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Roll No.

: Time -
Date : MM - 58  

1. What is vegetative propagation? 1

Ans : It is the method of obtaining new plants from the parts of parent plants like stems, roots
and leaves, without the help of any reproductive organ.

2. List two functions of ovary of human female reproductive system. 1

Ans : Functions of ovary are—

(i) production of female gamete, ovum.
(ii) secretion of female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.

3. Name the type of fission carried out by Amoeba. 1

Ans : The type of fission carried out by Amoeba is binary fission.

4. Name the floral parts of a plant that develop into (i) Fruit (ii) Seeds 1

Ans : (i) Fruit: Ovary (ii) Seed: Ovule

5. Name the largest cell present in the human body. 1

Ans : The largest cell present in the human body is ovum.

6. Name the hormones responsible for secondary sexual characters in 1

(i) Girls (ii) Boys.

Ans : (i) Girls: Estrogen and progesterone

(ii) Boys: Testosterone

7. What is Gestation period? 1

Ans : The time period from the development of the foetus till birth is called gestation period.

8. List three distinguishing features between sexual and asexual types of reproduction, in tabular 3
Ans : Distinguishing features between sexual and asexual reproduction:

9. What is meant by pollination? Name and differentiate between the two modes of pollination in 3
flowering plants.

Ans : Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a stamen to the stigma of a
carpel. The two modes of pollination are self pollination and cross pollination.

Self-pollination Cross-pollination
(i) Self-pollination occurs within a flower or (i) Cross-pollination occurs between two flowers
between two flowers of the same plant. borne on different plants of the same specids.
(ii) Flowers do not depend on other agencies (ii) Agents such as insects, water and wind are
for pollination. required for pollination.
(iii) Pollen grains are produced in small
(iii) Pollen grains are produced in large numbers.

10. Differentiate between ‘self-pollination’ and ‘cross-pollination’. Describe ‘double fertilisation’ in 3


Ans : Differences between:

Self-pollination Cross-pollination
(i) Self-pollination occurs
within a flower or
(i) Cross-pollination occurs between two
flowers borne on different plants of the
two flowers of the same
same species.
(ii) Agents such as insects, water and
(ii) Flowers do not
wind are required
depend on other
for pollination.
agencies for pollination.
(iii) Pollen grains are produced in large
(iii) Pollen grains are
produced in small

During fertilisation in plants, the following events take place :

(i) One of the male gametes fuses with the female gamete present in the embryo sac.
(ii) The other male gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei in the embryo sac.
The first fusion product gives rise to the zygote while the second one forms the
endosperm. The
process of fusion occurring twice in the embryo sac is called double fertilisaton.

11. (a) Name the human male reproductive organ that produces sperms and also secretes a 3
hormone. Write the functions of the secreted hormone.
(b) Name the parts of the human female reproductive system where
(i) fertilisation takes place,
(ii) implantation of the fertilised egg occurs.
Ans : (a) Sperms are produced by testes in male reproductive system. Testes also secrete
male sex hormone, called testosterone. Testosterone brings about changes in
appearance in boys at the time of puberty.
(b) (i) Fertilisation occurs in fallopian tube.
(ii) Implantation of fertilized egg takes place in the uterus.

12. (i) What is fertilisation? Distinguish between external fertilisation and internal fertilisation. 3
(ii) Which is the site of fertilisation in human beings?

Ans : (i) Fertilisation is defined as the fusion of a male gamete (sperm) with a female gamete
(an ovum or egg) to form a zygote during sexual reproduction.
Differences between:

External Fertilisation Internal Fertilisation

(i) The fusion of gametes occurs inside
(i) The fusion of male gamete (sperm) and female gamete (ovum)
occurs outside the body.
(ii) Only the male discharges sperms in
(ii) Both individuals discharge their gametes outside the body.
female genital tract.
(iii) Development occurs outside the body.
(iii) Development occurs inside the bod
(iv) Example: Frog.
(iv) Examples: Human, birds, cattle, etc

13. List and explain in brief three methods of contraception. 3

Ans : Methods of contraception are:

(i) Use of condom for penis or for vagina as a mechanical barrier for the sperms to reach
the egg.
(ii) Use of oral pills which change the hormonal balance in female, so that eggs are not
(iii) Surgical method where either the vas deferens of male is blocked or the fallopian
tube of female is blocked.

14. Explain with an example for each, how the following provides evidences in favour of evolution in 3
(a) Homologous organs (b) Analogous organs (c) Fossils


List three factors that provide evidences in favour of evolution in organisms and state the role of
each in brief.
Ans : (a) Homologous organs: Forelimb of human and bird are homologous organs. They have
same basic structural design and developmental origin but they have different functions
and appearance.
Homologous organs help us to understand that the organism have evolved from a
common ancestor. The more common characteristics the two species have, the more
closely they are related.
(b) Analogous organs: Analogous organs are those organs which have different basic
structural design and developmental origin but have similar appearance and perform
similar functions.
Example: The wings of birds and bats look similar but have different structural designs.
They have a common function of flying but their origins are not common. So, birds and
bats are not closely related.
(c) Fossils: Fossils and their study is useful in knowing about the species which are no
longer alive. They provide evidence and missing links between two classes. They are
helpful in forming a sequence of organisms in the pathway of evolution. Thus, fossils
have an importance in deciding evolutionary relationship. Archaeopteryx is a fossil bird.
It had feathers, fused bones and beak which are exclusively bird structures. It also had
some features which are found in reptiles, e.g. teeth in jaw, claws on free fingers and a
long tail. This fossil provides a clue that birds have evolved from reptiles.

15. Define the term ‘evolution’. “Evolution should not be equated with progress.” Give reason to 3
justify this statement.

Ans : Evolution is the sequence of gradual changes which takes place in primitive organisms
over millions of years and new organisms are formed.
Evolution cannot be equated with the progress from lower forms to higher forms. It
seems to have given rise to more complex body designs even while the simpler body
designs continue to flourish. For example, human beings have not evolved from
chimpanzees, but both have common ancestor.
Some bacteria can survive in extreme cold or heat where many modern organisms even
cannot survive.

16. Distinguish between homologous organs and analogous organs. In which category would you 3
place wings of a bird and wings of a bat? Justify your answer giving a suitable reason.

Ans : Differences:

Wings of a bird and wings of a bat are analogous organs as they have different basic
structural design but have similar appearance and perform similar function.

17. (a) What is pollination? Explain its significance. 5

(b) Explain the process of fertilisation in flowers. Name the parts of the flower that develop after
fertilisation into
(i) seed, (ii) fruit.
Ans : (a) It is the transfer of pollen grain from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a carpel.
Significance of pollination:
(i) It is necessary for seed formation and thus, perpetuation of species.
(ii) It stimulates the development of fruits.
Cross-pollination brings about genetic recombination of traits.

After the pollen lands on a suitable stigma, it has to reach the female germ cells in the
The pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain through the style to reach the ovary.
Male germ cell travels through the pollen tube to reach the female germ cell and
fertilizes it.
After fertilisation, the zygote divides several times to form an embryo within the ovule.

(i) Ovule becomes seed.

(ii) Ovary becomes fruit.

18. (a) Write the functions of the following parts in human female reproductive system: 5
(i) Ovary (ii) Oviduct (iii) Uterus
(b) Describe the structure and function of placenta.

Ans : (a) (i) Ovary:

(a) It produces female gamete.
(b) It secretes female sex hormones estrogen & progesterone.
(ii) Oviduct:
(a) It carries egg from ovary to uterus.
(b) It allow sperm to travel to meet the egg.
(iii) Uterus:
(a) It allows implantation of zygote on its wall.
(b) It causes menstruation when egg is not fertilized.
(b) After fertilisation a special tissue develops between the uterine wall and the embryo
(foetus) called placenta, where the exchange of nutrients, glucose and oxygen takes
place. The developing embryo, will also generate waste substances which are removed
by transferring them into the mother’s blood through the placenta. The development of
the child inside the mother’s womb takes approximately nine months.

19. Given below is the experiment carried out by Mendel to study the inheritance of two traits in 5
(a) Fill in the boxes with appropriate answer.
(b) Why did Mendel carry out an experiment with two traits?
(c) What were his findings with respect to inheritance of triats in F1 and F2 generations.
Ans :

(b) To study the independent inheritance of two traits in subsequent generations.

(c) F1 progeny exhibited only the dominant traits.
F2 progeny exhibited parental traits along with new mixtures/recombinants. The
dominant trail also gets expressed.

20. Match column I with Column II. 1

Column I Column II
(i) Placenta
(ii) Male gametes of (A) Binary fission
plant (B) Bryophyllum
(iii) Budding (C) Nourishment of
(iv) Amoeba embryo
(v) Vegetative (D) Yeast
propagation (E) Pollen grains
by leaves

Ans : (i) (C), (ii) (E), (iii) (D), (iv) (A), (v) (B)

21. Match column I with Column II. 1

Column I Column II
(A) Spirogyra
(i) Fission
(B) Hydra
(ii) Fragmentation
(C) Bryophyllum
(iii) Regeneration
(D) Amoeba
(iv) Budding
(E) Planaria

Ans : (i) (C), (ii) (A), (iii) (D), (iv) (B)

22. Which of the following is an example of genetic variation? 1

(a) One person has a scar, but his friend does not.
(b) One person is older than another.
(c) Reeta eats meat, but her sister Geeta is a vegetarian.
(d) Two children have different eye colours.

Ans : (d)

23. What is the difference between genetic drift and change due to natural selection? 1
(a) Genetic drift does not require the presence of variation.
(b) Genetic drift never occurs in nature, natural selection does.
(c) Genetic drift does not involve competition between members of a species.
(d) There is no difference.

Ans : (c)

24. Match Column I with Column II. 1

Column I Column II
(i) Variation (A) Reproductive isolation among once inter- breeding
(ii) Heridity population.
(iii) Evolution (B) Difference in traits among individuals of a species.
(iv)  (C) Gradual changes to give rise to new species.
Speciation (D) Transmission of traits from parents to offsprings.

Ans : (i) (B), (ii) (D), (iii) (C), (iv) (A)

Mrs. Kumar is pregnant for last three months and she goes for regular check-up to her doctor. 4
During her last visit, the doctor asked Mrs. Kumar to get an ultrasound done. Both Mr. and Mrs.
Kumar went to a radiologist and got the ultrasound done. Once the ultrasound is over, Mr. Kumar
asked the doctor whether the baby in the womb is a boy or a girl.
(a) What should the doctor reply to the couple?
(b) Is it ethical to determine the sex of a child?
(c) What should government do to discourage sex determination?

Ans : (a) The doctor should tell the couple that prenatal sex determination is an offence and
detrimental to the society. One should never go for prenatal sex determination.
(b) Both boys and girls have equal role and importance in our society. Whether a baby is
a boy or a girl, they are all equal. It is unethical to determine the prenatal sex of a child.
(c) Law has already banned sex determination. Anybody involved in sex determination
act should be punished. People should be made aware about the ill-effects of sex
determination which lead to female foeticide and consequently, imbalanced ratio of boys
and girls.