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Control and drive Electrical

Functional Diagrams
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 Introduction
 AC functional diagrams
 Control and drive functional diagrams
 Practical criteria to design diagrams
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Auxiliary elements of drive and control
 These devices are employed to connect and disconnect the coils in
the breaking devices, the more utilised are pushbuttons and control
 The pushbuttons are found in the local controls of the automatic
circuit breakers, disconnectors, etc., while the control switches are
usually installed in the switchboards in the control centres of
substations or generating stations.
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 The pushbuttons are devices that, when pressed, momentarily
change the position of its contacts. There are two types of
pushbuttons: start buttons and stop buttons.
 The start button for switches driving has its contact normally opened
and is closed while pressing. It representation is as follows:

 The stop button is precisely inverse to the former and its

representation is:
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Control switches
 It is a control breaker which purpose is to remotely connect or trip a
 From this point of view is similar to the pushbutton; however, due to
its large number of contacts and the options to change their
situation in different moments, the control switch offers more
possibilities that the pushbutton or set of pushbuttons.
 The control switches can have two or more positions and in each
position the situation of their contacts is different
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Control switches
 Table 1 shows a control switch with eight contacts for pushing and
two for turn.
 According to the needs of every installation, the number of used
contacts will change; the represented control switch is used in the
circuit breakers bays in substations.
 The mark in each square [X] means the contact is closed for that
position. Hence, in the open position, the contact 21-021 is closed, and
the rest of the contacts are in open position.
 At this position, pushing will lead the contacts 1-01, 3-03, 5-05 and 7-
07 to close position; they will return to their original open position when
the push is released.
POSITION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 21 RECORD
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 020 021

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Travel stop
 The travel stops are contacts mechanically operated, when a mobile
device reaches a limit previously fixed.
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Pressure relays, thermostats, level switches
 In many systems, the trip or connection of a pump, compressor,
transformer, automatic circuit breaker, etc., depend of a pressure,
temperature or level; this leads to the utilisation of pressure relays,
thermostats, and contacts of level.
 A pressure relay is a mechanical device with one or more contacts,
which position changes when the pressure reaches given values
(maximum or minimum). These contacts are generally included in
the circuits of starting or stopping pumps and compressors, or they
are employed to energize an alarm, as in the case of overpressure
automatic valves of a power transformer
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Pressure relays, thermostats, level switches
 The thermostat is a device THERMOSTAT

similar to the pressure relay, ALARM TRIP

with the difference that it is the LID

temperature instead of the

pressure what changes the POWER

position of the contacts


 The thermometers installed in

the power transformers are
devices with optical indicator of
temperature and contacts, with
characteristics alike to the
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Pressure relays, thermostats, level switches
 The contacts of level, as indicated by its name, are contacts which
position changes with the level of a deposit or tank.

 In the electric diagrams that represent the contacts of all this

instruments, there shall be a label that indicates their adjustments of
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Electromagnetic switch
 It can be defined as a
current breaker which
Arc extinguishers
operations of closing and
Fixed and mobile contacts:
opening are performed in a
no-manual fashion, by
means of any mechanism
capable of establish, stand
and break currents in normal
operation conditions of a
circuit, even in overloaded
Contacts frame
Encapsulated coil
 In an electromagnetic
switch, the mobile parts
leave their steady state
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Magnetic circuit
when an electromagnet that
operates the closing
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Base frame
mechanism is electrically
Electromagnetic switch
 Closing the contact 1-1C of the control
switch, the coil B42 is energised and
the electromagnetic switch is closed; its
poles close in the power circuit and the
receiver begins to operate.
 If an overload takes place in the power
circuit that activates the thermal relay
(49), the auxiliary contact installed with
the control circuit (49) will open and the
coil B42 will be disconnected, and the
poles of the switch open the power
50.- Magnetic protection  The circuit remains inoperative until the
52.- AC circuit breaker thermal relay is reset.
42.- Switch  Under normal load conditions, opening
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49.- Thermal relay the contact 1-1C of the control switch to

CS.- Control switch the stop position, will open the
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FU.- Fuse electromagnetic switch.

Automatic circuit breakers
 An automatic circuit breaker is a mechanical device of connection
capable to establish and break currents under normal conditions of
supply; as well as to establish, withstand during a given time and break
currents under abnormal conditions, such as short-circuit currents.
 The breaking and connection of lines, power transformers, capacitors,
etc., is performed by means of circuit breakers. These breakers are not
usually manually driven, but activated by means of pushbuttons or
control switches from remote locations. With this purpose, there are
electric circuits that activate the mechanism placed in the circuit breaker

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Automatic circuit breakers
 Fig. shows the closing circuit in the
conditions of open circuit breakers and
tightened springs.
 If the springs are unloaded, the
contacts IF (57-54, 53-58) are closed
and the contacts IF (55-56) and (56-1)
are opened.
 The motor is then fed, which begins to
tighten the springs; the circuit breaker
cannot be closed since the contacts 55-
56 and 56-1 are opened. When the
springs are tightened, the contacts 57-
54 and 53-58 open and disconnect the
motor, thus closing the contacts 55-56
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and 56-1 and leaving the closing circuit

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ready for energising.

Automatic circuit breakers
 If under the conditions of Fig., the contact of the
pushbutton PC is closed, the coil Be will be
energised, closing the circuit breaker and
unloading the springs, which closes the contact
If (57-54), thus beginning to tighten the springs.
 By closing the circuit breaker, the contact 1CS
(2-50) is closed, thus the tripping mechanism is
ready for opening as soon as is fed by means of
control switch or protection signalling.
 By opening the circuit breaker, the contact 1CS
(55-59) of the closing mechanism is closed, thus
the system is reset to its initial state, waiting for
the voltage to fed the closing system.
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Low Voltage Magneto-thermal Circuit Breakers
 Currently, to protect the control circuits, the magneto-thermal circuit
breakers are commonly used, instead of fuses, obsolete nowadays.

 These breakers are manually driven, with automatic disconnection by

overload or short-circuit, and they usually include auxiliary contacts to
energise alarms. Their representation is:
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 The relay is an electromechanical device that, according to the variation
of a physical magnitude (electrical or not), operates another device
(electrical or not).
 The contacts of the relays inserted in the driving circuits activate the
opening and closing of circuit breakers, switches, etc.
 The operation of the contacts of a relay can take place in three means:
 Instantaneous Action: The relays of instantaneous action have not delaying
devices, thus operating in the same instant in which the controlled physical
measure (current, voltage, etc.) surpasses the previously adjusted value.
 Inverse Delay: They have not a fixed delay, but it varies with the value of the
controlled physical measure and it is inversely proportional to the value of the
controlled measure.
 Fixed delay: The temporisation is always the same.
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 The relays can be divided in two groups, as following:

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 Auxiliary Relays
 Protection Relays
Auxiliary Relays
 These are the relays that combined with switches, circuit breakers, etc.,
aid establishing control circuits more or less complex. They mainly
comprise an electromagnet fed with alternate or direct current and a
series of working or resting contacts.

 The auxiliary relays are miniature switches of low power that have no
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power contacts (poles), since the small control devices consume low
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Auxiliary Relays
 The auxiliary relays can be classified in:
 Instantaneous: When the change of position of its contacts is
instantaneous, either energising or disconnecting.
 Delayed: When the change of position of its contacts has a
controlled delay. These relays can be of two kinds:
 Delayed to energising: When the change of position of its contacts is
delayed for energising, and instantaneous to disconnecting.
 Delayed to disconnecting: When the change of position of its contacts is
delayed for disconnecting, and instantaneous to energising.
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Auxiliary Relays
 Tiltable relays. These are auxiliary relays with two coils, one for
operation and one for reposition.
 When the operation coil is energised, the position of its contacts changes;
however, the operation coil is immediately disconnected, but the contacts
keep their position until the reposition coil is energised.
 The tiltable relays have an operation similar to the automatic circuit breakers,
since in both the first coil is used to close the contacts in the relay or the
poles in the circuit breaker (closing coil), and the second coil is utilised to
open the relay contacts or the circuit breaker poles (tripping coil).
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Protection Relays
 A protection relay is a device that operates over any element of its own
circuit or an auxiliary one, whenever there is a change of conditions in a
power circuit, whether it is a current rise, voltage surge or rise, power
inversion, accidental fault to ground, etc.
 There are different kinds of protection relays; the more used are:
 Distance relay (21) operates when the admittance, impedance or resistance
of a circuit varies outside the inferior and superior fixed limits.
 Synchronizing relay (25) impedes the connection of two circuits if the phase
angle between them is superior to a given limit value.
 Undervoltage relay (27) operates when the voltage reaches a given minimum
 Field relay (40) operates when the field (excitation) is excessively low.
 Thermal relay (49) operates when the temperature rises due to an overload.
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 Instantaneous overcurrent relay (50) operates instantaneously in the

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presence of overcurrents.
Protection Relays
 There are different kinds of protection relays; the more used are:
 AC time overcurrent relay (51) operates with a fixed delay in the presence of
 Overvoltage relay (59) operates when the voltage rises over a given value.
 Voltage balance relay (60) operates when there is a difference of voltage
between two circuits.
 Ground detector relay (64) operates when there is a failure to ground in the
 Alarm relay (74) operates whenever it receives a signal and transmits it to an
optical, acoustic or luminous display.
 Frequency relay (81) operates when the frequency reaches a given value.
 Lockout relay (86) operates electrically but requires manual reposition; it is
generally used as an auxiliary
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 Differential protective relay (87) operates when there is a difference of

currents between both sides of a machine due to an internal failure.
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Connection diagrams
 One of the applications of the tiltable relays, is as a lockout relay (86).
 The rectangle in the bottom left part of the diagram encloses the two
coils of the tiltable relay, called 86 according to its function.
 The coil b-a is energised by closing the contact CP (protections), the coil
changes the position of the contacts 86/CS, the 8-80 opens and the 7-71
 If the circuit breaker is closed, the activation of the contact 86/CS (7-71)
opens it.
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52 C 52 A
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Connection diagrams
 Under these conditions, if it is desired to close the circuit breaker, it is not
enough to energise the closing circuit 52C by closing the contact of the
control switch CS/C, since the contact 8-80 is opened.
 To electrically close the circuit breaker, first it is necessary to energise the
coil d-c of the relay 86, by means of the reset pushbutton PR/86, hence
changing the position of the contacts 86/CS, the 7-71 opens and the 8-80

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52 C 52 A
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