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HISTOLOGY

Tissues - group of similar cells performing a specific 1. Stratified Cuboidal — two layers of cuboidal
function cells; functions in protection
2. Stratified Columnar — surface cells are
EPITHELIAL TISSUES columnar, and cells underneath vary in size and
Locations: shape; functions in protection
• Body Covering
• Body Lining B. Transitional Epithelium
• Glandular Tissue • Location: urinary system, part of the urethra
Functions: • Composed of modified stratified squamous
• Protection epithelium tissues
• Absorption • Shape of cells depends on the amount of stretching
• Filtration • Functions in stretching and the ability to return the
• Secretion normal shape
• Diffusion
*EVERY part of the body has EPITHELIAL but mixed C. Pseudo-Stratified Columnar Epithelium
with MUSCLES* • Rests on a basement membrane
• cells are shorter than others; nuclei appear at
1. Epithelial Tissues different heights
• covers and lines surfaces • Gives false impression of stratified
• unique in basal membrane • absorption and secretion.
• may be simple or stratified • Lines most of respiratory tract
- Simple - one layer • Goblet Cells = mucus produced in this acts as a
- Stratified - two or more layer “sticky trap”
• form parts of sense organs = catch dust and debris, and the cilia propel the
• give rise to gland structures mucus upward and away from the lungs
• form sheets
D. Glandular Epithelium
• Avascular (no blood supply)
• Gland secretions of water-based protein molecules
• Regenerate easily if well nourished
via transport
• Two major gland types:
• Classification of Epithelia (SHAPE)
1. Endocrine gland
1. Squamous
= goes to blood directly
= diffusion and filtration
= ductless, hormones
= thinnest and flattened layer
= thyroid, adrenals and pituitary
= kidneys and lungs
2. Exocrine gland
2. Cuboidal
= with ducts
= found in kidney tubules
= include sweat and oil glands
= rare in humans
3. Columnar
= large size; more intake 2. Connective Tissues
= absorption • most abundant and widely distributed
= small intestine, stomach • Protection, Binds tissues, Supports
• Vascular (gets nutrition for faster healing)
A. Stratified Squamous • Unique in Extracellular matrix
- cells present at the free (apical) surface, which Extracellular Matrix
are flattened Two main elements:
- protective covering where friction is common 1. Ground substance
- Location— lining of the: skin (outer portion), • Water
mouth, esophagus • Adhesion Proteins
- has 2 types: • Polysaccharide
1. Keratinized 2. Fibers
= with keratin (hair, outer skin) • Collagen
= cells die • Elastic Fibers
= cells should be dead due to high exposure and • Reticular Fibers
not be sensitive • From most rigid to softest, or most fluid
2. Non-keratinized = without keratin 1. Bone
2. Cartilage
3. Dense Connective Tissue 3. Dense Connective Tissue (dense fibrous
4. Loose Connective Tissue tissue)
5. Blood • Packed with collagen fiber
Locations:
1. Bone (Osseous Tissue) • Tendons — attach skeletal muscle to bone
• Composed of: • Ligaments — attach bone to bone at joints
 Osteocytes (bone cells) sitting in lacunae and are more elastic; poorly vascularized
(cavities/ small lakes) • Dermis — lowers layers of the skin
 Hard Matrix of calcium salts
• Large number of collagen fibers 4. Loose Connective Tissue
• Functions to protect and support the body  widely distributed
• Mechanism: wandering osteocytes dump calcium  superficial and deep fascia
salts -> trapping it  few collagen fibers
• Dense, firm, but pliable Types:
• Has a central canal
• Was once cartiligenous A. Areolar Tissue
 Most widely distributed connective tissue
2. Cartilage  Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs”
 Cells (chondrocytes), fibers (collagenous  universal packing tissue
and elastic), and ground substance  “glue” to hold organs in place
(chondromucoprotein)  Unique in lamina propria (basal membrane)
 No nerve nor blood supply and lacks  Can soak up excess fluid (edema)
lymphatics
 “chondro” = cartilage B. Adipose Tissue
 Types of Cartilage:  Parenchyma = Fat cells/ Adipocytes
A. Hyaline Cartilage  large, oval shape, “signet ring” appearance
Function:  Function: Fat storage, Insulation,
• Provides smooth surface for movement of joints, Mechanical Support
flexibility, and support
• Promotes growth - type of cartilage found in fetal C. Reticular Connective Tissue
Features:  Delicate network of interwoven fibers with
• Most widespread type of cartilage reticular cells (like fibroblasts)
• Abundant collagen fibers: rubbery matrix  Locations: Forms stroma (internal
• Calcium circulates in the blood (osteoperosis) framework) of organs, such as these
Location: lymphoid organs:
• Larynx  Lymph nodes
• Fetal skeleton prior to birth  Spleen (blood filtering)
• Epiphyseal plates  Bone Marrow
• Flexible skeletal element
D. Specialized Connective Tissues
B. Elastic Cartilage  Vascular tissue/ Blood - for transport of
Features: materials
• Flexibility, elasticity  composed of formed elements & a liquid
• Perichondrium = basal membrane matrix (plasma)
• Not compressed; enables pregnancy  Plasma - liquid portion
Location:  Formed elements:
• External ears, auditory tubes, epiglottis  Erythrocytes (RBC) - carries oxygen
 Leucocytes (WBC) - for immune system
 Thrombocytes (platelets) - for blood
C. Fibrocartilage clotting; small ovoid or circular cells
Features: lacking nucleus
• Highly compressible  Granulocytes - polymorphonuclear
• Forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae of the leucocytes
spinal column (do not bump)  Neutrophil - multi-lobed nucleus
Location: (polymorphic)
• Pubic symphysis (in between pelvis bone),  Eosinophil - 2-lobed nucleus
intervertebral discs, mandibular joints  Basophil - with 3-lobed assuming an S-
shaped nucleus
 Agranulocytes - mononuclear - Tissues that regenerate early
leucocytes • Epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes)
 Lymphocyte - nucleus almost occupying • Fibrous connective tissues and bone
the entire cell (20-25%); elicits antibody
response; very smooth under microscope
- Tissues that regenerate poorly
 Monocyte - with bean-shaped nucleus • Skeletal Muscle
(2-6%); acts as phagocytes - Tissues that are replaced with scar tissue
• Cardiac muscle
• Nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord
4. Muscle Tissue
Function:
Skin and Body Membranes
• Produce movement
• Types: Body Membranes
Functions:
A. Skeletal Muscle cover body surface
• Can be controlled voluntarily • line body cavities
• Cells attach to tendons • form protective sheets around organs
• Cells are striated (room for expansion/movement) • Classified according to tissue types
• Cells have more than one nucleus • Connective tissue membranes
 Synovial fluid - fluid around joints
B. Cardiac Muscle
• Found only in the heart 1. Epithelial Membranes
• Function is to pump blood (involuntarily) • simple organs (reason: only covering)
• Cells attached to other cardiac muscle cells at • covering and lining membranes
intercalated disks • contains: Connective and Epithelial tissue
• Cells are striated
• One nucleus per cell 2. Cutaneous membrane (Skin)
C. Smooth Muscle • Keratinized = Dry membrane
• Outermost protective boundary
• Involuntarily muscle
• Consists of:
• Surrounds hollow organs
 Epidermis = keratinized stratified squamous
• Attached to other smooth muscle cells
 Dermis = dense (fibrous) connective
• No visible striations
• One nucleus per cell
3. Mucous membranes (Mucosae)
5. Nervous Tissue  Lined with mucus = moist membranes
• Composed of neurons and nerve support cells  Moist caused by non-keratinized
• Transmission due to electrolytes (salts)  Line all body cavities that open to the exterior
• receive and conduct electrochemical impulses body surface (exposed)
 Irritability  Consists of:
 Conductivity  Epithelium type (absorption)
• Unique in neuroglia (insulate, protect, and support  Loose connective tissue (secretion)
neurons)
4. Serous membranes (Serosae)
A. Neuron Classification • Line open body cavities that are closed to the
• Structural: exterior of the body (not exposed)
 Multipolar - three or more processes • From word “serosa” = internal organs
 Bipolar - two processes (axon and dendrite) • Occurs in pairs separated by serous fluid
 Unipolar - single, short process • Serous Fluid = makes membrane thick; change
• Functional: names according to location
• Sensory (afferent) - transmit impulses toward  Pericardium = around the heart
• Motor (efferent) - carry impulses away from  Pleura = lungs
• Interneurons (association neurons) - shuttle  Peritoneum = abdominal cavity
signals through CNS pathways • Serous cavities:
 Parietal Layer = facing outside
Tissue Repair (wound healing)  Visceral Layer = touching or facing organs
 Regeneration - replacement of destroyed tissue • Consists of:
by the same kind of cells  Simple squamous epithelium
 Fibrosis - repair by dense (fibrous) connective  Areolar connective tissue
tissue (scar tissue)
5. Connective Tissue Membrane
A. Synovial Membranes H. Merkel cells
• Loose areolar connective (for soaking up fluid) • Associated with sensory nerve endings
 Line bursae = space between muscles and • Serve as touch receptors called Merkel discs
tendons • Characterized by light touch
 Line tendon sheaths = lines the bones
• Secrete lubricating fluid (cushion organs) 2. EPIDERMIS
• Connective tissue
The Integumentary System • Underlies the epidermis
Functions:
 Insulation and cushion A. Papillary layer (upper dermal region)
 Protection - water loss, microbes, UV light, • contain projections called dermal papillae
bumps and cuts, acids and bases, heat or cold  indent the epidermis above
 Temperature regulation: helps maintain  many projections contain capillary loops, and
homeostasis others house pain and touch receptors
 Excretion: removes waste  on palm and sole surfaces, papillae increase
 Vitamin D production: UV light stimulates friction and gripping ability
production  fingerprints are identifying films of sweat
Hyperhydrosis - hyper sweat glands
1. EPIDERMIS
A. Stratum Basale B. Reticular layer (deepest skin layer)
• Deepest layer of epidermis  Blood vessels
• lies next to dermis  sweat and oil glands
• cells undergoing mitosis  Lamella Corpuscle - deep pressure touch
• daughter cells are pushed upward (new cells)
Other Dermal features:
B. Stratum Spinosum • Cutaneous Sensory Receptors
• cells start to keratinized (dryness) and die • Phagocytes
• Collagen and Elastic Fibers
C. Stratum Granulosum • Blood vessels
• fully keratinized (dead cell)
• arises to become lucidum or corneum Skin Color and Pigmentation
1. Melanin - yellow, reddish brown, or black
D. Stratum Lucidum pigments
1. Carotene - orange-yellow pigment from
• formed from dead cells of the deeper strata
some vegetable
• thick, hairless skin of the palms of hands and soles
of feet; protection for stress 2. Hemoglobin - red coloring from blood cells
in dermal capillaries; oxygen content
determines the extent of red coloring; protein
E. Stratum Corneum
in blood
• outermost layer of epidermis
• shingle-like dead cells are filled with keratin Skin Color and Variation
(protective protein prevents water loss from skin)
• Keratinocytes = maker of keratin cells 1. Erythema (Redness) - due to
embarrassment, inflammation,
F. Melanin hypertension, fever, or allergy
• Pigment produced by melanocytes 2. Pallor (blanching) - due to emotional stress
• Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale of the (such as fear), anemia, low blood pressure,
epidermis impaired blood flow to an area
• Color is yellow to brown to black 3. Jaundice (yellow cast) - Indicates a liver
• Accumulates in membrane-bound granules called disorder
melanosomes 4. Bruises (black and blue marks) –
• Amount of melanin produced depends upon Hematomas; loss of oxygen in blood
genetics and exposure to sunlight
• LOW melanin = MORE sunburn; LESS dark
Appendages of the Skin
• HIGH melanin = LESS sunburn; MORE dark
A. Cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands
G. Epidermal dendritic cells  Sebaceous glands (oil)
 Sweat glands
• Alert and activate immune cells • sudoriferous glands
• Fight bacterial or viral invasion • produce sweat
1. Eccrine Glands  Malignant Melanoma – looks a big mole
• open via duct to sweat pores on the skin’s surface - spreads to blood vessels = METASTASIS
• produce acidic sweat (water, salts, vitamin c, traces - mole if no bump and not shiny or rough
of metabolic waste)  Lanugo – newly born baby with hair soaked
• function in body temperature regulation down (raisin like)
• Vasodilation - widening of blood vessels - whitish/yellowish fatty acids are stuck =
- hot environment = blood flow increase VERNIX CASEOSA
- causes erythema  Milia – accumulations of oil glands
• Vasoconstriction - narrowing down - small white spots in baby skin
- cold environment = blood not flow to skin  Balding – stress and genes
- causes pallor - one X chromosome and gene balding stick
to X chromosome only
2. Apocrine glands
• ducts empty into hair follicles in the armpit and
genitals
• begin to function at puberty
• release sweat fatty acids and proteins (milky or
yellowish color)
• minimal role in body temperature regulation
• unique smell (innate body odor)
• used by lower forms for finding mates

B. HAIR MATRIX
 hair growth (mitosis)
 connected to stratum basale
C. CUTICLE
 epithelium (smoot protection)
 different colors (due to melanocyctes)
 keratinized (resists friction
D. NAILS
 Nail matrix = nail growth

HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE

 Athlete’s Foot – red peeling condition


growth of fungus in moist environment
 Boils – inflammation of hair follicles caused
by staphylococcus aureus (not taking baths)
 Herpes – blisters caused by STD
 Dermatitis – caused by allergies
 Contact Dermatitis – contact causes
allergies
 Impetigo – pink fluid filled lesions causing
yellow crust capture
 Psoriasis – dry silvery scales that crack
 Burns – face (9%), limbs (18%), trunk (36%)
 First Degree Burn – epidermis heals
(epithelial vascularized)
 Second Degree Burn – epidermis and
upper dermis affected
- receptors are still out (great pain)
 Third Degree Burn – dermis is out (not felt)
 Fourth Degree Burn – amputation (no
muscle and bone)
 Basal Cell Carcinoma – benign (least
malignant) and most common
 Squamous Cell Carcinoma –
benign/malignant; UV exposure