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Application Note

Multiple Source Synchronization for MIMO

MG3700A
Vector Signal Generator
Application Note
- Multiple Source Synchronization for MIMO -
Anritsu

September 2007
(1.00)

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 1

Introduction

• This application note gives a brief description of the


fundamentals of MIMO technology, and the test
configuration techniques for a MIMO receiver.
– MIMO is pronounced “my-mo”.

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 2

1
Contents

• MIMO Technology 4
• MIMO Receiver Test 11
• Synchronous Frequency on Common
Reference Oscillator 13
• Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband
Signal Generation 14
• Phase Synchronous RF Signal Generation 18

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 3

MIMO Definitions
Spatial channel

Input Output
• MIMO Transmitter Receiver

» Multiple Input Multiple Output


– Multiple transmitting and receiving antennas system
• "Input" means the input to spatial channel (i.e. transmitting antenna), "Output"
means the output from spatial channel (i.e. receiving antenna).
• SIMO
» Single Input Multiple Output
– Receiver diversity Transmitter Receiver

– Receiver beamforming
• MISO
» Multiple Input Single Output
– Transmitter diversity Transmitter Receiver
– Transmitter beamforming
• MIMO-MU
» Multiple Input Multiple Output - Multiple User
Transmitter Transmitter
Receiver Receiver

Transmitter
Receiver

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 4

2
MIMO Concept

• MIMO offers a higher transmission rate for the same bandwidth using
spatial multiplexing with parallel data streams.

• Transmitter sends different data streams in parallel on same


frequency from multiple antennas.
• Receiver detects signals to separate spatial streams.

Two spatial streams

R bps

Serial Parallel
Data to to 2 × R bps
Parallel Serial
R bps

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 5

MIMO Practical Application

• 3GPP
– Release ’99
• WCDMA Transmit diversity (2×1 MISO)
– STTD: Space Time Transmit Diversity
– TSTD: Time Switched Transmit Diversity
– Release 7
• HSPA+
– HSDPA-MIMO (28 Mbps)
– Release 8
• LTE
– MIMO-OFDMA
• IEEE802.11n
– Wi-Fi WLAN
– Minimum two spatial streams Maximum four spatial streams
• SDM-MIMO SDM: Spatial Division Multiplexing
• BF-MIMO or SVD-MIMO (option) BF: Beamforming SVD: Singular Value Decomposition
• STBC (option) (2×1 MISO) STBC: Space Time Block Coding
– Similar to transmit diversity technique
• IEEE802.16e
– Mobile WiMAX
• STC-MIMO (Matrix A option) (2×1 MISO) STC: Space Time Coding
– Similar to transmit diversity technique
• SM-MIMO (Matrix B option) SM: Spatial Multiplexing

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 6

3
SDM and SM

• Spatial Division Multiplexing


» Beamforming in desirer or null-steering in interferer, with directional
radio emission patterns, using weighting-control of amplitude and phase
for array antenna
» Directivity control technique
– Eigenbeam-SDM, beamforming with Channel State Information (CSI)
known to transmitter
• Spatial Multiplexing
» Integrating coding and error correction technologies into transmit and
receive diversity technologies
» Antennas decorrelation technique
– Space-Time coding and Layered Space-Time coding

SDM concept SM concept

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 7

SM/SDM and Diversity

• SM/SDM

Ch1 h11 Ch1


Modulator
E C A E C A
h1
2

Signal Higher transmission rate


Detector
1
h2

SM/SDM
Ch2 Ch2
Modulator h22
F D B F D B

• Transmit Diversity Diversity

Wider coverage and higher reliability


Ch1 -s2* s1 h1 Ch1
Modulator due to higher fading tolerance
A B A A
Space Space
Time Time
Encoder Decoder
Ch2 s1* s2 h2 Ch2
Modulator
B A B B

s* represents complex conjugate of s.

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 8

4
Basic Transmitter Model
• SDM-MIMO
For WLAN, Channel
PSDU Encoder
Puncturer NSS = NTX
NTX Transmit antennas

Frequency Constellation
IFFT GI Insertion RF Chain
Interleaver Mapper
Spatial
Stream Baseband Clock
NSS Spatial Streams Nc Subcarriers
Parser & LO
Frequency Constellation
IFFT GI Insertion RF Chain
Interleaver Mapper

• SVD-MIMO or BF-MIMO Power setting NSS ≤ NTX


per spatial stream
Frequency Constellation
Puncturer
Interleaver Mapper
Spatial
For WLAN, Spatial
Channel Stream
PSDU Stream NSS Spatial Streams Nc Subcarriers
Encoder Power
Parser
Ratios
Frequency Constellation
Puncturer
Interleaver Mapper

IFFT GI Insertion RF Chain


Beam
Steering
Transformation Baseband Clock
NTX Transmit antennas
per & LO
subcarrier
IFFT GI Insertion RF Chain

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 9

Basic Receiver Model

Constellation
RF Chain GI Removal FFT
MIMO Demapper
LO & Time and Signal
Baseband Frequency Detection
Clock Synchronization for
Subcarriers Constellation
RF Chain GI Removal FFT
Demapper

Estimation and
compensation
Channel
Estimation

Deinterleaver
Spatial For WLAN,
Channel
Stream PSDU
Decoder
Demultiplexer
Soft decision
Deinterleaver Viterbi decoding

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 10

5
MIMO Receiver Test

• Single source
» Receiver testing starts with single channel tests using a single signal
source. Receiving antenna chains are tested separately.
» Simulation of signal conditions is comparatively simple.
Signal source

Receiver

Spatial stream 1 B

Spatial stream 2

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 11

MIMO Receiver Test

• Multiple source
» Consider needs for the following:
– Timing alignment of baseband signals because of different arrival time
– Requirement for common local oscillator due to phase-coherence between
signal generators

Signal source

Spatial stream 1

Receiver
Spatial stream 2

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 12

6
Synchronous Frequency on Common Reference
Oscillator
• Common 10 MHz reference signal for multiple signal generators
allows synchronization of each generating frequency.

MG3700A
I
I/Q Baseband I/Q IF RF
Generator Modulator t
Q

Clock Carrier LO
∆φ Same frequency
10 MHz Frequency Frequency Frequency
Synthesizer Synthesizer Synthesizer
Reference
Oscillator

MG3700A
I
I/Q Baseband I/Q IF RF
Generator Modulator t
Q

Clock Carrier LO Oscillators not phase-locked


Phase of one cannot be aligned with other
Frequency Frequency Frequency
Synthesizer Synthesizer Synthesizer
Reference
Oscillator

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 13

Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband


Signal Generation
• When two spatial streams on baseband generated simultaneously,
» 2×1 MISO
One MG3700A unit provides phase-coherence between RF signals at zero
delay time setting.
t
Spatial stream 1 I/Q signals 1
MG3700A t

I/Q signals
Spatial stream 1
t
Spatial stream 2

Phase-coherence between RF signals

Spatial stream 2
t

t
I/Q signals 2
t

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 14

7
Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband
Signal Generation
• When two spatial streams on baseband generated with time difference,
» 2×1 MISO
One MG3700A unit cannot provide correlation with RF delay at any delay time
setting.
t
Spatial stream 1 I/Q signals 1
MG3700A t

I/Q signals
Spatial stream 1
t
Spatial stream 2

Phase-coherence between RF signals


RF phase is supposed to delay.

Spatial stream 2
t

t
I/Q signals 2
Delay
t

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 15

Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband


Signal Generation
• When two spatial streams on RF generated simultaneously,
» 2×2 MIMO
Multiple MG3700As cannot provide phase-coherence between RF signals.

t
10 MHz
I/Q signals 1
MG3700A #1 t
Spatial stream 1
Spatial stream 1
t

I/Q signals
∆φ
MG3700A #2
Spatial stream 2
Spatial stream 2
t

t
I/Q signals 2
t

Trigger Start trigger


Generator

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 16

8
Synchronous Timing Alignment of Baseband
Signal Generation
• The two separate baseband clock for each of MG3700A I/Q
baseband generator do not be phase-locked.
MG3700A I/Q Baseband Generator

D/A Module
20 k to 20 MHz Interpolator 80 M to 160 MHz
Baseband Memory 200 M to 400 MHz

Fs fs Interpolator DAC I/Q


Passing
>20 M to 160 MHz >20 M to 160 MHz

Start trigger input captured by fs clock


Trigger
Generator

Start trigger

MG3700A #1 fs clock

Asynchronous sampling clock MG3700A #1 I/Q

MG3700A #2 fs clock

MG3700A #2 I/Q
Maximum timing error ∆t 1/fs sec (e.g. fs 100 MHz, ∆t 10 ns)

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 17

Phase Synchronous RF Signal Generation

• The phase between the RF signals can be precisely adjusted using


the MG3700A Phase Adjust function.
– This phase adjustment is lost if the frequency is changed.

t
10 MHz
I/Q signals 1
MG3700A #1 t
Spatial stream 1
Spatial stream 1
t

I/Q signals
∆φ → 0
MG3700A #2
Spatial stream 2
Spatial stream 2
t

t
I/Q signals 2
t

Trigger Start trigger


Generator

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 18

9
Technique for Calibrating RF Signal Phase
Example of oscilloscope display
10 MHz
MG3700A #1

→t

Frequency ƒc
Suitable output level for mixer spec.
Modulation Off
LO
IF Voltmeter or
Oscilloscope
0.1 Hz
RF (0.01 Hz)

MG3700A #2
10 sec (100 sec)

Frequency ƒc + 0.1 Hz (or + 0.01 Hz)


Suitable output level for measuring voltage
Modulation Off
Change MG3700A #2 frequency from ƒc + 0.1 Hz (or + 0.01 Hz) to ƒc here.

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 19

Technique for Calibrating RF Signal Phase


Example of oscilloscope display
10 MHz
MG3700A #1

(degrees)
→°

Frequency ƒc
Suitable output level for mixer spec.
Modulation Off
LO
IF Voltmeter or
Oscilloscope
DC
RF

MG3700A #2

Frequency ƒc 0° 90° 180° -90°


Suitable output level for measuring voltage (0 rad) (π/2 rad) (π rad) (3π/2 rad)
Modulation Off

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 20

10
Phase Stability and Repeatability

• Temperature affects phase drift of the MG3700A RF output.


» If all MG3700A temperature changes are the same, the phase
difference change is lower.

• The difference in phase between two MG3700A RF outputs is


measured to check performance.
» Output frequency 3 GHz and 5.8 GHz
• 3 GHz for 3 GHz RF unit, and 5.8 GHz for 6 GHz RF unit (Option)
» Temperature 25 ± 2°C
• 25°C → 27°C → 23°C → 25°C

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 21

Measured Phase difference at 3 GHz


90

60 25℃ 27℃ 23℃ 25℃


Phase Difference [deg]

30

-30

-60

-90
0 5 10 15 20
Elapsed Time [hours]

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 22

11
Measured Phase difference at 5.8 GHz
90

25℃ 27℃ 23℃ 25℃

60
Phase Difference [deg]

30

-30

-60

-90
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Elapsed Time [hour]

MG3700A-E-F-13 Slide 23

12
Specifications are subject to change without notice.

Anritsu Corporation
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