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Appendix A

The Metric System and Conversion Constants

in Exercise Physiology

Appendix A has three parts. Part 1 deals with the metric UNITS OF MASS (WEIGHT)
system, Part 2 discusses the Système International d’Unités
(SI units), and Part 3 presents conversion factors for clinical Use the following conversions for common units of mass
hematology and clinical chemistry. (weight) and volume. For example, 1 ounce  0.06 pound.
Two ounces would therefore equal 2  0.06  0.12 pound,
and 16 ounces  0.96 pound (16  0.06).
➤ PART 1 • The Metric System
➤ UNITS OF MASS (WEIGHT)
Most measurements in science are expressed in terms of the
metric system. This system uses units that are related to one an- EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
other by a power of 10. The preﬁx centi- means one-hundredth, METRIC UNIT METRIC UNITS ENGLISH UNITS
milli- means one-thousandth, and kilo- is derived from a word kilogram (kg) 1000 g 35.3 oz;
1,000,000 mg 2.2046 lb
that means one thousand. In the following sections, we show gram (g) 0.001 kg
the relationship between metric units and English units of 1000 mg 0.353 oz
measurement that are relevant to the material presented in this milligram (mg) 0.000001 kg
book. 0.001 0.0000353 oz

➤ UNITS OF LENGTH
➤ UNITS OF VOLUME
EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
METRIC UNIT METRIC UNITS ENGLISH UNITS EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
meter (m) 100 cm; 1000 mm 39.37 in; METRIC UNIT METRIC UNITS ENGLISH UNITS
3.28 ft; 1.09 yd liter (L) 1000 mL 1.057 qt
centimeter (cm) 0.01 m; 10 mm 0.3937 in milliliter (mL) 0.001 L 0.001057 qt
millimeter (mm) 0.001 m; 0.1 cm 0.03937 in or cubic centimeter (cc)

➤ TEMPERATURE
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius: °C  (°F  32)  1.8
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: °F  (1.8  °C)  32
On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F.
On the Celsius scale, water freezes at 0°C and boils at 100°C.
1052 APPENDIXES

➤ UNITS OF SPEED
MPH KM  HR1 M  S1 MPH KM  HR1 M  S1
1 1.6 0.47 11 17.7 5.17
2 3.2 0.94 12 19.3 5.64
3 4.8 1.41 13 20.9 6.11
4 6.4 1.88 14 22.5 6.58
5 8.0 2.35 15 24.1 7.05
6 9.6 2.82 16 25.8 7.52
7 11.2 3.29 17 27.4 7.99
8 12.8 3.76 18 29.0 8.46
9 14.4 4.23 19 30.6 8.93
10 16.0 4.70 20 32.2 9.40

COMMON EXPRESSIONS OF WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER

WATTS KILOCALORIES (KCAL) FOOT-POUNDS (FT-LB)
1 watt  0.73756 ft-lb  s1 1 kcal  3086 ft-lb 1 ft  lb  3.2389  103 kcal
1 watt  0.01433 kcal  min1 1 kcal  426.8 kg-m 1 ft  lb  0.13825 kg-m
1 watt  1.341  103 hp 1 kcal  3087.4 ft-lb 1 ft  lb  5.050
or 0.0013 hp 1 kcal  1.5593  103 hp  h1
1 watt  6.12 kg-m  min1  103 hp  h1

Terminology and Units of Measurement Force: That which changes or tends to change the state
The American College of Sports Medicine suggests that the of rest or motion in matter (unit: newton).
following terminology and units of measurement be used in Speed: Total distance traveled per unit of time (unit: me-
scientiﬁc endeavors to promote consistency and clarity of ters per second).
communication, and to avoid ambiguity. The terms deﬁned Velocity: Displacement per unit of time. A vector quan-
below utilize the units of measurement of the Système Inter- tity requiring that direction be stated or strongly implied (unit:
national d’Unités (SI units). meters per second or kilometers per hour).
Exercise: Any and all activity involving generation Work: Force expressed through a distance but with no
of force by the activated muscle(s) that results in disruption limitation on time (unit: joule or kilojoule). Quantities of en-
of a homeostatic state. In dynamic exercise, the muscle may ergy and heat expressed independently of time should also be
perform shortening (concentric) contractions or be over- presented in joules. The term “work” should not be employed
come by external resistance and perform lengthening (ec- synonymously with muscular exercise.
centric) contractions. When muscle force results in Power: The rate of performing work; the derivative of
no movement, the contraction should be termed static or work with respect to time; the product of force and velocity
isometric. (unit: watt). Other related processes such as energy release
Exercise intensity: A speciﬁc level of maintenance of and heat transfer should, when expressed per unit of time, be
muscular activity quantiﬁed in terms of power (energy ex- quantiﬁed and presented in watts.
penditure or work performed per unit of time), isometric force Torque: Effectiveness of a force to produce axial rotation
sustained, or velocity of progression. (unit: newton  meter).
Endurance: The time limit of a person’s ability to main- Volume: A space occupied, for example, by a quantity of
tain either a speciﬁc isometric force or a speciﬁc power level ﬂuid gas (unit: liter or milliliter). Gas volumes should be in-
involving combinations of concentric or eccentric muscular dicated as ATPS, BTPS, or STPD.
contractions. Amount of a substance: The amount of a substance is
Mass: A quantity of matter of an object, a direct measure frequently expressed in moles. A mole is the quantity of a
of the object’s inertia (note: mass  weight  acceleration chemical substance that has a weight in mass units (e.g.,
due to gravity; unit: gram or kilogram). grams) numerically equal to the molecular weight, or that in
Weight: The force with which a quantity of matter is at- the case of a gas has a volume occupied by such a weight un-
tracted toward Earth by normal acceleration of gravity (tradi- der speciﬁed conditions. One mole of a respiratory gas is
tional unit: kilogram). equal to 22.4 liters at STPD.
Energy: The capability of producing force, performing
work, or generating heat (unit: joule or kilojoule).
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1053

➤ PART 2 • SI Units the SI, and leading journals in nutrition, health, and exercise
The uniform numerical value system is known as the Système science now require that laboratory data be presented in SI
International d’Unités, or its abbreviation, SI. SI was devel- units. The information in this appendix has been summarized
oped through international cooperation to create a universally from a detailed description about the SI published in the fol-
acceptable system of measurement. SI ensures that units of lowing article:
measurement are uniform in concept and style. The SI system
permits quantities in common use to be more easily com- Young DS. Implementation of SI units for clinical laboratory data. Style
speciﬁcations and conversion tables. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:114.
pared. Many scientiﬁc organizations endorse the concept of

➤ DEFINITIONS OF COMMON SI UNITS

Degree Celsius (°C) The degree Celsius (centigrade) is equivalent to K  273.16.
Radian (rad) The radian is the plane angle between two radii of a circle which subtend
on the circumference of an arc equal in length to the radius.
Joule (J) The joule is the work done when the point of application of a force of
one newton is displaced through a distance of one meter in the
direction of the force. 1 J  1 N  m.
Kelvin (K) The kelvin is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of
the triple point of water.
Kilogram (kg) The kilogram is a unit of mass equal to the mass of the international
prototype of the kilogram.
Meter (m) The meter is the length equal to 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of
the radiation that corresponds to the transition between the levels 2p10
and 5d5 of the krypton 86 atom.
Newton (N) The newton is that force which, when applied to a mass of 1 kilogram,
gives it an acceleration of 1 meter per second squared.
1 N  1 kg  m/s2.
Pascal (Pa) The pascal is the pressure produced by a force of 1 newton applied,
with uniform distribution, over an area of 1 square meter.
1 Pa  1 N/m2.
Second (s) The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation that
corresponds to the transition between the two hyperﬁne levels of the
ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
Watt (W) The watt is the power that in 1 second gives rise to the energy of
1 joule. 1 W  1 J/s.

➤ BASE UNITS OF SI NOMENCLATURE

PHYSICAL QUANTITY BASE UNIT SI SYMBOL
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Amount of substance mole mol
Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K
Electric current ampere A
Luminous intensity candela cd
1054 APPENDIXES

➤ GENERAL SI STYLE GUIDELINES

GUIDELINES EXAMPLE INCORRECT STYLE CORRECT STYLE
Lowercase letters are used for symbols or abbreviations kilogram Kg kg
Exceptions:
kelvin k K
ampere a A
liter l L
Symbols are not followed by a period meter m. m
Exception: end of sentence mole mol. mol

Symbols are not to be pluralized kilograms kgs kg

meters ms m
Names and symbols are not to be combined force kilogram  meter  s2 kg  m  s2
kg  m/s2
When numbers are printed, symbols are preferred 100 meters 100 m
2 moles 2 mol
A space should be placed between number and symbol 50ml 50 mL
The product of units is indicated by a dot above the line kg  ms2 kg  m  s2
kg  m/s2
Only one solidus (/) should be used per expression mmol/L/s mmol/(L  s)
A zero should be placed before the decimal .01 0.01
3
Decimal numbers are preferable to fractions ⁄4 0.75
75% 0.75
Spaces are used to separate long numbers 1,500,000 1 500 000
Exception: optional with four-digit number 1000 1000 or 1 000

For SI units in exercise physiology, the term body weight

➤ COMMON PREFIXES USED WITH SI UNITS is properly referred to as mass (kg), height should be referred
OF MEASUREMENT
to as stature (m), second is s, minute is min, hour is h, week
PREFIX ABBREVIATION MULTIPLICATION FACTOR is wk, month is mo, year is y, day is d, gram is g, liter is L,
tera T 1,000,000,000,000  1012 hertz is Hz, joule is J, kilocalorie is kcal, ohm is Ω, pascal is
giga G 1,000,000,000  109 Pa, revolutions per minute is rpm, volt is V, and watt is W.
mega M 1,000,000  106
kilo k 1,000  103
These abbreviations or symbols are used for the singular or
hecto h 100  102 plural form.
deci d 0.1  101
centi c 0.01  102
milli m 0.001  103
micro  0.000,001  106
nano n 0.000,000,001  109
pico p 0.000,000,000,001  1012
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1055

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
A centimeters/ feet/second 0.03281
ampere-hours coulombs 3,600.0 second
ampere-hours faradays 0.03731 centimeters/ kilometers/hour 0.036
angstrom units inches 3.937  109 second
angstrom units meters 1  1010 centimeters/ knots 0.1943
angstrom units micrometers 1  104 second
B centimeters/ meters/minute 0.6
BTU ergs 1.0550  1010 second
BTU foot-pounds 778.3 centimeters/ miles/hour 0.02237
BTU gram-calories 252.0 second
BTU horsepower-hours 3.931  104 centimeters/ miles/minute 3.728  104
BTU joules 1,054.8 second
BTU kilogram-calories 0.2520 centimeters/ feet/second/ 0.03281
BTU kilogram-meters 107.5 second/second second
BTU kilowatt-hours 2.928  104 centimeters/ km/hour/second 0.036
BTU/hour foot-pounds/ 0.2162 second/second
second centimeters/ meters/second/ 0.01
BTU/hour gram-calorie/ 0.0700 second/second second
second centimeters/ miles/hour/ 0.02237
BTU/hour horsepower-hours 3.929  104 second/second second
BTU/hour watts 0.2931 cubic centimeters cubic feet 3.531  105
BTU/minute foot-pounds/ 12.96 cubic centimeters cubic inches 0.06102
second cubic centimeters cubic meters 1  106
BTU/minute horsepower 0.02356 cubic centimeters cubic yards 1.308  106
BTU/minute kilowatts 0.01757 cubic centimeters gallons (U.S. liq.) 2.642  104
BTU/minute watts 17.57 cubic centimeters liters 0.001
BTU/square foot/ watts/square inch 0.1221 cubic centimeters pints (U.S. liq.) 2.113  103
minute cubic centimeters quarts (U.S. liq.) 1.057  103
C cubic feet bushels (dry) 0.8036
calories, gram BTU (mean) 3.9685  103 cubic feet cubic centimeters 28,320.0
(mean) cubic feet cubic inches 1,728.0
centigrade Fahrenheit (C°  9/5)  32 cubic feet cubic meters 0.02832
(celsius) cubic feet cubic yards 0.03704
centigrams grams 0.01 cubic feet gallons (U.S. liq.) 7.48052
centiliters ﬂuid ounces (U.S.) 0.3382 cubic feet liters 28.32
centiliters cubic inches 0.6103 cu feet pints (U.S. liq.) 59.84
centiliters drams 2.705 cubic feet quarts (U.S. liq.) 29.92
centiliters liters 0.01 cubic feet/minute cubic centimeters/ 472.0
centimeters feet 3.281  102 second
centimeters inches 0.3937 cubic feet/minute gallons/second 0.1247
centimeters kilometers 1  105 cubic feet/minute liters/second 0.4720
centimeters meters 0.01 cubic feet/minute pounds of water/ 62.43
centimeters miles 6.214  106 minute
centimeters millimeters 10.0 cubic feet/second million gal/day 0.646317
centimeters mils 393.7 cubic feet/second gallons/minute 448.831
centimeters yards 1.094  102 cubic inches cubic centimeters 16.39
centimeter-dynes centimeter-grams 1.020  103 cubic inches cubic feet 5.787  104
centimeter-dynes meter-kilograms 1.020  108 cubic inches cubic meters 1.639  104
centimeter-dynes pound-feet 7.376  108 cubic inches cubic yards 2.143  105
centimeter-grams centimeter-dynes 980.7 cubic inches gallons 4.329  103
centimeter-grams meter-kilograms 1  105 cubic inches liters 0.01639
centimeter-grams pound-feet 7.233  106 cubic inches pints (U.S. liq.) 0.03463
centimeters of atmospheres 0.01316 cubic inches quarts (U.S. liq.) 0.01732
mercury cubic meters bushels (dry) 28.38
centimeters of feet of water 0.4461 cubic meters cubic centimeters 1  106
mercury cubic meters cubic feet 35.31
centimeters of kilograms/square 136.0 cubic meters cubic inches 61,023.0
mercury meter cubic meters cubic yards 1.308
centimeters of pounds/square foot 27.85 cubic meters gallons (U.S. liq.) 264.2
mercury cubic meters liters 1,000.0
centimeters of pounds/square inch 0.1934 cubic meters pints (U.S. liq.) 2,113.0
mercury cubic meters quarts (U.S. liq.) 1,057.0
centimeters/ feet/minute 1.1969 cubic yards cubic centimeters 7.646  105
second cubic yards cubic feet 27.0
1056 APPENDIXES

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
cubic yards cubic inches 46,656.0 ergs/second kilowatts 1  1010
cubic yards cubic meters 0.7646 F
cubic yards gallons (U.S. liq.) 202.0 feet centimeters 30.48
cubic yards liters 764.6 feet kilometers 3.048  104
cubic yards pints (U.S. liq.) 1,615.9 feet meters 0.3048
cubic yards quarts (U.S. liq.) 807.9 feet miles (naut.) 1.645  104
cubic yards/ cubic ft/second 0.45 feet miles (stat.) 1.894  104
minute feet millimeters 304.8
cubic yards/ gallons/second 3.367 feet mils 1.2  104
minute feet of water atmospheres 0.02950
cubic yards/ liters/second 12.74 feet of water inches of mercury 0.8826
minute feet of water kilograms/square 0.03048
D centimeter
days seconds 86,400.0 feet of water kilograms/square 304.8
decigrams grams 0.1 meter
deciliters liters 0.1 feet of water pounds/square foot 62.43
decimeters meters 0.1 feet of water pounds/square inch 0.4335
degrees (angle) quadrants 0.01111 feet/minute centimeters/second 0.5080
degrees (angle) radians 0.01745 feet/minute feet/second 0.01667
degrees (angle) seconds 3,600.0 feet/minute kilometers/hour 0.01829
degrees/second radians/second 0.01745 feet/minute meters/minute 0.3048
degrees/second revolutions/ 0.1667 feet/minute miles/hour 0.01136
minute feet/second centimeters/second 30.48
degrees/second revolutions/ 2.778  103 feet/second kilometers/hour 1.097
second feet/second knots 0.5921
dekagrams grams 10.0 feet/second meters/minute 18.29
dekaliters liters 10.0 feet/second miles/hour 0.6818
dekameters meters 10.0 feet/second miles/minute 0.01136
drams grams 1.7718 feet/second/ centimeters/second 30.48
drams ounces 0.0625 second
dynecentimeter ergs/second 0.01 feet/second/ kilometers/hour/ 1.097
dynesquare atmospheres 9.869  107 second second
centimeter feet/second/ meters/second/ 0.3048
dynesquare inches of mercury 2.953  105 second second
centimeter at 0°C feet/second/ miles/hour/second 0.6818
dynesquare inches of water 4.015  104 second
centimeter at 4°C feet/100 feet percent grade 1.0
dynes grams 1.020  103 foot-candles lumens/square 10.764
dynes joules/centimeter 1  107 meter
dynes jouls/meter 1  105 foot-pounds BTU 1.286  103
(newtons) foot-pounds ergs 1.356  107
dynes kilograms 1.020  106 foot-pounds gram-calories 0.3238
dynes poundals 7.233  105 foot-pounds horsepower-hours 5.050  107
dynes pounds 2.248  106 foot-pounds joules 1.356
dynes/square bars 1  106 foot-pounds kilogram-calories 3.24  104
centimeter foot-pounds kilogram-meters 0.1383
E foot-pounds kilowatt-hours 3.766  107
ergs BTU 9.480  1011 foot-pounds/ BTU/minute 1.286  103
ergs dyne-centimeters 1.0 minute
ergs foot-pounds 7.3670  108 foot-pounds/ foot-pounds/ 0.01667
ergs gram-calories 0.2389  107 minute second
ergs gram-centimeters 1.020  103 foot-pounds/ horsepower 3.030  105
ergs horsepower hours 3.7250  1014 minute
ergs joules 1  107 foot-pounds/ kilogram-calories/ 3.24  104
ergs kilogram-calories 2.389  1011 minute minute
ergs kilogram-meters 1.020  108 foot-pounds/ kilowatts 2.260  105
ergs kilowatt-hours 0.2778  1013 second
ergs watt-hours 0.2778  1010 foot-pounds/ BTU/hour 4.6263
ergs/second BTU/minute 5,688  109 second
ergs/second foot-pounds/minute 4.427  106 foot-pounds/ BTU/minute 0.07717
ergs/second foot-pounds/second 7.3756  108 second
ergs/second horsepower 1.341  1010 foot-pounds/ horsepower 0.818  103
ergs/second kilogram-calories/ 1.433  109 second
minute
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1057

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
foot-pounds/ kilogram-calories/ 1.01945 horsepower foot-pounds/ 550.0
second minute second
foot-pounds/ kilowatts 1.356  103 horsepower horsepower 0.9863
second (metric) (550 foot-pounds/
G (542.5 foot- second)
gallons cubic centimeters 3,785.0 pounds/second)
gallons cubic feet 0.1337 horsepower (550 horsepower (metric) 1.014
gallons cubic inches 231.0 foot-pounds/ (542.5 foot-pounds/
gallons cubic meters 3.785  103 second) second)
gallons cubic yards 4.951  103 horsepower kilogram-calories/ 10.68
gallons liters 3.785 minute
gallons (liq. gallons (U.S. liq.) 1.20095 horsepower kilowatts 0.7457
British imp.) horsepower watts 745.7
gallons (U.S.) gallons (imp.) 0.83267 horsepower BTU/hour 33,479.0
gallons of water pounds of water 8.3453 (boiler)
gallons/minute cu feet/second 2.228  103 horsepower kilowatts 9.803
gallons/minute liters/second 0.06308 (boiler)
gallons/minute cubic feet/hour 8.0208 horsepower- BTU 2,547.0
grams dynes 980.7 hours
grams grains 15.43 horsepower- ergs 2.6845  1013
grams joules/centimeter 9.807  105 hours
grams joules/meter 9.807  103 horsepower- foot-pounds 1.98  106
(newtons) hours
grams kilograms 0.001 horsepower- gram-calories 641,190.0
grams kilograms 0.001 hours
grams milligrams 1,000.0 horsepower- joules 2.684  106
grams ounces 0.03527 hours
(avoirdupois) horsepower- kilogram-calories 641.1
grams ounces (troy) 0.03215 hours
grams poundals 0.07093 horsepower- kilogram-meters 2.737  105
grams pounds 2.205  103 hours
grams/ pounds/inch 5.600  103 horsepower- kilowatt-hours 0.7457
centimeter hours
grams/cubic pounds/cubic foot 62.43 hours days 4.167  102
centimeter hours weeks 5.952  103
grams/cubic pounds/cubic inch 0.03613 I
centimeter inches centimeters 2.540
grams/cubic pounds/mil-foot 3.405  107 inches meters 2.540  102
centimeter inches miles 1.578  105
grams/liter grains/gallon 58.417 inches millimeters 25.40
grams/liter pounds/1000 8.345 inches mils 1,000.0
gallons inches yards 2.778  102
grams/liter pounds/cubic foot 0.062427 inches of atmospheres 0.03342
grams/liter parts/million 1,000.0 mercury
grams/square pounds/square foot 2.0481 inches of feet of water 1.133
centimeter mercury
gram-calories BTU 3.9683  103 inches of kilograms/square 0.03453
gram-calories ergs 4.1868  107 mercury centimeter
gram-calories foot-pounds 3.0880 inches of kilograms/square 345.3
gram-calories horsepower-hours 1.5596  106 mercury meter
gram-calories kilowatt-hours 1.1630  106 inches of pounds/square 70.73
gram-calories watt-hours 1.1630  103 mercury foot
gram-calories/ BTU/hour 14.286 inches of pounds/square 0.4912
second mercury inch
gram-centimeters BTU 9.297  108 inches of water atmospheres 2.458  103
gram-centimeters ergs 980.7 (at 4°C)
gram-centimeters joules 9.807  105 inches of water inches of mercury 0.07355
gram-centimeters kilogram-calories 2.343  108 (at 4°C)
gram-centimeters kilogram-meters 1  105 inches of water kg/square 2.540  103
H (at 4°C) centimeter
horsepower BTU/minute 42.44 inches of water ounces/square 0.5781
horsepower foot-pounds/ 33,000.0 (at 4°C) inch
minute inches of water pounds/square 5.204
(at 4°C) foot
1058 APPENDIXES

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
inches of water pounds/square 0.03613 kilograms/square kilograms/square 1  106
(at 4°C) inch millimeter meter
J kilogram-calories BTU 3.968
joules BTU 9.480  104 kilogram-calories foot-pounds 3,088.0
joules ergs 1  107 kilogram-calories horsepower-hours 1.560  103
joules foot-pounds 0.7376 kilogram-calories joules 4,186.0
joules kg-calories 2.389  104 kilogram-calories kilogram-meters 426.9
joules kg-meters 0.1020 kilogram-calories kilojoules 4.186
joules watt-hours 2.778  104 kilogram-calories kilowatt-hours 1.163  103
joules/ grams 1.020  104 kilogram-meters BTU 9.294  103
centimeter kilogram-meters ergs 9.804  107
joules/ dynes 1  107 kilogram-meters foot-pounds 7.233
centimeter kilogram-meters joules 9.804
joules/ joules/meter 100.0 kilogram-meters kilogram-calories 2.342  103
centimeter (newtons) kilogram-meters kilowatt-hours 2.723  106
joules/ poundals 723.3 kilolines maxwells 1,000.0
centimeter kiloliters liters 1,000.0
joules/ pounds 22.48 kilometers centimeters 1  105
centimeter kilometers feet 3,281.0
K kilometers inches 3.937  104
kilograms dynes 980,665.0 kilometers meters 1,000.0
kilograms grams 1,000.0 kilometers miles 0.6214
kilograms joules/centimeter 0.09807 kilometers millimeters 1  106
kilograms joules/meter 9.807 kilometers yards 1,094.0
(newtons) kilometers/hour centimeters/ 27.78
kilograms poundals 70.93 second
kilograms pounds 2.205 kilometers/hour feet/minute 54.68
kilograms tons (long) 9.842  104 kilometers/hour feet/second 0.9113
kilograms tons (short) 1.102  103 kilometers/hour knots 0.5396
kilograms/cubic grams/cubic 0.001 kilometers/hour meters/minute 16.67
meter centimeter kilometers/hour miles/hour 0.6214
kilograms/cubic pounds/cubic 0.06243 kilometers/hour/ centimeters/second/ 27.78
meter foot second second
kilograms/cubic pounds/cubic 3.613  105 kilometers/hour/ feet/second/second 0.9113
meter inch second
kilograms/cubic pounds/mil-foot 3.405  1010 kilometers/hour/ meters/second/ 0.2778
meter second second
kilograms/ pounds/foot 0.6720 kilometers/hour/ miles/hour/second 0.6214
meter second
kilograms/square dynes 980,665.0 kilowatts BTU/minute 56.92
centimeter kilowatts foot-pounds/ 4.426  104
kilograms/square atmospheres 0.9678 minute
centimeter kilowatts foot-pounds/ 737.6
kilograms/square feet of water 32.81 second
centimeter kilowatts horsepower 1.341
kilograms/square inches of 28.96 kilowatts kilogram-calories/ 14.34
centimeter mercury minute
kilograms/square pounds/square 2,048.0 kilowatts watts 1,000.0
centimeter foot kilowatt-hours BTU 3,413.0
kilograms/square pounds/square 14.22 kilowatt-hours ergs 3.600  1013
centimeter inch kilowatt-hours foot-pounds 2.655  106
kilograms/square atmospheres 9.678  105 kilowatt-hours gram-calories 859,850.0
meter kilowatt-hours horsepower-hours 1.341
kilograms/square bars 98.07  106 kilowatt-hours joules 3.6  106
meter kilowatt-hours kilogram-calories 860.5
kilograms/square feet of water 3.281  103 kilowatt-hours kilogram-meters 3.671  105
meter kilowatt-hours pounds of water
kilograms/square inches of mercury 2.896  103 evaporated from
meter and at 212°F 3.53
kilograms/square pounds/square 0.2048 kilowatt-hours pounds of water
meter foot raised from 62° to
kilograms/square pounds/square 1.422  103 212°F 22.75
meter inch
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1059

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
L miles/hour miles/minute 0.1667
liters bushels (U.S. dry) 0.02838 miles/hour/ centimeters/ 44.70
liters cubic centimeters 1,000.0 second second/second
liters cubic feet 0.03531 miles/hour/ feet/second/second 1.467
liters cubic inches 61.02 second
liters cubic meters 0.001 miles/hour/ kilometers/hour/ 1.609
liters cubic yards 1.308  103 second second
liters gallons (U.S. liq.) 0.2642 miles/hour/ meters/second/ 0.4470
liters pints (U.S. liq.) 2.113 second second
liters quarts (U.S. liq.) 1.057 miles/minute centimeters/second 2,682.0
liters/minute cubic feet/second 5.886  104 miles/minute feet/second 88.0
liters/minute gallons/second 4.403  103 miles/minute kilometers/minute 1.609
M miles/minute knots/minute 0.8684
meters centimeters 100.0 miles/minute miles/hour 60.0
meters feet 3.281 mil-feet cubic inches 9.425  106
meters inches 39.37 milliliters kilograms 1,000.0
meters kilometers 0.001 millimicrons meters 1  109
meters miles (nautical) 5.396  104 milligrams grains 0.01543236
meters miles (statute) 6.214  104 milligrams grams 0.001
meters millimeters 1,000.0 milligrams/liter parts/million 1.0
meters yards 1.094 millihenries henries 0.001
meters/minute cms/second 1.667 milliliters liters 0.001
meters/minute feet/minute 3.281 millimeters centimeters 0.1
meters/minute feet/second 0.05468 millimeters feet 3.281  103
meters/minute kilometers/hour 0.06 millimeters inches 0.03937
meters/minute knots 0.03238 millimeters kilometers 1  106
meters/minute miles/hour 0.03728 millimeters meters 0.001
meters/second feet/minute 196.8 millimeters miles 6.214  107
meters/second feet/second 3.281 millimeters mils 39.37
meters/second kilometers/hour 3.6 millimeters yards 1.094  103
meters/second kilometers/minute 0.06 minutes (angles) degrees 0.01667
meters/second miles/hour 2.237 minutes (angles) quadrants 1.852  104
meters/second miles/minute 0.03728 minutes (angles) radians 2.909  104
meters/second/ centimeters/ 100.0 minutes (angles) seconds 60.0
second second/second N
meters/second/ feet/second/second 3.281 newtons dynes 1  105
second O
meters/second/ kilometers/hour/ 3.6 ohms ohms (absolute) 1.005
second second (international)
meters/second/ miles/hour/second 2.237 ohms megohms 1  106
second ohms microhms 1  106
meter-kilograms centimeter-dynes 9.807  107 ounces drams 16.0
meter-kilograms centimeter-grams 1  105 ounces grains 437.5
meter-kilograms pound-feet 7.233 ounces grams 28.349527
miles (nautical) feet 6,080.27 ounces pounds 0.0625
miles (nautical) kilometers 1.853 ounces ounces (troy) 0.9115
miles (nautical) meters 1,853.0 ounces tons (long) 2.790  105
miles (nautical) miles (statute) 1.1516 ounces tons (metric) 2.835  105
miles (nautical) yards 2,027.0 ounces (ﬂuid) cubic inches 1.805
miles (statute) centimeters 1.609  105 ounces (ﬂuid) liters 0.02957
miles (statute) feet 5,280.0 ounces (troy) grains 480.0
miles (statute) inches 6.336  104 ounces (troy) grams 31.103481
miles (statute) kilometers 1.609 ounces (troy) ounces 1.09714
miles (statute) meters 1,609.0 (avoirdupois)
miles (statute) miles (nautical) 0.8684 ounces (troy) pennyweights 20.0
miles (statute) yards 1,760.0 (troy)
miles/hour centimeters/ 44.70 ounces (troy) pounds (troy) 0.08333
second ounces/square dynes/square 4,309.0
miles/hour feet/minute 88.0 inch centimeter
miles/hour feet/second 1.467 ounces/square pounds/square 0.0625
miles/hour kilometers/hour 1.609 inch inch
miles/hour kilometers/minute 0.02682 P
miles/hour knots 0.8684 pints (liquid) cubic centimeters 473.2
miles/hour meters/minute 26.82 pints (liquid) cubic feet 0.01671
1060 APPENDIXES

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
pints (liquid) cubic inches 28.87 square centimeters square feet 1.076  103
pints (liquid) cubic meters 4.732  104 square centimeters square inches 0.1550
pints (liquid) cubic yards 6.189  104 square centimeters square meters 0.0001
pints (liquid) gallons 0.125 square centimeters square miles 3.861  1011
pints (liquid) liters 0.4732 square centimeters square 100.0
pints (liquid) quarts (liquid) 0.5 millimeters
pounds ounces (troy) 14.5833 square centimeters square yards 1.196  104
(avoirdupois) square feet acres 2.296  105
pounds drams 256.0 square feet circular mils 1.833  108
pounds dynes 44.4823  104 square feet square centimeters 929.0
pounds grains 7,000.0 square feet square inches 144.0
pounds grams 453.5924 square feet square meters 0.09290
pounds joules/centimeter 0.04448 square feet square miles 3.587  108
pounds joules/meter 4.448 square feet square 9.290  104
(newtons) millimeters
pounds kilograms 0.4536 square feet square yards 0.1111
pounds ounces 16.0 square inches circular mils 1.273  106
pounds ounces (troy) 14.5833 square inches square centimeters 6.452
pounds poundals 32.17 square inches square feet 6.944  103
pounds pounds (troy) 1.21528 square inches square 645.2
pounds tons (short) 0.0005 millimeters
pounds of cubic inches 27.68 square inches square mils 1  106
water square inches square yards 7.716  104
pounds of gallons 0.1198 square kilometers acres 247.1
water square kilometers square centimeters 1  1010
Q square kilometers square feet 10.76  106
quarts (dry) cubic inches 67.20 square kilometers square inches 1.550  109
quarts (liquid) cubic centimeters 946.4 square kilometers square meters 1  106
quarts (liquid) cubic feet 0.03342 square kilometers square miles 0.3861
quarts (liquid) cubic inches 57.75 square kilometers square yards 1.196  106
quarts (liquid) cubic meters 9.464  104 square meters acres 2.471  104
quarts (liquid) cubic yards 1.238  103 square meters square centimeters 1  104
quarts (liquid) gallons 0.25 square meters square feet 10.76
quarts (liquid) liters 0.9463 square meters square inches 1,550.0
R square meters square miles 3.861  107
radians degrees 57.30 square meters square millimeters 1  106
revolutions degrees 360.0 square meters square yards 1.196
revolutions quadrants 4.0 square miles acres 640.0
revolutions radians 6.283 square miles square feet 27.88  106
revolutions/minute degrees/second 6.0 square miles square kilometers 2.590
revolutions/minute radians/second 0.1047 square miles square meters 2.590  106
revolutions/minute revolutions/second 0.01667 square miles square yards 3.098  106
revolutions/minute/ radians/second/ 1.745  103 square millimeters circular mils 1,973.0
minute second square millimeters square centimeters 0.01
revolutions/minute/ revolutions/ 0.01667 square millimeters square feet 1.076  105
minute minute/second square millimeters square inches 1.550  103
revolutions/minute/ revolutions/ 2.778  104 square yards acres 2.066  104
minute second/second square yards square centimeters 8,361.0
revolutions/second degrees/second 360.0 square yards square feet 9.0
revolutions/second radians/second 6.283 square yards square inches 1,296.0
revolutions/second revolutions/ 60.0 square yards square meters 0.8361
minute square yards square miles 3.228  107
revolutions/second/ radians/second/ 6.283 square yards square millimeters 8.361  105
second second T
revolutions/second/ revolutions/ 3,600.0 temperature absolute 1.0
second minute/minute (°F)  460 temperature (°F)
revolutions/second/ revolutions/ 60.0 temperature temperature (°C) 5/9
second minute/second (°F)  32
S temperature absolute 1.0
seconds (angle) degrees 2.778  104 (°F)  460 temperature (°F)
seconds (angle) minutes 0.01667 temperature temperature (°C) 5.9
seconds (angle) quadrants 3.087  106 (°F)  32
seconds (angle) radians 4.848  106 tons (metric) kilograms 1,000.0
square centimeters circular mils 1.973  105 tons (metric) pounds 2,205.0
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1061

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued

TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
W watt-hours BTU 3.413
watts BTU/hour 3.4129 watt-hours ergs 3.60  1010
watts BTU/minute 0.05688 watt-hours foot-pounds 2,656.0
watts ergs/second 107.0 watt-hours gram-calories 859.85
watts foot-pounds/ 44.27 watt-hours horsepower-hours 1.341  103
minute watt-hours kilogram-calories 0.8605
watts foot-pounds/ 0.7378 watt-hours kilogram-meters 367.2
second watt-hours kilowatt-hours 0.001
watts horsepower 1.341  103 watts watts (absolute) 1.0002
watts horsepower 1.360  103 (international)
(metric) Y
watts kilogram-calories/ 0.01433 yards centimeters 91.44
minute yards kilometers 9.144  104
watts kilowatts 0.001 yards meters 0.9144
watts (absolute) BTU (mean)/ 0.056884 yards miles (nautical) 4.934  104
minute yards miles (statute) 5.682  104
watts (absolute) joules/second 1.0 yards millimeters 914.4

➤ PART 3 • Clinical Hematology and Clinical Chemistry

➤ SI CONVERSION TABLE FOR COMMON VALUES IN CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
PRESENT
REFERENCE SI SI SUGGESTED
INTERVALS PRESENT CONVERSION REFERENCE UNIT SIGNIFICANT MINIMUM
COMPONENT (EXAMPLES) UNIT FACTOR INTERVALS SYMBOL DIGITS INCREMENT
Hemoglobin (B)
Mass concentration
—female 12.0–15.0 g/dL 10 120–150 g/L XXX 1 g/L
—male 13.6–17.2 g/dL 10 136–172 g/L XXX 1 g/L
Substance conc. Hb [Fe]
—female 12.0–15.0 g/dL 0.6206 7.45–9.30 mmol/L XX.XX 0.05 mmol/L
—male 13.6–17.2 g/dL 0.6206 8.45–10.65 mmol/L XX.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Alkaline phosphatase (S) 30–120 U/L 0.01667 0.5–2.0 kat/L X.X 0.1 kat/L
Amino acid nitrogen (P) 4.0–6.0 mg/dL 0.7139 2.9–4.3 mmol/L X.X 0.1 mmol/L
Amino acid nitrogen (U) 50–200 mg/24 h 0.07139 3.6–14.3 mmol/d X.X 0.1 mmol/d
Androstenedione (S)
—male 18 y 0.2–3.0 g/L 3.492 0.5–10.5 mmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
—female 18 y 0.8–3.0 g/L 3.492 3.0–10.5 nmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
Bilirubin, total (S) 0.1–1.0 mg/dL 17.10 2–18 mol/L XX 2 mol/L
Calcium (S)
—male 8.8–10.3 mg/dL 0.2495 2.20–2.50 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
—female
50 y 8.8–10.0 mg/dL 0.2495 2.20–2.50 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
—female 50 y 8.8–10.2 mg/dL 0.2495 2.20–2.56 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
Calcium (U), normal diet
250 mg/24 h 0.02495
6.2 mmol/d X.X 0.1 mmol/d
Cholesterol (P)

29 y
200 mg/dL 0.02586
5.20 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
—30–39 y
225 mg/dL 0.02586
5.85 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
—40–49 y
245 mg/dL 0.02586
6.35 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
— 50 y
265 mg/dL 0.02586
6.85 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Ferritin (S) 18–300 ng/mL 1.00 18–300 g/L XX0 10 g/L
Glucose (P)—fasting 70–110 mg/dL 0.05551 3.9–6.1 mmol/L XX.X 0.1 mmol/L
Hemoglobin (B)
—male 14.0–18.0 g/dL 10.0 140–180 g/L XXX 1 g/L
—female 11.5–15.5 g/dL 10.0 115–155 g/L XXX 1 g/L
Insulin (P,S) 5–20 U/mL 7.175 35–145 pmol/L XXX 5 pmol/L
5–20 mU/L 7.175 35–145 pmol/L XXX 5 pmol/L
0.20–0.84 g/mL 172.2 35–145 pmol/L XXX 5 pmol/L

1062 APPENDIXES

➤ SI CONVERSION TABLE FOR COMMON VALUES IN CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL

CHEMISTRY—continued
PRESENT
REFERENCE SI SI SUGGESTED
INTERVALS PRESENT CONVERSION REFERENCE UNIT SIGNIFICANT MINIMUM
COMPONENT (EXAMPLES) UNIT FACTOR INTERVALS SYMBOL DIGITS INCREMENT
Iron (S)
—male 80–180 g/dL 0.1791 14–32 mol/L XX 1 mol/L
—female 60–160 g/dL 0.1791 11–29 mol/L XX 1 mol/L
Lipoproteins (P)
Low density [LDL]—
as cholesterol 50–190 mg/dL 0.02586 1.30–4.90 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
High density [HDL]—
as cholesterol
Male 30–70 mg/dL 0.02586 0.80–1.80 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Female 30–90 mg/dL 0.02586 0.80–2.35 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Testosterone (P)
—female 0.6 ng/mL 3.467 2.0 nmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
—male 4.6–8.0 ng/mL 3.467 14.0–28.0 nmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
Thyroid tests:
Thyroid-stimulating
hormone [TSH] (S) 2–11 U/mL 1.00 2–11 mU/L XX 1 mU/L
Thyroxine [T4] (S) 4.0–11.0 g/dL 12.87 51–142 nmol/L XXX 1 nmol/L
Thyroxine binding
globulin [TBG]
(S)—[as thyroxine] 12.0–28.0 g/dL 12.87 150–360 nmol/L XX0 1 nmol/L
Thyroxine, free (S) 0.8–2.8 ng/dL 12.87 10–36 pmol/L XX 1 pmol/L
Triiodothyronine
[T3] (S) 75–220 ng/dL 0.01536 1.2–3.4 nmol/L X.X 0.1 nmol/L
T3 uptake (S) 25–35 % 0.01 0.25–0.35 1 0.XX 0.01
Tolbutamide (P)—
therapeutic 50–120 mg/L 3.699 180–450 mol/L XX0 10 mol/L
Transferrin (S) 170–370 mg/dL 0.01 1.70–3.70 g/L X.XX 0.01 g/L
Triglycerides (P)
[as triolein]
160 mg/dL 0.01129
1.80 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
Vitamin A [retinol] (P,S) 10–50 g/dL 0.03491 0.35–1.75 mol/L X.XX 0.05 mol/L
Vitamin B1 [thiamine
hydrochloride] (U) 60–500 g/24 h 0.002965 0.18–1.48 mol/d X.XX 0.01 mol/d
Vitamin B2 [riboﬂavin] (S) 2.6–3.7 g/dL 26.57 70–100 nmol/L XXX 5 nmol/L
Vitamin B6 [pyridoxal] (B) 20–90 ng/mL 5.982 120–540 nmol/L XXX 5 nmol/L
Vitamin B12 [cyano-
cobalamin] (P,S) 200–1000 pg/mL 0.7378 150–750 pmol/L XX0 10 pmol/L
ng/dL 7.378 pmol/L
Vitamin C [ascorbic acid] 0.6–2.00 mg/dL 56.78 30–110 mol/L X0 10 mol/L
Vitamin D3
[cholecalciferol] (P) 24–40 g/mL 2.599 60–105 nmol/L XXX 5 nmol/L
25 OH-cholecalciferol 18–36 ng/mL 2.496 45–90 nmol/L XXX 5 mmol/L
Vitamin E [alpha-
tocopherol] (P,S) 0.78–1.25 mg/dL 23.22 18–29 mol/L XX 1 mol/L