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20 (2009) 505–510

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jvci

genetic algorithm

Wang Xing-yuan *, Li Fan-ping, Wang Shu-guo

School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In order to solve the high complexity of the conventional encoding scheme for fractal image compression,

Received 6 March 2007 a spatial correlation hybrid genetic algorithm based on the characteristics of fractal and partitioned iter-

Accepted 4 July 2009 ated function system (PIFS) is proposed in this paper. There are two stages for the algorithm: (1) Make

Available online 21 August 2009

use of spatial correlation in images for both range and domain pool to exploit local optima. (2) Adopt sim-

ulated annealing genetic algorithm (SAGA) to explore the global optima if the local optima are not satis-

Keywords: ﬁed. In order to avoid premature convergence, the algorithm adopt dyadic mutation operator to take

Fractal image compression

place of the traditional one. Experiment results show that the algorithm convergent rapidly. At the pre-

Block coding

PIFS

mise of good quality of the reconstructed image, the algorithm saved the encoding time and obtained

Spatial correlation high compression ratio.

Hybrid genetic algorithm Ó 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Simulated annealing

Neighborhood

Dyadic mutation operator

spatial correlation which makes use of the information of matched

Fractals exist in nature widely. Fractal images contain few range blocks and effectively reduced the encoding time.

amount of information, but posses high-level of visual complexity SAGA is a kind of optimizing algorithm combining the conven-

[1]. At present, fractal image compression has become one of the tional genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm (SAA).

most promising encoding technology in the new generation of im- Genetic algorithm (GA) is an adaptive randomization global search

age compression [2] for its novel idea, high compression ratio and technique mimicking the natural selection and natural genetic

resolution independence. In 1988, Barnsley [3–5] proposed the [10,11,15]. In the past, some researchers applied GA to the match-

idea of fractal image compression for the ﬁrst time. Jacquin [6] ing searching problem for fractal image compression, and have re-

bring forward fractal block encoding which has taken a substantive ported some results. For example, Vences and Rudomin [12] and

step in the practice of fractal encoding study. The theoretical basic Mitra et al. [13] proposed some search strategies using GA, respec-

of fractal image compression is PIFS, which makes use of the sim- tively. Wu et al. [14] proposed a Spatial Correlation Genetic Algo-

ilarity of an image between different subimages. For this encoding rithm (SC-GA), which speeded up the encoding time and

method, each range block needs to ﬁnd a best-matched domain increased compression ratio. In this paper, a fractal image com-

block from the domain pool. The traditional encoding method, pression algorithm based on spatial correlation and simulated

i.e. full search method must do a large amount of similarity compu- annealing genetic algorithm is proposed. Results show that pro-

tations in order to ﬁnd the best-matched domain block, so it is posed algorithm reduced the coding time and retained high com-

time-consuming. Moreover, in order to obtain global optimization, pression ratio under the premise of good image quality.

the absolute positions of the matching blocks have to be recorded

and thus the fractal codes require a large space for saving. Based on

1. Theoretical basics of fractal image compression

faults just mentioned, the focal aims of fractal image compression

are reducing the encoding time and increasing the compression ra-

The fractal image compression is based on the local self-similar-

tio. So far, some improved approaches have been presented. Fisher

ity property and PIFS. The related deﬁnitions and theorems are sta-

and Wang et al. proposed their classiﬁcation methods [7,8] based

ted as follows.

on the feature of the domain blocks, respectively. Truong et al.

Deﬁnition 1. Let X be a complete metric space with metric d. A

* Corresponding author. map w: X ? X is said to be contractive if there exists sð0 s < 1Þ

E-mail address: wangxy@dlut.edu.cn (W. Xing-yuan). such that

1047-3203/$ - see front matter Ó 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jvcir.2009.07.002

506 W. Xing-yuan et al. / J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 20 (2009) 505–510

dðwðxÞ; wðyÞÞ 6 s dðx; yÞ 8x; y 2 X: ð1Þ its matched domain block. The corresponding contractive mapping

set

We normally refer to the real numbers of s satisfying Eq. (1) as

the contractivity of w. N[

r N r

wi

i¼1

Deﬁnition 2. An iterated function system (IFS) consists of a com-

plete metric space (X, d) and a series of contractive mappings wn: for all of the range blocks

X ? X deﬁned on it. The contractivities are sn (n = 1, 2, . . . , N). Usu- N[

r N r

ally an IFS is denoted by {X; wn, n = 1, 2, . . . , N} with contractivity Ri

s = max{sn, n = 1, 2, . . . , N}. i¼1

Let metric space X denote a set of N N gray level images. The constitute a PIFS and its parameters are the fractal codes for the gi-

metric is deﬁned as the usual Euclidean distance by regarding the ven image I .

elements in X as vectors of dimension N N. Let I be the original

image belonging to X. Our goal is to ﬁnd a set of transformations 2. SAGA

{w1, w2, . . . , wn}, each of which is a restricted function and satisﬁes

(1), such that the given image I is an approximate attractor. The set SAGA is a kind of optimizing algorithm combining the conven-

{w1, w2, . . . , wn} is called a PIFS. The following theorem is an tional genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm. The

important fact for PIFS. related theories of schema theory and the evolutionary computa-

Theorem 1. Let {w1, w2, . . . , wn} (wi: X ? X) be a PIFS with con- tion are given as follows.

tractivity s < 1. Then, the transformation W deﬁned by

2.1. Schema theorem

[

n

W¼ wi ;

Schema theorem is one of the important theorems in GA. A sche-

i¼1

ma is a string of characters consisting of 1, 0, and a ‘‘do not care”

is a contractive mapping. There exists a unique ﬁxed point such that character , which can both denote 1 and 0. For example, the sche-

A ¼ limn!1 W n ðBÞ, A is a set called attractor of PIFS. Where B is any ma 1100 means that the center two digits can be either 1 or 0. The

set, Wn(B) is the nth iteration of mappings W, and A = W(A). possible four chromosomes are 110000, 110100, 111000 and

111100. Schema is a ﬁxed template describing a subset of chromo-

Theorem 2. Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and I 2 h(X), for a somes with similarities at certain deﬁned positions. In the mean-

given small positive real number e > 0, if there exists a PIFS: time, chromosomes having the same schema will have similar

{w1, w2, . . . , wn} with contractivity sð0 6 s < 1Þ, and satisﬁes the fol- information to a certain degree. The schema theorem is list below:

lowing condition:

Theorem 3. Short schema with better than average costs occur

! exponentially more frequently in the next generation. Schema with

[

N

h I; wi ðIÞ 6 e; worse than average costs occur less frequently in the next generation.

i¼1

we have hðI; AÞ 6 e=ð1 sÞ, where A is the attractor of the PIFS and Thus, if a schema is contained in a set of chromosomes which

h(., .) is the Hausdorff metric, at the meantime, the following inequality have better ﬁtness, it will survive in further generations during

holds for any non-empty compact set B(B 2 X) evolution of GA. On the other hand, a schema will be eliminated

easily during the evolution of GA if it is contained in a set of chro-

hðA; BÞ 6 ð1 sÞ1 hðB; WðBÞÞ: mosomes which have worse ﬁtness. Based on this idea, the genetic

operators in GA will be adaptively designed in order to ﬁnd a suit-

Collage theorem indicates that for a given image I, if we can

able domain block and speed up the encoder.

construct a contractive IFS: {X; wn, n = 1, 2, . . . , N} which satisﬁes

2.2. Evolutionary computation of SAGA

[

N

I ¼ WðIÞ ¼ wi ðIÞ;

i¼1 The elementary operations of SAGA include selection, crossover,

mutation, and simulating annealing. The arithmetic ﬂow is as

then after a large number of iterations, an attractor A is generated

follows:

which is sufﬁciently close to the given image I. Generally speaking,

the data size required to store the parameters of W is far less than

(1) Deﬁne chromosome formation and ﬁtness function, initial-

that to store the image itself, so we can get higher compression ratio

ize the evolution generation counter.

accordingly. Based on Theorem 1 and Theorem 2, the original image

(2) Create the initial population.

I is the attractor of contractive transformation W.

(3) Evaluate ﬁtness values and test stopping criterion.

For the simplest situation, let I be a given N N gray level im-

(4) Selection, crossover, mutation and simulated annealing

age. The range pool is deﬁned as the set of all non-overlapping

operation.

blocks of size B B, and each of them is denoted by Ri, i.e.

(5) Evaluate ﬁtness values after simulated annealing algorithm.

N[

r N r (6) Test stopping criterion. If the ﬁtness value satisﬁes the stop-

I¼ Ri ; Ri \ Rj ¼ U; i–j; ping criterion, then add one to the evolution generation

i¼1

counter and go to step (4); otherwise record the current

where Nr = N/B. The domain pool is deﬁned as the set of all possible best-matched individual.

blocks of size D D (D > B), and each of them is denoted by Di. The

domain blocks can be overlapping or non-overlapping with double The above arithmetic ﬂow shows that at the beginning of the ge-

size of the range blocks. For each range block, we need to ﬁnd a netic process, the chromosome formation and ﬁtness function are

best-matched domain block Di and a contractive mapping wi. In this deﬁned and population is initialized randomly. For the subsequent

way, every range block Ri is denoted by the afﬁne transformation of evolutionary generations, ﬁrst evaluate the ﬁtness values of all the

W. Xing-yuan et al. / J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 20 (2009) 505–510 507

individuals in the current population and then select parent indi- We should notice that some range blocks do not have the neigh-

viduals into the mating pool from the ﬁrst half of the chromosomes bors and their extended domain blocks as shown in Fig. 1, such as

with higher ﬁtness values. Usually, two parents are selected from the edge blocks of the image. In order to avoid the large similarity

the mating pool for crossover in order to generate new offspring gaps between the local minimum and the global minimum, one

controlled by a probability Pc. The mutation operation with proba- can set an appropriate threshold T according to actual demand.

bility Pm is then applied to the offspring to maintain the diversity of The threshold T is used to determine whether the second stage will

the population and to avoid premature convergence. In the process be invoked, so its value affects both the encoding time and bit rate

of genetic operations, we introduced simulated annealing opera- (bit per pixel, bpp). When the value of T is larger, the probability of

tion, which makes the high temperature GA in favor of global large ﬁnding the match domain block will be higher in the ﬁrst stage. In

scale migration, while the low temperature GA in favor of local this case, the probability of invoking the second stage search is re-

small scale movement in optimizing process. With the execution duced. If the local optimum is bigger than T, the second stage of the

of evolution, the probability accepting inferior resolution decreases algorithm, i.e. global SAGA searching is exploited.

along with the decreasing temperature, so the searching capability The detailed design of SAGA is summarized as follows:

and efﬁciency in resolution space of the algorithm are enhanced.

(1) Chromosome formation: Since the fractal encoding scheme

3. Proposed method utilize the PIFS to encode every range block, one takes the

absolute position (tx, ty) of a domain block and the dihedral

The proposed method is implemented in two stages. The ﬁrst transformation d to constitute a chromosome. A chromo-

stage makes full use of spatial correlations in images to exploit lo- some is 19 bits in length as shown in Fig. 2, in which 3, 8

cal optima. It can reduce the searching space of the similar match- and 8 bits are allocated for d and (tx, ty), respectively.

ing domain pool, and shorten the optimal searching time. The (2) Fitness function: The distance of both range block and sub-

second stage is operated on the whole image to explore more ade- sampled domain block is measured by MSE. The ﬁtness

quate similarities if the local optima are not satisﬁed. The genetic value is deﬁned as the reciprocal of MSE.

parameters such as crossover probability pc and mutation proba- (3) Initial population: Chromosomes are initialized randomly.

bility pm are set according to experiments and adjust them on (4) Selection: Classify the population as two categories according

the basis of ﬁtness value. to ﬁtness values and select two individuals into the mating

Statistical results show that for a given range block pool to take part in the genetic operation in term of roulette

Ri(0 6 i < 1024), the potential quasi-afﬁne matched domain blocks method.

centralized around its vicinity. Therefore, for a given range block Ri, (5) Crossover: Based on the basis that individuals with better ﬁt-

the proposed algorithm ﬁrst makes use of the spatial correlation to ness have a rather large probability to ﬁnd the optimal indi-

reduce the searching space. The ﬁrst stage of proposed algorithm is vidual between its neighbors, the mating pool constitutes

ﬁrst exploited so as to reduce the computations needed to ﬁnd the the ﬁrst half members of population according to the rank-

satisfactory matched domain blocks. Let Ri be a range block to be ing by their ﬁtness values. Perform uniform crossover on

encoded and Fig. 1 depicted its nearby range blocks which are de- the selected chromosomes in the mating pool with probabil-

noted as R1, R2, R3, R4. Assume D11 ; D12 ; D13 ; D14 are the corresponding ity pc, the temporary offspring will replace the worse half

matched domain blocks matched in the previous time, respec- chromosomes in the population.

tively. The best-matched blocks to the block Ri should be the neigh- (6) Mutation: In the process of genetic operator design, we use

bors of block D11 ; D12 ; D13 ; D14 ; thus we expand the searching of the dyadic mutation operator to take place of the traditional

best match of block Ri to the nearest k neighbors for Ri. For exam- mutation operator because of its deﬁciency. The improved

ple, D12 is the matched domain block of R2 which is in the horizontal algorithm can effectively avoid premature convergence and

direction of Ri and we expands the searching space in the horizon- greatly save the time ﬁnding the best-matched domain

tal direction to D02 ; D12 ; D22 and D32 as depicted in Fig. 1 and denoted it blocks. Potts et al. [16] hold that premature convergence is

by S2. Similarly, D11 ; D13 ; D14 are expanded to S1, S3, S4 according to caused by deletion of effective allele. However, crossover

their directions. So the searching space of Ri is limited to operator does not generate new genes, the aim of selection

strategy is to speed up the convergence of genes, and thus

S ¼ fS1 ; S2 ; S3 ; S4 g lead into the decrease of some genes at the special location.

as depicted in Fig. 1. In this case, the expansion width k is set to be Based on the above reasons, mutation operator must keep

4, which can be set to other values according to the trade off be- the variety of alleles at the same gene location, which avoid

tween the encoding speed and the bit rate. maximum of the premature convergence. The process of bin-

ary mutation operation can be presented as follows:

that the individuals are complementary in genes after mutation oper-

ating, i.e. if the gene in one individual is ‘‘0”, it must be ‘‘1” in the other

individual at the same gene location. Dyadic mutation operations

guarantee the variety of allele at the same gene location, which speed

up the encoding time and avoid premature convergence.

tion operator, if the ﬁtness values of temporary offspring

Fig. 1. The searching space of the current range block in the ﬁrst stage. are bigger than their parent chromosomes, the offspring

508 W. Xing-yuan et al. / J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 20 (2009) 505–510

vidual difference is great, the generating offspring number is in direct

proportion to its parent’s ﬁtness value when employ classic roulette

method for selection and thus easily lead to premature convergence.

At the later running period of genetic algorithm, the ﬁtness of individ-

uals are almost the same, so the excellent individuals have little

Fig. 2. Structure of a chromosome in the second stage; the length is l = ld + lx + ly. advantage in generating offspring, which makes the population evo-

lution come to a standstill. Based on the following analysis, it is nec-

are accepted and regarded as the new population, otherwise, essary to stretch the ﬁtness value appropriately. At the earlier period

they are accepted according to Metrolpis acceptance criteria of genetic algorithm, individuals with little interval have almost the

same probability to generate offspring. While at the later period of

f ðxnþ1 Þ f ðxn Þ

exp > random½0; 1Þ: genetic algorithm, the value of temperature control parameter de-

T generation

crease continuously, stretching effect intensives, therefore, the differ-

where xn and xn+1 represent chromosome in the current pop- ence between individuals becomes greater, which makes the

ulation and its generated offspring, respectively, Tgeneration is advantages of excellent individuals much more obvious.

the annealing temperature corresponding to the generation, The detailed steps of the proposed improved algorithm are gi-

whose value degrade gently along the evolution generation. ven as follows:

Fig. 3. Comparison of reconstructed images between proposed method and some typical methods for fractal image compression. (a) Original image, Lena of size 8 8. (b) Full

search method, time used = 400.73 s, PSNR = 28.84, bit rate = 0.4844. (c) Truong method, time used = 125.32, PSNR = 28.51, bit rate = 0.4013. (d) SC-GA method, time

used = 16.51, PSNR = 27.15, bit rate = 0.3945. (e) Proposed method, time used = 9.15, PSNR = 27.19, bit rate = 0.3999.

Fig. 4. The comparison of generation-to-PSNR of proposed method and SC-GA Fig. 5. The comparison of generation-to-encoding time of proposed method and SC-

method for image Lena. GA method for image Lena.

W. Xing-yuan et al. / J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 20 (2009) 505–510 509

the domain block instead of the 16-bit absolute position. This will

improve the compression ratio. Let NR and NH denote the number

of range blocks and hit blocks, respectively. For hit blocks, 2 + Bw

bits are required to record the relative positions, where Bw denotes

the number of bits to represent the expansions. Let Bk, Bp and Bq de-

note the number of bits required to represent the orientation, the

contrast and the brightness, respectively. Then the bit rate can be

computed directly in terms of the number of hit blocks as

NH ð1 þ ð2 þ Bw Þ þ Bk þ Bp þ Bq Þ þ ðN R NH Þð1 þ Bk þ Bp þ Bq Þ

bpp ¼ ;

NTP

where NTP is the total number of pixels in the image. Note that one

bit is required to indicate if the block is a hit block.

4. Experimental results

The image Lena, Pepper, Baboon and Zelda are tested to demon-

strate the speed up rate, bit rate and reconstructed image quality of

Fig. 6. The comparison of bpp-to-PSNR of proposed method, SC-GA method and proposed method. For a given image of size 256 256, the sizes of

Truong method for image Lena.

range block are chosen to be 8 8 and 4 4. The population size in

SAGA of the second stage is 180. For both the ﬁrst and second

(1) Let j = 0. stage, the crossover rate is 0.6 and the mutation rate can be ad-

(2) Deﬁne the searching space S as depicted in Fig. 1. justed between 0.01 and 0.07 according to the evolution genera-

(3) Perform the ﬁrst stage of the proposed algorithm on rj. Let tion counter. The software simulation is done using Visual C++

ðjÞ

ds be the best-matched block in this stage. If its ﬁtness value on a Celeron 2.66G Windows XP PC.

is bigger than the predeﬁned value, record the fractal code As an illustrative example, Fig. 3 shows the results of recon-

and go to step (5). structed images by proposed method in compression to full search

(4) Perform the second stage of the proposed algorithm on rj. Let method, Truong method [9] and SC-GA method [14]. Fig. 3(a) is the

ðjÞ

df be the best-matched block in this stage. If its ﬁtness value original Lena image. Fig. 3(b)–(e) shows the difference between the

is bigger than the predeﬁned value, record the fractal code. reconstructed image and the original Lena image using full search

ðjÞ ðjÞ

Otherwise, compare the ﬁtness value of ds and df , and take method, Truong method, SC-GA method and the proposed method,

the better chromosome as the fractal code. respectively. Some comparative results between the proposed

(5) Let j = j + 1, If j is equal to 1024, then stop, otherwise go to method and SC-GA method are shown in Figs. 4–6 for Lena image

step (2). and the range block size is 8 8. In this simulation, the size of pop-

ulation is 180 and the number of generation is 15 and the thresh-

In step (2), since the range blocks located at the ﬁrst row, the old is 50. In the comparison, the proposed method is superior to

ﬁrst column, the last row, and the last column do not have the SC-GA method in the view of encoding time versus the number

neighbors as shown in Fig. 1, the ﬁrst stage of the proposed algo- of generations and the reconstructed image quality (PSNR) varied

rithm is not performed on these blocks. in a relatively small scope.

If the fractal codes come from the second stage, the absolute po- Tables 1 and 2 show the results of the proposed method in com-

sition is recoded, the structure of the chromosome as shown in parison to some typical fractal image compression methods using

Fig. 2 which need 19 bits to store a chromosome. However, if the range block of 8 8 and 4 4. It is obviously that our proposed

fractal codes come from the ﬁrst stage, the range block rj is called algorithm is faster than the full search algorithm, Truong’s algo-

‘‘hit” block, which indicates that the local optima can satisfy the de- rithm and SC-GA algorithm. Take 8 8 range blocks for example,

mand. For a hit block, fewer bits are required to record the offset of in comparison to full search method, the retrieved image quality

Table 1

The comparison of some fractal image compression methods with range block size 8 8.

Testing images Method PSNR Time (s) Hit blocks bpp Speed-up rate

Lena Full search method 28.84 400.73 0 0.4844 1

Truong method 28.51 135.32 539 0.4013 2.96

SC-GA method 27.15 16.51 576 0.3945 24.27

Proposed method 27.19 9.15 596 0.3908 43.19

Pepper Full search method 28.92 396.21 0 0.4844 1

Truong method 28.01 186.09 554 0.3985 2.12

SC-GA method 27.83 17.33 599 0.3902 22.86

Proposed method 27.85 10.96 628 0.3850 36.15

Zelda Full search method 30.08 392.61 0 0.4844 1

Truong method 29.73 149.30 679 0.3756 2.62

SC-GA method 28.85 15.32 701 0.3716 25.62

Proposed method 29.01 9.13 717 0.3687 43.00

Baboon Full search method 20.53 383.27 0 0.4844 1

Truong method 20.51 298.97 101 0.4815 1.28

SC-GA method 20.01 19.43 197 0.4639 19.72

Proposed method 20.43 14.18 201 0.4631 27.02

510 W. Xing-yuan et al. / J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 20 (2009) 505–510

Table 2

The comparison of some fractal image compression methods with range block size 4 4.

Testing images Method PSNR Time (s) Hit blocks bpp Speed-up rate

Lena Full search method 34.13 499.36 0 1.9375 1

Truong method 33.37 107.79 3167 1.4201 4.63

SC-GA method 31.85 14.01 3295 1.3966 35.64

Proposed method 32.08 6.87 3337 1.3889 72.68

Pepper Full search method 34.07 586.43 0 1.9375 1

Truong method 32.13 131.84 3051 1.4413 4.44

SC-GA method 30.14 14.83 3172 1.4191 39.54

Proposed method 31.03 9.65 3269 1.4014 60.76

Zelda Full search method 36.43 583.79 0 1.9375 1

Truong method 33.14 96.03 3336 1.3891 6.07

SC-GA method 31.21 14.11 3573 1.3457 41.37

Proposed method 31.99 6.23 3711 1.3204 93.70

Baboon Full search method 22.82 581.23 0 1.9375 1

Truong method 21.79 401.28 892 1.8366 1.44

SC-GA method 20.08 21.52 913 1.8328 27.00

Proposed method 21.64 16.48 1083 1.8016 35.26

reduced 0.97 dB in average, while the encoding speed up 22.93 tor subject special scientiﬁc research foundation of China (No.

times in average and the bit rate is improved about 20% in average. 20070141014) and the National Natural Science Foundation of Lia-

Compared to Truong algorithm, the encoding speed is nearly 18 oning province (No. 20082165).

times faster with only 0.57 dB degrade of image quality in average.

Compared to SC-GA algorithm, the encoding speed of the proposed

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