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Appendix A

The Metric System and Conversion Constants


in Exercise Physiology

Appendix A has three parts. Part 1 deals with the metric UNITS OF MASS (WEIGHT)
system, Part 2 discusses the Système International d’Unités
(SI units), and Part 3 presents conversion factors for clinical Use the following conversions for common units of mass
hematology and clinical chemistry. (weight) and volume. For example, 1 ounce  0.06 pound.
Two ounces would therefore equal 2  0.06  0.12 pound,
and 16 ounces  0.96 pound (16  0.06).
➤ PART 1 • The Metric System
➤ UNITS OF MASS (WEIGHT)
Most measurements in science are expressed in terms of the
metric system. This system uses units that are related to one an- EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
other by a power of 10. The prefix centi- means one-hundredth, METRIC UNIT METRIC UNITS ENGLISH UNITS
milli- means one-thousandth, and kilo- is derived from a word kilogram (kg) 1000 g 35.3 oz;
1,000,000 mg 2.2046 lb
that means one thousand. In the following sections, we show gram (g) 0.001 kg
the relationship between metric units and English units of 1000 mg 0.353 oz
measurement that are relevant to the material presented in this milligram (mg) 0.000001 kg
book. 0.001 0.0000353 oz

➤ UNITS OF LENGTH
➤ UNITS OF VOLUME
EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
METRIC UNIT METRIC UNITS ENGLISH UNITS EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT
meter (m) 100 cm; 1000 mm 39.37 in; METRIC UNIT METRIC UNITS ENGLISH UNITS
3.28 ft; 1.09 yd liter (L) 1000 mL 1.057 qt
centimeter (cm) 0.01 m; 10 mm 0.3937 in milliliter (mL) 0.001 L 0.001057 qt
millimeter (mm) 0.001 m; 0.1 cm 0.03937 in or cubic centimeter (cc)

➤ TEMPERATURE
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius: °C  (°F  32)  1.8
To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: °F  (1.8  °C)  32
On the Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F.
On the Celsius scale, water freezes at 0°C and boils at 100°C.
1052 APPENDIXES

➤ UNITS OF SPEED
MPH KM  HR1 M  S1 MPH KM  HR1 M  S1
1 1.6 0.47 11 17.7 5.17
2 3.2 0.94 12 19.3 5.64
3 4.8 1.41 13 20.9 6.11
4 6.4 1.88 14 22.5 6.58
5 8.0 2.35 15 24.1 7.05
6 9.6 2.82 16 25.8 7.52
7 11.2 3.29 17 27.4 7.99
8 12.8 3.76 18 29.0 8.46
9 14.4 4.23 19 30.6 8.93
10 16.0 4.70 20 32.2 9.40

COMMON EXPRESSIONS OF WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER


WATTS KILOCALORIES (KCAL) FOOT-POUNDS (FT-LB)
1 watt  0.73756 ft-lb  s1 1 kcal  3086 ft-lb 1 ft  lb  3.2389  103 kcal
1 watt  0.01433 kcal  min1 1 kcal  426.8 kg-m 1 ft  lb  0.13825 kg-m
1 watt  1.341  103 hp 1 kcal  3087.4 ft-lb 1 ft  lb  5.050
or 0.0013 hp 1 kcal  1.5593  103 hp  h1
1 watt  6.12 kg-m  min1  103 hp  h1

Terminology and Units of Measurement Force: That which changes or tends to change the state
The American College of Sports Medicine suggests that the of rest or motion in matter (unit: newton).
following terminology and units of measurement be used in Speed: Total distance traveled per unit of time (unit: me-
scientific endeavors to promote consistency and clarity of ters per second).
communication, and to avoid ambiguity. The terms defined Velocity: Displacement per unit of time. A vector quan-
below utilize the units of measurement of the Système Inter- tity requiring that direction be stated or strongly implied (unit:
national d’Unités (SI units). meters per second or kilometers per hour).
Exercise: Any and all activity involving generation Work: Force expressed through a distance but with no
of force by the activated muscle(s) that results in disruption limitation on time (unit: joule or kilojoule). Quantities of en-
of a homeostatic state. In dynamic exercise, the muscle may ergy and heat expressed independently of time should also be
perform shortening (concentric) contractions or be over- presented in joules. The term “work” should not be employed
come by external resistance and perform lengthening (ec- synonymously with muscular exercise.
centric) contractions. When muscle force results in Power: The rate of performing work; the derivative of
no movement, the contraction should be termed static or work with respect to time; the product of force and velocity
isometric. (unit: watt). Other related processes such as energy release
Exercise intensity: A specific level of maintenance of and heat transfer should, when expressed per unit of time, be
muscular activity quantified in terms of power (energy ex- quantified and presented in watts.
penditure or work performed per unit of time), isometric force Torque: Effectiveness of a force to produce axial rotation
sustained, or velocity of progression. (unit: newton  meter).
Endurance: The time limit of a person’s ability to main- Volume: A space occupied, for example, by a quantity of
tain either a specific isometric force or a specific power level fluid gas (unit: liter or milliliter). Gas volumes should be in-
involving combinations of concentric or eccentric muscular dicated as ATPS, BTPS, or STPD.
contractions. Amount of a substance: The amount of a substance is
Mass: A quantity of matter of an object, a direct measure frequently expressed in moles. A mole is the quantity of a
of the object’s inertia (note: mass  weight  acceleration chemical substance that has a weight in mass units (e.g.,
due to gravity; unit: gram or kilogram). grams) numerically equal to the molecular weight, or that in
Weight: The force with which a quantity of matter is at- the case of a gas has a volume occupied by such a weight un-
tracted toward Earth by normal acceleration of gravity (tradi- der specified conditions. One mole of a respiratory gas is
tional unit: kilogram). equal to 22.4 liters at STPD.
Energy: The capability of producing force, performing
work, or generating heat (unit: joule or kilojoule).
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1053

➤ PART 2 • SI Units the SI, and leading journals in nutrition, health, and exercise
The uniform numerical value system is known as the Système science now require that laboratory data be presented in SI
International d’Unités, or its abbreviation, SI. SI was devel- units. The information in this appendix has been summarized
oped through international cooperation to create a universally from a detailed description about the SI published in the fol-
acceptable system of measurement. SI ensures that units of lowing article:
measurement are uniform in concept and style. The SI system
permits quantities in common use to be more easily com- Young DS. Implementation of SI units for clinical laboratory data. Style
specifications and conversion tables. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:114.
pared. Many scientific organizations endorse the concept of

➤ DEFINITIONS OF COMMON SI UNITS


Degree Celsius (°C) The degree Celsius (centigrade) is equivalent to K  273.16.
Radian (rad) The radian is the plane angle between two radii of a circle which subtend
on the circumference of an arc equal in length to the radius.
Joule (J) The joule is the work done when the point of application of a force of
one newton is displaced through a distance of one meter in the
direction of the force. 1 J  1 N  m.
Kelvin (K) The kelvin is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of
the triple point of water.
Kilogram (kg) The kilogram is a unit of mass equal to the mass of the international
prototype of the kilogram.
Meter (m) The meter is the length equal to 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of
the radiation that corresponds to the transition between the levels 2p10
and 5d5 of the krypton 86 atom.
Newton (N) The newton is that force which, when applied to a mass of 1 kilogram,
gives it an acceleration of 1 meter per second squared.
1 N  1 kg  m/s2.
Pascal (Pa) The pascal is the pressure produced by a force of 1 newton applied,
with uniform distribution, over an area of 1 square meter.
1 Pa  1 N/m2.
Second (s) The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation that
corresponds to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the
ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
Watt (W) The watt is the power that in 1 second gives rise to the energy of
1 joule. 1 W  1 J/s.

➤ BASE UNITS OF SI NOMENCLATURE


PHYSICAL QUANTITY BASE UNIT SI SYMBOL
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Amount of substance mole mol
Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K
Electric current ampere A
Luminous intensity candela cd
1054 APPENDIXES

➤ GENERAL SI STYLE GUIDELINES


GUIDELINES EXAMPLE INCORRECT STYLE CORRECT STYLE
Lowercase letters are used for symbols or abbreviations kilogram Kg kg
Exceptions:
kelvin k K
ampere a A
liter l L
Symbols are not followed by a period meter m. m
Exception: end of sentence mole mol. mol

Symbols are not to be pluralized kilograms kgs kg


meters ms m
Names and symbols are not to be combined force kilogram  meter  s2 kg  m  s2
kg  m/s2
When numbers are printed, symbols are preferred 100 meters 100 m
2 moles 2 mol
A space should be placed between number and symbol 50ml 50 mL
The product of units is indicated by a dot above the line kg  ms2 kg  m  s2
kg  m/s2
Only one solidus (/) should be used per expression mmol/L/s mmol/(L  s)
A zero should be placed before the decimal .01 0.01
3
Decimal numbers are preferable to fractions ⁄4 0.75
75% 0.75
Spaces are used to separate long numbers 1,500,000 1 500 000
Exception: optional with four-digit number 1000 1000 or 1 000

For SI units in exercise physiology, the term body weight


➤ COMMON PREFIXES USED WITH SI UNITS is properly referred to as mass (kg), height should be referred
OF MEASUREMENT
to as stature (m), second is s, minute is min, hour is h, week
PREFIX ABBREVIATION MULTIPLICATION FACTOR is wk, month is mo, year is y, day is d, gram is g, liter is L,
tera T 1,000,000,000,000  1012 hertz is Hz, joule is J, kilocalorie is kcal, ohm is Ω, pascal is
giga G 1,000,000,000  109 Pa, revolutions per minute is rpm, volt is V, and watt is W.
mega M 1,000,000  106
kilo k 1,000  103
These abbreviations or symbols are used for the singular or
hecto h 100  102 plural form.
deci d 0.1  101
centi c 0.01  102
milli m 0.001  103
micro  0.000,001  106
nano n 0.000,000,001  109
pico p 0.000,000,000,001  1012
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1055

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
A centimeters/ feet/second 0.03281
ampere-hours coulombs 3,600.0 second
ampere-hours faradays 0.03731 centimeters/ kilometers/hour 0.036
angstrom units inches 3.937  109 second
angstrom units meters 1  1010 centimeters/ knots 0.1943
angstrom units micrometers 1  104 second
B centimeters/ meters/minute 0.6
BTU ergs 1.0550  1010 second
BTU foot-pounds 778.3 centimeters/ miles/hour 0.02237
BTU gram-calories 252.0 second
BTU horsepower-hours 3.931  104 centimeters/ miles/minute 3.728  104
BTU joules 1,054.8 second
BTU kilogram-calories 0.2520 centimeters/ feet/second/ 0.03281
BTU kilogram-meters 107.5 second/second second
BTU kilowatt-hours 2.928  104 centimeters/ km/hour/second 0.036
BTU/hour foot-pounds/ 0.2162 second/second
second centimeters/ meters/second/ 0.01
BTU/hour gram-calorie/ 0.0700 second/second second
second centimeters/ miles/hour/ 0.02237
BTU/hour horsepower-hours 3.929  104 second/second second
BTU/hour watts 0.2931 cubic centimeters cubic feet 3.531  105
BTU/minute foot-pounds/ 12.96 cubic centimeters cubic inches 0.06102
second cubic centimeters cubic meters 1  106
BTU/minute horsepower 0.02356 cubic centimeters cubic yards 1.308  106
BTU/minute kilowatts 0.01757 cubic centimeters gallons (U.S. liq.) 2.642  104
BTU/minute watts 17.57 cubic centimeters liters 0.001
BTU/square foot/ watts/square inch 0.1221 cubic centimeters pints (U.S. liq.) 2.113  103
minute cubic centimeters quarts (U.S. liq.) 1.057  103
C cubic feet bushels (dry) 0.8036
calories, gram BTU (mean) 3.9685  103 cubic feet cubic centimeters 28,320.0
(mean) cubic feet cubic inches 1,728.0
centigrade Fahrenheit (C°  9/5)  32 cubic feet cubic meters 0.02832
(celsius) cubic feet cubic yards 0.03704
centigrams grams 0.01 cubic feet gallons (U.S. liq.) 7.48052
centiliters fluid ounces (U.S.) 0.3382 cubic feet liters 28.32
centiliters cubic inches 0.6103 cu feet pints (U.S. liq.) 59.84
centiliters drams 2.705 cubic feet quarts (U.S. liq.) 29.92
centiliters liters 0.01 cubic feet/minute cubic centimeters/ 472.0
centimeters feet 3.281  102 second
centimeters inches 0.3937 cubic feet/minute gallons/second 0.1247
centimeters kilometers 1  105 cubic feet/minute liters/second 0.4720
centimeters meters 0.01 cubic feet/minute pounds of water/ 62.43
centimeters miles 6.214  106 minute
centimeters millimeters 10.0 cubic feet/second million gal/day 0.646317
centimeters mils 393.7 cubic feet/second gallons/minute 448.831
centimeters yards 1.094  102 cubic inches cubic centimeters 16.39
centimeter-dynes centimeter-grams 1.020  103 cubic inches cubic feet 5.787  104
centimeter-dynes meter-kilograms 1.020  108 cubic inches cubic meters 1.639  104
centimeter-dynes pound-feet 7.376  108 cubic inches cubic yards 2.143  105
centimeter-grams centimeter-dynes 980.7 cubic inches gallons 4.329  103
centimeter-grams meter-kilograms 1  105 cubic inches liters 0.01639
centimeter-grams pound-feet 7.233  106 cubic inches pints (U.S. liq.) 0.03463
centimeters of atmospheres 0.01316 cubic inches quarts (U.S. liq.) 0.01732
mercury cubic meters bushels (dry) 28.38
centimeters of feet of water 0.4461 cubic meters cubic centimeters 1  106
mercury cubic meters cubic feet 35.31
centimeters of kilograms/square 136.0 cubic meters cubic inches 61,023.0
mercury meter cubic meters cubic yards 1.308
centimeters of pounds/square foot 27.85 cubic meters gallons (U.S. liq.) 264.2
mercury cubic meters liters 1,000.0
centimeters of pounds/square inch 0.1934 cubic meters pints (U.S. liq.) 2,113.0
mercury cubic meters quarts (U.S. liq.) 1,057.0
centimeters/ feet/minute 1.1969 cubic yards cubic centimeters 7.646  105
second cubic yards cubic feet 27.0
1056 APPENDIXES

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
cubic yards cubic inches 46,656.0 ergs/second kilowatts 1  1010
cubic yards cubic meters 0.7646 F
cubic yards gallons (U.S. liq.) 202.0 feet centimeters 30.48
cubic yards liters 764.6 feet kilometers 3.048  104
cubic yards pints (U.S. liq.) 1,615.9 feet meters 0.3048
cubic yards quarts (U.S. liq.) 807.9 feet miles (naut.) 1.645  104
cubic yards/ cubic ft/second 0.45 feet miles (stat.) 1.894  104
minute feet millimeters 304.8
cubic yards/ gallons/second 3.367 feet mils 1.2  104
minute feet of water atmospheres 0.02950
cubic yards/ liters/second 12.74 feet of water inches of mercury 0.8826
minute feet of water kilograms/square 0.03048
D centimeter
days seconds 86,400.0 feet of water kilograms/square 304.8
decigrams grams 0.1 meter
deciliters liters 0.1 feet of water pounds/square foot 62.43
decimeters meters 0.1 feet of water pounds/square inch 0.4335
degrees (angle) quadrants 0.01111 feet/minute centimeters/second 0.5080
degrees (angle) radians 0.01745 feet/minute feet/second 0.01667
degrees (angle) seconds 3,600.0 feet/minute kilometers/hour 0.01829
degrees/second radians/second 0.01745 feet/minute meters/minute 0.3048
degrees/second revolutions/ 0.1667 feet/minute miles/hour 0.01136
minute feet/second centimeters/second 30.48
degrees/second revolutions/ 2.778  103 feet/second kilometers/hour 1.097
second feet/second knots 0.5921
dekagrams grams 10.0 feet/second meters/minute 18.29
dekaliters liters 10.0 feet/second miles/hour 0.6818
dekameters meters 10.0 feet/second miles/minute 0.01136
drams grams 1.7718 feet/second/ centimeters/second 30.48
drams ounces 0.0625 second
dynecentimeter ergs/second 0.01 feet/second/ kilometers/hour/ 1.097
dynesquare atmospheres 9.869  107 second second
centimeter feet/second/ meters/second/ 0.3048
dynesquare inches of mercury 2.953  105 second second
centimeter at 0°C feet/second/ miles/hour/second 0.6818
dynesquare inches of water 4.015  104 second
centimeter at 4°C feet/100 feet percent grade 1.0
dynes grams 1.020  103 foot-candles lumens/square 10.764
dynes joules/centimeter 1  107 meter
dynes jouls/meter 1  105 foot-pounds BTU 1.286  103
(newtons) foot-pounds ergs 1.356  107
dynes kilograms 1.020  106 foot-pounds gram-calories 0.3238
dynes poundals 7.233  105 foot-pounds horsepower-hours 5.050  107
dynes pounds 2.248  106 foot-pounds joules 1.356
dynes/square bars 1  106 foot-pounds kilogram-calories 3.24  104
centimeter foot-pounds kilogram-meters 0.1383
E foot-pounds kilowatt-hours 3.766  107
ergs BTU 9.480  1011 foot-pounds/ BTU/minute 1.286  103
ergs dyne-centimeters 1.0 minute
ergs foot-pounds 7.3670  108 foot-pounds/ foot-pounds/ 0.01667
ergs gram-calories 0.2389  107 minute second
ergs gram-centimeters 1.020  103 foot-pounds/ horsepower 3.030  105
ergs horsepower hours 3.7250  1014 minute
ergs joules 1  107 foot-pounds/ kilogram-calories/ 3.24  104
ergs kilogram-calories 2.389  1011 minute minute
ergs kilogram-meters 1.020  108 foot-pounds/ kilowatts 2.260  105
ergs kilowatt-hours 0.2778  1013 second
ergs watt-hours 0.2778  1010 foot-pounds/ BTU/hour 4.6263
ergs/second BTU/minute 5,688  109 second
ergs/second foot-pounds/minute 4.427  106 foot-pounds/ BTU/minute 0.07717
ergs/second foot-pounds/second 7.3756  108 second
ergs/second horsepower 1.341  1010 foot-pounds/ horsepower 0.818  103
ergs/second kilogram-calories/ 1.433  109 second
minute
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1057

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
foot-pounds/ kilogram-calories/ 1.01945 horsepower foot-pounds/ 550.0
second minute second
foot-pounds/ kilowatts 1.356  103 horsepower horsepower 0.9863
second (metric) (550 foot-pounds/
G (542.5 foot- second)
gallons cubic centimeters 3,785.0 pounds/second)
gallons cubic feet 0.1337 horsepower (550 horsepower (metric) 1.014
gallons cubic inches 231.0 foot-pounds/ (542.5 foot-pounds/
gallons cubic meters 3.785  103 second) second)
gallons cubic yards 4.951  103 horsepower kilogram-calories/ 10.68
gallons liters 3.785 minute
gallons (liq. gallons (U.S. liq.) 1.20095 horsepower kilowatts 0.7457
British imp.) horsepower watts 745.7
gallons (U.S.) gallons (imp.) 0.83267 horsepower BTU/hour 33,479.0
gallons of water pounds of water 8.3453 (boiler)
gallons/minute cu feet/second 2.228  103 horsepower kilowatts 9.803
gallons/minute liters/second 0.06308 (boiler)
gallons/minute cubic feet/hour 8.0208 horsepower- BTU 2,547.0
grams dynes 980.7 hours
grams grains 15.43 horsepower- ergs 2.6845  1013
grams joules/centimeter 9.807  105 hours
grams joules/meter 9.807  103 horsepower- foot-pounds 1.98  106
(newtons) hours
grams kilograms 0.001 horsepower- gram-calories 641,190.0
grams kilograms 0.001 hours
grams milligrams 1,000.0 horsepower- joules 2.684  106
grams ounces 0.03527 hours
(avoirdupois) horsepower- kilogram-calories 641.1
grams ounces (troy) 0.03215 hours
grams poundals 0.07093 horsepower- kilogram-meters 2.737  105
grams pounds 2.205  103 hours
grams/ pounds/inch 5.600  103 horsepower- kilowatt-hours 0.7457
centimeter hours
grams/cubic pounds/cubic foot 62.43 hours days 4.167  102
centimeter hours weeks 5.952  103
grams/cubic pounds/cubic inch 0.03613 I
centimeter inches centimeters 2.540
grams/cubic pounds/mil-foot 3.405  107 inches meters 2.540  102
centimeter inches miles 1.578  105
grams/liter grains/gallon 58.417 inches millimeters 25.40
grams/liter pounds/1000 8.345 inches mils 1,000.0
gallons inches yards 2.778  102
grams/liter pounds/cubic foot 0.062427 inches of atmospheres 0.03342
grams/liter parts/million 1,000.0 mercury
grams/square pounds/square foot 2.0481 inches of feet of water 1.133
centimeter mercury
gram-calories BTU 3.9683  103 inches of kilograms/square 0.03453
gram-calories ergs 4.1868  107 mercury centimeter
gram-calories foot-pounds 3.0880 inches of kilograms/square 345.3
gram-calories horsepower-hours 1.5596  106 mercury meter
gram-calories kilowatt-hours 1.1630  106 inches of pounds/square 70.73
gram-calories watt-hours 1.1630  103 mercury foot
gram-calories/ BTU/hour 14.286 inches of pounds/square 0.4912
second mercury inch
gram-centimeters BTU 9.297  108 inches of water atmospheres 2.458  103
gram-centimeters ergs 980.7 (at 4°C)
gram-centimeters joules 9.807  105 inches of water inches of mercury 0.07355
gram-centimeters kilogram-calories 2.343  108 (at 4°C)
gram-centimeters kilogram-meters 1  105 inches of water kg/square 2.540  103
H (at 4°C) centimeter
horsepower BTU/minute 42.44 inches of water ounces/square 0.5781
horsepower foot-pounds/ 33,000.0 (at 4°C) inch
minute inches of water pounds/square 5.204
(at 4°C) foot
1058 APPENDIXES

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
inches of water pounds/square 0.03613 kilograms/square kilograms/square 1  106
(at 4°C) inch millimeter meter
J kilogram-calories BTU 3.968
joules BTU 9.480  104 kilogram-calories foot-pounds 3,088.0
joules ergs 1  107 kilogram-calories horsepower-hours 1.560  103
joules foot-pounds 0.7376 kilogram-calories joules 4,186.0
joules kg-calories 2.389  104 kilogram-calories kilogram-meters 426.9
joules kg-meters 0.1020 kilogram-calories kilojoules 4.186
joules watt-hours 2.778  104 kilogram-calories kilowatt-hours 1.163  103
joules/ grams 1.020  104 kilogram-meters BTU 9.294  103
centimeter kilogram-meters ergs 9.804  107
joules/ dynes 1  107 kilogram-meters foot-pounds 7.233
centimeter kilogram-meters joules 9.804
joules/ joules/meter 100.0 kilogram-meters kilogram-calories 2.342  103
centimeter (newtons) kilogram-meters kilowatt-hours 2.723  106
joules/ poundals 723.3 kilolines maxwells 1,000.0
centimeter kiloliters liters 1,000.0
joules/ pounds 22.48 kilometers centimeters 1  105
centimeter kilometers feet 3,281.0
K kilometers inches 3.937  104
kilograms dynes 980,665.0 kilometers meters 1,000.0
kilograms grams 1,000.0 kilometers miles 0.6214
kilograms joules/centimeter 0.09807 kilometers millimeters 1  106
kilograms joules/meter 9.807 kilometers yards 1,094.0
(newtons) kilometers/hour centimeters/ 27.78
kilograms poundals 70.93 second
kilograms pounds 2.205 kilometers/hour feet/minute 54.68
kilograms tons (long) 9.842  104 kilometers/hour feet/second 0.9113
kilograms tons (short) 1.102  103 kilometers/hour knots 0.5396
kilograms/cubic grams/cubic 0.001 kilometers/hour meters/minute 16.67
meter centimeter kilometers/hour miles/hour 0.6214
kilograms/cubic pounds/cubic 0.06243 kilometers/hour/ centimeters/second/ 27.78
meter foot second second
kilograms/cubic pounds/cubic 3.613  105 kilometers/hour/ feet/second/second 0.9113
meter inch second
kilograms/cubic pounds/mil-foot 3.405  1010 kilometers/hour/ meters/second/ 0.2778
meter second second
kilograms/ pounds/foot 0.6720 kilometers/hour/ miles/hour/second 0.6214
meter second
kilograms/square dynes 980,665.0 kilowatts BTU/minute 56.92
centimeter kilowatts foot-pounds/ 4.426  104
kilograms/square atmospheres 0.9678 minute
centimeter kilowatts foot-pounds/ 737.6
kilograms/square feet of water 32.81 second
centimeter kilowatts horsepower 1.341
kilograms/square inches of 28.96 kilowatts kilogram-calories/ 14.34
centimeter mercury minute
kilograms/square pounds/square 2,048.0 kilowatts watts 1,000.0
centimeter foot kilowatt-hours BTU 3,413.0
kilograms/square pounds/square 14.22 kilowatt-hours ergs 3.600  1013
centimeter inch kilowatt-hours foot-pounds 2.655  106
kilograms/square atmospheres 9.678  105 kilowatt-hours gram-calories 859,850.0
meter kilowatt-hours horsepower-hours 1.341
kilograms/square bars 98.07  106 kilowatt-hours joules 3.6  106
meter kilowatt-hours kilogram-calories 860.5
kilograms/square feet of water 3.281  103 kilowatt-hours kilogram-meters 3.671  105
meter kilowatt-hours pounds of water
kilograms/square inches of mercury 2.896  103 evaporated from
meter and at 212°F 3.53
kilograms/square pounds/square 0.2048 kilowatt-hours pounds of water
meter foot raised from 62° to
kilograms/square pounds/square 1.422  103 212°F 22.75
meter inch
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1059

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
L miles/hour miles/minute 0.1667
liters bushels (U.S. dry) 0.02838 miles/hour/ centimeters/ 44.70
liters cubic centimeters 1,000.0 second second/second
liters cubic feet 0.03531 miles/hour/ feet/second/second 1.467
liters cubic inches 61.02 second
liters cubic meters 0.001 miles/hour/ kilometers/hour/ 1.609
liters cubic yards 1.308  103 second second
liters gallons (U.S. liq.) 0.2642 miles/hour/ meters/second/ 0.4470
liters pints (U.S. liq.) 2.113 second second
liters quarts (U.S. liq.) 1.057 miles/minute centimeters/second 2,682.0
liters/minute cubic feet/second 5.886  104 miles/minute feet/second 88.0
liters/minute gallons/second 4.403  103 miles/minute kilometers/minute 1.609
M miles/minute knots/minute 0.8684
meters centimeters 100.0 miles/minute miles/hour 60.0
meters feet 3.281 mil-feet cubic inches 9.425  106
meters inches 39.37 milliliters kilograms 1,000.0
meters kilometers 0.001 millimicrons meters 1  109
meters miles (nautical) 5.396  104 milligrams grains 0.01543236
meters miles (statute) 6.214  104 milligrams grams 0.001
meters millimeters 1,000.0 milligrams/liter parts/million 1.0
meters yards 1.094 millihenries henries 0.001
meters/minute cms/second 1.667 milliliters liters 0.001
meters/minute feet/minute 3.281 millimeters centimeters 0.1
meters/minute feet/second 0.05468 millimeters feet 3.281  103
meters/minute kilometers/hour 0.06 millimeters inches 0.03937
meters/minute knots 0.03238 millimeters kilometers 1  106
meters/minute miles/hour 0.03728 millimeters meters 0.001
meters/second feet/minute 196.8 millimeters miles 6.214  107
meters/second feet/second 3.281 millimeters mils 39.37
meters/second kilometers/hour 3.6 millimeters yards 1.094  103
meters/second kilometers/minute 0.06 minutes (angles) degrees 0.01667
meters/second miles/hour 2.237 minutes (angles) quadrants 1.852  104
meters/second miles/minute 0.03728 minutes (angles) radians 2.909  104
meters/second/ centimeters/ 100.0 minutes (angles) seconds 60.0
second second/second N
meters/second/ feet/second/second 3.281 newtons dynes 1  105
second O
meters/second/ kilometers/hour/ 3.6 ohms ohms (absolute) 1.005
second second (international)
meters/second/ miles/hour/second 2.237 ohms megohms 1  106
second ohms microhms 1  106
meter-kilograms centimeter-dynes 9.807  107 ounces drams 16.0
meter-kilograms centimeter-grams 1  105 ounces grains 437.5
meter-kilograms pound-feet 7.233 ounces grams 28.349527
miles (nautical) feet 6,080.27 ounces pounds 0.0625
miles (nautical) kilometers 1.853 ounces ounces (troy) 0.9115
miles (nautical) meters 1,853.0 ounces tons (long) 2.790  105
miles (nautical) miles (statute) 1.1516 ounces tons (metric) 2.835  105
miles (nautical) yards 2,027.0 ounces (fluid) cubic inches 1.805
miles (statute) centimeters 1.609  105 ounces (fluid) liters 0.02957
miles (statute) feet 5,280.0 ounces (troy) grains 480.0
miles (statute) inches 6.336  104 ounces (troy) grams 31.103481
miles (statute) kilometers 1.609 ounces (troy) ounces 1.09714
miles (statute) meters 1,609.0 (avoirdupois)
miles (statute) miles (nautical) 0.8684 ounces (troy) pennyweights 20.0
miles (statute) yards 1,760.0 (troy)
miles/hour centimeters/ 44.70 ounces (troy) pounds (troy) 0.08333
second ounces/square dynes/square 4,309.0
miles/hour feet/minute 88.0 inch centimeter
miles/hour feet/second 1.467 ounces/square pounds/square 0.0625
miles/hour kilometers/hour 1.609 inch inch
miles/hour kilometers/minute 0.02682 P
miles/hour knots 0.8684 pints (liquid) cubic centimeters 473.2
miles/hour meters/minute 26.82 pints (liquid) cubic feet 0.01671
1060 APPENDIXES

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
pints (liquid) cubic inches 28.87 square centimeters square feet 1.076  103
pints (liquid) cubic meters 4.732  104 square centimeters square inches 0.1550
pints (liquid) cubic yards 6.189  104 square centimeters square meters 0.0001
pints (liquid) gallons 0.125 square centimeters square miles 3.861  1011
pints (liquid) liters 0.4732 square centimeters square 100.0
pints (liquid) quarts (liquid) 0.5 millimeters
pounds ounces (troy) 14.5833 square centimeters square yards 1.196  104
(avoirdupois) square feet acres 2.296  105
pounds drams 256.0 square feet circular mils 1.833  108
pounds dynes 44.4823  104 square feet square centimeters 929.0
pounds grains 7,000.0 square feet square inches 144.0
pounds grams 453.5924 square feet square meters 0.09290
pounds joules/centimeter 0.04448 square feet square miles 3.587  108
pounds joules/meter 4.448 square feet square 9.290  104
(newtons) millimeters
pounds kilograms 0.4536 square feet square yards 0.1111
pounds ounces 16.0 square inches circular mils 1.273  106
pounds ounces (troy) 14.5833 square inches square centimeters 6.452
pounds poundals 32.17 square inches square feet 6.944  103
pounds pounds (troy) 1.21528 square inches square 645.2
pounds tons (short) 0.0005 millimeters
pounds of cubic inches 27.68 square inches square mils 1  106
water square inches square yards 7.716  104
pounds of gallons 0.1198 square kilometers acres 247.1
water square kilometers square centimeters 1  1010
Q square kilometers square feet 10.76  106
quarts (dry) cubic inches 67.20 square kilometers square inches 1.550  109
quarts (liquid) cubic centimeters 946.4 square kilometers square meters 1  106
quarts (liquid) cubic feet 0.03342 square kilometers square miles 0.3861
quarts (liquid) cubic inches 57.75 square kilometers square yards 1.196  106
quarts (liquid) cubic meters 9.464  104 square meters acres 2.471  104
quarts (liquid) cubic yards 1.238  103 square meters square centimeters 1  104
quarts (liquid) gallons 0.25 square meters square feet 10.76
quarts (liquid) liters 0.9463 square meters square inches 1,550.0
R square meters square miles 3.861  107
radians degrees 57.30 square meters square millimeters 1  106
revolutions degrees 360.0 square meters square yards 1.196
revolutions quadrants 4.0 square miles acres 640.0
revolutions radians 6.283 square miles square feet 27.88  106
revolutions/minute degrees/second 6.0 square miles square kilometers 2.590
revolutions/minute radians/second 0.1047 square miles square meters 2.590  106
revolutions/minute revolutions/second 0.01667 square miles square yards 3.098  106
revolutions/minute/ radians/second/ 1.745  103 square millimeters circular mils 1,973.0
minute second square millimeters square centimeters 0.01
revolutions/minute/ revolutions/ 0.01667 square millimeters square feet 1.076  105
minute minute/second square millimeters square inches 1.550  103
revolutions/minute/ revolutions/ 2.778  104 square yards acres 2.066  104
minute second/second square yards square centimeters 8,361.0
revolutions/second degrees/second 360.0 square yards square feet 9.0
revolutions/second radians/second 6.283 square yards square inches 1,296.0
revolutions/second revolutions/ 60.0 square yards square meters 0.8361
minute square yards square miles 3.228  107
revolutions/second/ radians/second/ 6.283 square yards square millimeters 8.361  105
second second T
revolutions/second/ revolutions/ 3,600.0 temperature absolute 1.0
second minute/minute (°F)  460 temperature (°F)
revolutions/second/ revolutions/ 60.0 temperature temperature (°C) 5/9
second minute/second (°F)  32
S temperature absolute 1.0
seconds (angle) degrees 2.778  104 (°F)  460 temperature (°F)
seconds (angle) minutes 0.01667 temperature temperature (°C) 5.9
seconds (angle) quadrants 3.087  106 (°F)  32
seconds (angle) radians 4.848  106 tons (metric) kilograms 1,000.0
square centimeters circular mils 1.973  105 tons (metric) pounds 2,205.0
APPENDIX A • The Metric System and Conversion Constants in Exercise Physiology 1061

➤ CONVERSION FACTORS FOR USE IN THE EXERCISE SCIENCES—continued


TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY
W watt-hours BTU 3.413
watts BTU/hour 3.4129 watt-hours ergs 3.60  1010
watts BTU/minute 0.05688 watt-hours foot-pounds 2,656.0
watts ergs/second 107.0 watt-hours gram-calories 859.85
watts foot-pounds/ 44.27 watt-hours horsepower-hours 1.341  103
minute watt-hours kilogram-calories 0.8605
watts foot-pounds/ 0.7378 watt-hours kilogram-meters 367.2
second watt-hours kilowatt-hours 0.001
watts horsepower 1.341  103 watts watts (absolute) 1.0002
watts horsepower 1.360  103 (international)
(metric) Y
watts kilogram-calories/ 0.01433 yards centimeters 91.44
minute yards kilometers 9.144  104
watts kilowatts 0.001 yards meters 0.9144
watts (absolute) BTU (mean)/ 0.056884 yards miles (nautical) 4.934  104
minute yards miles (statute) 5.682  104
watts (absolute) joules/second 1.0 yards millimeters 914.4

➤ PART 3 • Clinical Hematology and Clinical Chemistry

➤ SI CONVERSION TABLE FOR COMMON VALUES IN CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
PRESENT
REFERENCE SI SI SUGGESTED
INTERVALS PRESENT CONVERSION REFERENCE UNIT SIGNIFICANT MINIMUM
COMPONENT (EXAMPLES) UNIT FACTOR INTERVALS SYMBOL DIGITS INCREMENT
Hemoglobin (B)
Mass concentration
—female 12.0–15.0 g/dL 10 120–150 g/L XXX 1 g/L
—male 13.6–17.2 g/dL 10 136–172 g/L XXX 1 g/L
Substance conc. Hb [Fe]
—female 12.0–15.0 g/dL 0.6206 7.45–9.30 mmol/L XX.XX 0.05 mmol/L
—male 13.6–17.2 g/dL 0.6206 8.45–10.65 mmol/L XX.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Alkaline phosphatase (S) 30–120 U/L 0.01667 0.5–2.0 kat/L X.X 0.1 kat/L
Amino acid nitrogen (P) 4.0–6.0 mg/dL 0.7139 2.9–4.3 mmol/L X.X 0.1 mmol/L
Amino acid nitrogen (U) 50–200 mg/24 h 0.07139 3.6–14.3 mmol/d X.X 0.1 mmol/d
Androstenedione (S)
—male 18 y 0.2–3.0 g/L 3.492 0.5–10.5 mmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
—female 18 y 0.8–3.0 g/L 3.492 3.0–10.5 nmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
Bilirubin, total (S) 0.1–1.0 mg/dL 17.10 2–18 mol/L XX 2 mol/L
Calcium (S)
—male 8.8–10.3 mg/dL 0.2495 2.20–2.50 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
—female
50 y 8.8–10.0 mg/dL 0.2495 2.20–2.50 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
—female 50 y 8.8–10.2 mg/dL 0.2495 2.20–2.56 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
Calcium (U), normal diet
250 mg/24 h 0.02495
6.2 mmol/d X.X 0.1 mmol/d
Cholesterol (P)

29 y
200 mg/dL 0.02586
5.20 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
—30–39 y
225 mg/dL 0.02586
5.85 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
—40–49 y
245 mg/dL 0.02586
6.35 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
— 50 y
265 mg/dL 0.02586
6.85 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Ferritin (S) 18–300 ng/mL 1.00 18–300 g/L XX0 10 g/L
Glucose (P)—fasting 70–110 mg/dL 0.05551 3.9–6.1 mmol/L XX.X 0.1 mmol/L
Hemoglobin (B)
—male 14.0–18.0 g/dL 10.0 140–180 g/L XXX 1 g/L
—female 11.5–15.5 g/dL 10.0 115–155 g/L XXX 1 g/L
Insulin (P,S) 5–20 U/mL 7.175 35–145 pmol/L XXX 5 pmol/L
5–20 mU/L 7.175 35–145 pmol/L XXX 5 pmol/L
0.20–0.84 g/mL 172.2 35–145 pmol/L XXX 5 pmol/L

B, blood; P, plasma; S, serum; U, urine.


1062 APPENDIXES

➤ SI CONVERSION TABLE FOR COMMON VALUES IN CLINICAL HEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL


CHEMISTRY—continued
PRESENT
REFERENCE SI SI SUGGESTED
INTERVALS PRESENT CONVERSION REFERENCE UNIT SIGNIFICANT MINIMUM
COMPONENT (EXAMPLES) UNIT FACTOR INTERVALS SYMBOL DIGITS INCREMENT
Iron (S)
—male 80–180 g/dL 0.1791 14–32 mol/L XX 1 mol/L
—female 60–160 g/dL 0.1791 11–29 mol/L XX 1 mol/L
Lipoproteins (P)
Low density [LDL]—
as cholesterol 50–190 mg/dL 0.02586 1.30–4.90 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
High density [HDL]—
as cholesterol
Male 30–70 mg/dL 0.02586 0.80–1.80 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Female 30–90 mg/dL 0.02586 0.80–2.35 mmol/L X.XX 0.05 mmol/L
Testosterone (P)
—female 0.6 ng/mL 3.467 2.0 nmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
—male 4.6–8.0 ng/mL 3.467 14.0–28.0 nmol/L XX.X 0.5 nmol/L
Thyroid tests:
Thyroid-stimulating
hormone [TSH] (S) 2–11 U/mL 1.00 2–11 mU/L XX 1 mU/L
Thyroxine [T4] (S) 4.0–11.0 g/dL 12.87 51–142 nmol/L XXX 1 nmol/L
Thyroxine binding
globulin [TBG]
(S)—[as thyroxine] 12.0–28.0 g/dL 12.87 150–360 nmol/L XX0 1 nmol/L
Thyroxine, free (S) 0.8–2.8 ng/dL 12.87 10–36 pmol/L XX 1 pmol/L
Triiodothyronine
[T3] (S) 75–220 ng/dL 0.01536 1.2–3.4 nmol/L X.X 0.1 nmol/L
T3 uptake (S) 25–35 % 0.01 0.25–0.35 1 0.XX 0.01
Tolbutamide (P)—
therapeutic 50–120 mg/L 3.699 180–450 mol/L XX0 10 mol/L
Transferrin (S) 170–370 mg/dL 0.01 1.70–3.70 g/L X.XX 0.01 g/L
Triglycerides (P)
[as triolein]
160 mg/dL 0.01129
1.80 mmol/L X.XX 0.02 mmol/L
Vitamin A [retinol] (P,S) 10–50 g/dL 0.03491 0.35–1.75 mol/L X.XX 0.05 mol/L
Vitamin B1 [thiamine
hydrochloride] (U) 60–500 g/24 h 0.002965 0.18–1.48 mol/d X.XX 0.01 mol/d
Vitamin B2 [riboflavin] (S) 2.6–3.7 g/dL 26.57 70–100 nmol/L XXX 5 nmol/L
Vitamin B6 [pyridoxal] (B) 20–90 ng/mL 5.982 120–540 nmol/L XXX 5 nmol/L
Vitamin B12 [cyano-
cobalamin] (P,S) 200–1000 pg/mL 0.7378 150–750 pmol/L XX0 10 pmol/L
ng/dL 7.378 pmol/L
Vitamin C [ascorbic acid] 0.6–2.00 mg/dL 56.78 30–110 mol/L X0 10 mol/L
Vitamin D3
[cholecalciferol] (P) 24–40 g/mL 2.599 60–105 nmol/L XXX 5 nmol/L
25 OH-cholecalciferol 18–36 ng/mL 2.496 45–90 nmol/L XXX 5 mmol/L
Vitamin E [alpha-
tocopherol] (P,S) 0.78–1.25 mg/dL 23.22 18–29 mol/L XX 1 mol/L

B, blood; P, plasma; S, serum; U, urine.