal
larly on the lower half of the chamber; mented with broken irregular costae;
aperture elliptical with a distinct raised costae at the base and across the sutures;
aperture terminal, a long fusiform slit. sutures slightly curved, slightly depressed
lip.
Bay of Prony, 5-30 m. in the last chambers; wall coarsely perfo-
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. Systematics p. 302. rated; aperture loop-shaped with a raised
Systematics p. 302. thickened lip and a toothplate that proj-
ects into the top of the opening. It differs
adult from S. tortuosa by its less twisted shape,
and the presence of longitudinal costae.
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m.
Systematics p. 306.

juvenile
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 179

Sigmavirgulina tortuosa Siphouvigerina Description


Test elongate, tapering, twisted with Siphouvigerina fimbriata of hyaline species
chambers added at slightly over than Test elongate, short earlier triserial stage, triserial
180º apart; margins thin, sharp, lobulate; then biserial, and finally nearly uniserial;
8-10 chambers in adult specimens; (or appearing so)
upper chamber surface broadly domed to
sutures flush; wall coarsely perforated; a minutely serrate, fimbriate, carinate
aperture slit-shaped, bisected by a All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM)
margin, and a sharply undercut chamber
toothplate. base; loosely appressed chambers, each Bulimina
Bay of Prony, 20-30 m. attached on the preceding apertural neck;
Systematics p. 306. wall hyaline, surface smooth other than Bulimina biserialis
the carinae; aperture terminal and Test small, broadly rounded in end view;
rounded, at the end of a short tubular early stage triserial, later becoming biserial;
neck and bordered with an everted lip. sutures depressed; chambers sharply
Bay of Prony, 20 m. undercut, producing an acute shoulder
Systematics p. 304. with acute spines pointing backward;
lateral wall of the chambers ornamented
by short tubercles or spines; wall finely
perforated; aperture loop-shaped,
extending from the base of the apertural
face, bordered by a small rim, and with a
toothplate.
Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
Systematics p. 303.

Sigmavirgulina sp. 1
Species differing from S. turtuosa by its
more elongated, and less twisted test; test
subrectangular in side view, with chambers
increasing slowly in width as added.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 306.

Bulimina marginata
Test elongate ovate, chambers triserially
arranged throughout, sharply angled
Virgulopsis about half the distance from the basal
suture, with spines at the angle somewhat
Virgulopsis spinea extended backwards; sutures depressed;
Small stout test with a spine at the initial wall calcareous, finely perforate; surface
end and a prominent spinose ornament; smooth other than the spinose angle;
periphery rounded; chambers inflated, aperture a loop extending up the face from
sutures depressed, oblique; aperture a the base of the last chamber, provided
large slit that extends up the apertural with an internal folded toothplate.
face. Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
Coastal bay, 5-10 m. Systematics p. 303.
Systematics p. 301.
180 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Bulimina striata Fijiella sp. 1 Mimosina


Test short, 1,5 to 2 times as long as broad, Test triserial, elongate, increasing gradu- Mimosina affinis
triserial, composed of distinct overlapping ally in size, slowly in the later portion, so Test triserial in the early stage, later
chambers; upper portions of the chambers that the margins are nearly parallel; tending to become biserial, chambers
smooth and unornamented, costae periphery acute with a small hyaline subglobular and inflated, sutures
extending over the lower half of the spine at the angle of each chamber, as a depressed; wall distinctly perforate, with
chamber; backwards spinose projections continuation of the slightly carinate fine longitudinal ribs; aperture a wide
of costae overhang preceding chambers; anterior edge of the chamber; sutures and low basal arch, with a second ovate
wall finely perforated transparent; aperture indistinct, except in the last chambers; opening that is nearly terminal, each
an obliquely placed slit, elongated, with a wall coarsely perforated, the perforations bordered by a narrow imperforate lip.
raised border and a toothplate. at the end of raised pustules, except in the
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. last chambers; aperture a narrow slit
Systematics p. 305.
Systematics p. 303. partially covered with a curved lip and
provided with a large toothplate.
Northern lagoon, 200 m.
Systematics p. 304.

Mimosina echinata
Test triserial in the early stage, later
Fijiella tending to become biserial, chambers
subglobular and inflated, sutures
Fijiella simplex
Hopkinsina obscured by ornamentation; the whole
Test pyramidal, triserial and triangular in surface of the test, except the terminal
section throughout; sutures gently arched, Hopkinsina sp. 1
chambers covered by a dense growth of
limbate; peripheral margins carinate, Test elongate, early chambers triserially fine spines, with some bigger spines at the
spinose, straight or somewhat lobulate; arranged and closely appressed, later angle of the chambers; surface coarsely
apertural end truncated, slightly convex, loosely triserial and then biserial; chambers perforated; aperture double with a low
bordered by a thickened imperforate rim with the base sharply undercut and the basal arch and a subterminal ovate
and ornamented with numerous small upper surface broadly domed; margin opening, each bordered by a narrow
upright spines; wall calcareous, coarsely carinate, ornamented with a row of short imperforate lip.
perforate mostly along the sutures; surface tooth-like spines, some of them prolonging
into short costae on the upper surface of Isle of Pines, 5 m.
smooth other than the limbate sutures, Systematics p. 305.
spinose margins, and sometimes produced the chamber; sutures depressed; wall
pores; aperture a narrow slit partially finely perforate, surface smooth; aperture
covered with a curved, denticulate lip and terminal, ovate, slightly produced and
provided with a large perforated tooth- with a distinct lip and a toothplate.
plate that forms rounded supplementary South of the Grande Terre, 30 m.
openings on the central part of the Systematics p. 301.
apertural face.
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
Systematics p. 304.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 181

Mimosina histrix Neouvigerina Neouvigerina porrecta


Test elongate, slowly but regularly Neouvigerina hispida Test fusiform, elongated, sub-circular in
increasing in width, triserial, tending to Test elongate; usually two times as long cross section; chamber separated by
become biserial in old specimens; as broad, but sometimes shorter, with deeply depressed sutures, ornamented by
chambers very inflated, spherical, a basal spine; chambers closely arranged, prominent thick longitudinal costae;
prominent proximally directed spine rotund; initial portion triserial, tending aperture at the end of a well-developed
arising in the middle of the chamber; to become biserial for the last pair of neck, furnished with a toothplate.
sutures depressed, gently arcuate; wall chambers; sutures depressed; test covered Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
coarsely and densely perforated, orna- with short coarse spines; aperture termi- Systematics p. 303.
mented with thin, short ridges running nal on short neck with lip and toothplate.
parallel to each other; aperture simple in
Northern shelf, 600 m.
juvenile stage, later double, lower aperture
Systematics p. 303.
ovate, bordered by a low, thickened lip,
upper aperture almost terminal, rounded,
also bordered by a thickened lip.
Bay of Prony, 20 m.
Systematics p. 305.

Neouvigerina interrupta
Test much elongated, subspiral; composed
of a number of inflated or subglobose
chambers of gradually increasing size, Neouvigerina proboscidea
Mimosina sp. 1 (juvenile?) arranged around a long axis; earlier Test small, elongate; initial stage triserial
chambers combined so as to form a more with closely arranged chambers, followed
Test very small, triserial, chambers sub- by biserial and uniserial stages; chambers
globular and inflated, sutures depressed; or less compact spire; later chambers
disposed in an irregular, interrupted, inflated; sutures depressed; test covered
wall coarsely perforate and covered with with fine spines; aperture terminal on a
short spines, except on the upper part of alternating series, terminating in a tubular
neck; surface hispid or aculeate; aperture long neck, with lip and toothplate.
the chambers that is smooth; aperture
wide, occupying most of the apertural at the end of the neck with a toothplate. Bay of Prony, 20-30 m.
face, with a folded periphery, without a Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 303.
lip. The aperture resembles that of young Systematics p. 303.
stages of Mimosina, before its separation
into a double aperture.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 305.
182 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Reussella Reussella pacifica Reussella spinulosa


Reussella cf. R. hayasakai Test triserial with concave sides, elongate, Test pyramidal, triserial, and triangular
Test elongate, triserially arranged, trian- increasing gradually from the spinose throughout, tricarinate; chambers
gular in section, tapering towards the initial end, tending to narrow slightly enlarging gradually, sutures curved and
basal end; margins acute; chambers towards the apertural end; periphery oblique; marginal angle of each chamber
sharply triangular, terminating in an acute with a blunt hyaline spine at the terminates in a projecting spine directed
horizontal, acute spine at the distal end; base of each chamber, as a continuation towards the basal end of the test wall
upper portion of the chambers smooth of the slightly carinate anterior edge; coarsely perforate; aperture a high arch
and unornamented, elsewhere the test is sutures slightly curved slightly limbate; at the base of the final chamber, with an
covered with short stout spines; aperture aperture at the inner margin of the last- internal toothplate.
a narrow arch at the center of the base formed chamber. Bay of Prony, 10-40 m.
of the last-formed chamber, with a Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. Systematics p. 304.
toothplate. Systematics p. 304.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 304.

Trifarina
Reussella neapolitina Trifarina angulosa
Test pyramidal, triserial throughout, sharply
Test elongate, sharply triangular in section,
triangular in cross section, regularly Reussella pulchra initial stage triserial, later with tendency
increasing in size; chambers wider than
Test averaging about 1-1/2 times as long to an irregularly uniserial arrangement;
high; sutures distinct, curved, limbate
as broad, triangular in transverse section, apertural end pointed; angles carinate,
and raised over the surface, marked by
the sides carinate and with a spine at the sutures curved, oblique, and slightly
short spines and tubercles; marginal
base of each chamber and a spine at the depressed; wall with fine perforations at
spines prominent and pointing backward;
initial end; chambers distinct, not inflated; the end of raised pustules; surface with a
apical spine often present; wall distinctly
sutures very distinct, limbate, raised well few longitudinal costae around the keel;
perforate and covered by short spines and
above the surface and often finely spinose aperture terminal, ovate, produced on
pustules, except on the upper face of
to give a sculptured appearance to the a neck and bordered by a narrow lip,
chambers; aperture an elliptical opening
test; wall distinctly and rather coarsely provided with an internal toothplate.
along the basal suture, bordered by a low
lip which descends into the lumen and perforate; aperture a narrow opening at Bay of Prony, 20-30 m.
fuses with the toothplate. the inner margin of the last-formed Systematics p. 304.
chamber, often with a distinct lip.
South of the Grande Terre, 70 m.
Systematics p. 304. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 304.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 183

Trifarina bradyi Trifarina reussi Trimosina orientalis


Test elongate, slightly tapering toward Test stout and somewhat irregular in Test elongate, tapering, 2 or 3 times as
either end, often somewhat twisted, trian- contour with a few (3-4) chambers, tri- long as broad, the basal end of chambers
gular in transverse section; carinae at three angular in section; margins carinate; much angled, especially in young stages;
angles, thin and fairly high, running wall thick and rough; aperture relatively chambers very distinct, inflated, the early
from the initial end to the aperture, even large, at the end of a short neck, lipped ones very angular, those of the adult
onto the neck itself; chambers distinct, and provided with a toothplate. becoming less so; sutures depressed; wall
those of the earlier portion at least irreg- Northern shelf, 600 m. coarsely perforate; aperture an elongate
ularly spiral, later ones less distinctly so; Systematics p. 304. slitlike opening becoming broader in the
sutures distinct but not depressed; wall last-formed chambers.
thin, translucent, finely punctate, smooth; Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
aperture terminal, central, at the end of Systematics p. 305.
a short tubular neck, usually with a
phialine lip and a toothplate.
Coastal Bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 304.

Trimosina
Trimosina milletti
Test elongate, triserially arranged, triangu-
lar in section, tapering towards the basal
end; margins acute, the marginal angle Uvigerina
of the inflated chambers are developed Uvigerina carapitana
Trifarina pacifica into lobes terminating in a spine; test Test stout, compact, rather bulbous,
Test with a well-developed initial triserial often somewhat contorted; aperture a slit triserial with about 3-4 whorls visible;
stage and a few later chambers added in at the base of the last-formed chamber, periphery smoothly rounded, lobulate;
irregular uniseries; peripheral margins connected or not to a more or less developed chambers somewhat angular in the early
acutely rounded, never carinate; wall subterminal orifice. stage, later inflated; sutures depressed;
distinctly dented along the sutures giving South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. wall thick finely perforate, generally
the test an irregular outline in side view; Systematics p. 305. smooth though some specimens show
aperture produced, with a toothplate and faint longitudinal striations; aperture
surrounded by a thickened lip, but lack- terminal, at the end of a short neck; neck
ing a distinct neck. in a depression near the indented margin
Northern shelf, 600 m. of the last chamber, with a distinct lip.
Systematics p. 304. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 304.

juvenile

juvenile
184 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Uvigerina flintii Description Ammonia


Test triserial, periphery lobulate; chambers of hyaline species The genus Ammonia has a large geo-
inflated, increasing rapidly in size; trochospiral graphic distribution and a great mor-
sutures depressed; test finely perforate, phological variability. Some specialists
ornamented with fine, continuous to (or appearing so) recognize numerous species belonging to
discontinuous costae; aperture terminal, this genus while others propose a limitation
at the end of a slender neck with ringlike All scale bars = 0.1 mm (for SEM) to only one species with three morpho-
projections. types. As always, the truth is in-between. A
Alliatinella recent approach, based on genetical
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 304. Alliatinella differens sequencing, establishes variants, mainly
Test low trochospiral, auriculate in outline, derived from statistical methods based on
somewhat biconcave, periphery broadly arbitrarily set parameters. Unfortunately,
rounded; small accessory chambers at its present stage of development, this
developed over the sutures on the umbil- approach does not totally clarify the
ical side; asymmetrical internal partition question, and the following list of species
crossing the chamber obliquely and is partly tentative.
marked externally by a groove from the
areal opening to the proximal chamber Ammonia cf. A. aomoriensis
margin near the umbilicus; sutures Test relatively large, biconvex, with a low
distinct, later ones slightly depressed; trochospiral coil of about 3 volutions; spiral
wall finely perforate; aperture a low inte- side evolute, umbilical side involute;
riomarginal and equatorial slit, with a chambers inflated, 6-7 in the last whorl;
rounded areal aperture slightly offset periphery lobulate, peripheral margin
toward the umbilical side. broadly rounded; sutures somewhat
Uvigerina cf. U. peregrina oblique, not limbate on the spiral side,
Coastal bay, 10 m.
Test elongate, about 2 times as long as Systematics p. 297. depressed on the umbilical side and
broad, widest in the middle, ends rounded; deeply excavated near the umbilicus;
chambers inflated, distinct; sutures umbilical region partly occupied by small
depressed; wall ornamented with longitu- beads of shell substance; an elongate,
dinal costae, about 10 on a full-grown imperforate folium extends toward the
chamber, high and very thin and sharp, umbilicus; wall finely perforate; aperture
toward the base and apertural ends of the at the base of the last chamber, extending
test becoming broken up into spinose or from near the periphery to the umbilicus.
irregular short portions; aperture circular This species is similar to A. aomoriensis
at the end of a distinct cylindrical neck, as presented by HAYWARD et al. (2004),
often spinose and with a phialine lip. but differs from the original description
Northern shelf, 600 m. of ASANO (1951c) in not having the
Systematics p. 304. umbilicus filled with beads of shell
substance. Youg specimens may have an
umbilical plug, making them resembling
Ammonia parkinsoniana.
Coastal bays, 0-10 m.
Systematics p. 322.

juvenile
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 185

Ammonia aoteana Ammonia cf. A. irridescens Ammonia takanabensis


Test small, biconvex, low trochospiral; Test trochospiral, biconvex with 3-4 volu- Test low trochospiral, compressed,
spiral side highly convex, evolute; umbil- tions; spiral side evolute, highly convex; biconvex, usually more convex on the
ical side involute; peripheral margin umbilical side involute, slightly convex umbilical side, composed of 4-5 whorls;
acutely rounded; normally 8-9 chambers and slightly depressed centrally; chambers 8-9 chambers in the last whorl, only the
in the last whorl, only the last ones somewhat inflated, 6-7 in the last whorl; last ones inflated; spiral side evolute,
slightly inflated; slightly raised sutures in periphery lobulate, peripheral margin umbilical side involute; peripheral
the earlier portion on the spiral side, later rounded; sutures curved, depressed in last margin broadly angled; sutures slightly
depressed, strongly curved backward; whorls on spiral side; on the umbilical oblique and limbate in the early portion
sutures depressed, nearly radial, with long side, depressed, sinuous, with faint sutural of the test on spiral side, depressed in
furrows along last sutures on umbilical notches and some granules; umbilicus the last chambers, and depressed on
side; faint grooved notches along the nearly closed by the pointed inner tips umbilical side; umbilical region filled
suture of the first chambers only as in the of the chambers, with small tubercles; with a stellate mass of granulated shell
specimens from Auckland (HAYWARD et al., wall finely perforated, smooth; aperture a material, sometimes excavated along
2004), and not along all the sutures as in slit at the base of the apertural face, umbilical sutures; wall finely perforate,
the specimens from Ningaloo Reef extending from near the periphery to the smooth; aperture a small opening at the
(PARKER, 2009); chambers with sharply umbilicus. base of the last-formed chamber.
pointed inner tips on umbilical side; Coastal bays, 0-10 m. Coastal bays, 0-10 m.
umbilical region depressed, open or Systematics p. 322. Systematics p. 323.
almost covered by chamber tips, almost
filled with small tubercles; wall smooth,
distinctly perforated; aperture an arched
slit at the base of the apertural face.
Coastal bays, 0-10 m.
Systematics p. 322.

Ammonia pustulosa Ammonia tepida form 1


Test small, trochospiral, planoconvex, Test small, low trochospiral with 2-3
composed of 2-3 whorls with 7-9 chambers volutions; spiral side convex, evolute,
in the last whorl; spiral side evolute, umbilical side concave, involute; the
umbilical side involute; peripheral margin height of the spire is variable; chambers
acutely rounded; sutures oblique and inflated, 6-7 in the last whorl; periphery
Ammonia convexa limbate on spiral side, depressed on slightly lobulate, peripheral margin
Test biconvex, low trochospiral; spiral umbilical side; umbilical region and rounded; sutures oblique, limbate in the
side evolute, umbilical side involute; depressed sutures filled with tubercles; earlier portion of the test on the spiral
peripheral margin acutely rounded; wall finely perforate, smooth; aperture a side, later depressed; on the umbilical
about 10 chambers in the last whorl, only narrow slit at the base of the last-formed side, deeply incised at the umbilicus;
the last ones slightly inflated; slightly chamber and slit-like openings along the umbilicus deep, nearly filled with small
raised sutures, curved on the spiral side, sutures on umbilical side. tubercles; chambers with pointed inner
nearly radial on the umbilical side; long Coastal bays, 0-10 m. tips and faint sutural notches on umbilical
furrows along last few radial sutures on Systematics p. 322. side; wall coarsely perforate; aperture an
umbilical side, and very large umbilical arch at the base of the apertural face.
plug; wall smooth; aperture an arch at This species is similar to some specimens
the base of the apertural face. of Ammonia sp. 1 of HOLZMANN et al.
Coastal bays, 0-10 m. (1998).
Systematics p. 322. Coastal bays, coastal lagoons, shrimp
ponds.
Systematics p. 323.
186 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Ammonia tepida form 2 Angulodiscorbis Anomalinoides


Test quite small, low trochospiral with Angulodiscorbis pyramidalis Anomalinoides colligerus
about 3 volutions; spiral side evolute, Test pyramidal, a strongly elevated tro- Test robust, in a low trochospiral coil,
umbilical side involute; the height of the chospiral coil composed of numerous nearly equally convex on the two sides;
spire is variable; chambers inflated, 6-7 in whorls with four vertically aligned some specimens are depressed at both
the last whorl; periphery slightly lobulate, chambers per whorl; sides flattened to umbilici, others are umbonate at one or
peripheral margin rounded; sutures slightly concave separated by prominent both; sometimes the earlier convolutions
oblique, limbate in the earlier portion of carinae; sutures flush on the spiral side, are visible to a nearly equal extent on
the test on the spiral side, later depressed; radial and hardly visible on the umbilical both faces, sometimes not; peripheral
on the umbilical side, deeply incised at side; wall calcareous, coarsely perforated edge rounded; chambers inflated and
the umbilicus; umbilicus deep, lacking with random raised perforations on the sutures curved and depressed on both
an umbilical boss; broadly developed, spiral side; umbilical side with radially sides, 14-16 chambers in the last whorl;
imperforate umbilical flap without pores; aligned pores and granular striae; aperture wall more coarsely perforate on one side;
wall finely perforate; aperture an arch at a low umbilical interiomarginal slit. aperture a low arch against the periphery
the base of the apertural face. This species of the preceding whorl, with a narrow
This species differs from Angulodiscorbis
is similar to some specimens of Ammonia bordering lip, extending onto one side
corrugatus (MILLETT 1903b) in having
sp. 2 of HOLZMANN et al. (1998). where it continues along the spiral suture
four chambers in each whorl instead of
Coastal bays, coastal lagoons, shrimp the five or six characteristic of that beneath the umbilical margin of the last
ponds. species. It differs from Angulodiscorbis few chambers of the final whorl.
Systematics p. 323. quadrangularis Uchio, 1952 in having Northern shelf, 600 m.
acute carinae. Systematics p. 321.
Crawling on algae, 0-5 m.
Systematics p. 311.

Ammonia sp. 1
Test low trochospiral, biconvex; periphery
lobulate, narrowly rounded; spiral side
evolute with 3-4 whorls of nearly constant Anomalinoides globulosus
height but with chambers increasing in
breadth as added, sutures depressed, Test robust, in a low trochospiral coil,
Angulodiscorbis tobagoensis planoconvex with highly convex, involute
oblique; umbilical side involute, 5-7
chambers of the final whorl visible around Test small, trochospiral, five-sided cone- umbilical side and evolute spiral side;
the umbilicus, sutures straight and radial shaped, concavoconvex with a broadly periphery broadly rounded; 5-10 inflated
with prominent sutural notches; umbilical angular, lobulate periphery; spiral side chambers in the last whorl; sutures
area filled with granular material; large convex with five chambers per whorl; depressed, curved on spiral side, gently
umbilical folium covering the umbilicus; chambers broadly angular in the center curved to nearly straight and radial on the
wall thin, hyaline, finely perforate; aperture so as to form five sides on the spiral face; umbilical side; wall coarsely perforated
an interiomarginal, extraumbilical arch sutures flush, obscured by the ornamen- on both sides; aperture crescentic, against
that continues under the umbilical folium. tation; umbilical face involute, with a the periphery of the preceding whorl, with
strongly depressed umbilical area; wall a distinct lip, extending onto the spiral
Bay of Prony, 20-40 m. heavily ornamented, with a dimpled side where it continues along the spiral
Systematics p. 323. texture on the spiral side and radial rows of suture beneath the margin of the last few
granules on the umbilical side; granules chambers of the final whorl.
increasing in size toward the umbilicus, Bay of Prony, 20 m.
and passing progressively to spines; Systematics p. 321.
aperture interiomarginal at the base of
the last-formed chamber.
Crawling on algae, Chesterfield, 20 m.
Systematics p. 311.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 187

Anomalinoides semicribratus Asanonella Baggina


Test inflated in a low trochospiral coil, Asanonella tubulifera Baggina bubnanensis
planoconvex with strongly convex, involute Test lenticular, trochospirally coiled; sutures Test subglobular, low trochospiral with few
umbilical side and spiral side partially oblique, slightly if at all depressed; inflated and rapidly enlarging chambers
evolute and centrally excavated; periphery umbilicus closed; characteristic prominent per whorl; final chamber very inflated,
broadly rounded; 5-10 inflated chambers tubulopores along the peripheral margin, occupying more than one half of the
in the last whorl; sutures slightly some having a large produced margin umbilical side; umbilicus closed; sutures
depressed, gently curved on spiral side, that surrounds a coarsely perforate area, depressed, radial, curved; periphery
nearly straight and radial on the umbilical while others have a low and even indistinct broadly rounded; surface smooth, glassy;
side; wall coarsely perforated on spiral margin leaving only the coarsely perforate wall perforate but with an imperforate
sides, less so or even smooth on the area; otherwise, wall smooth; aperture lunate area on the umbilical side just
umbilical side; aperture a low arch at the large, extraumbilical, slit-shaped, partially above the aperture; earlier chambers of
periphery, with a distinct lip and extending filled with a tooth-like protrusion of the final whorl have 3-5 sculptured ridges
somewhat onto the spiral side around the transparent shell material arising from on the umbilical side; aperture a broad
spiral suture. the previous spiral wall. umbilical opening at the base of the
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. South of the Grande Terre, 20-30 m. apertural face, just over the sculptured
Systematics p. 321. Systematics p. 318. ridges.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 306.

Anomalinulla
Ashbrookia
Anomalinulla glabrata
Ashbrookia ornata
Test biconvex with very low trochospiral Baggina philippinensis
Test planoconvex, low trochospiral sub-
coiling, appearing almost planispiral;
circular in outline; evolute spiral side Test globular, low trochospiral with few
spiral side flattened, umbilical side
slightly convex, involute umbilical side inflated and rapidly enlarging chambers
slightly convex with a distinctly excavated
slightly concave; periphery lobulate, per whorl; final chamber very inflated,
umbilicus; sutures flush, becoming
peripheral margin acute; coil of approxi- occupying nearly one half of the umbilical
slightly depressed between the last few
mately two whorls, about three, strongly side; umbilicus open; sutures depressed,
chambers; wall smoothly finished and
overlapping, crescentic chambers per radial, curved; periphery broadly rounded;
evenly perforate on the spiral side;
whorl; sutures strongly curved, final surface smooth, glassy; wall perforate but
aperture an equatorial slit that starts a
chamber occupying about half the with an imperforate lunate area on the
short way along the chamber on the
periphery and umbilical side, outer part umbilical side just above the aperture;
spiral side and extends to the spiral
of the chambers divided by partial radial aperture a broad umbilical opening at
suture on the umbilical side of the test;
septula; umbilicus open, partially covered the base of the apertural face, just over
aperture bordered by a lip that continues
with an umbilical flap from the final the sculptured ridges.
into a small folium; apertures of the
chamber; wall finely perforate, somewhat Northern shelf, 600 m.
previous chambers remaining open for
granular on the spiral side; aperture Systematics p. 306.
most of the last whorl.
umbilical in position, under the umbilical
Bay of Prony, 20-40 m. flap.
Systematics p. 321.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 306.
188 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Bronnimannia Bueningia Buliminoides


Bronnimannia haliotis Bueningia creeki Buliminoides williamsonianus
Test low trochospiral, bievolute and Test small, inflated planoconvex, both sides Test elongate, cylindrical, somewhat
slightly biconcave, progressively more so involute, one side flattened to concave sinuous in contour, circular in transverse
toward the last-formed chambers; outline with deep umbilicus, other side convex, section, composed of a spiral band of
smoothly oval; one side of the test is very four to five inflated chambers per whorl, chambers; initial end slightly tapering,
finely perforate or imperforate while the sutures radial, depressed, periphery apertural end truncate; surface orna-
other is uniformly coarsely perforate; on broadly rounded, with a thickened to mented from end to end by a series of
this imperforate surface the initial coil carinate margin on the flattened side; prominent, parallel costae that twist
appears to stand apart from the final wall finely perforate except for the keel, around the coiling axis and entirely
whorl of chambers; peripheral margin surface smooth; aperture interiomarginal obscure the internal structures; aperture
rounded, without prominent imperforate and umbilical, with a small apertural terminal, in a depression at the center of
keel; aperture a low, interiomarginal slit flap the oblique apertural face, bordered by
beneath the umbilical flap. Northern shelf, 600 m. radiating lines.
Isle of Pines, 5 m. Systematics p. 308. Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 311. Systematics p. 312.

Bronnimannia palmerae
Buliminella
Test auriculate in outline, very low tro-
chospiral, whorls enlarging rapidly; test
Buliminella elegantissima
somewhat flared, bievolute and biconcave Test elongate, fusiform, a high trochospiral
with broadly truncate periphery marked coil of only 2-3 whorls of numerous elon-
by a distinct keel at the spiral side; sutures gate chambers, the last whorl about 80%
curved and depressed on both sides; on the of the test; sutures slightly curved, almost
umbilical side, chambers have a flap or parallel to the axis of the test, slightly Calcarina
folium marked by a distinct notch at the depressed; wall finely perforate, surface
smooth; aperture a loop in the depressed Calcarina exuberans new name
posterior margin, both folium and notch
remaining visible on most chambers of face of the final chamber with a high rim Species differing from C. hispida by
the final whorl; wall finely perforate on and a simple internal toothplate. exuberant outgrowths at the extremity of
the umbilical side, spiral side more Coastal lagoons, estuaries, shrimp ponds. the strong hispid, bifurcating spines,
coarsely perforate; aperture a low, interi- Systematics p. 303. which give the test a plumose appearance;
omarginal slit beneath the umbilical test more delicate than in C. hispida,
flap. particularly in the last-formed chambers.
Bay of Prony, 10 m. This species was named Calcarina hispida
Systematics p. 311. var. pulchella by CHAPMAN (1900). Since
C. pulchella was preoccupied by
Calcarina pulchella d’Orbigny 1839a
(Asterorotalia pulchella), a new name
is proposed to resolve ambiguity and
maintain nomenclatorial stability.
Southwestern lagoon, and mostly on the
southern shelf, 40-80 m.
Systematics p. 323.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 189

Calcarina hispida Calcarina sp. 1 Cancris oblongus


Test low trochospiral, spiral side evolute Test medium-sized to large, coarsely Test auriculate, elongate, unequally
and umbilical side involute, but sutures hispid; about 12 chambers in the last convex, with the umbilical side more
not discernible except in the last few whorl each chamber bearing a short convex than the spiral side; periphery
chambers; test hispid, covered by well- blunt, hispid spine, which may bifurcate; rounded, except a poorly developed keel
developed calcite bosses on both sides; surface of the test covered with minute around last chamber; chambers increasing
surface of the bosses granulated; periph- pustules at the periphery and granulated very rapidly in size; sutures very slightly
eral margin rounded with 3-10 robust, bosses centrally; sutures obscured by depressed; wall finely perforated, except
coarsely hispid, blunt spines, located on the ornamentation, except for the last an imperforate lunate area above the
the central part of every chamber, in the 3-5 chambers that appear distinct; last aperture; aperture a slit at the base of the
plane of coiling; bosses surrounded by 2-3 chambers have deep sutures and an last-formed chamber, on the umbilical
small openings of the canal system; wall angular crest; some oblique ridges present side, under an imperforate folium partly
hispid; apertural face flat, with radiating in the sutures on the umbilical side; covering the depressed umbilicus.
ridges; apertures narrow, strongly indented, aperture narrow, obscured by the orna- Coastal Bay, 10 m.
at the base of the last-formed chamber, mentation. Despite this species resembles Systematics p. 307.
obscured by the ornamentation. representations given in the literature
Attached to algal thalli, 0-40 m. for C. spengleri, it is probably different
Systematics p. 323. (discussion about this species in
LOBEGEIER, 2002).
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 323.

juvenile
Cancris sagrum
juvenile
Test elliptical in outline, umbilical side
convex, spiral side almost plane; margin
strongly keeled; test composed of 1-2 whorls
Calcarina mayori of rapidly enlarging chambers, about 6 in
Test low trochospiral, medium-sized; the last coil; last-formed chamber making
spiral side evolute and umbilical side Cancris up nearly half the area of the umbilical
involute, but only the last whorl visible, side; sutures slightly depressed and
the center of test being obscured by coarse Cancris auriculus arched on the spiral side, deeply
raised tubercles; sutures depressed between Test auriculate in outline with a strongly depressed and almost radial on the
the last chambers on the umbilical side; convex umbilical side; peripheral margin umbilical side; wall distinctly perforated,
peripheral margin rounded; 3-10 radial acute with a small carina; chambers except an imperforate elongated area on
peripheral spines in the plane of coiling, arranged in a flared trochospiral coil and the apertural face; aperture a slit at the
slightly hispid, straight, of constant increasing rapidly in size; sutures arched, base of the last-formed chamber, on the
width; test covered by openings of the flush or slightly depressed and strongly umbilical side, with a small folium.
intraseptal canal system; wall of the last recurved backward at the periphery on Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
chambers, covered with short, protruding the spiral side, more depressed and nearly Systematics p. 307.
spikes, and perforate on the umbilical radial on the umbilical side; wall thin
side; apertural face flat, imperforate; and smooth, finely perforate, except a
apertures multiple, on the apertural face, semicircular region on the septal face;
irregularly rounded with thick peristomal aperture a slit on the umbilical side, at
rims. the base of the last-formed chamber, with
Attached to algal thalli, Chesterfield, a broad apertural flap extending over the
0-40 m. umbilicus.
Systematics p. 323. Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 307.
juvenile
190 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Caribeanella Carpenteria cf. C. utricularis Cibicides pachyderma


Caribeanella elatensis Test attached, large, composed of flask- Test showing a wide range of variation
Test planoconvex to concavoconvex, with like chambers increasing in size as added from planoconvex to lenticular, biconvex;
a flattened evolute spiral side and convex and spirally arranged; chambers tapering generally, spiral side slightly convex,
involute umbilical side with an open toward the apertural end so as to give to umbilical side more convex with chambers
umbilicus; peripheral margin acute, the test a more or less conical contour; thinning towards keeled periphery;
lobulate, somewhat irregular due to the wall thick, coarsely perforated; aperture sutures strongly curved backwards on
attachment; 6 chambers in the last coil; single, terminal, opening in the umbilicus both sides, slightly raised on spiral side;
sutures depressed, curved on the spiral and protected by spines that project from sutures of the last three chambers usually
side, almost radial on the umbilical side; the apex of the chambers. depressed on the umbilical side; wall
wall coarsely perforated on both sides; The species has most of the characteristics coarsely perforate on spiral side and
aperture a slit, extraumbilical-equatorial, of C. utricularis, but differs by the densely but finely perforate on umbilical
with a rim; characteristic peripheral umbilical position of the aperture and by side; aperture an equatorial arch with
supplementary apertures at each suture, the presence of projecting spines around small lip, extending somewhat on the
with a rim. the umbilicus. It should be considered as umbilical side.
Bay of Prony, 20-40 m. a probable new species. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 316. Northern shelf, 200 m. Systematics p. 315.
Systematics p. 317.

Carpenteria
Carpenteria monticularis
Cibicides pseudolobatulus
Test attached, large, convex and montic- Cibicides
ular; circumference is deeply lobed, Test trochospirally coiled, spiral side flat,
Cibicides mabahethi sutures limbate, oblique and curved
somewhat irregular; early chambers
spirally arranged, broad and round at the Test low trochospiral, planoconvex to backward at the periphery; umbilical side
outer margin, narrow at the umbilical slightly biconvex; evolute spiral side, convex with depressed sutures radial
end; later chambers piled up irregularly prominently convex, involute umbilical around the umbilicus and curved back-
about a central axis, somewhat inflated; side with a broad imperforate umbilical ward at the periphery; peripheral margin
wall coarsely perforated; aperture a knob; peripheral outline becoming slightly acute, carinate; peripheral outline faintly
rounded opening at the summit of an lobulate in adult; peripheral margin lobulate; wall coarsely perforate on the
erect tubular extension of the end of the acute with a carina; sutures curved on spiral side, less densely and coarsely so
central axis. both sides, limbate on the spiral side, on the umbilical side; aperture an interi-
slightly depressed on the umbilical side; omarginal, equatorial arch, bordered by
Northern shelf, 600 m. test coarsely perforated on the spiral side,
Systematics p. 317. a lip and extending onto the spiral side
perforations scattered, mostly along the where it remains open in the last few
sutures, on the umbilical side; aperture chambers.
extraumbilical equatorial, provided with
Northern shelf, 600 m.
a thick rim and extending into a supple-
Systematics p. 315.
mentary spiral aperture remaining open
in the last few chambers.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 315.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 191

Cibicides refulgens Cibicides tenuimargo Cibicidoides


Test tall conical, spiral side flattened, Test planoconvex with a convex involute Cibicidoides bradyi
evolute; umbilical side highly convex, umbilical face that may be low or high, Test trochospiral, circular in outline
bluntly pointed, umbilicus closed; 6-8 with a wide range of variation; a contin- with periphery broadly rounded, about
chambers visible on the umbilical side, uous, marginal keel is made up by the 10 chambers in the last whorl, increasing
with strongly developed shoulders near extension of the peripheral borders of the gradually in size as added; sutures flush
the centre; wall very finely perforated; chambers; umbilicus not depressed, but on both sides, oblique and slightly curved
aperture an interiomarginal, equatorial without a calcitic knob; sutures on the on the spiral side, radial on the umbilical
arch, bordered by a lip and extending umbilical side slightly depressed and side; spiral side evolute, flattened to slightly
slightly onto the spiral side. radial, flush and limbate on the spiral convex, coarsely perforated; umbilical side
Northern shelf, 600 m. side; wall distinctly but not coarsely per- strongly convex, finely perforated, surface
Systematics p. 315. forate, with perforations denser on each smooth, umbilicus covered by a clear
side of the sutures on the umbilical side; umbilical plug; aperture a low interiomar-
limbate sutures of the spiral side imperfo- ginal equatorial arch with a lip that
rate; aperture a slit opening part way extends onto the spiral side.
along the spiral suture of final chamber The taxonomy of this species is confusing.
on dorsal side, and extending somewhat Its initial description, as Truncatulina, by
to the umbilical side, provided with a TRAUTH (1918) was illustrated by figures
small lip. from BRADY (1884) and EGGER (1893) that
Northern shelf, 200 m. show a form with a flat to very slightly
Systematics p. 315. convex spiral side. Later, it was sometimes
described as having a spiral side more
convex than the umbilical side. In the
“Systematics” section, only references
consistent with original illustrations are
mentioned.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Cibicides tabaensis Systematics p. 313.
Test planoconvex, low trochospiral; flat
evolute spiral side, convex involute
umbilical side, a broad umbilical knob
present; peripheral outline lobulate;
peripheral margin acute to subacute with
a carina, except in last chambers; sutures
on the umbilical side slightly depressed
and nearly radial, flush and limbate on
Cibicorbis
the spiral side, slightly sinusoidal and
depressed in the last chambers; test Cibicorbis cf. C. herricki
coarsely perforate, with perforations Test trochospiral, planoconvex; spiral
scattered, mostly on the last chambers on side flattened and partially involute,
the umbilical side; aperture extraumbilical umbilical side involute with closed
equatorial, extending somewhat along umbilicus, chambers broad, increasing
the suture of the spiral side, provided with rapidly in breadth so that whorls are flaring;
a thick rim. chambers triangular in section, inflated
Northern shelf, 600 m. and with sharply angled apertural face;
Systematics p. 315. margin of the spiral side carinate, sutures
thickened, curved, slightly elevated in early
stages; wall distinctly perforate, surface
smooth; aperture an interiomarginal slit
on the umbilical side, extending from the
umbilicus to the periphery, with a large
imperforate apertural flap projecting over
the umbilicus. Unfortunately, all specimens
found are deformed, making it impossible
to confirm the attribution of this species.
Northern shelf, 200 m.
Systematics p. 307.
juvenile
192 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Colonimilesia Conicospirillinoides Conicospirillinoides


Colonimilesia coronata intricatus cf. C. semidecoratus
Test minute, trochospiral, planoconvex Test roughly planoconvex with a truncate This form included in C. semidecoratus
with a high conical umbilical face, 6-8 apex, composed of a proloculus and a by HERON-ALLEN & EARLAND (1915) as the
chambers per whorl; periphery with a planispirally coiled ribbon-like second involute type, and reported by HATTA &
wide, flange-like keel; sutures flush, chamber; flattened side with about 4 whorls UJIIÉ (1992b) as C. semidecoratus differs
almost straight, radial on the umbilical visible; peripheral margin with about from this species in its greater size and
side, almost totally obscured by a dense 20 spines rather evenly spaced, extending the early whorls entirely concealed by the
ornamentation of papillae on the spiral out and upward; cone-shaped side with later; it seems to be a different species
side; high chambers of the umbilical side, a wide basal half where is the tubular Northern shelf, 200 m.
with the end broken, forming a spiral row chamber, tapering up into a flat ribbon- Systematics p. 282, 283.
of rounded, rimmed openings. like crest bending centrally in a tightly
coiled way; ribbon-like crest undulating
Coastal bay, 10 m.
to form thicken ridges that cover radiating
Systematics p. 314.
canal-like structures; center of the cone-
like side with a deep umbilical area;
aperture at the end of the spiral chamber.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 282.

Conicospirillinoides sp. 1
Conicospirillinoides
This form resembles C. semidecoratus,
The test of Conicospirillinoides is planispi-
but differs in its more rounded margin,
rally enrolled, but the wall, extending
thicker test, and in much more overlapping
on one face into a high spiraling band
whorls on the flattened side that therefore
surrounding a deep umbilical depression,
becomes more convex.
results in a dissymmetrical test. The
result is the impression of a trochospiral Northern shelf, 200 m.
coiling, justifying the placement of this Systematics p. 283.
genus in the “Trochospiral hyaline Conicospirillinoides
foraminifera (or appearing so)” section. semidecoratus
Test planoconvex consisting in a globular
Conicospirillinoides proloculus and undivided planispirally
denticulatus enrolled tubular chamber; wall extending
Test planoconvex with a proloculus and into a high spiraling flange that partially
an undivided, compressed, planispirally overlaps the umbilical region and slopes
enrolled tubular second chamber; flat- upward considerably beyond the chamber
tened side evolute with all the whorls lumen, surface of the flange bearing
visible, flat or slightly convex; raised side numerous radial indentations; flattened Conicospirillinoides sp. 2
with whorls hardly distinguishable, and a side covered with rounded bosses, except This form differs from C. semidecoratus by
deeply depressed umbilical area; peripheral for the last whorl; periphery with a blunt its more regular pattern of ornamentation
margin acutely rounded; sutures slightly keel; aperture at the end of the tubular on the flattened side, and by the spines
raised on the flat side, incised but indistinct chamber at the periphery. produced on the peripheral margin.
on the raised side; on the flat side, wall
Northern shelf, 200 m. Northern shelf, 200 m.
with a row of coarse perforations regularly
Systematics p. 282. Systematics p. 283.
disposed parallel to the spiral suture; on
the raised side, wall extending into a high
spiraling band surrounding a deep
umbilical depression, and furnished with
buttress-like teeth set at regular intervals
along its inner margin; aperture simple,
at the end of the tubular chamber, at the
periphery.
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m.
Systematics p. 282.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 193

Conorbella Cribroparella Crouchina


Conorbella imperatoria Cribroparella sp. 1 The genus Crouchina was synonymized
Test high-trochospiral, irregularly conical; Test in a low trochospiral coil, lenticular with Orbitina by LOEBLICH & TAPPAN
periphery slightly lobulate, umbilical side and biconvex; periphery carinate; spiral (1988). The specimens from New
with an excavated umbilicus; chambers side evolute with about two and a half Caledonia reported to this genus, howev-
crescentic and gradually increasing in rapidly enlarging whorls, 7-9 chambers er, have the typical characteristics
size; sutures slightly depressed on spiral in the final whorl; sutures curved, described by MCCULLOCH (1977) for
side, radiate and obscured by the orna- oblique, more so on the spiral side; Crouchina (p. 296), even if they differ
mentation on the umbilical side; surface umbilicus closed and umbonate; wall somewhat from the drawings of this
of the spiral side heavily ornamented finely perforate, with coarser perforations author; they differ from Orbitina.
with a raised honeycomb texture and at the periphery; aperture a narrow slit near
pseudospines; periphery with large, the base of the apertural face, extending
Crouchina?
cf. C. taguscovensis
characteristic pseudospines; umbilical toward the umbilicus, bordered by a
side with radial thickening separated by small lip; small circular supplementary Test small, planoconvex, trochospiral;
fine striae; aperture an umbilical slit. areal openings scattered over the entire apex made up of four loosely-grouped
apertural face; primary aperture and globular chambers; then 2-3 whorls of
In large specimens, the pseudospines
secondary openings tending to form a four chambers each about equal in size
may be absent from the last chambers,
cribrate aperture over the entire apertural with prominent, wide, carinate margins,
and then from the periphery, remaining
face in the adult. visible on the spiral convex side; on the
only on the spiral side.
umbilical side, 2-3 last chambers visible,
South of the Grande Terre, 30 m. South of the Grande Terre, 50 m.
arched around the large umbilicus; wall
Systematics p. 311. Systematics p. 321.
smooth, very finely perforated; aperture
at the end of the last chamber turned
towards the umbilicus.
Isle of Pines, 5 m.
Systematics p. 309.

Conorbella pulvinata
Test broadly ovate or subglobular,
planoconvex; composed of a few more or
less inflated chambers, about three in the old Discanomalina
specimen
final coil; spiral side strongly rugose due Discanomalina coronata
to coarse pores surrounded by rims of Test robust, very low trochospiral, nearly
various height; rows of pores follow the equally biconvex, in face view nearly as
edges of the chambers, but additional broad as the diameter; about eight
pores may open over the chamber walls; chambers in the final coil; umbilical
umbilical side deeply excavated at the region concave on both sides; peripheral
umbilicus and ornamented with radiating border nearly flattened in the later
granulose lines; aperture a rounded chambers, which increase rapidly in
opening at the suture on the umbilical width; inner border of the chambers often
side. of clear shell material; wall coarsely
Bay of Prony, 10-20 m. perforate; aperture a narrow curved slit
Systematics p. 311. at the base of the apertural face, bordered
with a narrow lip; supplementary openings
beneath umbilical flaps.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 322.
194 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Discanomalina semipunctata Discorbinella complanata Elongobula


Test trochospiral, free, or more often Test low trochospiral, extremely com- Elongobula milletti
attached on sponge spicules; spiral side pressed, flat, semicircular in outline; Test small, high trochospiral, tapering,
plane or concave, umbilical side convex spiral face very slightly convex, umbilical consisting of two or three whorls; “initial
with umbilical region depressed; seven to side very slightly concave; semicircular end bluntly rounded, increasing in
eight chambers in the final coil; periphery in outline; peripheral margins acute with diameter toward the apertural end”; four
broad, angled, some of the chambers a blunt carina; flat side with shallow or more chambers making up the last
with short spine-like extensions at the umbilicus and folia on the last 2-3 cham- whorl, slightly inflated; sutures flush with
periphery, extending along the sponge bers; chambers 6-8 in the final whorl, the surface or slightly depressed, spiral
spicules; wall coarsely perforate on the increasing in size gradually; sutures suture, slightly limbate; wall smooth, very
umbilical side, except on the limbate limbate, curved; wall smooth, finely finely perforate; apertural face broadly
sutures; spiral side and apertural face perforate; aperture foliar openings near rounded with numerous radial clefts
smooth; aperture an elongated arched slit umbilicus. running into the depressed area at the
at the base of the last-formed chamber. Northern shelf, 600 m. center; aperture a semielliptical opening
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 314. at the base of the apertural face, almost
Systematics p. 322. closed by a large apertural flap flush with
apertural face.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 313.

Discorbinella
Discorbinella bertheloti Elongobula parallela
Test compressed, plano-convex, semicir- Test elongate, the sides usually nearly
cular in outline; coiling low trochospiral, Discorinopsis parallel for most of their length, both
nearly involute on both sides; peripheral Discorinopsis aguayoi ends broadly rounded, nearly circular in
margins acute with a blunt carina; flat Test large, low trochospiral; chambers transverse section, periphery slightly lob-
side with shallow umbilicus and folia on increasing slowly in height but rapidly in ulate; chambers distinct, in 3 or more
the last 3-4 chambers; chambers 6-8 in breadth resulting in an auriculate test; whorls; sutures slightly limbate, flush
the final whorl, slightly inflated on convex spiral side convex, umbilical side flat- with the surface; wall smooth, very finely
side, increasing in size gradually and then tened to concave; umbilical face partially perforate, with a weak anastomosing
rapidly for the last 3-4; sutures depressed, covered with a spongy mass of shell costate ornament over the lower parts of
curved and slightly thickened on both sides; material; sutures strongly curved on the the test; apertural face terminal, striated;
wall smooth, coarsely perforate on the spiral side, obscured on the umbilical aperture central, partially hidden by a
convex side, perforate only at the periphery side; wall coarsely perforate; aperture a broad flap.
of the flat side; aperture equatorial to series of openings through the shell Bay of Prony, 20-30 m.
interiomarginal, broadly arch-shaped material that covers the umbilical area. Systematics p. 313.
with a thickened lip, with supplementary
posterior foliar openings. Coastal lagoons, marshes.
Systematics p. 262.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 314.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 195

Elongobula spicata Elongobula sp. 2 Eoeponidella


Test high trochospiral, oval in outline; Test large, initial end characteristically Eoeponidella pulchella
stout basal spine quickly expanding into prominent and rounded; chambers Test small, planoconvex; 2-3 whorls of
first whorl; periphery slightly lobulate; increasing rapidly in size so that the chambers crescentic, 5-8 chambers in the
about 6 chambers per whorl; sutures very three whorls are well visible; chambers final whorl; sutures curved and oblique
slightly depressed or flush, gently curved; distinct, sutures flush; wall smooth, finely on the convex spiral side, radial on the
wall finely perforate, smooth; apertural perforate; apertural face ovate with deep umbilical side; umbilical area depressed,
face with deep radial clefts around the radial clefts running into the central covered with secondarily added umbilical
aperture, crossing edge of apertural face depressed area; aperture at the centre of plates that form a stellate structure
over short distance; aperture in upper part, the apertural face, partially closed by a around the umbilicus: periphery rounded
partly closed by a well defined apertural well defined apertural flap. to subangular; wall calcareous, finely
flap flush with apertural face. Northern shelf, 600 m. perforate, with coarser pores near the
Coastal bays, 5-10 m. Systematics p. 313. periphery; aperture a broad interiomar-
Systematics p. 313. ginal arch in the umbilical face of the
final chamber, later obscured by the
supplementary coverplates.
Bay of Prony, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 318.

Elongobula sp. 1 Elongobula sp. 3


Test small, tapering, initial end bluntly Test stout, relatively short, nearly circular in
rounded, increasing slowly in diameter cross section, both ends broadly rounded;
toward the apertural end, consisting of chambers and sutures indistinct; wall Epistomaroides
three whorls or more; chambers distinct, smooth, very finely perforate; apertural Epistomaroides
inflated; sutures distinct, depressed, espe- face with a few radial striae; aperture polystomelloides
cially the spiral suture; wall smooth, very central, partially closed by a well defined Test low trochospiral, biconvex; periphery
finely perforate; apertural face broadly apertural flap. rounded, peripheral outline lobulate; all
rounded with deep radial clefts running Northern shelf, 600 m. chambers of the two whorls visible from
into the central depressed area; aperture Systematics p. 313. the spiral side, only the 9-10 of the final
at the centre of the apertural face, partially whorl visible on the umbilicate side;
closed by a small apertural flap. supplementary chamberlets formed by a
Bay of Prony, 20-30 m. transverse internal partition result in a
Systematics p. 313. stellate appearance on the umbilical side;
sutures deeply incised, bridged by shell
material; wall coarsely perforate; primary
aperture a low interiomarginal arch
extending from the peripheral margin to
the umbilicus, small secondary areal
opening at the suture between primary
and supplementary chambers in the
apertural face, and multiple sutural
openings present on both sides of the test,
between the sutural bridges.
Living in algal thalli 0-15 m.
Systematics p. 318.
196 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Epistominella Facetocochlea Fontbotia


Epistominella exigua Facetocochlea pulchra Fontbotia wuellerstorfi
Test low trochospiral biconvex, spiral side Test trochospiral, biconvex; periphery Test much compressed, early stages
less convex than umbilical side; periphery carinate; 6-7 chambers in the last coil; trochoid, later ones somewhat spread
acute, lobulate; test composed of three spiral side low convex with sutures out; umbilical face slightly convex or at
whorls with 5-7 chambers in the last straight and oblique; umbilical side more least umbonate, spiral face flat, and
whorl; sutures marked on the spiral face convex, involute, with sutures gently the peripheral edge acutely rounded;
by thickened lines of opaque-white shell- curved, nearly radial, and slightly chambers numerous, narrow and much
substance (under dissecting microscope); depressed; wall coarsely perforated; on curved, often almost crescentiform in
slightly depressed on the umbilical side; the spiral side, pores at the end of small outline; sutures distinct, curved, limbate,
wall glassy; aperture an elongate slit tubules, mostly situated along the spiral somewhat raised, especially on the spiral
tending to parallel to the peripheral suture and along the periphery where the side, with a decided angle on the umbilical
margin. tubules radiate outward, making an side; wall coarsely perforate; aperture at
Northern shelf, 600 m. impression of a crinkled periphery under the periphery and extending over onto
Systematics p. 313. the dissecting microscope; aperture an the spiral side along the inner margin of
interiomarginal slit extending up the face the chamber, with a slight lip.
of the final chamber on the umbilical Northern shelf, 600 m.
side. Systematics p. 315.
Bay of Prony, 10-40 m.
Systematics p. 313.

Eponides
Eponides repandus
Geminospira
Test low trochospiral, biconvex, more
convex on the umbilical side; umbilicus Geminospira bradyi
closed; periphery angular to carinate; Test elongate, flattened, early chambers
2-3 whorls with about 5-7 chambers per in a trochospiral coil, later uncoiled,
whorl; sutures curved and limbate on the
Floresina arcuate, and asymmetrical with chambers
spiral side, continuing into the peripheral Floresina latissima highest on the spiral side; a series of
keel, nearly radial on the umbilical side: Test elongate, irregularly ovate in outline, secondary chamberlets on the umbilical
wall finely perforate, sutures and keel compressed composed of 2-3 whorls with side alternate in position with the primary
imperforate; aperture a broad low interi- 5-6 chambers in the last whorl; chambers chambers; sutures distinct, flush on the
omarginal arch extending from the narrow with slightly depressed, limbate, spiral side, depressed on the umbilical side;
umbilicus to the periphery, often with a sinuate sutures; spiral suture distinct; periphery rounded; wall finely perforate,
few supplementary areal openings. sutural margin of chambers lobed; surface smooth; aperture an interiomar-
Southern shelf, > 30 m. aperture semicircular at the base of the ginal slit at the base of the final chamber,
Systematics p. 307. flattened semicircular apertural face, on the umbilical side, with a secondary
with radiating striae. opening on the apertural face.
Outer reef, 35 m. Coastal bay, 10 m.
Systematics p. 303. Systematics p. 297.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 197

Glabratella Glabratellina Gyroidina


Glabratella margaritacea tabernacularis Gyroidina lamarckiana
Test small, circular in outline, planoconvex Test trochospiral, high conical, circular Test biconvex, periphery rounded, spiral
with a broadly rounded periphery; spiral in end view, with somewhat convex sides side slightly convex, umbilical side convex
side convex, evolute showing 2-3 whorls and more or less concave base, often with a large umbilicus; 6-10 chambers in
with about 6 chambers in the last whorl; deeply sunken at the umbilicus; apex and the last-formed coil, increasing very
umbilical side with a deep umbilicus; peripheral margin broadly rounded; gradually and evenly in size as added;
sutures flush on both sides, oblique on chambers oblique, arranged in about sutures curved and strongly limbate on
spiral side, indistinct on umbilical side, three whorls, 4-5 chambers in the last both sides; wall polished, but distinctly
except for the last chamber; wall coarsely whorl; sutures obscured by the ornamen- perforate; aperture a low interiomarginal
perforated on spiral side, finely perforated tation; wall finely perforated, umbilical slit, extending nearly to the periphery and
on the umbilical side; papillae arranged face ornamented with fine radiating rows about halfway to the umbilicus.
radially around the umbilical depression; of granules that continue onto the spiral
Mangrove swamp under shrimp-pond
aperture a minute slit at the base of the face, up to the apex; several grooves
influence.
final chamber. radiating from the apex; aperture a low
Systematics p. 322.
interiomarginal slit, often obscured by
Coastal bays, 10-20 m.
umbilical pustules or by the destruction
Systematics p. 311.
of the umbilical region.
Isle of Pines, 5 m.
Systematics p. 312.

Hansenisca
Glabratellina Hansenisca soldanii
Glabratellina sp. 1 Test trochospiral; spiral side evolute and
Glabratellina
Test trochospiral, about two whorls with flattened, umbilical side involute and
kermadecensis
usually five chambers in the final whorl; highly convex with subangular umbilical
Test small, trochospiral, concavoconvex, chambers globular, periphery rounded; shoulder bordering the open umbilicus;
circular in end view; spiral side high conical sutures depressed, curved on the spiral sutures radial, straight to slightly curved,
with 3-4 whorls and 4-5 chambers in the side, radial on the umbilical side; surface flush, becoming depressed toward the
last whorl; umbilical side slightly concave of the spiral side heavily ornamented with umbilicus; periphery broadly truncate;
with a depressed umbilicus; peripheral a deeply perforated honeycomb texture; wall finely perforate, surface smooth;
margin acutely rounded; wall coarsely umbilical side with radial rows of granules aperture a short equatorial and interi-
perforated on the spiral side, ornamented and an umbilical extension; aperture an omarginal slit, bordered by a narrow lip,
on the spiral side with honeycomb texture umbilical slit. an umbilical flap extending into the
more or less filled with calcite; ornament umbilicus from each chamber partially
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
on the umbilical side, rows of granules covers a small secondary aperture.
Systematics p. 312.
separated by fine striae, some of them
creeping onto the spiral face; aperture in South of the Grande Terre, 40 m.
the umbilical depression. Systematics p. 322.
Coastal bays, 10 m.
Systematics p. 312.
198 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hanzawaia Heronallenia Heronallenia polita


Hanzawaia grossepunctata Heronallenia laevis Test auriculate in outline, low trochospiral,
Test low trochospiral, planoconvex, Test low trochospiral, elongate, auriculate planoconvex, periphery somewhat carinate;
periphery subangular; whorls enlarging in contour, compressed; periphery rounded; spiral side gently convex, umbilical side
rapidly, chambers numerous; sutures spiral side weakly convex with one whorl slightly concave; 1-2 coils of chambers,
thickened, depressed, and curved back at of five chambers, the last chamber almost crescentic on the spiral side; sutures
the periphery; umbilical side involute, uniserial in position; chambers increasing curved, thickened and slightly raised on
convex with clear central boss; spiral side rapidly in size; suture slightly depressed, the spiral side, radial and depressed on
flattened, partially evolute with apertural limbate and curved on the spiral side, the umbilical side; surface finely perforate,
flap from each chamber extending cen- flush and indistinct on the umbilical side; rough on the spiral side, smooth but
trally over earlier whorls; wall coarsely wall finely perforate, smooth; umbilical radially grooved on the umbilical side;
perforate; aperture interiomarginal and side depressed with long radiate striae; aperture an umbilical arch.
equatorial, against the periphery of the aperture an umbilical arch, at the base of Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
previous whorl and extending slightly the last chamber. Systematics p. 312.
onto the involute side but continuing Coastal bay, 10 m.
beneath the flaps on the flattened side. Systematics p. 312.
Bay of Prony, 20-30 m.
Systematics p. 322.

Heronallenia lingulata Heterolepa


Test low trochospiral, compressed, flattened, Heterolepa inagawaensis
with truncate periphery. 1-2 rapidly Test trochospiral; spiral side evolute,
widening whorls; sutures costate on the slightly convex, umbilical side involute,
Helenina spiral side and having interlocking highly convex with wide protruding
angles on the umbilical side; wall finely umbilical boss that gives the test a
Helenina anderseni perforate; umbilical side flat and smooth trapezoidal outline in lateral view;
Test low trochospiral, both sides flattened, with several deep radial grooves around peripheral edge carinate, somewhat
periphery rounded, peripheral margin the simple aperture, at the base of the last lobulate for the last chambers; about
slightly lobulate; test composed of two chamber. 3 whorls, the last one with 7 chambers;
whorls visible on the spiral side; chambers Outer reef, 100 m. sutures limbate and slightly raised on the
enlarging gradually, 6-7 in the final whorl; Systematics p. 312. spiral side, obscured on the umbilical
sutures curved, oblique, depressed, on both side, except for the last few chambers;
sides; large overlapping umbilical flaps of wall coarsely perforated on the spiral side,
successive chambers closing the umbilicus; finely perforated on the umbilical side;
wall distinctly perforate, surface smooth; aperture crescentic, against the periphery
aperture an extra-umbilical interiomar- of the preceding whorl, with a distinct lip,
ginal slit bordered by a lip, supplementary slightly extending onto the spiral side;
sutural apertural slits present on both aperture of the penultimate chamber
sides. often visible on the spiral side.
Coastal bays, estuaries, low salinity. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 308. Systematics p. 312.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 199

Heterolepa margaritifera Heterolepa subhaidingeri Hoeglundina


Test trochospiral; spiral side evolute, Test trochospiral, subglobular, unequally Hoeglundina elegans
slightly convex or nearly flat, umbilical side biconvex, circular in outline with a Test trochospiral, close coiled, unequally
involute, convex; peripheral edge sharp, subacute periphery; peripheral margin biconvex; chambers enlarging gradually;
subcarinate, more or less lobulate; about slightly lobulate; spiral side evolute with 8-9 in the final whorl; sutures curved
3 whorls, the last one with 11-15 chambers; 8-10 chambers in the last whorl; umbilical backward at the periphery on the spiral
sutures on both sides marked by rows of side involute; early sutures flush and side, straight and oblique on the umbilical
beads of clear shell-substance, largest near indistinct, becoming depressed and distinct side; periphery sub-acute; wall finely per-
the centre of the test; wall conspicuously in the last chambers; wall smooth, forate, surface smooth; aperture a long
perforated; aperture a low interiomarginal coarsely perforated on the spiral side, slit-like peripheral opening parallel to the
slit on the umbilical side, extending from with only sparse pores along the margins margin and opening on the umbilical
about midway between the umbilicus of the last chambers on the umbilical side, those of earlier chambers commonly
and periphery across the periphery to side; aperture a low interiomarginal slit closed by shell material.
continue a short distance onto the spiral at the base of the last-formed chamber,
side, bordered above with a low lip. extending for a short distance onto the Two different forms are found that can be
spiral side, bordered above with a low lip; reported to Hoeglundina elegans.
Southwestern lagoon, 20 m.
Systematics p. 321. lips of earlier chambers remaining along Form 1: a long peripheral aperture
the spiral suture. extending upon the apertural face, and a
Southwestern lagoon and southern shelf, small opening at the base of the apertur-
> 30 m. al face; wall very finely perforated with
Systematics p. 321. coarser perforations around the margin
and on the umbo.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 297.

Heterolepa praecincta Heterolepa sp. 1


Test trochospiral; spiral side evolute, Test trochospiral; spiral side evolute, flat;
slightly convex, umbilical side involute, umbilical side involute, highly convex,
highly convex; peripheral edge carinate, with lateral margins almost straight;
somewhat lobulate for the last chambers; peripheral edge sharply angled, subcari-
about 3 whorls, the last one with 8-10 cham- nate, not lobulate; about 6 chambers in Form 2: only a short peripheral aperture,
bers; sutures limbate externally, especially the last whorl; sutures flush, except between not extending on the apertural face;
those radiating from the umbilicus, which the last chambers; walls conspicuously regularly distributed pore fields on the
take the form of stout raised bands of clear perforated on the spiral side, only rows of spiral side. These two forms may be
shell-substance; walls coarsely perforated; large pores along the margins of the last considered as potentially different
aperture a low interiomarginal slit on the two chambers on the umbilical side; species.
umbilical side, extending from about aperture a low interiomarginal slit with a
midway between umbilicus and periphery distinct lip on the umbilical side, extending Northern shelf, 600 m.
across the periphery to continue a short for a short distance onto the spiral side. Systematics p. 297.
distance onto the spiral side, bordered above Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
with a low lip; lips of earlier chambers Systematics p. 321.
remaining along the spiral suture.
Southwestern lagoon and southern shelf,
> 30 m.
Systematics p. 321.
200 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Hoeglundina Hofkerina Lamarckina ventricosa


neocarinata n. sp. Hofkerina semiornata Test trochospiral, subrounded in outline,
Diagnosis. A species of Hoeglundina Test large, trochospirally coiled, biconvex, composed of less than two complete
with a flattened and strongly keeled test, umbilical side inflated; chambers few convolutions, the outer whorl consisting
ornamented with tubercles. and inflated; periphery broadly rounded, of six or seven chambers; the successive
Description.Test trochospiral, unequally non carinated; spiral side with pillars in chambers increasing rapidly in length;
biconvex, subcircular in outline recognized the wall, appearing as strong, irregular umbilical faces ventricose, especially that
easily by its clear wall showing a cloudy papillae on the surface; final whorl com- of the final chamber that comprises
mottling under a light microscope; spiral posed of 3-5 chambers that are separated about one-half the umbilical side;
side evolute, slightly convex; umbilical by depressed sutures on the umbilical side sutures depressed; spiral side hispid,
side involute, more strongly convex; but are obscured by the papillose surface umbilical side smooth; umbilicus deeply
peripheral margin strongly keeled; on the ornamentation on the spiral side; broad sunk; aperture interiomarginal, umbilical;
spiral side, sutures flush, indistinct, depressed umbilicus that is covered by a valvular flaps, but little developed.
obscured by irregularly distributed, low series of plates arising from the umbilical Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
tubercles; on the umbilical side, 7-9 some- margin of each chamber; wall finely Systematics p. 297.
what inflated chambers with depressed perforate, surface smooth; aperture a
and nearly radiate sutures; wall finely small slit-like interiomarginal opening
perforated on both sides; apertural face on the umbilical side, accompanied by
truncate, with an acute, nearly keeled sutural pores and areal openings that
border; aperture one or two small open- pierce the umbilical plate to open into
ings at the base of the apertural chamber the umbilicus; primary aperture may
and a long slit-like peripheral opening disappear in old specimens.
parallel to the margin and provided with Northern shelf, 600 m.
a prominent inner lip, still visible on the Systematics p. 308.
last 3 or 4 chambers.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 297.

Lamarckina sp. 1
With its rounded periphery and smooth
spiral face, this species resembles
Lamarckina H. haliotidea (HERON-ALLEN & EARLAND,
Lamarckina scabra 1911), but is more elongated than this
Test trochospiral, unequally biconvex, later species.
dorsal side very slightly convex; umbilical Coastal bay, 10 m.
side more convex, peripheral margin Systematics p. 297.
acute, carinate; chambers seven or eight
in the final whorl, rapidly increasing in
size as added; on the umbilical side, final
chamber strongly overlapping and
Derivation of name. The name neocar-
comprising about one-half the umbilical
inata refers to the acute carinate margin
side; sutures limbate on the spiral side,
of this species, neo has been added to dif-
flush or slightly depressed on the umbilical
ferentiate the present species from the
side; wall rugose or granular on the spiral
Cretaceous species Hoeglundina cari-
side, smooth below; aperture interiomar-
nata (N. Bykova).
ginal, umbilical, closed by a thin plate as
Material. Holotype - MNHN F62318, the next chamber is added.
Paratypes - MNHN F62319, MNHN
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
F62320, MNHN F62321, MNHN F62322,
Systematics p. 297.
MNHN F62323; from the northern shelf of
New Caledonia, at 600 m water depth.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 201

Lobatula Metarotaliella Mississippina


Lobatula lobatula Metarotaliella tuvaluensis Mississippina omuraensis
Test trochospirally coiled with a strongly Test small, generally attached to various Test low trochospiral, biconvex, spiral
variable morphology; spiral side flat to species of miliolid foraminifera; test side nearly evolute, slightly convex,
irregular, sutures thickened, depressed to trochospiral, conical with about two whorls umbilical side involute, flattened to
slightly elevated, oblique and curved and 3-4 chambers in the last whorl; gently convex; sutures curved on both
backward at the periphery; umbilical side chambers inflated, globular; sutures sides, slightly limbate on spiral side,
gently convex with depressed sutures depressed and curved on the evolute spiral depressed on umbilical side; wall smooth
radial around the slightly depressed side, radial on the involute umbilical side; with depressed opaque bands elongate
umbilicus, periphery rounded to angular or wall thin, coarsely perforate on spiral parallel to the periphery on both sides;
carinate; peripheral outline lobulate; wall side, except on proloculus, imperforate aperture a low arch extending from the
coarsely perforate, except keel, apertural lip on umbilical side; aperture umbilical, umbilicus to the periphery under an
and area bordering the aperture; aperture semicircular, with a small projection umbilical flap.
an interiomarginal, equatorial arch, overlapping the base of the last chamber. Northern shelf, 400 m.
bordered by a lip and extending onto the Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. Systematics p. 308.
spiral side beneath a narrow folium. Systematics p. 311.
Living attached on algae, 30-100 m.
Systematics p. 315.

Lobatula mayori
Test trochospiral, planoconvex to slightly Milesina
concavoconvex, evolute and flattened on Milesina grossepunctata Mississippina pacifica
spiral side, involute and convex on Test planoconvex, subcircular in contour; Test low trochospiral, nearly planispiral,
umbilical side; peripheral outline weakly one side flat and smooth with sutures slightly biconvex, both sides involute;
lobulate in last chambers, peripheral flush, other side convex with three cham- sutures curved on both sides, flush on
margin acute with a carina; 6-8 chambers bers visible having a coarsely perforate spiral side, depressed in last chambers
in the last coil; sutures depressed, radial surface, and slightly depressed limbate of umbilical side; wall smooth with
to slightly curved on umbilical side; on sutures; periphery carinate; aperture a depressed opaque bands, elongate parallel
spiral side curved, broadly limbate and in narrow slit near the umbilicus. to the periphery on both sides; aperture a
last chambers, slightly depressed. Test low arch extending from the umbilicus to
coarsely perforated on spiral side, only the Bay of Prony, 20 m.
the spiral side under an umbilical flap;
last chambers perforated on umbilical side; Systematics p. 314.
apertures of a few last-formed chambers
aperture interiomarginal, extraumbilical- remaining open.
equatorial with thick rim, extending into Northern shelf, 400 m.
a supplementary spiral aperture with rim, Systematics p. 308.
remaining open in the last few chambers.
Living attached on algae, 30-100 m.
Systematics p. 315.
202 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Monspeliensina Murrayinella murrayi Mychostomina peripora


Monspeliensina vulpesi Test small, unequally biconvex, charac- Test low conical, composed of a proloculus
Test biconvex with a low trochospiral terized by its inflated chambers, lobulate followed by a non septate tubular
coiling of about three whorls; spiral side outline and dense hispid wall ornament; enrolled second chamber with two sets of
flattened and evolute, umbilical side spiral side evolute, gently convex; umbil- conical whorls, first dorsally from the
slightly inflated and involute; chambers ical side involute, highly convex; about proloculus to the periphery, and then
enlarging gradually, early ones may be 6 chambers in the last whorl; periphery inward ventrally to an umbilical aperture;
partially obscured by a central boss; broadly rounded, lobulate, sutures periphery rounded to slightly angular;
6-9 chambers in the final whorl; wall depressed, oblique on the spiral side, evolute spiral side slightly convex but
finely and densely perforate, surface almost radial on the umbilical side; with depressed central area; umbilical side
smooth; primary aperture an interio- dense hispid wall ornament; aperture an somewhat concave; coarse perforations
marginal slit, extending from the umbilicus extraumbilical umbilical slit-shaped restricted to a peripheral zone, more
to the periphery, sutural supplementary opening, obscured by the ornament. extended at the end of the last whorl on
apertures present on both sides, straight and Bay of Prony, 10-30 m. the spiral side; aperture at the end of the
narrow slits on the spiral side progressively Systematics p. 312. tubular chamber, in the umbilicus.
filled with shell material with growth, Attached on algae, 20-100 m.
openings on the umbilical side follow the Systematics p. 283.
slightly arched sutures.
Southwestern lagoon, 25 m.
Systematics p. 318.

Mychostomina
Mychostomina lucida Mychostomina revertens
Test low conical, composed of a proloculus Test low conical, composed of a proloculus
followed by a tubular enrolled second followed by a tubular enrolled second
chamber with about 6 convolutions visible chamber of several low trochospiral
on the spiral side, then crossing the whorls that then crosses the periphery,
Murrayinella periphery, coiling toward the umbilicus; coiling toward the umbilicus; periphery
Murrayinella globosa 2-3 whorls visible on the umbilical side; rounded; evolute spiral side convex,
Test trochospiral, spiral side evolute, peripheral edge sharp; spiral side convex; umbilical side concave; spiral side perfo-
slightly inflated; umbilical side involute, umbilicus deeply sunk; wall very minutely rated over the entire chamber wall;
inflated; sutures almost radial on both perforated; aperture indistinct. umbilical side irregularly perforated;
sides; about two whorls with usually five Attached on algae, 20-100 m. aperture at the end of the tubular chamber,
chambers in the final whorl; chambers Systematics p. 283. in the umbilicus, with a small lip.
globular with a large spine arising from Coastal bays, 10-20 m.
the midpoint of each chamber; umbilicus Systematics p. 283.
open; wall finely perforate, surface densely
covered with small spines or pustules;
aperture interiomarginal, umbilical to
slightly extraumbilical, obscured by the
ornament.
Coastal bays, estuaries.
Systematics p. 312.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 203

Neoconorbina Neoconorbina Neoconorbina


Neoconorbina albida concinna tuberocapitata
Test low trochospiral, planoconvex, Benthic stage Neoconorbina-like, low Test trochospiral, circular in outline,
periphery acute, limbate, hyaline, smooth; trochospiral, concavoconvex, domed in conical, the apex swollen into a ball-like
spiral side conical; apex opaque; about lateral view, consisting of about 3 whorls prominence; all the whorls visible on the
5 not inflated chambers in the last whorl; of about 4 chambers; umbilical side spiral side, only the chambers of the final
sutures strongly curved on both faces; involute and slightly concave with a deep whorl on the umbilical side; chambers
spiral face finely perforate, slightly open umbilicus, spiral side evolute and increasing rapidly in breadth, becoming
granular, umbilical face more distinctly convex, peripheral margins rounded; very low and crescentic; umbilical side
and densely perforate; aperture umbilical, sutures depressed and strongly curved on flat or slightly concave, periphery acutely
a slit under the short umbilical flap with both sides; wall distinctly and densely angled with a narrow flange; sutures
a reentrant at each end. porous in the last 2 whorls, in earlier curved, strongly oblique on both sides;
chambers the pores appear to have been umbilical extension from the chambers
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
sealed over by shell material; aperture an forms a triangular folium; wall finely
Systematics p. 309.
interiomarginal slit, anterior to an and densely perforate on the spiral side,
umbilical folium, with a lip bordering more coarsely perforate on the umbilical
the upper margin, separated from the side, surface smooth; aperture at the
periphery by a deep reentrant. umbilical margin of the chamber,
Planktonic stage in lateral view a short beneath the folium.
cylinder with rounded top and bottom; Northern shelf, 600 m.
circumferential suture separating the Systematics p. 310.
trochospiral stage from the hemispherical
balloon chamber straight, about three-
Neoconorbina clara fifths the way from the base of the balloon
Benthic stage Neoconorbina-like, very low chamber to the top of the test; balloon
trochospiral, flattened, concavoconvex, chamber less densely perforated than the
umbilical side involute and concave, spiral trochospiral stage around its circumference;
side evolute and very slightly convex, the base perforated by numerous large
peripheral margins acute; chambers rimmed pores.
about 4 per whorl, crescentic on spiral side, Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
extending into a somewhat rectangular Systematics p. 310.
folium on the umbilical side; sutures
slightly depressed, limbate, and strongly
curved on both sides; wall distinctly Neoconorbina sp. 1
perforate on both sides, except on the Test low trochospiral, planoconvex,
periphery, the sutures and the folium; periphery narrowly rounded, limbate;
aperture an interiomarginal slit, anterior to spiral side evolute, conical, distinctly
an umbilical folium, with a lip bordering perforate; chambers shallow, crescentic,
the upper margin, separated from the 4-6 in the last whorl, terminal chamber
periphery by a deep reentrant. covering one third of the surface; sutures
Planktonic stage flattened in lateral view; curved, limbate and slightly raised on
circumferential suture separating the spiral face, slightly depressed on umbilical
trochospiral stage from the balloon face; wall slightly granular on the spiral
chamber straight, about halfway from side, smooth on the umbilical side; aper-
the base of the balloon chamber to the ture a slit along the basal edge of the
top of the test; balloon chamber less last-formed chamber, under an umbilical
densely perforated than the trochospiral flap. This species resembles Orbitina
stage around its circumference; the base exquisita of LOEBLICH & TAPPAN (1994) not
somewhat depressed and perforated by Pararosalina dimorphiformis exquisita
numerous large rimmed pores. MCCULLOCH 1977.
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 309. Systematics p. 310.
204 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Neoconorbina sp. 2 Neoeponides procerus Neorotalia


Test low trochospiral, planoconvex; spiral Test trochoid forming an elevated cone Neorotalia calcar form A
side evolute, dome shaped; umbilical with rounded apex and truncate, flat Test low trochospiral, biconvex, spiral
side flat with a depressed umbilicus; umbilical face; composed of numerous side evolute, umbilical side involute, 10-
periphery acute, carinate, non-lobulate; convolutions, the last of which consists of 12 chambers in the last whorl; periphery
chambers shallow, crescentic, 4-5 in the 4-6 chambers; sutures oblique, indistinct stellate, angled, with chambers provided
last whorl, terminal chamber covering on the spiral face, especially near the with a canaliculated spine at anterior
one third of the surface of the umbilical apex; sutures and periphery more or less angle; some spines tend to become
side; sutures curved, broadly limbate and limbate on the umbilical side; aperture thickened and even subdivided; chambers
slightly raised on spiral side, flush on interiomarginal, extraumbilical, with on spiral side slightly inflated, on umbilical
umbilical side; wall smooth, imperforate narrow bordering lip. side with a prominent axial shoulder;
on umbilical side, perforate except on the Northern shelf, 600 m. sutures slightly depressed, oblique, on the
sutures on spiral side; aperture a low Systematics p. 309. spiral side, deeply sunk and radial on the
opening along the basal edge of the last- umbilical side; spiral side with a rugose
formed chamber, extending under an and pustular ornamentation; on the
umbilical flap. umbilical side, ridges perpendicular to
Northern shelf, 600 m. the median shoulder of each chamber
Systematics p. 310. produce a chevron-like ornamentation;
umbilicus filled with multiple umbilical
plugs; secondary laminations close the
deep sutures, except the ultimate ones;
wall distinctly perforate on both sides;
apertural face covered by grooves separated
Neoeponides schreibersii by rows of small pustules; aperture often
Test subconical, spiral side evolute, ele- obscured by ornamentation, a low arch
vated, apex broadly rounded; umbilical side on the umbilical face with a pustulate lip,
evolute, slightly convex; peripheral margin and supplementary apertures at the
bluntly rounded; chambers numerous, periphery, also with a pustulate lip.
7-9 in the last whorl; sutures slightly This form seems to correspond to
depressed and curved on the spiral side, Pararotalia calcar (d’Orbigny) pacifica
more depressed on the umbilical side, n.subsp. of Margerel (http://147.94.111.32/
Neoeponides with the umbilical ends limbate, forming Collection/forams-index.php?)
Neoeponides bradyi a stellate mass; wall finely perforate, Living in algal thalli, 0-2 m.
Test a high trochospiral coil, with about smooth; aperture a narrow opening Systematics p. 323.
3 whorls, periphery circular, angular, extending from near the periphery to the
chambers broad and low; spiral side umbilicus.
evolute, conical with broadly rounded Northern shelf, 600 m.
apex, umbilical face involute, convex; Systematics p. 309.
sutures, both of the superior and inferior
side, conspicuously limbate, imperforate,
otherwise wall densely perforate; aperture
interiomarginal, extraumbilical, with
narrow bordering lip.
Southern shelf, > 45 m.
Systematics p. 309.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 205

Neorotalia calcar form B Orbitina Osangularia


Test low trochospiral, biconvex, spiral Orbitina carinata Osangularia rugosa
side evolute, umbilical side involute, 10- Test very low trochospiral, flattened, Test planoconvex to slightly biconvex;
12 chambers in the last whorl; periphery planoconvex; peripheral margin acute spiral side slightly convex, umbilical
stellate, angled, with chambers provided and bordered by a thickened carina; side more convex, commonly with an
with a canaliculated spine at anterior angle; spiral evolute side slightly convex with umbilical plug; periphery sharp, some-
chambers on spiral side slightly inflated, arcuate chambers and curved limbate what lobulate; sutures slightly depressed
on umbilical side with a prominent axial sutures, flush to slightly raised; umbilical and strongly curved backwards on both
shoulder; sutures slightly depressed, radial, sutures slightly curved and very slightly faces; 8-10 chambers in the last whorl;
on the spiral side, deeply sunk and radial depressed; a globular folium projects surface roughened; aperture areal, at an
on the umbilical side; spiral side with a from each chamber in the umbilicus, acute angle to the base of the chamber
central pustular ornamentation; on the folia of earlier chambers appear as a face which is deeply infolded before
umbilical side, prominent bowls are pro- coarse pustular ornament in the umbilicus; attaching to the preceding, the deep
duced at the umbilical end of each wall smoothly finished, glassy; aperture indentation appearing as an interi-
chamber, and pustules along the sutures; small, opening into the umbilicus under omarginal aperture.
umbilicus filled with a few umbilical the globular folium. Northern shelf, 600 m.
plugs; secondary laminations close the
Coastal bays, 10 m. Systematics p. 321.
deep sutures, except the ultimate ones;
Systematics p. 309.
wall distinctly perforate on both sides;
apertural face covered by grooves separated
by rows of small pustules; aperture often
obscured by ornamentation, a low arch
on the umbilical face with a pustulate lip,
and supplementary apertures at the
periphery, also with a pustulate lip.
Living in algal thalli, 0-2 m.
Systematics p. 323.

Pannellaina
juvenile Oridorsalis Pannellaina earlandi
Oridorsalis umbonatus Test minute, compressed, subhexagonal
in outline, with slightly inflated chambers
Test trochospiral with both faces convex, and a narrow peripheral keel; all cham-
Nuttallides peripheral edge acute and slightly lobu- bers visible on the spiral side, their center
Nuttallides bradyi late; test consisting of about three whorls concave, and their margins curving up to
Test small, lenticular, trochospiral, almost of nearly equal width, with 5-7 chambers form ridges which are continuous from
equally biconvex, thick-walled; periphery in the last one; sutures distinct, nearly the center of the test to the periphery; only
weakly keeled, slightly lobulate; about radial and limbate on the spiral face, the last whorl visible on the umbilical
three whorls on the evolute spiral side radial and slightly depressed on the face, with sutures depressed and radial;
with 8-10 chambers in the final whorl, umbilical face; wall polished; aperture wall finely perforated on the umbilical
but usually the first whorls are obscured an interiomarginal slit bordered by a side, more coarsely so on the spiral side;
by secondary shell substance; sutures thickened lip; secondary apertures situated aperture a hardly visible narrow slit at
strongly oblique, limbate, and curving at the sutures between the last three the anterior margin of the last-formed
into the peripheral keel; on the involute chambers on the spiral face, and on the chamber on the umbilical side, extending
umbilical side, sutures slightly depressed, umbilicus on the umbilical face. from the periphery to the umbilicus.
nearly radial around the clear imperforate Northern shelf, 600 m. Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
umbilical boss, but recurved near the Systematics p. 321. Systematics p. 310.
periphery; wall perforate, septa and keel
imperforate; aperture interiomarginal,
extending from the umbilical boss nearly
to the peripheral keel, with a small notch
parallel to the plane of coiling.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 318.
206 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Pannellaina sp. 1 Pararotalia Patellina


Test minute, compressed, subhexagonal Pararotalia nipponica Patellina altiformis
in outline, with slightly inflated chambers Test low trochospiral, biconvex; spiral Test planoconvex, very highly conical,
and an angular periphery; all chambers side evolute, slightly convex with limbate circular in end view; all chambers visible
visible on the spiral side, their center oblique sutures; periphery angular and from the convex spiral side, only the final
concave; sutures limbate and raised over lobulate, thin spines sometimes present pair on the flattened umbilical side;
the surface, nearly continuous from the at the chamber apexes; umbilical side periphery carinate; proloculus followed
center of the test to the periphery; only the convex with deeply sunk radial sutures; by a short undivided coiled tubular
last whorl visible on the umbilical face, umbilicus deeply excavated with a central chamber, later stage with two broad and
with sutures depressed and radial; wall umbilical plug; wall smooth on the spiral low crescentic chambers per whorl; wall
finely perforated on the umbilical side, side, pustulate on the umbilical side, hyaline with coarse, evenly distributed,
more coarsely so on the spiral side, except distinctly perforated on both sides; aperture perforations on the spiral side; these per-
the imperforate sutures; aperture a hardly a narrow slit at the umbilical border of forations located between septula that are
visible narrow slit at the anterior margin the last-formed chamber. visible by transparency under light
of the last-formed chamber on the microscope; sutures slightly raised on the
Southwestern lagoon, near coral reefs.
umbilical side, extending from the spiral side; flat umbilical side ornamented
Systematics p. 323.
periphery to the umbilicus. This species with some irregular granules; aperture a
presented by LOEBLICH & TAPPAN (1994, low opening covered by a broad T-shaped
pl. 290, figs 5-7) as P. earlandi differs apertural plate.
from this latter species in having a less
Northern shelf, 600 m.
angular outline, and limbate instead of
Systematics p. 283.
carinate radial sutures on the spiral side.
Outer reef, 100 m.
Systematics p. 310.

Pararotalia cf. P. ozawai


Test trochospiral, biconvex; periphery
Patellina corrugata
carinate, peripheral outline lobulate; Test low conical, planoconvex, circular in
chambers centrally elevated on the spiral end view; all chambers visible from the
side which is nearly flat, inflated and convex spiral side, only the final pair on
produced around the umbilicus, with a the flattened umbilical side; periphery
Paracibicides prominent umbilical shoulder on the carinate; proloculus followed by an undi-
Paracibicides edomicus umbilical side; umbilicus relatively small, vided coiled tubular chamber of one to
filled with granules of shell material; three whorls, later stage with two broad
Test biconvex with the spiral side only and low crescentic chambers per whorl;
slightly convex; spiral side evolute, sutures oblique, gently curved back at the
periphery on both sides, raised on the chambers subdivided in the outer part by
umbilical side involute, peripheral out- numerous short radial septula, appearing
line lobulate; peripheral margin acute, spiral side, incised on the umbilical side
and bordered with granules in early stage; between deep pits on the umbilical side;
with a carina; triangular cross section; wall hyaline with coarse, evenly distributed,
8-10 chambers in the last whorl; sutures wall distinctly perforate on the spiral side,
finely perforate on the umbilical side; perforations in the upper chamber wall,
distinct, curved on both sides; wall coarsely between the septula; apertural region on
perforate on the spiral side, sparsely aperture interiomarginal, extending
obliquely up the apertural face. the umbilical side with s-shaped appear-
perforate, mostly near the sutures on the ance; distal end of chambers turning
umbilical side: aperture interiomarginal Southern shelf, 60 m.
sharply toward the umbilical area so that
equatorial with a rim, supplementary Systematics p. 323.
the aperture opens toward the umbilicus;
sutural apertures on the spiral side aperture a low opening, later covered by a
remaining open in the few last chambers. broad T-shaped apertural plate with
Northern shelf, 600 m. recurved ends.
Systematics p. 315. Coastal bays, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 283.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 207

Patellina elaborata Patellina sp. 1 Pileolina


Test very hyaline, low conical, planoconvex, Test low conical, planoconvex, circular in Pileolina haigi
ovate in end view; all chambers visible end view; all chambers visible from the Test low trochospiral planoconvex, dome-
from the convex spiral side, only the final convex spiral side, only the final pair on shaped; umbilical side involute, flattened,
pair on the flattened umbilical side; basal the flattened umbilical side; periphery spiral side evolute, convex, periphery sub-
margin hyaline, fragile; proloculus fol- carinate; proloculus followed by an undi- circular and non-lobate, with a carinate
lowed by an undivided coiled tubular vided coiled tubular chamber of one to margin that folds upward towards the
chamber, later stage with two broad and three whorls, later stage with two broad spiral side; chambers low, slightly arcuate
low crescentic chambers per whorl; partial and low crescentic chambers per whorl; in shape on spiral side, triangular on
marginal septa seen through the hyaline chambers subdivided in the outer part by umbilical side, six per whorl; sutures
wall on the spiral side; umbilical side numerous short radial septula, appearing flush on the spiral side, may be thickened
slightly concave; partial marginal septa by transparency; wall very hyaline with and limbate, radial and sharply depressed
produce a regular peripheral structure on coarse, evenly distributed, perforations on on the umbilical side; wall on the spiral
the umbilical side where the distal end of the spiral side, and regularly arranged side typically with perforate depressions
chambers turns sharply toward the beads on the flat umbilical face; aperture that are surrounded by smooth thickened
umbilical area so that the aperture opens a low opening, toward the umbilicus, areas, on the umbilical side with radial
toward the umbilicus; aperture a low later covered by a broad T-shaped apertural sutural grooves and coarse pustular orna-
opening. plate with recurved ends. This species differs ment around the umbilicus; aperture an
Northern shelf, 600 m. from P. corrugata mainly by its lower extraumbilical opening, may be more
Systematics p. 284. conical shape and its flat umbilical area, than one, bordered on the upper margin
regularly covered with beads. by a thick lip.
Northern shelf, 600 m. Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
Systematics p. 284. Systematics p. 312.

Patellina cf. P. formosa


Test high conical, planoconvex, circular in
Paumotua
end view, with concave sides between the Pileolina minogasiformis
apex and the basal margin; all chambers Paumotua terebra
Test high trochospiral, planoconvex,
visible from the convex spiral side, only Test low trochospiral, planoconvex; high conical with an acute apex and
the final pair on the flattened umbilical periphery angularly rounded and slightly striated convex side; gradually enlarging
side; periphery carinate; proloculus fol- lobulate; spiral side evolute, convex, long crescentic chambers, 5-6 in the final
lowed by an undivided coiled tubular umbilical side partially evolute, flattened whorl; periphery acute but without a keel;
chamber, later stage with two broad and low to slightly concave and umbilicate; sutures oblique on the spiral side, radial
crescentic chambers per whorl; sutures chambers enlarging slowly as added, but obscured by the ornamentation on the
raised, giving a corrugated outline to the about 9 in the final whorl, with an umbilical side; wall coarsely perforated
test; chambers subdivided in the outer umbilical folium on the umbilical side; on the spiral side, ornamented by radial
part by numerous short radial septula sutures flush to slightly depressed, strongly striae starting from the apex on the spiral
that are expressed on both spiral-side and oblique on the spiral side; conspicuously side, and by radial rows of granule on the
umbilical-side surface of the test as quite depressed, curved and radial on the umbilical side; umbilical area filled with
weak radial ridges on the chamber walls; umbilical side; wall finely perforate, sur- pustules or nodes; aperture indistinct due
the T-shaped apertural cover-plate that is face smooth; aperture a low arch midway to ornamentation, an extraumbilical
characteristic of Patellina is obscured by between the umbilicus and periphery, under slit-shaped opening.
supplementary laminae. the folium; supplementary apertures on the
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
Northern shelf, 600 m. umbilical side parallel to the periphery.
Systematics p. 312.
Systematics p. 284. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 308.
208 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Pileolina patelliformis Pileolina sp. 2 Planoglabratella


Test trochospiral planoconvex; spiral side The major characteristics of this species Planoglabratella opercularis
conical with an acutely rounded apex, are the raised spiral suture and the Test low trochospiral, planoconvex, nearly
evolute; inferior side flat, peripheral edge strongly ornamented spiral side with circular in outline; spiral side evolute,
acute; 5-7 long and narrow chambers in strong conical tubercles. The umbilical subconical; umbilical side involute, flat;
the last whorl; flattened side ornamented face is ornamented by radiate rows of margin acute; about two rapidly enlarging
with large tubercles near the centre and minute tubercles at the periphery and whorls with 7-9 crescentic chambers in
riblets radiating to the periphery, obscuring coarser, irregularly settled tubercles in the the last whorl; sutures flush, strongly
the radiate sutures between chambers; central area. curved back at the periphery on the spiral
wall coarsely perforate on the conical Northern shelf, 600 m. side, indistinct on the umbilical side; wall
side, finely perforate on the flattened side; Systematics p. 312. finely perforate; surface granulated on
aperture on the flattened side, hardly spiral side, umbilical side covered with
discernable. numerous fine radial striae and centrally
Northern shelf, 600 m. with prominent tubercles; aperture a low
Systematics p. 312. interiomarginal slit near the peripheral
margin of the final chamber on the
umbilical side.
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
Systematics p. 312.

Pileolina sp. 3
This species resembles P. patelliformis,
but possesses, on the spiral face, rounded
Pileolina zealandica supplementary apertures surrounded by a
thick rim.
Test trochospiral planoconvex; spiral side
low conical with a rounded apex, evolute; Northern shelf, 600 m.
inferior side slightly concave, peripheral Systematics p. 312.
edge acute; 5-7 long and narrow chambers
in the last whorl; flattened side ornamented
with irregularly settled tubercles in a wide Planulina
central area, and deep radiating and Planulina ariminensis
branching striae to the periphery, obscuring
the sutures between chambers; wall dis- Test discoidal, very low trochospiral of
tinctly perforated on the conical side, about two whorls, with both sides flat-
finely so on the flattened side; aperture on juvenile tened; spiral side evolute, umbilical side
the flattened side, hardly discernable. partially evolute; 8-10 broad, low, and
arched chambers in the final whorl; septa
Northern shelf, 600 m. thick, sutures imperforate, thickened and
Systematics p. 312. Planodiscorbis elevated, strongly curved back at the
Planodiscorbis rarescens peripheral margin; periphery with a thick
Test adherent, trochospiral, planoconvex; imperforate marginal keel; wall coarsely
spiral side flattened, somewhat depressed perforated on the spiral side, finely
at the umbilicus; peripheral edge sharp, perforate with scattered larger pores on
extended in a well-defined, imperforate the umbilical side; aperture an equatorial
keel; only the 4-6 chambers of the outer- and interiomarginal arch with an imper-
most whorl visible on the convex umbilical forate bordering lip, extending somewhat
side; sutures very slightly depressed, onto the umbilical side beneath the
Pileolina sp. 1 strongly oblique on both sides; each imperforate umbilical folium.
Species similar to P. minogasiformis, chamber projecting a “valvular lobe” Northern shelf, 600 m.
but with a long spine-like projection over the umbilicus; aperture a narrow slit Systematics p. 314.
arising from the apex. It may be a variety with a slightly thickened lip running
of the former species. from upper fourth of umbilical side
Northern shelf, 600 m. across periphery and onto spiral side.
Systematics p. 312. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 310.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 209

Planulina floridana Planulina sp. 1 Planulinoides sp. 1


Test very low trochospiral, discoidal, Test discoidal, very low trochospiral of Test ovate in outline, flat trochospiral,
periphery acute, slightly keeled, somewhat about two whorls, with both sides flat- evolute on the spiral side, and partially
lobulate; spiral side flat, partially involute, tened; spiral side evolute, umbilical side involute on the umbilical side; 6-8 cen-
umbilical side slightly convex, partially partially evolute; 8-10 broad, low, and trally excavated chambers in the final
evolute; chambers distinct, 8 to 10 in final arched chambers in the final whorl; septa whorl; periphery truncate, bicarinate
whorl, slightly inflated, strongly curved, thick, sutures imperforate and thickened, with umbilical carina stronger; surface
widest near umbilicus; sutures distinct, strongly curved back at the peripheral with elevated sutures, peripheral keels
limbate in earlier chambers, later margin; periphery with a thick imperforate and strong elevated ornament on the
depressed; wall rather coarsely perforate marginal keel; wall finely perforate on spiral side; wall finely perforate; primary
on the flat spiral side and only finely the spiral side, where the surface is covered aperture areal and equatorial, near the
perforate on the opposite side; aperture with small granules that obscure the base of the apertural face, an oval oblique
an equatorial interiomarginal arch with sutures; wall finely perforate with scattered opening bordered by a distinct lip;
imperforate bordering rim. larger pores on the umbilical side; aperture supplementary apertures at the umbilical
Northern shelf, 600 m. an equatorial and interiomarginal arch margin of the chambers beneath slight
Systematics p. 314. with an imperforate bordering lip, umbilical flaps.
extending somewhat onto the umbilical Northern shelf, 600 m.
side beneath the imperforate umbilical Systematics p. 314.
folium.
Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 314.

Planulina retia Planulinoides sp. 2


Test very low trochospiral, discoidal,
Planulinoides
Test low trochospiral, ovate in outline;
periphery acute, slightly keeled, somewhat Planulinoides polymitarius spiral side evolute, slightly convex,
lobulate; spiral side flat, partially involute, Test small, flat trochospiral, auriculate in umbilical side involute, flat to concave;
umbilical side slightly convex, partially outline, chambers increasing rapidly in periphery carinate with a second carina on
evolute; chambers distinct, 8 to 10 in final size as added, 5-7 in the last whorl, some- the spiral side at about half the distance
whorl, inflated, strongly curved, widest what depressed; peripheral margin elevated between the periphery and the spiral
near umbilicus; sutures distinct, thickened, and nodose on the spiral side; sutures suture; area between the two carinae
limbate in earlier chambers, later depressed, curved on the spiral side, radial strongly depressed; chambers arranged
depressed; wall coarsely perforated, except on the umbilical side; wall smooth, in about two rapidly enlarging whorls,
imperforate limbate sutures and keel; except for the nodose peripheral margin 6-7 chambers in the last whorl the last
aperture an equatorial interiomarginal on the spiral side; aperture a low interi- one often elongate; wall finely perforate;
arch with narrow imperforate bordering lip, omarginal slit, with supplementary elevated ornament along the sutures on
extending onto the umbilical side beneath sutural slits on the umbilical side, the spiral side; aperture a short oblique
an imperforate umbilical folium. beneath large umbilical flaps. areal opening bordered by a thickened lip,
Northern shelf, 600 m. Southwestern lagoon, 40 m. secondary opening at the inner chamber
Systematics p. 314. Systematics p. 314. margin under umbilical flap.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 314.

old specimen
210 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Poroeponides Pseudononion sp. 1 Rhaptohelenina


Poroeponides lateralis Test ovate in outline, compressed, low Rhaptohelenina decoratiformis
Test trochospiral, biconvex with elevated trochospiral and involute, chambers Test low trochospiral, biconvex, spiral side
evolute spiral side; periphery carinate; increasing rapidly in size as added; evolute, umbilical side involute; periphery
sutures limbate, curved and oblique on periphery narrowly rounded; sutures acute, lobulate, tubular; 5-6 chambers in
the spiral side, depressed, curved but sigmoid, depressed in the umbilical the last whorl, non-inflated on the spiral
nearly radial on the umbilical side, region; wall finely perforate; umbilicus side, slightly inflated on the umbilical
meeting in the umbilical region but with deep, surrounded by a crown made up side, gradually increasing in size; sutures
final few chambers failing to reach the by the strong reverted umbilical ends of on the spiral side flush and curved, on the
center, resulting in a depressed umbilical the chambers; aperture a broad low umbilical side depressed and curved; wall
region that may be partially closed by a interiomarginal slit that extends to the smooth, finely perforate, but with large
small umbilical flap from each chamber; umbilicus. pores located mostly along chamber
wall finely perforate, surface smooth; South of the Grande Terre, 50 m. margins; aperture a short slit almost
primary aperture a slit extending at the Systematics p. 320. parallel to and close to the periphery.
base of the ultimate chamber from the Bay of Prony, 40 m.
umbilicus to the peripheral keel and Systematics p. 314.
bordered above by a narrow lip, supple-
mentary rounded areal openings scattered
over the apertural face.
Southern shelf, > 40 m.
Systematics p. 308.

Quadrimorphina Rhaptohelenina papuanensis


Quadrimorphina laevigata Test low trochospiral, biconvex, spiral side
Test small, peripheral margin bluntly evolute, umbilical side involute, some-
rounded, lobulate; chambers few, five or times with a narrow umbilicus; periphery
six in the last-formed whorl; sutures rounded, weakly lobulate; 7-8 chambers
distinct, on the spiral side oblique, on the in the last whorl, increasingly inflated as
Pseudononion added, curved on the spiral side, triangular
umbilical side nearly radial and more
Pseudononion distinctly depressed; umbilical folium with radial sutures on umbilical side;
granuloumbilicatum covering the umbilicus; wall smooth; aper- sutures flush; wall thick, smooth, finely
Test compressed, broadly auriculate in ture elliptical, umbilical-extraumbilical, perforate, but with large pores along the
outline, periphery rounded, slightly lobu- midway between the periphery and the periphery of the spiral side; aperture
late; two whorls visible on the spiral side; umbilicus. multiple with primary aperture a low
umbilical side involute, umbilical area arch on the umbilical side running from
Northern shelf, 600 m.
depressed; chambers slightly inflated, low the umbilicus about two third of way
Systematics p. 320.
and broad, increasing gradually in size as to periphery, then curving obliquely;
added, 8 in the final whorl; sutures secondary apertures consist of large
depressed; umbilical end of chambers sutural openings on both sides of the test,
slightly curved outwards, coarsely granu- secondarily reduced by calcification.
lated, forming a serrate rim around the Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
umbilicus; wall finely perforated, surface Systematics p. 314.
smooth; aperture an arched slit at the
base of the last chamber, extending from
the umbilicus to the spiral side.
Southern shelf, 70 m.
Systematics p. 320.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 211

Robertinoides Robertinoides oceanicus Rosalina floridana


Robertinoides australis Test broad tapering rapidly to a point; Test trochospiral, concavoconvex, periphery
Test high trochospiral, elongated, irregu- chambers numerous, arranged in three subacute, slightly, if at all, lobulate; spiral
larly fusiform, with inflated chambers coils, very convex; sutures much side rounded, much convex, with all
and lobulate outline; chambers roughly depressed; wall finely perforate, surface chambers visible; umbilical side concave,
as height as wide, up to 6 in the last whorl, smooth; aperture two slit-like openings, with only the 5- 6 chambers of the last
sutures oblique and depressed; initial end one located at the proximal margin of whorl visible; umbilicus open; chambers
bluntly pointed, oral end broadly rounded; the chamber, the other diverging from rapidly enlarging; sutures slightly limbate
wall thin, transparent and finely perforated; chamber margin and directed up the in the younger portion on the spiral side,
surface smooth; aperture comprises two apertural face. later depressed, oblique and curved back
loop-shaped openings, inclined to the Northern shelf, 600 m. at the periphery, radiate on the umbilical
axis of the test, in a shallow depression of Systematics p. 298. side; wall distinctly perforate, but the
the apertural face; one located at the inner concave portion of the chambers
proximal margin of the chamber, the often smooth on the umbilical side; aper-
other diverging from chamber margin ture an elongate, arched opening at the
and directed up the apertural face. base of the last-formed chamber, on the
umbilicate area, often with a slight, thin
Bay of Prony, 20-40 m.
lip.
Systematics p. 298.
Southwestern lagoon, 30 m.
Systematics p. 310.

juvenile
Rosalina
Rosalina bradyi
Test trochospiral, concavoconvex, periphery
rounded; all chambers visible on the convex
Robertinoides bradyi spiral side where the earlier chambers are
Test high trochospiral, fusiform, about clearly outlined with limbate sutures;
1.5 times as long as broad; chambers very sutures curved back at the periphery; Rosalina globularis
slightly inflated, arranged in 2-3 more or umbilical side with the chambers more Test ovate in outline, spiral side highly
less regular, oblique whorls; sutures or less inflated; last-formed chamber convex and evolute, umbilical side plane
indistinct and outline not lobulate; initial with a more or less bifid indentation to almost concave and involute; five
end bluntly pointed, oral end broadly extending inward from umbilical region; chambers in the last whorl; peripheral
rounded; wall finely perforate, surface spiral surface coarsely perforated, umbil- margin broadly rounded; sutures on
smooth; aperture two slit-like openings, ical surface smooth and imperforate; spiral side curved and depressed, on
one located at the proximal margin of aperture a low interiomarginal arch on umbilical side somewhat indistinct;
the chamber, the other diverging from the umbilical side, with narrow bordering umbilicus open, chambers with a trian-
chamber margin and directed up the lip. gular folium and hook-shaped sutural
apertural face. Southwestern lagoon, 30 m. notches; spiral side densely and coarsely
Northern shelf, 600 m. Systematics p. 310. perforate, umbilical side smooth, sparsely
Systematics p. 298. perforate; aperture interiomarginal with
a low lip in the peripheral-most region,
aperture continues to umbilicus, under
the folium.
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m.
Systematics p. 310.
212 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Rosalina orientalis Rosalina sp. 1 Rotorbis


Test trochospiral, evolute and convex on Test in a low trochospiral coil, spiral side Rotorbis auberii
the spiral side; involute and convex with convex, umbilical side plane, periphery Test low trochospiral, spiral side evolute
a widely open umbilicus on the umbilical subacute, lobulate; all chambers on spiral and convex, umbilical side involute,
side; peripheral margin broadly rounded; side inflated; 5 chambers in the last whorl, almost flat; periphery angled and keeled;
chambers inflated, rapidly increasing in rapidly enlarging; umbilicus open, chambers crescentic, flattened on spiral
size as added, 4-5 chambers in the last chambers with only short folia; sutures side, slightly inflated on umbilical side,
coil; sutures limbate in the first coil of the depressed, curved back at the periphery on six in last whorl; sutures arched, flush,
spiral side, later depressed; last chamber both sides; wall distinctly perforate, except spiral suture somewhat raised; wall
with a large indentation midway along the first chambers with a smooth wall; coarsely perforated on both sides, with
the base of the apertural face, on the aperture an elongate, arched opening at pores mostly arranged in rows paralleling
umbilical side; wall coarsely perforated the base of the last-formed chamber, on the sutures on the spiral side; aperture
on both sides, more densely on the spiral the umbilicate area, with a thin lip. a low interiomarginal arch, partially
side; aperture a low interiomarginal Southwestern lagoon, 40 m. hidden by a low lip running from the
arched slit on the umbilical side, with a Systematics p. 310. umbilicus nearly to the peripheral keel
distinct rim. with a supplementary re-entrant.
The species differs from R. globularis by Southwestern lagoon, < 40 m.
the more convex umbilical side, more Systematics p. 309.
deeply excavated umbilicus and the
perforations on the umbilical side.
Bay of Prony, 10-30 m.
Systematics p. 310.

Rotorbinella
Rotorbinella lepida
Test, low trochospiral, biconvex; spiral side
evolute, convex, central part of the spire,
completely embedded in translucent shell
material; umbilical side involute, flattened; Rotorbis pacifica
umbilicus filled with a rounded umbilical
plug; periphery slightly lobate, bluntly Test free, trochospiral, evolute spiral side
angled with a thickened imperforate slightly convex; involute umbilical side
carina; 5-7 chambers in final whorl, almost flat, periphery angled and slightly
slightly inflated, gradually increasing in keeled, 6-8 chambers in the last whorl;
Rosalina rugosa size as added, provided with a short chambers crescentic, increasing progres-
Test low trochospiral, compressed, only backward directed folium; folia extending sively in size, slightly inflated at umbilical
slightly convex on the spiral side and over the margin of the plug with re-entrants side; the few last chambers generally are
slightly concave on the umbilical side; on each suture and fusing with the umbil- less regularly arranged, and are more
peripheral edge round and lobulate; ical plug in earlier chambers; sutures on inflated on the spiral side; sutures curved
chambers inflated, 5 in the last coil; spiral side arcuate, oblique, flush; on on spiral side, radial on umbilical side,
sutures depressed; umbilical cavity par- umbilical side slightly arcuate, almost spiral suture somewhat raised above
tially covered by the folia protecting radial, depressed; wall smooth, perforate surface; wall distinctly and rather coarsely
the successive apertures; wall coarsely on umbilical side, only the marginal zone perforate on umbilical side, finely perforate
perforated; aperture interiomarginal of the last chambers perforate on the on spiral side; surface of the spiral side
with a narrow lip, continuing under the spiral side; aperture an interiomarginal covered with irregularly arranged pustules;
folium slit, at the base of the last-formed chamber, aperture a slit-like interiomarginal arch,
that extends from the periphery to the partially hidden by a lip running from
Southwestern lagoon, 40 m. the umbilicus to the peripheral keel, with
Systematics p. 310. umbilicus, bordered on the upper margin
by a thickened lip that continues into the a supplementary re-entrant aperture.
folium, differing from the aperture of Northern shelf, 600 m.
Gavelinopsis praegeri. Systematics p. 309.
Southwestern lagoon, southern shelf,
10-100 m.
Systematics p. 309.
A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia | 213

Rotorboides Saintclairoides Stomatorbina


Rotorboides granulosus Saintclairoides toreutus Stomatorbina concentrica
Test free, low trochospiral, spiral side Test auriculate in outline, a flat trochos- Test unequally biconvex, in a low trochos-
convex, umbilical side flattened, outline piral coil of a single rapidly enlarging piral coil, chambers semilunate; sutures
smooth and rounded, periphery broadly whorl of seven to eight chambers, spiral curved and oblique on the spiral side,
rounded; spiral side evolute, 6-9 chambers side flat with gently curved, thickened depressed and nearly radial on the
in final whorl; umbilical chamber wall sutures, chambers slightly inflated and umbilical side; umbilicus wide and
drawn-out and covering the umbilical sutures depressed and nearly radial on shallow, periphery rounded; wall cal-
surface by fusing with plates of earlier the centrally excavated umbilical side, careous, finely perforate, thickened on
chambers; spiral side coarsely perforated, periphery narrowly carinate; wall cal- both sides by addition of transparent
more or less ornamented by an anasto- careous, hyaline, finely perforate, surface secondary layers; thickenings limited to
mosing, imperforate network; umbilical somewhat pustulose on the spiral side, the sutures on the spiral side, but leaving
side imperforate; aperture a low interi- smooth on the umbilical side except in only elongated depressed patches of the
omarginal slit, extending almost to the pustulose umbilical area; aperture original chamber wall on the umbilical
periphery, bordered by a thickened lip interiomarginal on the umbilical side. side; aperture a narrow slit partly covered
continuous with the drawn-out umbilical Southwestern lagoon, 40 m. by a triangular umbilical flap, and strictly
chamber wall. Systematics p. 297. umbilical-extraumbilical, stopping at the
Estuaries. periphery.
Systematics p. 310. Northern shelf, 600 m.
Systematics p. 308.

Rupertina Siphonina
Rupertina pustulosa Siphonina tubulosa
Stomatorbina sp. 1
Test attached by a prominent basal disc; Test low trochospiral, lenticular, circular
chambers trochospiral in the early stage, in outline; a few broad, low and crescentic One individual resembling S. concentrica,
later loosely coiled, growing spirally chambers per whorl; sutures somewhat but with a big test much more rounded
around a solid central column; chambers indistinct, oblique, thickened on the spiral than this later species was found.
inflated, sutures depressed; wall thick, side and continuing into the wide fimbriate Northern shelf, 600 m.
coarsely perforate; surface pustulate; peripheral keel; sutures radial and Systematics p. 308.
aperture a low umbilical slit bordered by depressed on the umbilical side; umbilicus
a distinct lip. closed: wall finely perforate, surface
Northern shelf, 400 m. ornamented with conical pustules; aper-
Systematics p. 317. ture elliptical, just above the base of the
final chamber and nearly equatorial in
position, produced on a short neck and
bordered with a phialine lip.
Southwestern lagoon, and southern shelf,
30-70 m.
Systematics p. 313.
214 | A Guide to 1,000 Foraminifera from Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia

Strebloides Ungulatella Ungulatelloides? sp. 1


Strebloides advenus Ungulatella pacifica Test small, dome-shap