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DEP SPECIFICATION

NON-METALLIC MATERIALS – SELECTION AND APPLICATION

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen.

February 2012

DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE

February 2012 DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE © 2012 Shell Group of companies All rights reserved. No

© 2012 Shell Group of companies All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, published or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner or Shell Global Solutions International BV.

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PREFACE

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 2

DEP (Design and Engineering Practice) publications reflect the views, at the time of publication, of Shell Global Solutions International B.V. (Shell GSI) and, in some cases, of other Shell Companies.

These views are based on the experience acquired during involvement with the design, construction, operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. Where deemed appropriate DEPs are based on, or reference international, regional, national and industry standards.

The objective is to set the standard for good design and engineering practice to be applied by Shell companies in oil and gas production, oil refining, gas handling, gasification, chemical processing, or any other such facility, and thereby to help achieve maximum technical and economic benefit from standardization.

The information set forth in these publications is provided to Shell companies for their consideration and decision to implement. This is of particular importance where DEPs may not cover every requirement or diversity of condition at each locality. The system of DEPs is expected to be sufficiently flexible to allow individual Operating Units to adapt the information set forth in DEPs to their own environment and requirements.

When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use DEPs, they shall be solely responsible for such use, including the quality of their work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. In particular, for those requirements not specifically covered, the Principal will typically expect them to follow those design and engineering practices that will achieve at least the same level of integrity as reflected in the DEPs. If in doubt, the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall, without detracting from his own responsibility, consult the Principal.

The right to obtain and to use DEPs is restricted, and is granted by Shell GSI (and in some cases by other Shell Companies) under a Service Agreement or a License Agreement. This right is granted primarily to Shell companies and other companies receiving technical advice and services from Shell GSI or another Shell Company. Consequently, three categories of users of DEPs can be distinguished:

1)

Operating Units having a Service Agreement with Shell GSI or another Shell Company. The use of DEPs by these Operating Units is subject in all respects to the terms and conditions of the relevant Service Agreement.

2)

Other parties who are authorised to use DEPs subject to appropriate contractual arrangements (whether as part of a Service Agreement or otherwise).

3)

Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with users referred to under 1) or 2) which requires that tenders for projects, materials supplied or - generally - work performed on behalf of the said users comply with the relevant standards.

Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users, Shell GSI disclaims any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death) suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the use, application or implementation of any DEP, combination of DEPs or any part thereof, even if it is wholly or partly caused by negligence on the part of Shell GSI or other Shell Company. The benefit of this disclaimer shall inure in all respects to Shell GSI and/or any Shell Company, or companies affiliated to these companies, that may issue DEPs or advise or require the use of DEPs.

Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual arrangements, DEPs shall not, without the prior written consent of Shell GSI, be disclosed by users to any company or person whomsoever and the DEPs shall be used exclusively for the purpose for which they have been provided to the user. They shall be returned after use, including any copies which shall only be made by users with the express prior written consent of Shell GSI. The copyright of DEPs vests in Shell Group of companies. Users shall arrange for DEPs to be held in safe custody and Shell GSI may at any time require information satisfactory to them in order to ascertain how users implement this requirement.

All administrative queries should be directed to the DEP Administrator in Shell GSI.

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION

5

1.1

SCOPE 5

1.2

DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

5

1.3

DEFINITIONS

5

1.4

CROSS-REFERENCES

10

1.5

SUMMARY OF MAIN CHANGES 10

1.6

COMMENTS ON THIS DEP 10

1.7

DUAL UNITS 10

1.8

SOURCES

10

2.

GENERAL 11

2.1

CATEGORIES OF NON METALLICS

11

2.2

MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS

11

3.

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS 12

3.1

GENERAL 12

3.2

PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) 12

3.3

UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC-U)

12

3.4

CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC-C) 12

3.5

POLYETHYLENE (PE)

13

3.6

POLYAMIDE (PA) 15

3.7

POLYPROPYLENE (PP)

16

3.8

FLUORO POLYMERS (PTFE, PCTFE, PFA, FEP, PVDF) 18

3.9

POLYPHENYLENE SULPHIDE (PPS) 20

3.10

POLYETHERETHERKETONE (PEEK)

21

4.

THERMOSET MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES

22

4.1

GENERAL 22

4.2

TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS

22

4.3

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF RESINS 22

5.

ELASTOMER MATERIALS

24

5.1

GENERAL 24

5.2

NATURAL RUBBER (NR) 24

5.3

STYRENE BUTADIENE RUBBER (SBR)

24

5.4

POLYCHLOROPRENE RUBBER (CR) 25

5.5

BUTYL RUBBER (IIR)

25

5.6

CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSM)

25

5.7

NITRILE BUTADIENE RUBBER (NBR)

26

5.8

HYDROGENATED NITRILE BUTADIENE RUBBER (HNBR)

26

5.9

ETHYLENE PROPYLENE DIENE-M RUBBER (EPDM) 26

5.10

FLUOROELASTOMERS (FKM)

27

5.11

PERFLUORO ELASTOMER (FFKM)

28

5.12

POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE/PROPYLENE (FEPM) 29

5.13

FLUORO-SILICONE RUBBERS (VMQ, PMQ, FMQ)

29

5.14

POLYURETHANE RUBBERS (AU, EU)

29

5.15

RAPID GAS DECOMPRESSION OF ELASTOMER SEAL MATERIALS

29

5.16

ELASTOMER SELECTION – UPSTREAM SERVICES 29

5.17

ELASTOMER

STORAGE

32

5.18

QUALIFICATION OF ELASTOMERS 32

6.

CERAMIC MATERIALS

33

6.1

GENERAL 33

6.2

NON-OXIDE CERAMICS 33

6.3

OXIDE CERAMICS 33

7.

INSULATION MATERIALS 33

8.

REFERENCES

37

9.

SOURCES

39

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APPENDIX 1

MATERIALS

APPENDICES

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 4

40

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

SCOPE

This DEP specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the selection and application of non-metallic materials. The following categories of non-metallic materials are covered:

Thermoplastic materials;

Thermoset materials;

Fibre reinforced materials;

Composite materials;

Elastomeric materials;

Ceramic materials;

Insulation materials.

This DEP, and the companion Informative document, contain a compilation of screened internal and external references and provide materials data for non-metallic materials in contact with media related to specific (petro)chemical and oil and gas services. The DEP Specification is streamlined for project use and includes guidance that may be used by the Contractor.

It should be noted that this DEP provides requirements and guidelines to be applied on projects, but is not a materials specification.

More detailed guidance on materials selection for non-metallic materials is provided to the engineering community of the Principal in Section 2 of the companion Informative document.

This is a major revision of the DEP of the same number dated April 2003.

1.2

DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

Unless otherwise authorised by Shell GSI, the distribution of this DEP is confined to Shell companies and, where necessary, to Contractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers nominated by them. Any authorised access to DEPs does not for that reason constitute an authorization to any documents, data or information to which the DEPs may refer.

This DEP is intended for use in facilities related to oil and gas production, gas handling, oil refining, chemical processing, gasification, distribution and supply/marketing. This DEP may also be applied in other similar facilities.

When DEPs are applied, a Management of Change (MOC) process shall be implemented; this is of particular importance when existing facilities are to be modified.

If national and/or local regulations exist in which some of the requirements could be more stringent than in this DEP, the Contractor shall determine by careful scrutiny which of the requirements are the more stringent and which combination of requirements will be acceptable with regards to the safety, environmental, economic and legal aspects. In all cases the Contractor shall inform the Principal of any deviation from the requirements of this DEP which is considered to be necessary in order to comply with national and/or local regulations. The Principal may then negotiate with the Authorities concerned, the objective being to obtain agreement to follow this DEP as closely as possible.

1.3

DEFINITIONS

1.3.1

General definitions

The Contractor is the party that carries out all or part of the design, engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning or management of a project or operation of a facility. The Principal may undertake all or part of the duties of the Contractor.

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 6

The Manufacturer/Supplier is the party that manufactures or supplies equipment and services to perform the duties specified by the Contractor.

The Principal is the party that initiates the project and ultimately pays for it. The Principal may also include an agent or consultant authorised to act for, and on behalf of, the Principal.

The word shall indicates a requirement.

The word should indicates a recommendation.

1.3.2 Specific definitions

Term

Ceramic

Coating

Elastomer

Definition

Crystalline or partly crystalline structure produced from essentially inorganic, non-metallic substances and formed either from a molten mass solidified on cooling, or simultaneously or subsequently formed by the action of heat (ASTM C 242).

A liquid or mastic compound which, after applying as a thin layer, converts into an adherent, solid and protective, decorative or functional film (ASTM D 16).

A polymer material with similar properties to rubber (ASTM D 1566).

NOTE: This term should not be used as a synonym for rubber.

Insulation

Material

Paint

Refractory

Rubber

Thermoplastic

Thermoset

1.3.3 Abbreviations

A foamed or syntactic variation of a thermoplastic material, providing improved thermal resistance over the base thermoplastic polymer, fibrous inorganic material, cellular glass, amorphous silica and refractory.

A pigmented coating (ASTM D 16).

An inorganic material with chemical and physical properties applicable for structures and system components exposed to environments above 538°C (1000°F) (ASTM C 71)

A material capable of quickly and forcibly recovering from all deformations (ASTM D 1566).

A plastic that repeatedly will soften by heating and harden by cooling within a temperature range characteristic for the plastic. In the softened state, it can be shaped by flow into articles, e.g., by moulding/extrusion (ASTM D 883).

A plastic which is substantially infusible and insoluble after curing by heat or other means (ASTM D 883).

Abbreviations are commonly used to describe non-metallic materials. A number of abbreviations standardised in various codes, e.g., ASTM D 1418 and ASTM D 1600, ISO 1043 and ISO 1629, are listed below.

Term

Definition

ABR

Acrylate Butadiene Rubber

ABS

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

API

American Petroleum Institute

ASA

Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

BR

Butadiene Rubber

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 7

Term

Definition

BS

Butadiene Styrene

CA

Cellulose Acetate

CAB

Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

CAP

Cellulose Acetate Propionate

CFM

Polychlorotrifluoroethylene

CM

Chloropolyethylene

CP

Cellulosepropionate

CPE

Chlorinated Polyethylene

CPVC

Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride

CR

Chloroprene Rubber

CSM

Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene

DAP

Diallyl Phthalate

ECTFE

Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene

EPR

Ethylene Propylene Rubber

EPS

Expanded Polystyrene

EP

Exploration and Production

EPDM

Ethylene Propylene Rubber

ESC

Environmental Stress Cracking

ETFE

Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene

EVA

Ethylene Vinylacetate

EVAC

Ethylene Vinylacetate

EVAL

Ethylene Vinylalcohol

FEP

Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene

FKM

Fluorocarbon Co-polymer

FFKM

Perfluoro Elastomer

FMK

Fluor-Silicone Rubber

FMQ

Fluor-Silicone Rubbers

FRP

Fibre Reinforced Plastic

GR-A

Apolybutadiene Acrylonitrile Rubber

GR-I

Butyl Rubber, Polyisobutylene Isoprene Rubber

GR-N

Nitrile Rubber, Nitrile Butadiene Rubber, Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile Rubber

GR-S

Styrene Butadiene Rubber, Polybutadiene Styrene Rubber

GRE

Glass Reinforced Epoxy

GRP

Glass Reinforced Plastic

GRUP

Glass Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester

GRVE

Glass Reinforced Vinyl Ester

HNBR

Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber

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Term

Definition

IIR

Butyl Rubber

IM

Polyisobutene Rubber

IR

Isoprene Rubber

ISSO

International Standards Organisation

MDI

Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate

MF

Melamine Formaldehyde

NBR

Nitrile Butadiene Rubber

NR

Natural Rubber

OP

Oil Products

PA

Polyamide (Nylon)

PAI

Polyaramide Imide

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

PB

Polybutylene

PBTP

Polybutylene Terephthalate

PC

Polycarbonate

PCTFE

Polychlorotrifluoroethylene

PEEK

Polyetheretherketone

PE

Polyethylene

PE-C

Polyethylene, chlorinated; preferred term for CPE

PE-HD

Polyethylene high density; preferred term for HDPE

PE-LD

Polyethylene, low density; preferred term for LDPE

PE-LLD

Polyethylene, linear low density; preferred term for LLDPE

PE-MD

Polyethylene, medium density; preferred term for MDPE

PE-UHMW

Polyethylene, ultra high molecular weight; preferred term for UHMWPE

PE-VLD

Polyethylene, very low density; preferred term for VLDPE

XLPE or PEX

Cross-linked Polyethylene consisting of long polymer chains in a 3-dimensional structure

PEI

Polyetherimide

PES

Polyethersulfone

PETP

Polyethylene Terephthalate

PEX

Cross-linked Polyethylene

PF

Phenol Formaldehyde

PFA

Perfluoroalkoxy Copolymer

PFEP

Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene

PI

Polyimide

PIB

Polyisobutylene

PiP

Pipe-in-Pipe

PIR

Poly-isocyanurate Rubber

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Term

Definition

PMMA

Polymethyl Methacrylate

PMQ

Fluor-Silicone Rubbers

POM

Polyoxymethylene, Polyformaldehyde

PP

Polypropylene

PPO

Polyphenylene Oxide

PPS

Polyphenylene Sulphide

PS

Polystyrene

PSU

Polysulfone

PTFE

Polytetrafluoridethylene

PUF

Polyurethane (foam)

PUR

Polyurethane

PVAC

Polyvinyl Acetate

PVAL

Polyvinyl Alcohol

PVC

Plasticised Polyvinylchloride

PVC-C

Chlorinated Polyvinylchloride

PVC-U

Unplasticised Polyvinylchloride

PVCC

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride

PVDC

Polyvinylidene Chloride

PVDF

Polyvinylidenefluoride

PVF

Polyvinyl Fluoride

RGD

Rapid Gas Decompression

SAN

Styrene Acrylonitrile

SB

Styrene Butadiene

SBR

Styrene Butadiene Rubber

SI

Silicone

SIC

Silicon Carbide

TFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

TPE

Thermoplastic Elastomers

TPU

Thermoplastic Polyurethane

(A)U, (E)U

Polyurethane AU (Polyester), EU (Polyether)

UF

Ureum Formaldehyde

UP

Unsaturated Polyester

UV

Ultra Violet Light

VAC

Vinylacetate

VC

Vinylchloride

VMQ

Fluor-Silicone Rubbers

w/w

Type of percentage solution (weight/weight)

XPS

Extruded Polystyrene

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1.4 CROSS-REFERENCES

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 10

Where cross-references to other parts of this DEP are made, the referenced section number is shown in brackets ( ). Other documents referenced by this DEP are listed in (8).

1.5 SUMMARY OF MAIN CHANGES

This DEP is a major revision of the DEP of the same number dated April 2003, and the changes are too numerous to list here.

1.6 COMMENTS ON THIS DEP

Comments on this DEP may be sent to the Administrator at standards@shell.com, using the DEP Feedback Form. The DEP Feedback Form can be found on the main page of “DEPs on the Web”, available through the Global Technical Standards web portal http://sww.shell.com/standards and on the main page of the DEPs DVD-ROM.

1.7 DUAL UNITS

This DEP contains both the International System (SI) units, as well as the corresponding US Customary (USC) units, which are given following the SI units in brackets. When agreed by the Principal, the indicated USC values/units may be used.

1.8 SOURCES

The sources used for data shown in this DEP are listed in (9) and are indicated in the document by the use of square brackets [ ].

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2.

GENERAL

2.1

CATEGORIES OF NON METALLICS

The following categories of non-metallic materials are covered by this DEP:

a) Thermoplastic materials;

b) Thermoset materials;

c) Fibre reinforced materials;

d) Composite materials;

e) Elastomeric materials;

f) Ceramic materials;

g) Insulation materials.

2.2

MATERIALS SELECTION PROCESS

The materials selection process shall ensure that the material is compatible with the service fluids to which it is exposed over the full design temperature range so that the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the component/system satisfy the design requirements throughout the intended lifetime.

For a number of polymers and applications, generic allowable operating conditions are provided in this DEP. The application specific DEPs listed in Table 2.1 provide more in depth guidance on materials selection, acceptance criteria, component design and materials qualification requirements. The application specific DEPs shall be governing.

Table 2.1

Application specific DEPs

DEP 30.48.60.10-Gen.

Rubber Lined Process Equipment

DEP 31.22.30.14-Gen.

Glass-Fibre Reinforced Plastic Vessels

DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen.

Glass Fire Reinforced Plastic Pipeline and Piping Systems

DEP 31.40.10.20-Gen.

Spoolable Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Pipes

DEP 31.40.20.39-Gen.

High Density Polyethylene Pipelines and Piping Systems for Oilfield Applications

DEP 31.40.30.31-Gen.

External Polyethylene and Polypropylene Coating for Line Pipe

DEP 31.40.30.34-Gen.

Thermoplastic Lined Pipelines

DEP 64.24.32.30-Gen.

Insulating and Dense Refractory Concrete Linings

DEP 30.46.00.31-Gen.

Thermal Insulation

DEP 30.48.00.31-Gen.

Protective Coatings for Onshore Facilities

DEP 30.48.60.13-Gen.

Design and Installation of Chemical-Resistant Brick Lining for Process Equipment

DEP 30.48.60.12-Gen.

Design and Installation of Chemical-Resistant Linings for Concrete Structures

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3.

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS

3.1

GENERAL

The most commonly applied thermoplastics (or those having the greatest potential for use) in EP, Refining and Chemicals applications are discussed in more detail in the following sections. They are:

a) Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC);

b) Unplasticised PVC (PVC-U);

c) Polyethylene (PE);

d) Polyamide (PA);

e) Polypropylene (PP);

f) Fluor Polymers (PTFE, PCTFE, PFA, FEP, PVDF);

g) Polyphenyle Sulphide (PPS);

h) Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX);

i) Polyetheretherketone (PEEK).

The application of thermoplastic liners in carbon steel pipelines and flow lines shall be in accordance with DEP 31.40.30.34-Gen.

The application of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) thermoplastic material for external coating of line pipe shall be in accordance with DEP 31.40.30.31-Gen.

The application of thermoplastic material in flexible pipes is specified in ISO 13628-2.

NOTE:

The minimum/maximum service temperatures provided in the sections below may be limited for pressure pipe. Commentary on this topic is included in the DEP Informative.

3.2

PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC)

PVC-U and PVC-C have replaced plasticised PVC.

3.3

UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC-U)

PVC-U is resistant to inorganic chemicals and several organic chemicals. It is not resistant against aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Resistance to sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and dry chlorine gas has developed its use within the chemical (chlorine) industry.

Generally, PVC-U is used as chemical resistant lining in GRP storage vessels, and GRP pipe and fittings.

The maximum service temperature for PVC-U is 60°C (140°F), and the lower limit is 0°C

(32°F).

3.4

CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC-C)

PVC-C is a chlorinated PVC grade which has, for certain services, a better chemical resistance compared to PVC-U. Maximum service temperature is in accordance with Table 3.4 for the services indicated.

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Table 3.4

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 13

Maximum service temperature (ISO 10358) of PVC-U and PVC-C

 

PVC-U

PVC-C

Sulphuric acid, 50 % to 90 %

20°C

60°C

(68°F)

(140°F)

Sodium hydroxide 10 % - 60 %

60°C

60°C

(140°F)

(140°F)

Sodium hypochlorite (12.5 % Cl)

60°C

100°C

(140°F)

(140°F)

3.5 POLYETHYLENE (PE)

The maximum service temperature for PE is 60°C (140°F), while the lower temperature limit is -30°C (-22°F).

The material has limited resistance against weathering, and sunlight/UV exposure, and therefore requires additional UV protection, when used outdoor.

NOTE:

For liner applications and Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipe (RTP), the maximum operating temperature of HDPE may be extended to 65°C (150°F).

Polyethylenes have a limited suitability when aromatics are present in the fluids.

The maximum allowable temperatures for polyethylenes is in accordance with Table 3.5a and Table 3.5b. For services not listed in the table, refer to external sources.

Table 3.5a

Maximum service temperature (ISO 10358 [1]) of PE grades in °C (°F)

Fluid composition

Maximum service temperature for PE-HD In °C (°F)

Crude oil/gas applications

See Table 3.5b

Gas and condensate

50(122)

Dry gas

60

(140)

Water

60

(140)

Sulphuric acid up to conc. < 80 % w/w

40 (104) to 60(140) a

Nitric acid up to conc. of 25 % w/w

60

(140)

Hydrochloric acid, up to 40 % w/w

60

(140)

Sodium hydroxide, up to 70 % w/w

60

(140 )

Phosphoric acid, up to 50% w/w

60

(140 )

NOTES: a

Source: [2, 3]:

40°C (104°F): suitable, 60°C (140°F): limited chemical compatibility

 

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Table 3.5b

General performance of polyethylenes (Source ISO 23936-1 [4])

   

Environmental condition(s)

Medium/Media

Maximum service temperature d °C (°F)

Description

H

2 S

0

to 60

No influence of H 2 S on stability of PE in typical temperature range of oil and gas transport.

 

(32 to 140) a

CO 2

0

to 60

As for H 2 S.

(32 to 140) a

HC/crude aliphatics, aliphatic oils

0

to 60

Cross-linked PE (PE-X, XPE) exhibit better performance.

(32 to 140) a,b

HC/crude aromatics, aromatic oils

0

to 20

Only cross-linked PE may be acceptable in special cases. Problem:

(32 to 68) c

 

swelling and permeation strongly influence the physical properties.

HC/crude naphthenics, HC/crude cycloaliphatics, cycloaliphatic oils

0

to 20

As for aromatics: dissolution at higher temperatures (e.g. > 100°C [212°F]).

(32 to 68) c

Brine

0

to 60

As for H 2 S

(32 to 140) a

Acids, Bases (caustic service)

0

to 60

No effect from inorganic non-oxidizing acids or bases. Formic and acetic acid have no effect up to 60% w/w concentration.

(32 to 140) a

Surface-active compounds (inhibitors, emulsifiers, demulsifiers)

0

to 60

Stress corrosion cracking has to be considered and tested accordingly. Cross-linked PE types are more stable.

(32 to 140) c

Sulfur Solvents:

 

Amines

0

to 60

Cross-linked types are more stable.

(32 to 140) a

Spindle oil, diesel

0

to 60

Effects like the corresponding crudes.

(32 to 140) c

Disulfides

0

to 60

 

(32 to 140) c

NOTE: Cross-linked PE (PE-X) generally improves the resistance to chemical degradation.

a Proven applicability.

 

b Limited applicability.

c Testing required.

 

d Temperature limitations relate to HDPE.

 

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3.6 POLYAMIDE (PA)

Polyamide (PA) has good resistance to hydrocarbons but limited resistance to water at elevated temperatures. The maximum service temperature for PA is 80°C (176°F), while the lower temperature limit is minus 30°C (-22°F).

of polyamides under typical oil and gas

Table 3.6a provides production conditions

general performance

Table 3.6a

General performance of PA-11 and PA-12 (Source ISO 23936-1 [4])

   

Environmental condition(s)

Medium/Media

 

Temperature

Description

°C (°F)

H 2 S, CO 2

 

0

to 70

No influence of H 2 S on stability of PA-11 and PA-12 in typical temperature range of oil and gas transport 0°C to 90°C (32°F to 194°F). If presence of water cannot be excluded in all cases, PA-11 and PA-12 (which undergo hydrolysis at temperatures above 80°C [176°F]) cannot be recommended for higher temperatures.

(32 to 158) a

HC/crude aliphatics, aliphatic oils

 

0

to 70

(32 to 158) a

HC/crude aromatics, aromatics oils

 

0

to 70

(32 to 158) c

HC/crude naphthenics, HC/crude cycloaliphatics, cycloaliphatics oils

 

0

to 70

(32 to 158) c

Brine

 

0

to 70

At higher temperatures, hydrolysis occurs.

(32 to 158) a

Acids

 

b

Acid degradation.

Bases

 

b

Degradation by hydrolysis.

Surface-active compounds (inhibitors, emulsifiers, demulsifiers)

 

0

to 70

(32 to 158) c

Sulfur solvents:

amines

 

b

Loss of mechanical properties.

spindle oil, diesel

 

0

to 70

(32 to 158) a

disulfides

 

0

to 70

(32 to 158) c

a Proven applicability.

 

b Not recommended.

c Testing required.

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 16

Effect of production chemicals on PA performance

API 17TR2 provides the following additional limitations due to ageing effects in combination with production chemicals (Table 3.6b):

Table 3.6.b

Effect of production chemicals on PA performance (Source API 17TR2 report [5])

Production

 

Chemical Nature

Continuous

Effect of Neat Chemical

Chemical

Injection

Aromatic solvents

 

Benzene, toluene,

No effect

Swelling above 40°C (104°F). Minimize exposure

 

xylene

Calcium carbonate scale dissolver

 

Strong inorganic acids, Na EDTA and alternatives

Not used in dilute form

Strong inorganic acids should not be used in PA-11 pipe/liners

Barium sulphate

 

Strong alkalis

Not used in dilute form

Strong alkalis above pH = 10 should not be used in PA-11 pipe.

scale dissolver

Wax and asphaltene dissolvers

Aromatic solvents, e.g. xylene, or terpene based solvents, e.g. based on leminene

No effect

Aromatic solvents can cause swelling above 40°C (104°F). Minimise exposure.

Hydrate inhibitor

 

Neat alcohol, normally methanol or glycol, but may be ethanol.

See note a below

See note a below

NaOH

Hydrate inhibition

Not used in dilute form

Strong alkalis above pH = 10 should not be used in PA-11 pipe.

Corrosion inhibitor

 

Ethoxylated and quaternary amines in aqueous glycols or alcohols. pH in range 4 – 8

No effect

PA-11 pressure sheath not normally in contact with neat chemical, but will be aggressive and should be avoided.

NOTE:

a

Pure, liquid methanol diffuses easily and quickly through PA-11 and very effectively extracts plasticiser and swells the material. In addition, industry grades methanol often contains traces of oxygen. This oxygen leads to degradation of the PA-11.

Effect of pH

pH shall be taken into account. For details, refer to the API 17TR2 report.

3.7 POLYPROPYLENE (PP)

The maximum service temperature for oil and gas service is 80°C (176°F), depending on the service conditions and PP grade.

The minimum allowable service temperature depends on the PP grade. For homopolymer grades, the minimum allowable temperature is about +4°C (39°F), for co-polymer types the minimum allowable service temperature is -20°C (-4°F).

The maximum service temperature is provided in Table 3.7a and Table 3.7b.

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Table 3.7a

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 17

Maximum service temperature (ISO 10358 [1])

Typical applications Refining and Chemicals

T(max)

°C (°F)

50

% sodium hydroxide

80

(176)

80

% sulphuric acid

40

(104)

80

% phosphoric acid

80

(176)

Oil and gas service

70

(158)

Water

85

(185)

Table 3.7b

General performance of PP (Source ISO 23936-1 [4])

   

Environmental condition(s)

Medium/Media

Temperature

Description

°C (°F)

H

2 S

0

to 80

No influence of H 2 S on stability of PP in the temperature range of 0°C to 110°C (32°F to 230°F).

 

(32 to 176) a

CO 2

0

to 80

As for H 2 S.

(32 to 176) a

HC/crude aliphatics, aliphatic oils

0

to 60

(32 to 266) a,b

HC/crude aromatics, aromatics oils

0

to 20

Swelling and permeation strongly influence the physical properties.

(32 to 68) c

HC/crude naphthenics, HC/crude cycloaliphatics, cycloaliphatics oils

0

to 20

As for aromatics, dissolution at higher temperatures.

(32 to 68) c

Brine

0

to 80

(32 to 176) a

Acids, bases

0

to 80

No effect from inorganic non-oxidizing acids or bases. Formic and acetic acid have no effect up to 60 % concentration.

(32 to 176) a

Surface-active compounds (inhibitors, emulsifiers, demulsifiers)

0

to 80

Stress corrosion cracking has to be considered and tested accordingly.

(32 to 176) a,b

Sulfur solvents:

 

amines

0

to 70

(32 to 158) a

spindle oil, diesel

0

to 70

Effects like the corresponding crudes.

(32 to 158) c

disulfides

0

to 60

(32 to 140) c

a Proven applicability.

 

b Limited applicability.

c Testing required.

 

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 18

3.8 FLUORO POLYMERS (PTFE, PCTFE, PFA, FEP, PVDF)

The following lists the commonly used, commercially available, fluoro polymers:

a) Polytetraluorethylene (PTFE, also known as “Teflon®”)

b) Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE)

c) Perfluoralkoxy (PFA)

d) Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)

e) Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF)

Fluoro polymers should not be used in the following environments:

a) fluorine gas;

b) strong reducing agents, such as alkaline metals;

c) sodium;

d) potassium, and;

e) reactions of sodium metal in anhydrous solvents, such as naphthalene and anhydrous ammonia.

for

The

maximum

service

temperatures

a

PTFE/PCTFE/FEP/PFA

are

provided

Table 3.8a.

Table 3.8a

Maximum service temperature PTFE/PCTFE/FEP/PFA

in

Fluid

Concentration

Temperature 1)

Source

composition

(% w/w)

 

°C (°F)

Sulphuric acid

50

 

130

(266)

[6]

90

(194) (PFA)

[7]

Sulphuric acid

98

 

130

(266)

[6]

90

(194) (PFA)

[7]

Hydrochloric

38

 

150

(302)

[8]

acid

130

(266)(PCTFE)

[4]

90

(194) (PFA)

[7]

Phosphoric

85

 

150

(302)

 

acid

130

(266

[4]

5) (PCTFE)

[7]

90

(194) (PFA)

Nitric acid

30

 

150

(302)

 

130

(266) (PCTFE)

[4]

90

(194) (PFA)

[7]

Formic acid

50

 

150

(302)

 

130

(266) (PCTFE)

[4]

90

(194) (PFA)

[7]

Hydrofluoric

50

 

150

(302)

 

Acid 2)

 

Polymerisation-

   

NR

 

prone media 3)

 

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 19

NOTES: 1) Some sources [4, 7], including Manufacturer/Supplier brochures indicate considerable higher maximum service temperatures than listed in table 3.8a. In general, maximum operating temperatures are specified for stress-less conditions (no mechanical load). It should be realized that the mechanical properties (creep, tensile strength) and wear at high temperatures will be low. This shall be taken into account.

2)

PTFE is commonly used in HF Alkylation units.

3)

PTFE shall not be used in polymerisation prone media (ethylene oxide (EO), PO, SM and butadiene).

PVDF has good chemical and temperature resistance, in the range 0°C (32°F) to 130°C

(266°F).

Table 3.8b [4] provides guidance as to the performance of PVDF in media encountered in oil and gas production.

Table 3.8c provides guidance as to the performance of PVDF in media encountered in Downstream production.

Table 3.8b

Performance of PVDF in oil and gas production (Source ISO 23936-1 [4])

   

Environmental condition(s)

Medium/Media

 

Temperature

 

Description

°C (°F)

 

H 2 S, CO 2

 

0

to 90

 

No influence of H 2 S on stability of PVDF in typical temperature range of oil and gas transport, (0°C to 90°C [32°F to 195°F]).

(32 to 194) a

HC/crude aliphatics, aliphatic oils

 

0

to 130

 

(32 to 266) a

 

HC/crude aromatics, aromatics oils

 

0

to 130

 

(32 to 266) a

 

HC/crude naphthenics, HC/crude cycloapiphatics, cycloaliphatics oils

 

0

to 130

 

(32 to 266) a

 

Brines

 

0

to 130

 

(32 to 266) a

 

Acids

 

0

to 80

 

(32 to 176) a

 

Bases

 

b

 

Surface-active compounds (inhibitors, emulsifiers, demulsifiers)

 

0

to 60

 

Inhibitors like functional amines can degrade PVDF.

(32 to 140) c

Sulfur solvents:

amines

 

b

Cross-linked types are more stable.

spindle oil, diesel

 

0

to 130

Effects like the corresponding crudes.

(32 to 266) a

 

disulfides

 

0

to 80

(32 to 176) c

 

a Proven applicability.

 

b Not recommended.

c Testing required.

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Table 3.8c

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 20

Performance of PVDF (Downstream services)

Fluid

Concentration

Temperature

Source

composition

(% w/w)

°C (°F)

Sulphuric acid

60

120

(248)

[1, 4, 6]

Sulphuric acid

80

100

(212)

[1, 4, 6]

Sulphuric acid

90

80

(176)

[1, 4, 6]

Sulphuric acid

98

40

to 60

[6, 7, 9]

(104 to 140)

Hydrochloric

36

100

(212)

[1, 3]

acid

 

Phosphoric acid

85

100

(212)

[1, 9]

Nitric acid

30

50

(122)

[9]

Formic acid

50

100

(212)

[1]

Sodium

6 – 15

95

(203)

[1, 9]

hypochlorite

 

3.9 POLYPHENYLENE SULPHIDE (PPS)

The maximum service temperature for some common services is listed in Table 3.9.

Table 3.9

Maximum operating temperatures for PPS [4]

Typical applications EP, OP and Chemicals

T(max)

°C (°F)

Oil/gas/water mixture

150

(302)

Oil/water mixture

150

(302)

Gas and condensate

150

(302)

Dry gas

150

(302)

Water

150

(302)

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 21

3.10 POLYETHERETHERKETONE (PEEK)

Table 3.10

Maximum operating temperatures for PEEK

Typical applications EP, OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Source

°C (°F)

50

% sulphuric acid

 

NR

 

80

% phosphoric acid

100

(212)

[10]

Benzene

100

(212)

[10]

Toluene, Hexane, Heptanes

23

(73)

[10]

Oil (Petroleum), Gasoline

100

(212)

[10]

Crude oil

23

(73)

[10-12]

 

Water

150

(302)

 

Sodium hypochlorite

100

(212)

[10]

NOTE: Indicated values as listed in resin Manufacturer’s/Supplier’s brochures. Indicated temperatures represent reported tests temperatures. Actual maximum operating temperature might be higher, but has not been tested.

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 22

4.

THERMOSET MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES

 

4.1

GENERAL

 

Thermoset materials covered in this DEP are:

 

Epoxy

 

Vinyl Ester

Polyester

4.2

TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS

The maximum allowable temperature is determined by the resin type and state of cure. Based on experience with typical GRP systems, the maximum allowable service temperature shall be in accordance with Table 4.2.

Table 4.2

Temperature limitations for thermoset based composites in °C (°F)

 
 

Composite material based on different type resins

Maximum allowable temperature

Glass transition

temperature

Glass-fibre/epoxy (GRE)

   

- Aromatic-amine cured (MDA)

100

(212)

140

(284)

- Cyclo-aliphatic cured (IPD)

100

(212)

140

(284)

- Aliphatic-amine cured

85

(185)

115

(239)

- Anhydride cured

85

(185)

115

(239)

Glass-fibre/vinyl ester (GRVE)

   

- Bisphenol A

90

(194)

120

(248)

- Novolac

100

(212)

140

(284)

Glass-fibre/polyester (GRUP)

   

- Isophthalic

60

(140)

90 (194)

- Bisphenol A

90

(194)

120

(248)

- Chlorinated

80

(176)

110

(230)

 

The minimum recommended temperature for thermoset type composites, regardless of the resin system, is minus 40 C (-40 F) although lower temperatures may be considered.

4.3

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF RESINS

 

The resin Manufacturer/Supplier shall supply chemical resistance data for the relevant service fluids and the specific resin material,

The chemical resistance information shall state whether the material has been laboratory tested according to ASTM C581 or equivalent standard (e.g., EN 13121 [13]).

Depending on the aggressiveness of the service fluids, either a single protective layer (SPL) or an internal chemical resistant layer (CRL) shall be applied.

General guidance on chemical resistance of thermoset type composites is given in Table 4.3.

For further details, refer to the (governing) DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen.

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Table 4.3

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 23

Chemical resistance of thermoset based composites

Fluid type

GRE

GRE

GRE

GRVE

GRP

Aliphatic

Aromatic

Anhydride

Vinyl ester

Polyester

Acids

Poor

Poor

Good

Very good

Poor

Alkalis

Very good

Very good

Poor

Good

Not

(caustic)

resistant

Solvents

Good

Good

Poor

Poor

Not

(BTX)

resistant

Water

Good

Good

Good

Good

Good

sea/brackish

NOTE: A chemical resistant layer is often required for aggressive services like caustics or acids. These chemical resistant layers (CRL) often contain special fibres (e.g. caustic resistant veils or acid resistant veils). Additional details on materials selection and CRL requirements, are provided in the informative part of this DEP and DEP 31.40.10.19-Gen.

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DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 24

5.

ELASTOMER MATERIALS

 

5.1

GENERAL

 

In this section and (5.17), the following elastomers are addressed:

 

a) Natural Rubber (NR);

 

b) Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR);

 

c) Neoprene Rubber (CR);

 

d) Butyl Rubber (IIR);

 

e) Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene (CSM);

 

f) Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR);

 

g) Hydrogenated Ntrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR, HNBR);

 

h) Ethylene Propylene Diene-M Rubber (EPDM);

i) Fluoroelastomers (FKM);

 

j) Polytetrafluoroethylene/Propylene (FEPM)

 

k) Perfluoro polymer (FFKM);

 

l) Fluor-Silicone Rubbers (VMQ, PMQ, FMQ);

 

m) Polyurethane Rubbers (AU, EU).

 

5.2

NATURAL RUBBER (NR)

 

Typical operating temperature range for NR is from –30°C up to 80°C (-22°F to 176°F).

Natural rubber can be used in alkalis, inorganic salts and non-oxidizing acids.

Table 5.2 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

 

Table 5.2

Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for soft NR

 
 

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

50

% sulphuric acid

50

(122)

Water

70 (158)

47 % sodium hydroxide

60

(140)

   

5.3

STYRENE BUTADIENE RUBBER (SBR)

 

The typical operating temperature range for SBR is from -50°C up to 80°C (-55°F up to

45°F).

Table 5.3 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

Table 5.3

Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for SBR

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

50 % sulphuric acid

60 (140)

Water

80

(176)

36

% hydrochloric acid

25 (77)

Oil/water mixture

70

(158)

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5.4 POLYCHLOROPRENE RUBBER (CR)

The typical operating temperature range for neoprene is from –30°C up to 90°C (-22°F up to 194°F).

Table 5.4 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

Table 5.4

for

Maximum

operating

temperature

as

a

function

of

application

Polychloroprene

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

50

% sulphuric acid

75

(167)

Water

90

(194)

80

% phosphoric acid

90

(194)

Oil/water mixture

70

(158)

70

% sodium hydroxide

90

(194)

   

5.5 BUTYL RUBBER (IIR)

The typical operating temperature range for butyl rubber is from –40°C up to 120°C (-40°F up to 248°F).

Table 5.5 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

Table 5.5

Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for Butyl

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

70

% sodium hydroxide

120 (248)

Water

95

(203)

75

% sulphuric acid

60

(140)

   

30

% nitric acid

50

(122)

   

80

% phosphoric acid

90

(194)

   

5.6 CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSM)

The typical operating temperature range for CSM is from –30°C up to 120°C (-22°F up to

248°F).

Table 5.6 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

Table 5.6 Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for CSM

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

90

% sulphuric acid

50

(122)

Water

95

(203)

50

% sulphuric acid

120

(248)

Oil/water mixture

95

(203)

37

% hydrochloric acid

50

(122)

   

73

% sodium hydroxide

120

(248)

   

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5.7 NITRILE BUTADIENE RUBBER (NBR)

DEP 30.10.02.13-Gen. February 2012 Page 26

The typical operating temperature range for NBR rubber is from –25 to 100°C (-13 to

212°F).

Table 5.7 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

NBR is widely used in the Upstream for e.g. valve seals, but it has its limits on H 2 S (some Manufacturers/Suppliers specify maximum H 2 S levels of about 10 ppm).

Table 5.7 Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for NBR

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

Fuel oil, kerosene

100

(212)

Water

90

(194)

Crude oil

100

(212)

Oil/water mixture

90

(194)

5.8 HYDROGENATED NITRILE BUTADIENE RUBBER (HNBR)

The typical operating temperature range for HNBR rubber is from –30 to 120°C (-22 to

248°F).

Table 5.8 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

Table.5.8

Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for NBR

Typical applications OP and Chemicals

T(max)

Typical applications EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

°C (°F)

Fuel oil, kerosene

120

(248)

Water

95

(203)

Crude oil

120

(248)

Oil/water mixture

95

(203)

5.9 ETHYLENE PROPYLENE DIENE-M RUBBER (EPDM)

The typical operating temperature range for EPDM rubber is from –40°C up to 150°C (--40°F up to 302°F).

“Normal” EPDM gaskets should not be used for lean and rich amine solvents and peroxide-cured EPDM, minimum halogen content (< 200 ppm) can be used up to 120°C

(248°F).

EPDM has a good resistance to hot water, steam, dry heat, ozone and vegetable based hydraulic oils.

It has a poor resistance against hydrocarbons. It is not recommended for mineral oil lubricants and greases.

Table 5.9 lists the maximum operating temperature as a function of fluid composition.

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Table 5.9

Maximum operating temperature as a function of application for EPDM

Typical

applications OP

and Chemicals

T(max)

°C (°F)

Typical

applications

EP

T(max)

°C (°F)

(302)

Water

130 (266)

(sulphur cured EPDM)

150 (302)

(peroxide cured EPDM)

Water 150

Steam

180 (356)

rich amine

120 (248)

(peroxide cured, low

halogen EPDM)

5.10 FLUOROELASTOMERS (FKM)

FKMs have good resistance to chemical attack by oxidation, by acids and by fuels. They have a good oil resistance. However, at the high operating temperatures (> 120°C (248°F) they are mechanically weak, so that any design must provide adequate support against applied forces. FKMs have limited resistance to steam, hot water, methanol and other highly polar fluids. They are attacked by amines, strong alkalis and many freons.

The

the

Manufacturers/Suppliers is from –25°C up to 170°C (-13 to 338°F).

Some reports from the field have indicated that the upper limit of 170°C (338°F) is too high and should be reduced to 120°C (248°F), especially in the presence of water. It should be noted that FKMs are offered in a wide range of blends often optimized for specific service conditi