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GPI - Goals And Objectives

USTDA Expands Partnership with Kenya, Creating Opportunities for U.S. Businesses

Procurement: A Key Driver for Development and Trade

The establishment of sound procurement policies and practices is fundamental to ensuring a fair, level
playing field in international tenders. Transparent procedures for awarding contracts for goods and
services establish accountability and encourage the cost-effective use of public funds, which creates
dependable, stable and efficient markets. This is particularly important in developing countries, where
government spending can account for up to 20% of GDP.

Nevertheless, throughout many emerging economies, low-cost procurement policies pose an

impediment to fair competition and to sustainable economic growth. By relying on low-cost as the
determining factor for award, governments often fail to consider the benefits that can be gained from
high-quality products and services that include warranties, maintenance agreements and reliable, long-
term customer service. These policies also prevent firms from offering quality, innovative goods and
services in order to keep their bidding price low.

In order to address these issues, USTDA launched the GPI in 2013. Working with partner countries to
strengthen their procurement systems and realize development benefits, the GPI shares best practices
about how to establish procurement systems that integrate best-value determination and life-cycle cost
analysis, as well as how to promote objective evaluation through a trained, professionalized
procurement workforce.

Partner countries have repeatedly told USTDA that their current policies do not always allow them to
get the best value for their money in procurement decisions. By relying on cost as the determining
factor for award, government procurement practices fail to take into account key factors such as
equipment quality, operation, and service and maintenance. Least-cost analyses often lead governments
to procure low quality goods with relatively short useful lives, or high ongoing operating costs,
preventing the efficient development of infrastructure needed to support expanding populations and
sustain economic growth.

Activities under the GPI aim to improve procurement methodologies by working with partner countries
to promote the understanding and use of best-value determination. This type of analysis considers
whole-life costs, quality, resource allocation, timeliness, and convenience to determine whether these
elements as a whole constitute good value and provide economy, efficiency, and effectiveness. In the
context of procurement decisions, best value implies that bids are not awarded to the lowest cost
bidder, but to the most qualified bidder that offers the overall best value for money.
Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is one tool that assesses value in procurement decisions and plays a large
role in the GPI. LCCA quantifies the "whole-life costs" of a project, also known as the "total cost of
ownership" and compares them against alternative investment options. More than a simple cost
comparison, LCCA offers sophisticated methods to determine and demonstrate the relative economic
merits of different purchase alternatives in an analytical and fact-based manner. LCCA offers metrics
that can demonstrate that the purchase of high-quality products can lead to better long-term economic

U.S. firms have expressed to USTDA that the increased use of LCCA would positively impact their ability
to successfully compete for contracts in developing and middle income countries. Although the high-
quality, high-value equipment and comprehensive service and maintenance agreements provided by
U.S. companies sometimes come at a higher initial purchase price, they offer lower overall costs when
considering the entire useful life of the technology or equipment.

To facilitate the use of best-value determinations and life-cycle cost analyses in emerging economies,
the GPI promotes the use of objective evaluation criteria. Procurement decisions that take a more
comprehensive view of life-cycle costs and performance standards are poised to result in significant
benefits for the host country's long-term economic development. These evaluations require the
implementation of clear policies and processes as well as concrete metrics to justify higher cost
acquisitions and to ensure objectivity and transparency.

Emerging economies often rely on least-cost analysis in procurement decisions in part due to the lack of
professional training of the procurement workforce. Procurement specialists often do not have the
training to execute the sophisticated calculations required for best-value determinations and life-cycle
cost analysis. A key component of GPI is to strengthen the professional capacity of acquisition officials,
to ensure their protection from accusations of corruption or fraud that may come with the use of new
methodologies, and to promote knowledge-sharing on efficient and modernized procurement practices.