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KIE 4004

Modern Power System Analysis

Introduction to Power System
Dr. Nurulafiqah Nadzirah Mansor
Office : Room 22, Level 2, Engineering Summit
Email : afiqah.mansor@um.edu.my

Electrical Engineering Department

University of Malaya
Course Objectives

At the end of the course, students are able to:

1. Analyse power system performance based on

load flow methods
2. Calculate the effects of asymmetrical fault
3. Select the best protection scheme for a power
system network
4. Assess the stability of a power system

Course Synopsis
• Basic principles
• Power flow analysis
- Admittance matrix
- Newton Rhapson
- Fast Decoupled
• Fault analysis
– Symmetrical components
– Balanced and unbalanced faults
• Power system stability
– Swing Equation
– Euler method
– Rungge-Kutta method

• Final Examination (60%)

• Tests (20%)
– Test 1 (CO1-CO2)
• Details TBC
– Test 2 (CO1-CO2)
• Details TBC
• Assignments (20%)
– Assignment 1 (CO1)
– Assignment 2 (CO3)

Reference Books

1. T.K. Nagsarkar, M.S Sukhija, “Power System Analysis”,

Oxford Higher Education, 2007
2. Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, Third Edition,
McGraw-Hill (2011).


W1 – Introduction & Basic of Power System

W2 – Basic of Power System
W3 – Introduction to PFA
W4 – PFA : Newton-Rhapson Method
W5 – PFA : Fast Decoupled Method
W6-W11 : Fault Analysis & Protection (Prof Hazlie)
W12 – PS stability : Swing equations
W13 – PS stability : Steady-state
W14 – PS stability : Transient-stability

What is Power System?

• A system that revolves around electrical power and energy, where

power is the rate of change of energy. Electrical power system
aims to generate, transmit and distribute electrical energy to
• Power system can be divided into three basic divisions; generating
stations, transmission lines and distributions system as shown in
the following figure:
11kV 132kV/275kV/325kV/500kV 33kV/11kV
Generation Transmission Distribution


supply side
load side
transformer Substation

Figure 1.1 The three major components of Power System

• A substation is an electrical
system with high-voltage
capacity and can be used to
control the apparatus,
generators, electrical circuits,

• Mainly used to convert AC to

DC. Locate the protective
devices to protect expensive
apparatus and to provide fast
isolation when fault occur.

• Available in a few types and

- Tiny in size with an inbuilt
transformer and related
- Other types of substations are
very huge with different types
of transformers, equipment,
circuit breakers, and switches,
fuses, and lighting arresters.

Type of Substations
• Transmission substations:
Change the line voltage whether to
step-up or step-down.

• Interconnecting substations: Tie

different power system together, to
enable power exchanges between
them, and increase the stability of
the overall network. Examples of
interconnecting stations are
between Malaysia-Singapore as
well as Malaysia-Thailand.

Distribution substations: Change

the medium voltage to low voltage by
using step down transformer. Low
voltage ranges from 240 V single
phase to 415V, 3 phase 50 Hz in

Power System Constraints

Constraints are conditions on the variables of a system that

must be met. The most important PS constraints are:
• Power balance
• Constraints on frequency, Total Generation (t) = Total Demand (t)
voltages and thermal limit for n m
Pg (t )   Pgi (t )  Pd (t )   Pdj
stability purpose i 1 j 1

49.5𝐻𝑧 ≤ 𝑓(𝑡) ≤ 50.5𝐻𝑧 P g 1 (t) P d 1 (t)

P g 2 (t) P d 2 (t)
0.95𝑝𝑢 ≤ 𝑉(𝑡) ≤ 1.05𝑝𝑢 Network
 
𝑃𝑗𝑘 ≤ 𝑃𝑗𝑘 P g n (t) P d m (t)

Power System Constraints
• To be able to meet the power balance constraint, the total demand must be
predicted. However, loads pattern usually follow nearly periodic daily cycles.
As a result, the demand is generally approximately predictable.
• As the demand is not perfectly predictable, the scheduled generation must be
planned to be able to track the load in time. Tracking errors lead to deviation
on the system frequency from its nominal value.

Figure 1.4 Frequency variation

• Notice that if Pg(t)>Pd(t) for long enough time, the frequency will start drifting
towards infinity. On the other hand, if Pg(t)<Pd(t) for long enough time, the
frequency will start drifting towards zero.

Why Study Power System?
• Power System is the most complex man-made engineering systems and among the
important components of infrastructure of a modern society.
• Humans activities nowadays demand and depend on high level of electrical quality,
reliability and security.
• In PS study, various field of sciences and economics are involved such as:
- Energy conversion
- Materials and insulators
- Networks and system theory
- Electronics
- Control system
- Communication system
- Computer
- Mathematics and statistic.
- Risk analysis/finance/investment theory
- Microeconomics (Market theories)

The main goals on PS study is to ensure the PS planning, expansion and operation are:
• Cost-efficient
• Reliable
• Has high quality
• Secure