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3GPP 5G Networks

Mike Smathers
Head of Technology, PS
Global 5G

April 2019

1 © 2018 Nokia
• 5G Monitisation
Contents • 3GPP Standardisation

2019
Contents • Spectrum for 5G
• E2E Architecture

2019 •

New Radio incl mMIMO
Base Station Solutions

• Transmission (eCPRI/F1)
• Core Aspects
• Nokia Global 5G Roadmap & Activity
• Summary
2 © 2018 Nokia
IMT2020 – driver for 3GPP 5G
ITU-R M.[IMT-2020.TECH PERF REQ], “Minimum requirements related to technical
performance for IMT-2020 radio interface(s)”, Document 5/40-E, 22 February 2017

Peak TP 20Gbps DL, 10Gbps UL


Peak Spectral Efficiency 30bps/Hz DL, 15bps/Hz UL
Reliability 1x10-5
Connection density 1,000,000 devices per km2
C-Plane latency 10msec
eMBB RTT 8msec
URLLC RTT 1msec
Mobility 500km/hour

3 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


5G System of Systems – Monetisation of data

74 Potential use cases studied


Extreme
Network Slicing Telemedicine
Lifeline Comms Wearables Mobile
Virtual Presence Connected Vehicles
Broadband
Drones Home Monitoring
Industrial Control Air to Ground
Tactile Internet
Bio Connectivity
FWA
Telemedicine etc

Massive
5G
machine Critical
communication communication

2030

4 © 2018 Nokia
Mobile Broadband will be driven by video to the extreme…
Video Streaming Consumption
quality rate (per hour)

1080 3.6 Mb/s 1.6 GB/Hour

1080P HD 7 Mb/s 3.5 GB/Hour

4K 16 Mb/s 7.5 GB/Hour

Galaxy S3 306PPI Galaxy S4 441 PPI


4K HD 25 Mb/s 12 GB/Hour

60%-78%
CISCO VNI: Mobile Video 2016-2021 with respect to total mobile data traffic
570-806 PPI
4k Smartphones

5 © 2018 Nokia
MWC’19 Selected 5G Smartphones
Xiaomi Mix3 5G Samsung Galaxy S10 5G
QC Snapdragon 855 & X50 modem QC Snapdragon 855 & X50 modem
2340 x 1080 FHD+ (403PPI) 3040 x 1440 – 505PPI
Video 4K @ 60fps Video 4K with HDR+
2Gbps+ DL speed, 4x4 MIMO Sub6GHz, 28/39GHz, 4x4 MIMO

Huawei Mate X 5G (foldable) ZTE Axon 10 Pro 5G


Kirin 980 & HiSilicon 5000 modem QC Snapdragon 855 & X50 modem
2480 x 2200 – 414PPI 2340 X 1080 FHD+ (398PPI)
Video 4K @ 30fps
4.6Gbps DL speed, 4x4 MIMO

LG V50 ThinQ 5G (Sprint+) Qualcomm


QC Snapdragon 855 & X50 modem Official launch of Snapdragon x50 5G modem
3120 x 1440 – 537PPI along with Snapdragon 855 Mobile Platform.

Video 4K @ 60fps Calls out Xiaomi, LG, Samsung and ZTE (MWC)
but also Sony, Vivo, Motorola, OnePlus, OPPO
Second screen accessory and Nubia having 5G phones in the pipeline

6 © 2018 Nokia
Mobile Broadband global appetite …..
Particularly in China and India

200
Mobile data per day [PB]
>100 PBytes
180 per day in two regions
160
140
120
100
80
≈ 4.2GB/user/month
60
40
20

0.2 PBytes
0
2017 2018 /day
China India USA EU

7 © 2018 Nokia
The declining price of the Gigabyte

Alliance for affordable internet (Sept’18)

1GB mobile prepaid

8 © 2018 Nokia
Essential Mobile Operator value and revenue expansion
Industry
Consumers

Traditional Market flat Cloud Services growth New DSP markets


Traditional CSP service revenues but limited value captured by CSPs offering significant revenue expansion
in mature markets* are flat
($B)
1210

x4
930

560

2015 2019 2015 2019


* Western Europe, Canada, USA, Japan, South Korea, Source: Gartner
Singapore, Australia, and NZ Source: Gartner BPaaS = Business Processes as a Service

Connection Service Provider Digital Service Provider


9 © 2018 Nokia
NB-IoT and Cat-M Connection Global Set-ups
Low but with accelerating Growth

1.6 Million
NB‐IoT and Cat‐M connections per day
1800000
1600000
1400000 IoT setups per day
1200000

600 Billion
1000000
800000
600000
400000 Call setups per day
200000

0.0005%
0

NB‐IoT Cat‐M Of all connections

10 © 2018 Nokia
Game changing opportunities exist ….
AI and Automation
Digital Health

50B€ in 2018
Augmented/Virtual Reality
136B€ in 2019
Connected Cars
120B€ in 2019
IIoT (Industry 4.0)

867B€*
in Europe alone
Critical Infrastructure Security
11 © 2018 Nokia Source: Business Case and Technology Analysis for 5G Low Latency Applications 28/3/17 [arXiv:1703.09434v1]
Docomo strongly committed to 5G co-development with partners
Intensively leveraging its purpose-built 5G Trial Site

1,800 partners (Nov’18) Tokyo 5G test environment

Docomo pre-commercial 5G services Sept 2019


Docomo commercial services across Japan mid-2020*

* Source: docomo President & CEO Kazuhiro Yoshizawa, conference call with analysts & Investors 2H18
12 © 2018 Nokia Smathers
Telia has been developing 5G around customer needs

13 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


Telia and Finavia. World’s first 5G Airport - powered by Nokia

• Study and field trial started Dec’18


• Deployed in T2 Helsinki Airport
• Target is to smooth airport operations and bring new
experiences to airport users.
• Want to see how passengers react.
• Streams real-time video for remote monitoring and
analytics to ensure that the airport is operating efficiently.
• Robot can also guide passengers in the airport.
• Several other use cases are being planned by Telia and
Finavia in areas such as security.
• The solution uses Nokia 28GHz NR to control the robot as
well as handle data transmission

14 © 2018 Nokia
Industry 4.0 trial leveraging low-latency and high-BW of 5G

Finland March’18

Nokia AirScale

Digital Twin ESD Monitor HD Video 100% auto Remote Cloud

15 © 2018 Nokia
Smart City Initiatives with 5G

Smart Waste Smart Video Environmental


Parking Managemen Lighting Solutions Sensing
t

Fully
Steamline integrated
Operations. approach
Share Best Practice. Monitize

Temp sensors; humidity; linear dimensions; risk areas

https://www.luxturrim5g.com/

16 © 2018 Nokia
5GTTH – Home Device
3x NSA LTE
802.11a.b/g/n/ac
3GPP NR
Band n78
4x4 MIMO
256QAM

17 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


3GPP Standardisation

18 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


5G Standardisation Timeline
Phase 2. 3GPP Rel’16. mMTC, enhance URLLC & eMBB

Phase 1. 3GPP Rel’15. New Radio. eMBB (& some URLLC)

2018 2019 2020

#81

#87
#79
#78

#86
#82

#83
Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

ASN.1 Freeze
CR’s

Stage 3 Freeze
ASN.1 Freeze
ASN.1 Freeze (NSA)
Stage 3 Freeze

Stage 3 Freeze

ASN.1 Freeze
Late drop Rel’15
NSA & SA options Rel’16
2,3x,4,7

Early drop Rel’15 Regular Rel’15


NSA option 3x NSA & SA options 2&3x

19 © 2018 Nokia
Spectrum for 5G

20 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


5G NR Spectrum Bands ……. prefix ‘n’

FR1: 450MHz – 6GHz FR2: 24.25-52.6GHz


Note: LTE Band 42 = 3.4-3.6GHz, Band 43 = 3.6-3.8GHz
LTE Band 41 = 2.496-2.690MHz

21 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


Global snapshot of 5G spectrum New 5G band

An emerging pattern of band allocation, with fragmented availability


Licensed
Unlicensed / shared
Existing band
Auctions & awards
(held /planned) <1GHz 3GHz 4GHz 5GHz 24-28GHz 37-40GHz 64-71GHz
600MHz, 2.5, 28, 39GHz 600MHz 2.5GHz 37-37.6GHz
24GHz (1H’19); 37, 39; 47 GHz (2x35MHz) (LTE B41) 3.5GHz (150MHz) 5.9–7.1GHz 27.5-28.35GHz 64-71GHz
(2H’19) ; 3.55 PAL, 3.7GHz 37.6-40GHz
(2020) 37-37.6GHz
600MHz
600MHz (1Q’19): 3.5GHz (150MHz) 5.9–7.1GHz 27.5-28.35GHz 37.6-40GHz 64-71GHz
(2x35MHz)
3.5GHz (TBD)
700MHz 3.4–3.8GHz 5.9–6.4GHz 24.5-27.5GHz

2.3GHz, 3.4–3.8GHz 700MHz 3.4–3.8GHz 26GHz, 28GHz


700MHz (2H’19)
2100MHz; 3.4–3.7GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 26GHz, 28GHz
(1Q’19)
1.5GHz (TBD); 3.46 – 3.46 –3.8GHz 26GHz
3.8GHz (2019)
3.46 –3.8GHz, 26 GHz 700MHz 3.6–3.8GHz
700MHz

2.5-2.6, 3.4-3.6GHz; 2.5-2.6GHz 3.3 –3.6GHz 4.8 –5GHz 24.5-27.5GHz 37.5-42.5GHz


4.8-4.9GHz (2019/20)
3.4–3.7GHz, 26.5-29.5GHz
26.5-29.5GHz

3.6–4.2GHz; 4.4– 3.6–4.2GHz 4.4–4.9GHz 27.5-29.5GHz


4.9GHz (TBD)
3.4–3.7GHz 3.4–3.7GHz 28GHz 39GHz

22 © 2018 Nokia
23
© 2018 Nokia
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
German 2100
UK 2100
USA AWS‐3
Australia 700 (TPG)
Canada AWS
Canada 700
Italy 2100
Thailand 900
Hongkong 850 + 900
Australia 700
Poland 800
Austria multiband
Australia 700 (Vodafone)
USA 600
Italy 800
Ireland 800
US 700
France 700
France 800
Austria 2100
Germany 800
India 900
Dutch Multiband
Belgia 800
Thailand 1800
Taiwan multiband
Spain 800
Greece 800
Portugal 800
UK 800
Sweden 800
Croatia 800
Czech 800
India 800
US AWS
Finland 800
Hungary multiband
Denmark 800
New Zealand 700
German 1800
EUR/MHz/pop

Norway multiband
Venezuela AWS+2600
German 900
Sweden 1800
Taiwan2600 FDD
India 2100 FDD
Hong Kong 2600
German 700
Finland 700
Korea 1800+2600
Denmark 2600
India 1800
UK 3500
Spectrum Price per MHz per Population

Sweden 2600
Taiwan2600 TDD
Germany 2100
France 2600
German 1500
India 2300 TDD
UK 2300
UK 2600
Italy 2600
Belgium 2600
Greece 2600
Chile 700
Norway 2600
Australia 2600
Portugal 2600
Poland 2600
Brazil 2600
Austria 2600
Germany 2600
NR Transmission Bandwidth and Efficiencies
3GPP TS38.104 v15.4.0 (2018-12) sect 5.3.2

• 11PRB’s of 30kHz/SC → 79%


• 79PRB’s of 15kHz/SC → 95%
• 106PRB’s of 30kHz/SC → 95%
• 135PRB’s of 60kHz → 97%
• LTE (20MHz): 100PRB’s of 15kHz → 90%

• Max 275 PRB’s on a carrier (TS38.300)


• Min PRB’s as per SS/PBCH block

24 © 2018 Nokia
High Level Architectural Considerations

25 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


5G Future X architecture with a Nokia end-to-end portfolio

Secure Automated Open

Digital Value Platforms


Nokia Bell Labs
innovation in action
Augmented Cognition Systems 5G Future X
Programmable Network OS
Universal Adaptive Core
Short
Autonomously waves
optimized coverage & wires
& capacity Long
Software- fibers
defined

Converged
Emerging Devices Massive Scale Converged Smart Network Node
& Sensors Access Edge Cloud Fabric

26 © 2018 Nokia Public


5G Architecture Options
Non-standalone Standalone Non-standalone Non-standalone Standalone
Option 3x (EN-DC) Option 2 Option 7 (NGEN-DC) Option 4 (NR-DC) Option 5

EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN EPC 5G-CN

X2 Xn Xn

LTE 5G LTE 5G LTE 5G LTE 5G LTE 5G


MCG SCG

“LTE assisted” “NR assisted”

= User/Control plane+ NAS IMS based Voice. Ref: TS37.340 V15.4.0 (2018-12)
= User plane + sC-Plane (X2/n,DRB only) Follows NAS path

27 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


5G Traffic Flow based QoS
UDM Default 5QI and ARP
values
Ue always establishes N22 N11
the PDU session. NSSF AMF SMF
• PDU session type
PCRF

non-standard QFI
• Slicing Information

QoS profiles for


Slice info.
• Data Domain Name

N1

N4
• Service Continuity UPF2
NAS (QoS rules)
Ue gNB N2
Service Data Flow (SDF) templates UPF
SDAP
Maps UL data packets to QoS flows to
DRB’s based upon AMF QoS rules or

Maps DL data packets to QoS flows


DRB 1
PDU Session
Maps DL QoS flows to DRB’s

QFI 1
Reflective QoS

Tunnelled (N3) and exclusive to a Ue


QFI 2 In DC could be more than one PDU session GBR/nGBR
One PDU (default) always connected
Data Packets
DRB 2
QFI 3 PDU Session
Transport QoS (e.g. DiffServ) tagged with QFI
PDU session types: IPv4, IPv6, Ethernet, Unstructured
28 © Nokia 2018
5G Session and Service Continuity
SSC1 SSC2 SSC3
SMF SMF SMF
IP@100 IP@200 IP@100 IP@200

N4 N6
N4
N6 N6
N4 N4
N6
N4
N6
UPF
IP@000
UPF1 UPF2 UPF1 UPF2

IP@000
IP@100 IP@200 IP@100 IP@200
IP address & PDU anchor (UDF) IP address not maintained. PDU IP address not maintained. PDU
is maintained with mobility. anchor ‘break before make’. anchor ‘make before break’.
Connectivity maintained Connectivity can be lost Connectivity maintained

29 © Nokia 2018
New Radio

30 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


5G NR Numerology
14 symbols per slot
∆ƒ = 2µ x 15kHz. Slot duration =1ms/2µ
12 subcarriers per PRB

time
frequency

Variable slot size 1msec 10msec


and amount in 1ms Subframe Radio frame
subframe

31 © 2018 Nokia
NR Radio Frame, Sub-frame and Slot Structure

Limited Link Budget


single stream
transmissions
Robust, low data rate
services mMTC
32 © 2018 Nokia
Review of TD-LTE slot formats
One Radio Frame = 10ms

Practically Config’s 1 and 2 are used


Config 1: TDD Link budget UL impact
10Log10 4/10 = -3.97dB
Config 2: TDD Link budget UL impact
10Log10 2/10 = -6.98dB

S-Format 0, 3:10:1
S-Format 4, 12:1:1
S-Format 5, 3:9:2
S-Format 7, 10:2:2

33 © 2018 Nokia
NR Slot Formats
TS38.213

UL PUCCH, PUSCH, RACH, SRS

DL PDSCH, PDCCH, SSB, CSI-RS

Flex
PDSCH, PDCCH, SSB, CSI-RS
PUCCH, PUSCH, RACH, SRS

Example configurations:
Europe: DDDSU with S = 10D+2G+2U (30kHz)
Japan: DDDDDDDSUU with S = 6D+4G+4U (30kHz)
China: DDDSUDDSUU with S = 10D+4G (30kHz)
USA: DDSU with S = 11D+3G (120kHz)
2.5ms

DL DL DL S UL

0.5ms
(30kHz)

34 © 2018 Nokia
NR Physical Channels and Signals PDSCH
Physical DL Shared Channel
Includes DMRS and PTRS and SIB’s
PUSCH
Physical UL Shared Channel PDCCH
Includes DMRS and PTRS and UCI (with traffic) Physical DL Control Channel
DCI for UL&DL scheduling & config
PUCCH
Physical UL Control Channel PBCH
Provides UCI when there is no PUSCH Physical Broadcast Channel

PRACH DMRS*
Physical Random Access Channel Demodulation Reference Signal

PTRS*
Phase Tracking Reference Signal
DMRS*
Demodulation Reference Signal CSI-RS
PTRS* Channel State Information RS
Phase Tracking Reference Signal For CSI in UCI and supports beam mgmt

SRS PSS
Sounding Reference Signal Primary Synchronisation

SSS
35 © 2018 Nokia
Secondary Synchronisation
5G NR Broadcast and Beam acquisition
SS Burst
ƒ< 3GHz, < 4 SS Blocks per Burst
ƒ 3-6GHz, < 8 SS Blocks per Burst
ƒ> 6GHz, < 64 SS Blocks per Burst

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Coarse Beams
Known set of weights

Strength
Signal
20ms 20ms 10ms
SS Burst
Freq

NR

Best Beam identified by UE (indexed in DMRS/PBCH)


5ms PRACH (subset) used by UE identifies best beam to gNB

36 © 2018 Nokia
5G NR Beam Management
Sectored Beams Grid of Beams Eigen Beamforming Null/Zero Forcing
UCI
RI/PMI
CQI/CRI
DMRS DMRS
SSB (coarse)
SRS SRS
CSI-RS (refined)

Beam covers the Ue reports the best Dynamic weighted Minimisation of


entire sector beam. Predefined beams based upon interference through
beam weights Ue feedback null beamforming

37 © 2018 Nokia
mMIMO| Principles
Stream 1 TX a,c,d f1,t1 Increase peak
Spatial Multiplexing
combine throughput for
SU-MIMO Data Data
UE.
a,b,c,d,e Stream 2 a,b,c,d,e
b,d,e f1,t1

Stream D1 x,y,z
f1,t1
Data TX
Multi-user MIMO
Stream D1 Device 1 Improves the
f1,t1 cell capacity
Stream D2 Device 2
Stream D2 a,b,c

3D Beamforming is created from large Active Antenna arrays to create 3D beams.


mMIMO then utilises the 3D BF to support Full Dimension MU-MIMO (for capacity).
Or mMIMO utilises correlated 3D BF to extend coverage.

38 © 2018 Nokia
mMIMO| Principles
Stream 1 TX a,c,d f1,t1 Increase peak
Spatial Multiplexing
combine throughput for
SU-MIMO Data Data
UE.
a,b,c,d,e Stream 2 a,b,c,d,e
b,d,e f1,t1

TX
Multi-user MIMO Improves the
Data
a,b,c,d,e cell coverage
a,b,c,d,e

3D Beamforming is created from large Active Antenna arrays to create 3D beams.


mMIMO then utilises the 3D BF to support Full Dimension MU-MIMO (for capacity).
Or mMIMO utilises correlated 3D BF to extend coverage.

39 © 2018 Nokia
Azimuth and Elevated Beamforming with GoB

40 © 2018 Nokia
Antenna Array Configurations & Connection of TRXs
8 columns Examples: Antenna physical and logical configuration

(8,8,2)

Azimuth only Azimuth & Elevation


TRX1

TRX2
16 Ports: 1 Row of TXRUs
32 Ports: 2 Rows of TXRUs
64 Ports: 4 Rows of TXRUs
Physical and logical configuration of the antenna elements in vertical and horizontal domain
41 © Nokia 2016 impact the beamforming capability in those dimensions
Nokia 5G
Radio
Hardware

42 © 2018 Nokia
Non-Access Stratum:
Attach, Authenticate,
NR Radio Protocols
MM & Session Mgmt
NR Control Plane NR User Plane
Radio Resource Control:
Connect & Bearer Mgmt,
Measure & HO, Page etc. UE gNB AMF UE gNB
i.e. routing
NAS NAS
Packet Data Convergence
Protocol: L3
Ciphering,
Compression, Security
RRC RRC NG-AP SDAP SDAP

Radio Link Control: PDCP PDCP SCTP PDCP PDCP GTP-U


Retransmission,
Segmentation
L2 RLC RLC IP RLC RLC UDP/IP
Medium Access
Control: Multiplex, MAC MAC L2 MAC MAC L2
HARQ &Scheduling

L1 PHY PHY PHY PHY PHY PHY


Physical: Error Correct,
Mod/Demod

43 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2014


5G NR gNB Functional Breakdown
5GRAP - Radio Access Point 5G gNB
5GRU (DU) Fronthaul 5GRAU (DU) Midhaul 5GRAC (CU) Backhaul
5G Radio Unit 5G Radio Access 5G Radio Access
CPRI/eCPRI
Unit F1 Controller

L1(L) RLC RRC


RF MAC PDCP
L1(H) SDAP

mMIMO AAS/RRH eCPRI RT AirScale F1 AirFrame Cloud gNB

RF + Antenna with L1 & L2rt (RAP) F1 AirFrame Cloud Optimised gNB

mMIMO AAS/RRH eCPRI AirScale Classical gNB

mMIMO AAS/RRH eCPRI RT Edge Cloud F1 Airframe vRAN2.0

44 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


AirScale 5G Baseband

2G/3G

4G
5G

ABIL
Capacity
Cards

ASIK
Common
Cards

45
Confidential
AirScale 5G Radio

160MHz
80MHz 80MHz

80MHz

Channel BW

Occupied BW

Instantaneous BW

Operational Band

46
Fronthaul – CPRI/eCPRI

47 © 2018 Nokia Smathers


Radio Access Architecture and Interfaces
Fronthaul Functional Split – RAN3 WG
L3 Data RRC Connection & Bearer Management,
CU Option 1 Measurement & HO, Paging, Routing

PDCP Option 2
Compression, Service Flow Mapping
Agreed 3GPP
Higher
HL split point
RLC-H Option 3
Layer Split ARQ, Buffering, Reordering
DU (Midhaul)
RLC-L 2-6msec Segmentation and Reassembly
L2 Option 4

MAC-H Scheduling
HL FH (msec) Option 5

MAC-L HARQ, Multiplexing, Link Adaptation


Option 6
Lower
L1-HI Layer Split
MIMO mapping
LL FH (usec) Option 7 (Fronthaul)
L1 eCPRI level
50-250usec
L1-LO Modulation, Error Correction, CP
Option 8 insertion, (I)FFT, Beamer
CPRI level
RF
48 © 2018 Nokia
eCPRI 7-3 vs 7-2a
eCPRI 7-2A (xRAN/oRAN) eCPRI 7-3
RX analog RX analog RX analog RX analog RX analog RX analog

Layer 1 low Layer 1 low Layer 1 low Layer 1 low Layer 1 low Layer 1 low

Beamforming Beamforming Beamforming Beamforming Beamforming Beamforming

Fronthaul Channel Channel Channel


estimation estimation estimation
Channel estimation IRC IRC IRC

IRC Fronthaul
Layer 1 high Layer 1 high
Layer 2 Layer 2
Layer 3 Layer 3
+ Less HW in RF (size, power consumption and - More HW in RF (size, power consumption and
cost impact) cost impact)
+ Pooling gains in BB - No pooling gains in BB
- More FH fibers if high amount of RX IRC + Less FH fibers if high amount of RX IRC
branches in use branches in use

49 © 2018 Nokia
Cloud RAN architecture – Split Options
Classic RRH interface Low layer split (LLS) High layer split (HLS) Backhaul
CPRI eCPRI F1 5ms S1/NG
50-250 us 50-250us >10ms
Radio unit (RU) Distributed Unit (DU) Central unit (CU)

Resource Combination/ Ch estimation & IDTF & PDCP


IFFT RRC
Demapping Preflitering Equalization Demodulation (SRBs)
Bit-level
RF Process-
ing
MAC/
RLC
Resource PDCP SDAP/
IFFT Precoding Layer Mapping Modulation
mapping (DRBs) GTP-U

L1 low/PHY L1 high/PHY L2 low L2 high /L3

Interface Transport BW (DL:UL) Latency Application


CPRI TDM 260 : 260 50-250 us Best for early implementation and reuse of legacy equipment
eCPRI IP 30 : 10 50-250 us Best for massive MIMO antenna, long term evolution for all bands
HLS (F1) IP 3.3 : 1.6 5 ms Cloud RAN, Used with either low layer split option
Backhaul IP 3.0 : 1.5 >10 ms RAN-Core interface

BW assumptions: 100 MHz NR carrier, 64 TRx, 16 spatial layers


50 © 2018 Nokia
5G Core Network

Smathers
EPC and 5G Core Network (5GC) comparison
Feature EPS 5GC (5G core)
RAN interface S1 with per UE assigned MME & SGW NG2/3 common to all access with per UE assigned AMF & multiple NG3 to UPF
ePDG and TWAG for non-3GPP access
Procedures Access dependent procedures Unified registration, authentication, session management for 3GPP, non-3GPP
access (including untrusted, trusted WLAN and fixed access), Common N1/N2/N3
for 3GPP and non-3GPP access, enabling seamless mobility
Network slicing Single slice per UE with multiple PGW E2E multiple slice per UE with shared AMF, slicing aware RAN and per slice
SMF/UPF (potentially slice specific PCF, NRF etc)
QoS model QCI based bearers QoS flow based framework, including reflective QoS support
Cloud native Possible but node based (box driven) Native support for cloud based deployment with service based architecture and
service-based interfaces within 5GC CP; Definition for NF services
Local applications Support LIPA/SIPTO based deployment Support for edge computing. Application influence on traffic routing.

Session/service Supports full IP address preservation for Improved Session model including different Session and Service Continuity
continuity centralized GW or break before make solution for modes. Support for concurrent (e.g. local and central) access to a data network.
local GW (LIPA/SIPTO)
Policy framework Support SM/QoS based policies Unified Policy framework for Access and mobility control, QoS and charging
enforcement, policy provisioning in the UE; introducing NWDA for data analytics
support.
Services supported SMS over 3GPP access, IMS services over 3GPP SMS over NAS (including over Non 3GPP), support of IMS services, LCS, MPS,
access (+ voice over non-3GPP access) MCPTT
Support for 3rd RRC E2E support not specified yet Support for RRC inactive (RRC state machine includes 3 states: RRC IDLE,
state INACTIVE, CONNECTED)

52 © 2018 Nokia Public


Nokia 5G Cloud-Native Core strategic direction
Service Based Architecture Shared Data Layer Open Core Architecture Micro-services / Containers Stateless VNF machines

NFa NEF NFb Analytics


Open API Monolitic
Architecture
API exposure
Multivendor Database API
States & data
Shared Data Layer
Converged Data Micro-service mapped
Repository to build Service Logic VNF business logic
NFc NRF NFd
Cloud infrastructure agnostic
Cloud infrastructure agnostic

Cloud Technology Drivers


for Nokia Products and Solution Business Transformation Drivers
for Operators to monetize cloud investment

Network Slicing Distributed Edge Compute Programmability & Analytics DevOps for Business Agility

Automated
Operation &
Cloud Agility Regional
Cloud
Central Cloud

Edge Cloud

53 © 2018 Nokia Confidential


5GC Key Functions and Interfaces
N13
NSSF AUSF UDM

N11 N7 N5
MME AMF SMF PCF AF
N26

N14 N15
N3 N6
UE AN UPF DN

N9

NSSF NEF NRF PCF UDM AF

C-Plane
Nnssf Nnef Nnrf Npcf Nudm Naf

Nausf Namf Nsmf

AUSF AMF SMF

U-Plane
N3 N6
UE AN UPF DN

PDU Session (Protocol Data Unit Session)

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Shared Data Layer – collection of data repositories
Nokia SDL Shared Data Layer External Data Exposure
for Analytics etc.
UDR
Unified Data Repository UDSF
Data Storage
UDM (FE) NEF
Function
Network Exposure DSF
Unified Data Mgm’t
Function UDM

Subscription, Policy Data (Un)structured session/context data Structured Information


Management aka HSS Opaque/Proprietary on Demand

NF NF NF NF NF NF NF NF NF

HSS type functions Stateless VNF’s Software Orientated Architecture


55 © Nokia 2018
End to End Network Slicing for the 5G era
Slicing across radio, transport, core edge and central clouds
Slices use case examples
E2E management &
orchestration
Smartphones / Media
Tablets

Orchestrator
Applications Automotive
Platforms
Health
IoT case Infrastructure Health

Mission critical
devices
Distributed
Content & processing
NSSAI = SST+SD where its needed
Slice/service type + Slice Differentiation

Cloud nicely supports Slicing. Routing traffic through specific decomposed VNF’s in suitable Service Chains.

56 © 2018 Nokia Smathers Confidential


Nokia 5G Roadmaps and
References ….

57 © 2018 Nokia Smathers Confidential


Thanks for
considering
Nokia 5G

Francesca Sartori
58 © 2019 Nokia Head of 5G e2e Sales Europe