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# UNIT-1

or variable.

## The basic requirements of any measuring instruments are

 The measuring instrument should not affect the quantity to be measured when it is
connected to the circuit.
 Power consumption of the measuring instrument should be very small.
 Generally the electrical and electronics instruments are classified as analog
instruments and digital instruments

## There are two methods of measurements

1. Direct comparison method
2. Indirect comparison method
Direct comparison
In this method, the unknown quantity is directly compared against a standard. The
result is expressed as a numerical value and a unit .It is common for the measurement
of physical quantities like mass and time.
This method is not always possible, feasible and practicable. It is inaccurate because
they involve human factor and less sensitive. Hence direct methods are not preferred
and are rarely used.
Indirect comparison
This type of method, the parameter to be measured is compared with the standard
through the use of a calibrated system. These methods are mostly used in industries.

## Operating forces is indicating instruments

Three types of operating forces that are needed for satisfactory operation indicating
instruments are,
1. Deflecting force
2. Controlling force
3. Damping force
Deflecting force
 The deflecting force is, operating force required for moving pointer from its zero
position.
 The system producing the deflection force is called deflecting system or moving
system.
 The deflecting system acts as a the prime mover, which is responsible for deflection
of the pointer by converting electric current or potential into a mechanical force by
utilizing any of the effects mentioned earlier.
Controlling force
 Controlling force is the opposing force required by an indicating instrument in order
that current to be measured produces deflection of the pointer proportional to its
magnitude.
 The system which produces controlling forces is called a controlling system.
The main function of a controlling system is,
1. To produce a force equal and opposite to the deflection force, in order to make
the deflection of the pointer at a definite magnitude.
2. To bring the moving system back to zero position if the deflecting force is
removed. In the absence of a controlling system, the pointer will not come back
to zero even when the current is removed.

Damping force
 When a deflection force is applied to the moving system, it deflects and it should
come to rest at a position where the deflecting force is balanced by the controlling
force.

UNIT-2
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
 It is an electromechanical energy conversion device.
 The device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is called a motor.
 The device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy is called a
generator.

MECHANICAL v
ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL
ENERGY MACHINE ENERGY

##  DC generators and DC motors have same general construction.

 A dc machine consists of two main parts:
1. Stationary part, called the field structure, it is mainly used for producing magnetic
flux
2. A rotating part is called as armature
 The stationary and rotating parts are separated from each other by an air gap.

Dc motor introduction
 DC generator converts mechanical energy in the form of rotation of the conductor
into electrical energy, a motor does the opposite.
 The input to a dc motor is electrical and the output is mechanical rotation or torque.
 The fundamental principle and construction of the dc motor are identical with dc
generators which have the same type of excitation.
 A dc machine that runs as a motor will also operate as a generator.
Principle of operation
 The basic principle of operation of dc motor is, ”whenever a current carrying
conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a force tending to
move it.”

 If a current carrying conductor is placed between two magnetic poles as shown. Both
the fields will be distorted.
 Above the conductor, the field is weakened and below the conductor, the field is
strengthened. Therefore the conductor tends to move upwards.

BACK EMF
When a motor rotates, the conductor housed in the armature also rotate and cut the
magnetic lines of force. So an emf is induced in the armature conductors and this
induced emf opposes the supply voltage as per Lenz s law. This induced emf is called
back emf (or) counter emf.

TRANSFORMER
 The transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which electrical energy is
transferred from one circuit to another with desired change in voltage and current,
without any change in the frequency. It works on the principle of mutual indication.
 In a step up transformer, the number of turns in the primary is less than that in
secondary .Step up transformer is used to step up the voltage
 In a step down transformer, the number of turns in the primary is greater than that in
secondary. It is used to step down high voltage to low voltage.

UNIT -3

## SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS

 Conductor is a material that easily conduct the current. The conductor atoms have
only one valence electrons. These electrons very loosely bound with nuclei, so it can
easily break away from their atom and become free electron and forms conduction
band. Here, there is no forbidden energy gap between the conduction band and
valance band.
 In insulator, the energy gap between valance band and conduction band is very large.
Insulator is a material which does not conducts electricity.
 In a semi- conductor, the gap between valance band and conduction band is very
small. A semi-conductor is a material which conducts partially under pre –defined
conditions.
 The pure form of semi-conductor material is known as intrinsic semi-conductor. In an
intrinsic semi –conductor, even at room temperature, hole-electron pairs are created
there being as many holes as the free electrons.
 In an intrinsic semi-conductor, at room temperature current conduction is very less.to
increase the conductivity of the semi-conductor, some suitable impurity or doping
agent is added. The process of adding impurities to a semi-conductor is known as
doping. This impure form of semi-conductor is called extrinsic semi-conductor.
 N type semi –conductor is created by adding pentavalent impurity into pure silicon or
Ge. Doping agent as arsenic, antimony etc. here, majority carrier are electrons and
minority carriers are holes.
 P type semi -conductor is created by adding trivalent impurity into pure semi –
conductor. Doping agent as gallium, indium etc. Here, majority carriers are holes and
minority carriers are electrons.
 When the positive terminal of a battery us connected with P-type semi-conductor and
the negative terminal is connected with N-type semi-conductor it is said to be a
forward bias.
 When an external voltage is applied to P-N junction in such a way that it increase the
potential barrier then it is called as reverse bias.

DIFFUSION
 The N type semi-conductor has concentration of free electrons while P type semi-
conductor has high concentration of holes. At the junction there is a tendency for the
free electrons to move towards the P side and holes to the N side and vice versa. This
process by which charge carrier move from high concentration area to low
concentration area.

DEPLETION REGION
 After certain extent the immobile positive ions deposited across the n region prevents
further charge carrier diffusion from p region into n region, similarly the immobile
negative ions deposited across the n region into p region .these immobile ions forms a
region it is known as depletion region.
UNIT-4

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

 Electronics is classified into two types one is analog and another is digital.
 A signal which has only two discrete values is called as digital signal.
 An electronic circuit that handles only a digital signal is referred to as digital circuit.
 The output of digital circuit is either low (logic 0) or high (logic 1).
 Logic gates are the basic elements of digital electronics.
 Digital circuits find applications in computers, telephony, data processing, radar
navigation, military system and medical instruments.

UNIT-5

## FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

 The term communication refers to the process of transfer of information from one
place to another. The information which is being transferred may be voice
information, picture information or data in the form of files in a computer.
 In electrical sense the purpose of communication system is to transfer information
bearing signals through a communication channel separating the transmitter from the
 If the amplitude of a signal varies continuously with time then signal is called analog
signal. The output from a microphone is also an analog signal.
 A signal defined at discrete instant of time is called discrete time signals are
represented by sequences of samples. If each samples the discrete time signal is
quantized and then coded, it results in a digital signal.
 Modulation is a process of increasing the frequency of a signal to be transmitted in
order to achieve a practical value of antenna dimensions
 The message signal or low frequency signal which is to be transmitted from one place
to other is called modulating signal.
 The high frequency signal used for the purpose of modulation is called as carrier
signal.
 In sinusoidal modulation, the carrier signal used is a sine/cosine signal. The
amplitude, frequency or phase of the sinusoidal signal is varied in accordance to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal for the purpose of modulation, it is
also called continuous-wave modulation.
 In pulse modulation, the carrier signal used is a pulse signal .The amplitude, position
or width of the pulse is varied according to the instantaneous amplitude variations of
the modulating signal for the purpose of modulation.
 The communication is the transmission and reception of valid information. This
information probably called as data or signal can be of two types, analog and digital.
 AM, FM, Pulse modulation are analog modulation techniques, as the message or
modulating signal is analog.
 In digital communication the information signal used will be discrete and is
commonly called as digital data .Digital data is the representation of information in
the form of binary digits.