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Bone Arteries

One of the four parts of the skeletal system. Responsible Supply bone cells with nutrients and take calcium away
for supporting the body, protecting soft organs, providing to muscles and nerves.
a place for skeletal muscles to attach, storing minerals
and fats, and providing a place for blood cell formation. Surface features of bones are used as....
(206 bones present) Sites for attachments of muscles, tendons, and
Compact bone ligaments.
One of the two types of bone tissue. Hard material Projection or Process
covering the outside of bones. Bone growth out from the bone surface. For example,
bone that "sticks out" (crest, tuberosity, tubercle, spine,
Spongy Bone trochanter)
Small needle-like pieces of bone. Contains many open Depression or Cavity
spaces. Indentations in bones. (fossa, groove, fissure, foramen)
Long Bone A unit of bone.
A type of bone shape classification. They are long in
shape and consist of bones such as the femor and the Central (Haversian) Canal
humerus. An opening in the center of an osteon which carries
blood vessels and nerves.
Flat Bones
A type of bone shape classification. They are strong, flat Perforating (Volkmann's) Canal
plates of bone providing protection to many organs of Canal perpendicular to the central canal, it carries blood
the body. The scapular and parietal bone of the skull are vessels and nerves.
all flat bones.
Short Bones A layer of bone within an osteon.
A type of bone shape classification. They are as long as
they are wide. They provide support and stability, and Matrix
therefore do not move. The intercellular material in which the cells and fibers of
connective tissue are embedded.
Irregular Bones Sharpey's Fibers
A type of bone shape classification. They are all bones Fibers which secure periosteum to underlying bone.
which do not fit into any category.
Diaphysis Mature bone cells.
The shaft of the bone which is composed of compact
bone. Osteoblasts
Bone forming cells.
Epiphysis Osteoclasts
Composed mostly of spongy bone, ends at epiphyseal Bone-destroying cells. They break down the bone matrix
line. for remodeling and the release of calcium.
Bone Remodeling
Periosteum A continual process accomplished through osteoblasts
A dense connective tissue wrapping, also how blood and osteoclasts. It is regulated by weight bearing
vessels get in. exercise and parathyroid hormone.
Embryo Skeleten
Medulla (Medulla cavity) A skeletan primarily composed of hyaline cartilage which
Center cavity of the bone. is then replaced by bone. (cartilage remains in bridge of
nose, parts of ribs, and joints)
Red Bone Marrow Epiphyseal Plates
Bone marrow which is involved in the active Plates which allow for growth of long bone during
development of blood cells. childhood.
Yellow Bone Marrow Chondrocytes
Bone marrow which is high in fat/adipose tissue. Cells which continuously form cartilage.
Endosteum Ossify
Similar to periosteum, it is a sense connective tissue To turn into bone or bony tissue. Older cartilage is
fiber deeper than the periosteum. (endo= inside) broken down by osteoclasts and replaced with bone.
Closed (simple) Fracture
Sharpey's Fibers A bone break that does not penetrate the skin
Fibers which secure periosteum to underlying bone. Open (compound) Fracture
A bone break which penetrates through the skin
Comminuted Fracture
Bone shatters into mallible pieces Name for three structures within the thoracic area:
Compression Fracture sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrea.
A bone fracture which usually happens in vertebra. Bone Fontanelles
is crushed or collapses. Fibrous membranes which connect the cranial bones
Impacted Fracture and allow brain growth. They turn to bone within 24
Bone fragments drive into each other. months after birth.
Spiral Fracture Cervical Spine
A fracture caused by a twisting force. One end of the The top most vertebrae of the spin which is referred to
bone extremity remains planted while the other is in as C1 - C7 (Numbers are subscripted)
motion. Thoracic spine.
Greenstick The second lowest grouping of vertebrae of the spine.
A bone fracture in which the bone bends and partially Referred to as T1-T12
breaks. Lumbar Spine
Hematoma Formation The third lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine.
The first stage in the healing a bone structure. (The Referred to as L1-L5.
inflammation stage) Sacrum Spine
The fourth lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine.
Hematoma These consist of 5 fused vertebrae.
A mass of clotted blood that forms in an organ, tissue, or Coccyx Spine
body space. The lowest grouping of vertebrae in the spine. Also
Fibrocartilage Callus Formation known as the tail bone. It consists of 4 fused vertebrae.
The second stage of bone healing. (The soft callus Transverse Arch
phase) An arch of the foot running from one side to another.

Fibrocartilage Callus Medial Longitudinal Arch

A temporary formation of fibroblasts and chondroblasts. An arch of the foot running from the heel to the big toe
Bony Callus Formation on the inside of the foot.
The third stage of bone healing. (the hard callus phase)
Bony Callus Lateral Longitudinal Arch
A collection of woven bony tissue which will eventually An arch of the foot running from the heel to the pinky toe
form into bone. on the outside of the foot.
Bone Remodeling
The final stage of the bone healing process. Over time Ligaments
bone is remodeled by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Connective tissue which attaches bones together.
Axial Skeleton Tendons
A group of bones that consist on the central axis of the Connective tissue which connects muscle to bone.
organism. Ways joints are classified....
Functionally and structurally are ways to classify....
Appendicular Skeleton Joints
Consists of the bones associated with appendages Structures in the body which hold bones together, allow
for mobility, and absorb heat/friction
Paranasal Sinuses Synarthroses
A group of sinuses which lighten the skull and give Joints which are immovable.
resonance and amplification to the voice. Amphiarthroses
Joints which are slightly moveable
Frontal Sinus Diarthroses
Mucosa lined air spaces located above the eye brows. Freely moveable joints
Fibrous Joints
Ethmoid Sinus Joints in which bones are united by fibrous tissue. They
Mucosa lined air spaces located above the Sphenoid are generally immovable. Examples are sutures, or
Sinus and below the frontal sinus. syndesmoses joints.
Sphenold Sinus A fibrous joint having fibrous tissue in between the joints.
Mucosa lined air spaces located above the maxillary The collagen fibers are longer allowing more movement.
sinus and below the ethmoidal sinus. Example: Distal end of tibia and fibula.
Cartilaginous Joints
Maxillary Sinus Joints which have bones connected by cartilage. Usually
Mucosa lined air spaces located in the cheeks below all hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage are between them.
other sinuses. They are immovable or slightly movable. Examples:
Public symphysis, intervertrebral joints.
The Bone Thorax Synovial Joints
Freely moveable joints. The articulating bones are Inflammation of the bursa usually caused by a blow or
separated by a joint cavity. Synovial fluid is join in this friction
cavity. Tendonitis
Acromion of the Scapula Inflammation of tendon sheaths.
Contains a ligament connecting the joint. Arthritis
Inflammatory or degenerative disease of joints. Over 100
Articular (hyaline) Cartilage different types.
One of the four forms of cartilage. It is responsible for Osteoarthritis
decreasing friction and distributes load. Most common chronic arthritis which is probably related
to the normal aging process. Cartilage is worn down
Fibrous Articular Capsule from constant years of use.
The outer fibrous part of the capsule of a synovial joint, Rheumatoid Arthritis
which may in places thicken to form capsular ligaments. An autoimmune disease in which the immune system
attacks the joints. Symptoms begin with bilateral
Synovial Membrane inflammation of certain joints. Often leads to deformities.
Made of areolarconnective tissue, this membrane is Gout
responsible for making synovial fluid. Pressure (weight A form of arthritis in which inflammation of joints is
bearing exercise) helps to create that synovial fluid. (all caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the blood.
green structures in the diagram can be considered Can usually be controlled with diet.
synovial membranes)

Synovial Fluid
A viscous substance containing water and sugary
proteins. Responsible distributing nutrients and aiding in
lubricating the joint.
A small synovial fluid filled sack. Allows the bones to
interact in unique ways to increasing its ability to move
and slide over itself. Highly moveable joints have these.

Tendon Sheath
A sheath places around specific dense connective tissue
separating it (with areolar connective tissue) from other
dense connective tissue so that the similar tissue do not
get stuck together.

Plane Joint
A type of joint in which two articulating bones have flat
surfaces as they meet one another. Considered nonaxial
and have limited mobility.
Example: Carpals
Hinge Joint
Joints in which the surface of one bone fits into another
and allows movement in one axis or direction.
Example: Humerus
Pivot Joint
A type of joint in which one bone fits into another
allowing a pivoting motion in one axis to take place.
Example: Ulna or radius
Condyloid Joint
Bi-axial joint joint in which a round joints meet each
Example: metacarpal and phalanx
Saddle Joint
A bi-axial joint shaped like a saddle. Allows multiple
Example:Carpal and metacarpal 1
Ball-and-socket Joint
Known as the most moveable joint.
Example: Head of humerus, and scapula