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UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DE ANGOLA

UCAN
FACULDADE DE ENGENHARIA
ENGENHARIA DE PETRÓLEO

DISCIPLINA:
LABORATÓRIO DE PERFURAÇÃO
TEMA:
Mud properties
&
Water-Based Drilling Fluids
Testing Procedures
4 Mud properties
• Objectives: To define the main characteristics of drilling fluids
• Keys words: SG, Rheology, solids...

• Summary
• Functions
− Active parameters
• Tests
− Physicals
− Chemicals
• Management
− Volume
− Consumption
− Stocks
Interaction drilling
 Physical action
• Inert solids

• Active solid

• Pressure

− Blow

− losses
Interaction drilling
 Chemical action
++
• Electrolytes (Ca , C𝑙 − )
• Cement (OH − )
• Acid gases ( H2S, CO2 )
• Temperature
Physical tests

 Specific Gravity

 Rheology

 Filtration, cake

 Solids and oil concentration

 Sand concentration

 Temperature
Chemical tests

 Alkalinities
 Chlorides
 Hardness
 Specific tests (K + , SO4−− , SO3−− , nitrate, etc.. )
Daily mud report
Volume management

 Volumes:
• initial, mixing,
• products, blow,
• losses, ejections,
• losses in surfaces, in the well, etc.

 Cycles, bottom up

 Annular velocity
Daily mud report
Product management

 Concentrations:
 Managment
• Stocks
• Consumptions
• Comands
• Costs
Daily mud report
Well bore consolidation
REPORTS

 Daily
 End of phase
 End of well

The reports are the only references for future wells.


Daily mud report
Synthesis

The control of mud characteristics is very important

This monitoring should be regular

The reporting is very important


Properties

Specific gravity
• Objectives: Importance of SG, How to manage it.
• Keys words: SG, Weighting, lightening materials.

• Summary
• Definitions
− Density
− SG
• Who decides its value
− Mud weight windows
• Accuracy of value
• Material measurement
• Products
− Weighting materials
− Lightening products
 What are the density and the Specific Gravity ?
For all practical purposes, density means weight per unit volume and is
measured by weighing the mud.
The weight of mud may be expressed as a hydrostatic pressure
gradient in lb/in.2 per 1,000 ft of vertical depth (psi/1,000 ft), as a
density in lb/gal, lb/ft3 or Specific Gravity (SG).

Take care with translation


Density = Masse volumique
SG = Densite
Who decides its value and why ?

 Specific Gravity
• Between :
− Pore pressure
− Frac pressure
• Mud weight windows
Pore pressure:
(Drilling)
The pressure of the subsurface formation fluids, commonly expressed
as the density of fluid required in the wellbore to balance that pore
pressure.

Frac pressure:
Pressure above which injection of fluids will cause the rock formation to
fracture hydraulically
Pore pressure:
Pore pressure:
(Drilling)
The pressure of the subsurface formation fluids, commonly expressed
as the density of fluid required in the wellbore to balance that pore
pressure.

(Geology)
The pressure of fluids within the pores of a reservoir, usually
hydrostatic pressure, or the pressure exerted by a column of water from
the formation's depth to sea level.

When impermeable rocks such as shales form as sediments are


compacted, their pore fluids cannot always escape and must then
support the total overlying rock column, leading to anomalously high
formation pressures.
Mud Weight Window
Actual usage of the MWW by the drilling activity
MWW Size case history
MWW Size case history
Density of Fluid (Mud Weight)
The density (commonly referred to as mud weight) is measured with a
mud balance of sufficient accuracy to measure within 0.1 lb/gal (0.5
lb/ft3 or 5 psi/1,000 ft of depth).
Mud balance
Density of Fluid (Mud Weight)
 Calibration
After calibration with fresh water the level-bubble should be centered
when the rider is set on 8.33 lb/gal (1 kg/L).

 Procedure Step
1. Measure and record the temperature of the sample of mud to be
tested.
2. Place the mud balance base on a flat, level surface.
3. Fill the clean, dry, mud balance cup with the sample of mud to be
tested. Ensure that some mud is expelled through the hole in the
cap to remove any trapped air or gas.
4. Place thumb over hole in cap and hold the cap firmly on the cup.
Wash or wipe the outside of the cup, and dry.
5. Place balance arm on the support base and balance it by moving
the rider along the graduated scale until the level bubble is
centered under the center line.
6. Read the density (weight) of the mud shown at the left-hand edge
of the rider and report to nearest 0.1 lb/gal. Enter result on API
Drilling Mud Report as Weight (lb/gal, lb/ft3) or Specific Gravity).
Increasing SG
Increasing SG
Size distribution
Size distribution
Pore pressure:
(Drilling)
The pressure of the subsurface formation fluids, commonly expressed
as the density of fluid required in the wellbore to balance that pore
pressure.

(Geology) PROJECÇÃO DE VIDEO


(testethedepores
The pressure of fluids within densidade)
of a reservoir, usually
hydrostatic pressure, or the pressure exerted by a column of water from
the formation's depth to sea level.

When impermeable rocks such as shales form as sediments are


compacted, their pore fluids cannot always escape and must then
support the total overlying rock column, leading to anomalously high
formation pressures.
Properties

Rheology
• Objectives: Importance of Viscosity, How to manage it.
• Keys words: Laminar, turbulent, shear rate, shear stress.

• Summary
• Flow type
• Definitions
• Rheogram
− Newton
− Bingham
− Power law model
− Herschel Buckley
 Definition

Rheology is the science of flow and


deformation of material
4.2 Viscosity and flow
Viscosity is the internal resistance of a fluid to flow. When fluids move,
this internal resistance opposes the flow.

If we look at way mud flows through the annulus of a hole, (see figure
1), the mud up against the well bore and the mud against the drill pipe
move very slowly compared with the mud in the middle of the annulus.
We can consider the annulus as being made up of a series of layers of
fluid, all moving at different speeds.

The internal resistance to flow is the frictional force between layers of


fluid as they slide past one another. This internal resistance is known
as the shear stress and varies with applied pressure.
Flow of Fluid in Pipe

 In fluid mechanics two types of flow are defined:

• 1. Laminar flow
• 2. Turbulent flow
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
The Flow of Fluids
The Flow of Fluids
The Flow of Fluids
 Definition

Viscosity a property of fluids and slurries that


indicates their resistance to flow, defined as the
ratio of shear stress to shear rate.
 Rheological Models
 Rheological Models

Fluids are described as Newtonian or non-Newtonian depending on


their response to shearing.

The shear stress of a Newtonian fluid (upper left) is proportional to the


shear rate.

Some drilling fluids display Bingham plastic rheological behavior (lower


left), requiring a certain minimum stress to initiate flow. Most drilling
muds are non-Newtonian fluids, with viscosity decreasing as shear rate
increases.
Fluid Properties Measurements
Viscosity of Fluid
The Marsh funnel is used for routine field measurement of the viscosity
of drilling mud. The Fann V-G meter is used to supplement the
information obtained from the Marsh funnel, particularly with respect to
the gel characteristics of the mud. The V-G meter is capable of giving
the apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strengths
(initial and timed).
Marsh Funnel
V-G meter laboratory model

Fann 35 Viscometer - Schematic Diagram


Pore pressure:
(Drilling)
The pressure of the subsurface formation fluids, commonly expressed
as the density of fluid required in the wellbore to balance that pore
pressure.

(Geology) PROJECÇÃO DE VIDEO


The pressure of fluids(teste depores
within the viscosidade)
of a reservoir, usually
hydrostatic pressure, or the pressure exerted by a column of water from
the formation's depth to sea level.

When impermeable rocks such as shales form as sediments are


compacted, their pore fluids cannot always escape and must then
support the total overlying rock column, leading to anomalously high
formation pressures.
 Calibration
Fill the funnel to the bottom of the screen (1,500 mL) with freshwater at
70±5° F (21±3° C). Time of outflow of 1 qt (946 mL) should be 26 sec
±0.5 sec.

 Procedure Step
1. With the funnel in an upright position, cover the orifice with a finger
and pour the freshly collected mud sample through the screen into
a clean funnel until the fluid level reaches the bottom of the screen
(1,500 mL).
2. Immediately remove the finger from the outlet and measure the
time required for the mud to fill the receiving cup to the 1-qt mark
on the cup.
3. Report the result to the nearest second as Marsh funnel viscosity.
Report fluid temperature in degrees Fahrenheit or Centigrade.
 Procedimento para determinação da viscosidade aparente, a viscosidade
plástica e o Ponto Cedente.
5. Viscosidade plástica em Centipoise = Indicação à 600 𝑅𝑃𝑀 menos indicação à
300 𝑅𝑃𝑀.

6. Ponto cedente (YP) em 𝑙𝑏/100𝑓𝑡 2 = indicação à 300 RPM menos a


viscosidade plástica em centipoise.

7. Viscosidade aparente em centipoise = indicação à 600 𝑅𝑃𝑀 dividida por dois.

𝜃600
𝐺𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒 =
𝑉𝑖𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑𝑒 𝑃𝑙á𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎

𝜃300
𝐷𝑒𝑓𝑙𝑒𝑥ã𝑜

𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑝çã𝑜 =
𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒

300 600
𝑉𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑑𝑎𝑑𝑒 (𝑟𝑝𝑚)

𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑣𝑎 𝑡í𝑝𝑖𝑐𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝐶𝑎𝑢𝑑𝑎𝑙 𝑢𝑚𝑎 𝑙𝑎𝑚𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑢𝑟𝑎çã𝑜


Propriedades Reológicas

Exercício
Os valores de deflexões marcadas num viscosímetro (Rheometer) são
de 95 para 600 rpm e 73 para 300 rpm, determina o valor da
viscosidade aparente, plástica (VP) e do ponto cedente (YP).
Fann VG Viscosimeters
Rheogram
Rheogram

204 0,2 19 0,02

102 0,2 10 0,02


63 0,2 6 0,02

36 0,2 3 0,02

5 0,5 0,5 0,05


0 0 0 0
Rheogram
Interpretation
Rheogram
Rheogram
Rheogram
Rheogram
Interpretation
Synthesis
Pore pressure:
(Drilling)
The pressure of the subsurface formation fluids, commonly expressed
as the density of fluid required in the wellbore to balance that pore
pressure.

(Geology) PROJECÇÃO DE VIDEO


The pressure of fluids(teste depores
within the Viscosidade)
of a reservoir, usually
hydrostatic pressure, or the pressure exerted by a column of water from
the formation's depth to sea level.

When impermeable rocks such as shales form as sediments are


compacted, their pore fluids cannot always escape and must then
support the total overlying rock column, leading to anomalously high
formation pressures.
Other Water-Based Drilling Fluids Testing

 Specific Gravity (Mud Density)


 Marsh Funnel Viscosity
 Rheology
• Plastic Viscosity (PV) and Yield Point (YP)
• Gel Strength (10-sec/10-min)

 Static Filtration Tests


• Low-Temperature/Low-Pressure Filtration
• High-Temperature/High-Pressure Filtration (HTHP)

 Retort -Water, Oil and Solids


 Sand Content
 Methylene Blue Capacity
Other Water-Based Drilling Fluids Testing

 pH
 Alkalinity and Lime Content
• Mud Alkalinity (PM)

• Filtrate Alkalinity (PF)


• Filtrate Alkalinity (MF)
• Lime Content

 Chloride
 Total Hardness
 Sulfide
 Carbonate/Bicarbonate
 Potassium