Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 96


(1) Cosmology - Study of universe

(2) Cosmos - Universe
(3) Cluster of Galaxies - Universe
(4) Galaxies - Contain stars, clouds of gases and dust
(5) Galaxy - Milky way seen at night in the sky
(6) Solar system - Sun with its nine planets - M V E M J S U N P. (V - Brightest planet). Originated about
4.5 billion year ago.
(7) Bio evolution or evolutionary biology - Term used by Mayr. 1970
(8) Oldest surviving rocks - 4.3 billion years old contain no definite trace of life.
(9) Carbonate Rocks - Some rocks, about 3.9 billion year old, contain carbonate and geologist interprets
that carbonates have resulted from life. There for life was present on earth about 3.9
billion year ago.
(10) Fossils of Cyanobacteria - Fossils of photosynthetic cyanobacteria (Archespheroid barbintonensis)
found from kashio region of orissa and appeared about 3.2 - 3.5 billion
year ago.
(11) Radio-active clock - This method introduced by Boltwood. The age of Fossils or Rocks could be
determined by unstable radio-active nucleus in to stable nuclei at a fixed period. K 40 Ar 40
Conversion method is usefull to determine the age of Rock because Potassium is common element
found in rock and K40 decay in Ar40 is extremely slow.
K40 Ar40 (Half life 1.3 × 109 year)
C14 N214 (half life 5568 years)
Rb87 Sr87
Th232 Pb206
U238 Ph207

Big-Bang Hypothesis of cosmic evolution

According to this hypothesis cosmos or universe originated about 15-20 billion years back.


(1) Originated about 4.5 billion year ago
(2) The Tempreture of early earth was 5000-6000°C and without atmosphere.
(3) The later conditions on earth were

High tempreture

Volconic lava and volcanic storm

Molten mass (Volcanic lava) covered the earth surface and it released CH4, NH3, CO2, Water

U.V . Rays
H2O from sun because of no O sheild
H2 O

CH4 + NH3 + O H2O + CO2 + Nitrides.

All gases like H2, CH4, NH3 make primitive atmosphere reducing.

(4) By the passing of time, earth rotating speed and tempreture came down (below 100°C) and hydrosphere
formed after lithosphere and atmosphere.
Earth core – Contain heavy metals.
Earth crust (Lithosphere) – Si, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, F, Cl, Ag
Atmosphere – H, He, Ar, N, O, C
Hydrosphere – Hot boiling water

(i) Theory of Abiogenesis or spontaneous generation theory –

Given by some greek thinker like Aristotle, plato, Ampedocles “Life came out of decaying and
rotting of Non-living matters like straw and mud.”
Supporter – Von Helmotnz

(ii) Theory of Biogenesis: Harvey and Huxley

“New Life originates from pre-existing life”
Biogenesis = Omnis Vivum ex ova or Vivo
Supporter –
(a) Louice pasture:

He took swan necked flask contain

ing boiled yeast and sugar.

He also gave – Germ theory of dis


He discovered pasturisation

He discovered the vaccine of Anthrax

and Rabies.


(b) Experiment of Fransisco Reddi – He took jar containing boiled flesh or meat.
(c) Experiment of Lazzerosplanzani – He took jar containg sterlized broth of vegetable and

(iii) Cosmozoic theory: Richter, Arrhenius, Hoyle.

(1) It explains “eternity of life” means life was
present since the origin of earth and will
remain till earth exists.
(2) It also explains theory of panspermia
means the life present in each and every
star, planet, sattelite. The spores of life
continuously being transfered from one to
another star, planet, sattelite in the form of
spores through meteorites.
(3) Life had came from another star or planet of universe on Earth in the form of life spores
(Pangenes) through meteorites.

(iv) Theory of special creation: Father swarez

super natural power created this living nature or Divine creation of one or more superior, intelligent
and all powerfull God, created all livings.
(a) According to bible – God created this living nature with in 6 days –
1st Day – Earth and Heaven
2nd Day – Sky and Water
3rd Day – Land and Vegetation
4th Day – Moon and Stars
5th Day – Fishes and Birds
6th Day – Terrestrial animal and first human male Adam.
Note: Eve (First human female) borne from 12th Rib of Adam.
(b) According to Hindu Epic – Brahma created this living nature

From Head of Brahma – Human, Devil, Angel

From thorasic Region of Brahma – Birds

From Mouth of Brahma – Goats

From Hairs of Brahma – Other animals and Vegetation.

Objection of special Creation Theory: It upholds that life is immutable and had not changed ever
since its origin.

(v) Theory of Catastrophism or Sudden creation theory: G. Cuvier

(1) G. Cuvier is the father of modern palaentology and according to him cataclism (Great
destruction) or Revolution or catastrophism (Disastrous event) occures upon earth
from time to time which Completely destroys all persisting living.
(2) Then new organism suddenly formed from inorganic matter by crystalysation.


Given by A.I. Oparin (Russia) and Haldane (England)

Book - Origin of life

(1) According to oparin and Haldane “ Life originated abiogenetically first but biogenetically
ever since.”
(2) “Chemical evolution through physio-chemical process” was the main theme and also
called Materialystic theory of oparin + Haldane.
(3) First life originated as single cell in oceanic water (salty water).
(4) According to oparin and Haldane life orignated (up to Eukaryotic cell) in to 8 steps or phases -

Atomic phase

Only atoms of each element were present -

In earth core - Heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, pb)
In earth crust - Si, Na, K, Mg, Al, P, F, Cl
In atmosphare - H, He, Ar, N, O, C

Molecular phase and formation of simple inorganic compound like -

H2 - most reactive, 90% and make early enviroment highly reactive.

Formation of first simplest organic compound

U.V . Rays, cosmic

CH4 ,NH3 ,H2 Water Vapour Simple A.A, F.A., Simple sugar, N2 Bases
Ray, lightning and thundering

Due to formation of above organic compound it was become possible to originate life or it was first
step towards protoplasm synthesis.
Prebiotic Soup – Hot dilute mixture of simple organic compound in sea water termed as
prebiotic soup by Haldane.

Experiment of Stanley Miller and Harold Urey

Urey (Guru) and Miller (Pupil) made an experiment to proove operin and Haldane theory by Electrical
spark Chamber using CH4, NH3H2 (2 : 1 : 2) and water vapour in 800°C tem. for one week.


Note – Analysis of meteorites reveals similar reactions (Miller’s reactions) occuring else where
in the space.

Formation of two important Protobiont or Protocells or Prebiotic structure

(coacervates and microsphere) and origin of in dividuality.
Coaservates – Term given by oparin and made up of protein and polysaccherides.
Proteinoid Microsphere – Sydney fox
(1) Once organic Molecules (Coacervates and microsphere) formed, they accumulated in water
because their degradation was extremely slow in the absence of Enzymes or Catalysts.
(2) Two important unique feature of protobiont are –

They had separate combinations of molecules from surrounding and can maintain their internal
environment but can’t reproduce

They were membraneless or have no lipid covering.

Origin of genes, Viruses, Autocatalytic system means premordial life (3.7 billion years
ago in precambrian Era) Eobiont. RNA were replicator as well as Enzyme.


Origin of first cellular form of life (Anaerobic Heterotrophic bacteria) about 3.5 billion
year ago.

There were chemoheterotrophic bacteria that used organic contents of premordial soup.

There were membrane bound primitive prokaryotic cellular organism.

Drop in Tempreture stopped synthesis of organic molecules in the oceanic water


Fossil – Fossils of bacterium “ Eobacterium isolatum” found and aprox age was 3.5
billion year old.

Aerobic respiration started about 2.7 million year ago.

Origin of first autotrophic form of life.

First chemoautotrophs and then photo-autotrophs originated about 3.2 billion year

Because of photo-autotrophic organism O2 evolved so that reducing environment

gradually changed in to oxydising one.

Ozone formed and accumulated at the hight of 11-16 km (from poles)

3O2 2O3

CH4 and NH3 disappeared because they reacted with O2 to form CO2 and N2

Fossil – Fossil of a cyanobacteria “ Archespheroid barbintoesis” discovered from

Kashio region of orissa and were 3.2 billion year old.

Origin of Eukaryotic cell.

Eukaryotic cell formed about 1.5 billion (1500 Million) year ago due mutation in
prokaryotes (Roff and Mahler)

Some scientis explains that symbiotic association of different types of prokaryotes give
rise to Eukaryotes.

Why it had become possible to originate life abiogenetically on primitive earth

(1) Primitive environment was reducing because CH4, NH3, H2 (90% and highly reactive) gases were
(2) Proper and sufficient Suply of energy for forcing chemical reaction from simple towards complex, were
for Ex. Sun, U.V. Rays. Earth heat itself
(3) No O3 sheild was formed so that U.V. Rays could reached easily on the earth surface that causes
mutation and initiated many chemical reaction.


E = Out
Volvere = To roll or unrolling or unfolding to reveal modification.
Evolution = Descent with change. or descent is recent with some modifications.

(1) Anaximander - He was the first scientist who announced that "Human originated in the form of fish".
(2) Empedocles - He is the father of evolutionary ideas and according to him - "Incomplete, less devel-
oped, and errored species are replaced by developed and complete species".
(3) Aristotle - In nature, ladder like order or gradation is seen.
(4) Monophylentic genealogy - All various species are originated from a single and common ancestor.
So in other words all species are closely or fartherly related with one another.

(i) Due to naturalystic theory of origin of life

(ii) Monophylentic genealogy (common ancestory)
(iii) Due to changing in environmental conditions and specialisation in structure, function and composition
of a species and origin of new species.

Evidences from connective links
"An organism, having characteristics of two taxanomic groups is called as connective link. These connec-
tive links play an important role in systematic and stabilising monophylentic evolutionary line or in other
words, phylogenetic tree stand mainly on the basis of connective links."

(a) Euglena – Connective link between and

(b) Proterospongia – Connective link between and


(c) Neopelina – Connective link betwen and

(d) Peripetus – Connective link between and

(e) Prototheria – These are egg laying mammals and also called monotremata.
Proto = primitive
Theria = nipple
Mono = single
Trema = opening for all purpose means for urin, faecus, germinal matter.

Connective link between and

(e) Archaeopterix – Archae = primitive
Pterix = Wing

Fossil of Archaeopterix lithogrophia found in rock of jurassic period in germany.

Connective link between and

(f) Seymouria –
It is "missing link" or fossil form and was present in permian period. Also called stem reptile.


Connective link between and

(g) Ichthyostega –
It is "missing link" (fossil form) and was present in late devonian and early carboniferous period.

Connective link between and

(h) Cynognathus – It is also a "missing link" or fossil connective link between reptiles and mammal's was
present in early triasic period.

(i) Lycaenops – It is "Missing Link" or fossil connective link between Reptiles and Mammals and discov
ered from the rocks of life Permain Period.

(j) Basilosaurus – Actually it was fossil whale with hind limbs and it is connective link between aquatic
and terrestrial mammals.

Fossil = Impression of body or foot print.

"fossils are preserved remains, traceces or prints of organism that lived in past".
(1) Process of fossil formation is called fossilisation.
(2) Study fo fossils - palaeontology.
(3) Father of palaeontology - Leonard De vinci
(4) Father of modern palaeontology - G. cuvier
(5) Fossils are found in Sedimentary rock, polar snow, resin of plants.


(i) Unaltered or preserved fossil – Complete body of an organism burried in polar snow or
resin of umber
Snow - Large body sized animal
Ex. The fossil of elephant like mammals "mammoth" was found and average
calculated age was 25 thousand years.
Resin - Small animal like insects.

(ii) Petrified fossil – Only hard part of the body (teeth, bone, shell of mollusc, skeletun of
arthropod) present between layers of stratified rock.
Ex. Fossils of Apeman, Neanderthal, Cromagnon.

(iii) Printed fossil or moulded fossil – The print of animal or plant body in stratified rocks.
Ex. Archeopterix.

Living fossil: Only existing representative of a group means all the member of a group extincted but the
only surviving member of that group is called Living fossil.
Ex. – Limulus - King Crab (An Arthropod)
Latimeria - Coelocanths (Bony Fish)
Sphenodon - Tutuara (Belongs to order Rhyncophalia with pineal eye or third eye)

" Sudden appearance of ancestral character in an organism"

Ex. – Appearence of dense body hair

Appearence of small tail in new born baby

Presence of two extra-abdominal nipple in human male

Enlarging of canine teeth

"The structure that have lost some or all of the functions that they used to perform earlier in their
ancestor" called vestigial organ.
Vestigial organ also offer on evolutionary explanation of such rudimentary vestiges (non-functioning
organ) by stating that adaptations to new environment of the organism have made these structures

Ex. Presence of pelvic girdle in Whale, Python, Boa

The rudiment of the hind limbs of python and greenland whale

Rudiments of body hair in whale.

Residual and non-functional wings in Ostrich, Emu, Cassowary, Kiwi, Dodo (Recently

Rudiment of the reptilian jaw apparatus.

2nd and 4th digit of horse (1st and 5th digit completaly degenerated while 3rd digit devel-
oped in hoof)

Plica semiluneris

Muscles of ear pinnae

Body hairs

Tail vertibrae

Vermiform appendix

3rd molar teeth or wisdome teeth

Father of comparative anatomy – Andrease versalius

(i) Homology and Homologous organs – Organs which are similar in origin, structure, anatomy
but different in function called homologous organ and
study of such organ is called Homology.

Divergent evolution or adoptive radiation – Represented by homology

Common descendents or ancestry – Represented by homology

(1) Hands of man, fore limbs of horse, wings of birds, wings of bat, flippers of whale have similar
anatomy (Humerus, radius-ulna, carpels, metacarpels phalanges in their fore limb) but
adapted for different functions.
(2) Hearts and brain of all vertibrate (have same basis structural plan) or brain


(3) Thorn and tendrils of bougainvillea and Cucurbita (Both are axillary in origin but perform
different function)

Note – Molecular homology - Similarities in protein and genes, performing a given function among
diverse organism give clues of common ancestry (Homology)

(ii) Analogy and analogous organs – Organ which are different in origin, structure and anatomy
but similar in function are called analogous organs and
study of such organs is called Analogy
Convergent or parallel evolution – Represented by analogaus organ

Ex. Eyes of human and octopus (differ in retinal position)

Flippers dolphin (mammal) and penguin (bird)

Wings of birds and butterfly

Sweet potato (Modified root) and potato (Modified stem) but both are meant for
storage of food
"Geographical distribution of species is called biogeography" or "Study of distribution of animals and plants
on the earth is biogeography"
Pangaea - Earth without realms or earth in single piece and at carboniferous period(palaeozaic era).
Realms - Due to various geographical changes huge single land mass (earth in single piece) broken in to
pieces (continents) and separated by seas, which prevent the migration of animal and forced them to remain
endemic (restricted area or continent). The earth is divided in to many continents by six major biogeographi-
cal region called realm.
(i) Palaearctic realm
(ii) Oriental realm
(iii) Australian realm
(iv) Ethopian realm
(v) Nearctic realm
(vi) Neotropical realm

Note– Adaptation and natural selection – Different habitat in different realm forced species
to adapt in that particular habitat and nature had
selected such adapted species.

(I) Adaptive radiation – This process of evolution of different species in a given geographical area starting
from a point and literally radiating to other areas of geography (habitat) is called
adaptive radiation.
Ex. 1- Darwin finches
Ex. 2- Marsupials of Australia

Ex.1- Adaptive radiation of darwin's finches -

Darwin visited to Galapagos Island by ship (voyage) H.M.S Beagle. Galapagos Island
consisted of about twenty two different island that have many endemic plant and animal

He observed small black coloured many varieties of finches on same island.

All varieties evolved and radiated by a single ancestral seed-eating ground finch (root
finch). Essense is ancestral seed eating ground finch radiated to different geographical area
(habitat) and underwent profound adaptive changes and specially in beak pattern.


Ex. 2- Adaptive radiations of marsupials of Australia
Further more, Australia is the home to the great diversity of marsupials (Pouched mam
mals) but relatively few placental mammals.

A number of marsupials, each different from other evolved from an ancestral stock but all
with in the Australian island.


(II) Adaptive convergence (convergent evolution) :
"When more than one adaptive radiation appeared to have occured in a isolated geographical area or
development of similar adaptative function structure in unrelated groups of organism is called adap
tive conver gence"

Ex.1- Placental mammals and Australian marsupials (placental wolf and Tasmanian marsupial wolf )


Ex.2- Various aquatic vertibrate thats are not closely related but adapted to survive in aquaitic

Ex.3- Wings of Insects, Bird, Bat

Reason – Convergent evolution is mainly due to similar adaption for survival in different groups of animals
inhabiting in a similar habitate.

Ex.1 Peperedmoth–

(1) Cryptic colouration of pepered moth (Biston bittularia) show best example of genetic basis of natural

(2) Observation supporting evolution by adaptation and natural selection comes from England.

(3) Before industrialisation set (about 1850) – More white winged moths and few dark winged moth (Melanised
moths) on white licken covered tree bark.

(4) After industrialisation set (in 1920) – The proportion get reversed means more dark wing (Melanised)
moth and less white winged moths

Explanation – During post industrialisation period, the tree trunk become dark due to industrial smoke and
soots and it was easy to spot a moth by predator in a contrasting background under such environmental
condition the white winged moth did not survive due to predotors but dark winged may easily survive be
cause of cryptation or camouflage, and it was done by adaptation and natural selection at gene level,


Note– It can't be said that all moth become dark winged but most of them do this hence moths that were able
to camouflage themselves (hide in the background) survied and increase in population size. In other words,
where industrialisation did not occurd (Rural areas) the count of dark winged moth was low and in industrial
areas the count of dark winged moth was high means mixed population was present in England. Remmber
that no variant is completaly wiped out.

Ex. 2– Resistant varieties of microbes due to anthropogenic action–

(1) Excess use of herbicides, pesticides etc has only resulted in selection and development of new resistant
varieties of in sects, fungus microbes in a much lesser time scale.

(2) This is also true for other microbes against which we employ antibiotic or drugs in order to cure an
eukaryotic organism. Many antibiotic resistant varieties of schigella dysentry are found.

Note– Such type of evolution is not directional but purposefull.

(1) Chemical composition of protoplasm – Chemical composition in all organisms (primitive to

complex organism) is almost similar.

(2) Genetic material – In all true livings, D.N.A is genetic material.

(3) Enzyme action–

Trypsin (protein digestive enzyme) present from protozoa to mammalia.
Amylase enzyme (starch digestive enzyme) present from porifera to mammalia

(4) Thyroxin hormone– Thyroxin hormone secreted in all vertibrates and thyroxin hormone of one
verbrate group show similar effect in the other vertibrate groups.

(5) Haemoglobin– Morphologically much closer and similar group shows more closeness in Hb crystal
shape and size, sequence of closeness in Hb crystal is as following order.
Pig Tree shrews Lemur Loris Monkey Ape Man

More difference in pig and man Hb crystals

More close ness (similarity) in ape and man Hb crystals

(6) Cytochrome-C –
It is a protein present in mitochondria that contain 104 to 112 amino acids.
Examination or observation in amino acids sequence in cytc is almost similar
from 70 to 80 (11amino acid) in polypeptied chain in human, Rabbit, Birds, Rep
tiles, Amphibia, Fishes.
Polypeptide chain differ in single amino acid in chimpanzee and man.

(7) Metabolic ATP – In all organism ATP works as energy currency and energy carrier.

(8) Comparative serology –

Study of serum is called serology.
Blood plasma - Fibrinogen = Serum.
Transparent, yellow coloured fluid appears on wound after blood coagulation
called serum.

When reaction between serum and antiserum occures then a white precipitate is obtained and the amount
of precipitate is more in closely related species while less in fartherly related ones.
Amount of precipate with Lemur is least while maximum with Ape, it indicates that Ape is close relative of
Human than Lemur.

Phylogenetic classification proves ancestral Lineage or evolution phylogenetic system of classification

depend upon connective links and because of non - availability of all link or missing of some connective
link, not a single phylogenetic classification is complete.

Present phylogenetic systems of classification are actually mixture of natural and phylogenetic.

Evidences from embryology

(1) Study of embryo and all developmental stages is called embryology (ontogeny)

(2) Father of embryology - Aristotle

He frist studied the embryo and placenta in Shark and Whale. After that he find that shark have no
placenta but whale and Dolphins have it. That was the reason he classified whale and Dolphins with

(3) Father of modern embryology - Van Baer


(a) Similarity in early embryo–
Zygot is formed in all sexually reproducing animals.
Embryonic development and sequential appearence of marulla Blastula Gastrula stages in
all metazoan.

(b) Recemblence amoung vertibrate embryo–

Embryo of the vertibrate series exhibits many features that are absent in adults. Embryo of fish,
Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia have some common structure like brachial gill slits and
muscular tail. It represent or indicate that all vertibrates descended from a common ancestar.
Gill slits are functional in adult fishes only but in embryonic stage of other land vertibrates. It
directaly indicates that land vertibrates descended from the fishes that contained gill slits as an
adaptation to aquaitic respiration.

Note - How ever, aquaitic mammals (Dolphins, Whale, Porppoise, Seals) do not contain gill slits because
their adaptation to aquaitic habitat is secondary.

Tadpole larva of frog recemble with adult fish and it indicates that amphibia directaly descended
from fishes.

Van Baer - He observed that the generalised feature such as brain, spinal cord, axial skeleton,
aortic arches are common to all vertibrates, means there are stage that related em
bryo do share.


Baer's low - "Baer stated that embryo never pass through the adult stages of other related
ancestral ancestral animals".
"The embryonic or young stages of an animal are some what similar to embryonic or young stages
of lower animals (ancestral descents)".
During ontogenic development of an organism, frist the feature of its higher taxonomic group then
lower taxonomic heirahial group and at the end of gestation, species specific characters appear.
Means first simplest then simple then complex and at the end specific character develops.

Simplest character Simple character Complex character at the end of gestation, species
specific character develops like hairs
(found only in mammals) feath-
ers (Found only in birds)

(c) Biogenetic law/Recapitulation– by Haeckel

"Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" or "ontogeny repeats phylogeny"
Ontogeny - Development of the embryo or all the developmental stages of an organism.
Phylogeny - Ancestral sequence or evolutionary history of an organism or an species or a group of
Explaination– Embryonic stages of more advance animals repeats the young or adult stages of
premitive and less developed animals.

(i) Morphological recapitulation–

(1) Larva of many insects have legs on all body segment but in adult they get restricted only
as 3 pair legs on thorasic region. It indicate that advance insect had originated from
centipede like organism.

(2) Tadpole larva of frog recemble with adult fishes in morphology. It indicates that amphibia
originated from fish like ancestors.

Adult Fish Tadpole of frog-

(1) Respiration - Gills (1) Gills
(2) Swimming - Tail fin (2) Tail fin
(3) Habit - Herbivores (3) Herbivores
(4) Habitat - Complete aquaitic (4) Comple aquaitic

(3) Tadpole Larva of Herdmania (urochordate) shows chordate character like notochord,
dorsal hollow spinal card and tail. However adult herdmania does not posses above men
tioned chordate character hence adult shows ancestral character.

(4) Seedling of Acasia (Babool) tree initially develops simple leaves which later transform in
to compound leaves

(5) Another example of modern day Oaks -


(ii) Biochemical Recapitulation–
Fishes – NH3
Tadpole – NH3 and recapitulates fish while adult frog-urea.
Chick embryo – First NH3 and recapitulates fish then urea and recapitulate amphibia and adult
excrete uric acid.

(iii) Anatomical Recapitulation–

Anatomical recapitulation seen in development of vertibrate heart.
Adult fish – Two chambered, (1 A + 1V)
Tadpole of frog – Two chambered (1 A + 1V) while adult frog with (1 A + 2 V)
Reptiles – In embryo first 2 chambered then 3 chambered and adult with 3½ chambered
Aves and Mammalia – In embryo first 2 chambered then 3 chambered and 3½ chambered while
adult with 4 chambered (2 A + 2 V)

Process or Mechanism of evolution

Theory of Lamark (Lamarkism)

French naturalist Lamark said that evolution of life form had occurred but driven by use and
disuse of organ.

Book- philosophae Zoologique

Actual theory of Lamark- Inheritance of acquired character and was based on use and disuse of

Lamark explained his theory on following points-

(a) Tendency to increase in size
(b) Direct effect of environment
(c) Use and disuse of organs
(d) Inheritance of aquaired character


(i) African Giraffe- Elongation of neck and passing this acquired character to succeeding generation

(ii) Snakes- Gradual degeneration and disappearence of Limbs.

(i) Exp. of Sumner on Rat- He reared and domesticated rats for many generation in two different
environmental condition-
Rat of Hot environment- Tail and ear pinnae enlarged and this acquired character passed in to
next generation (Inherited)

Rat of cold environment- Tail and ear pinnae shortened and this acquired character passed in
to next generation (Inherited)

(ii) Exp. of Kammerer on Salamander - Salamander is a tail less amphibia (Apoda) with black-
yellow patches on skin. Cammerer reared and domesticated
in two different environment.

Salamander of Dark environment- Black patches of skin enlarged and this aquaired character
passed on succeeding generation.

Salamander of yellow environment illuminated by yellow light- Yellow patches of skin

enlarged and this
acquired character
Passed on next

Specific- Once Kingsle Nobel visited to Kamerer lab and after inspection he found that Kamerer
injected yellow dye bellow the skin of salamander. That was the reason to enlarge
yellow patches. Because of shame and guilt he finally commit to suicide.

(iii) Exp. of Mc. Dougal on Rat- He trained rats to move through particular path and need of training
gradually become insignificant in succesive generation

(iv) Exp. of Pavlov on Dogs- Same as conditional reflex experiment.


(by Weismann)
1. Weismann was the great criticizer of theory of use and disuse or Inheritance of acquired characters.

2. Germplasm Theory given by Weismann in order to disprove the theory of use and disuse or Inherit
ance of acquired characters.

Germaplasm (Immortal) – Sperm+ova (changes Reaches to next generation)

Somatoplasm (Mortal) – Either than gametic cells (Changes will not reach to next generation)

3. Experiment: Weisman experimented on white mouse he continued cutting the tail of new born mice
for many generations, yet there was no hereditary effect and even upon the length of tail.

Some modification made in Lamarkism and represented as following –
“Genetic or chromosomal changes may occurs due to change in environment or use and disuse.
There changes effects some physical and chemical changes in germplasm means leads to change
in genes of germplasm and reaches to next generation.”

X rays
Ex. Potato Beetle Cosmicrays Change in genetic material of germplasm such changes
passes to next generation

Theory of Darwin (Darwinism): by Darwin

1. T.R. Malthus: Wrote essay on population and it influenced Darwin to postulate the theory of
natural selection.

2. Alfred Russell Wallace :

Visited to S. America and S.East-Asia. He studied the population essay of T.R. Malthus.

Survival of fittest: After the study of Malthus essay Wallace gone the Idea of survival of fittest
and also wrote on essay by using a title – “On tendency of varieties to
depart indefinitely, from their original type.” And send it to Darwin.

3. Darwin:
Birth: Shrewsbury (England) Feb. 12, 1809.

Education: Edinbura (England) – Doctarate in health, and appointed as Naturalist.

World Survey: By small ship (voyage) H.M.S. Beagle and main place of visit was
Galapagos Island. Finch bird was the main fauna of his interest.

Belief follower: Before world survey he believed in Theory of Special creation.

Analysis of Visit: He started to think about origin and evolution of life and clearly understood
that struggle for existence occurs in nature and through struggle, Natural
selection is possible.

Book: After receiving the reading Wallace latter Darwin published a book with common name of
Darwin and Wallace- “On the origin of species by means of natural selection” and was rated
next to Bible or was second famous book after Bible.


Special: He start thinking about evolution and announced evolution as following – “Descent is
recent with changes” or “Descent from Common Ancestors with Modifications”
or Branding Descent and Natural selection.
Darwin gave Wallace chart in his book origin of species by natural selection.

4. Wallace Chart:Given by Darwin with, common name of Wallace.




Formation of one or more new species from pre-existing species.


Reproductive isolation :

Mayer defined this term as following “biological properties of individuals which prevent the interbreeding
of naturally sympatric population.” There are many natural intrinsic barrier which prevent interbreeding be-
tween two species, means no genetic exchange between two different species occurs.

Exception of Reproductive Isolation : “Tigons” a hybrid of African Lioness and Asian Tiger which is fertile
and no barrier to hybridisation between these species has evolved during their long isolation from each other.

Criticism of Darwinism
Great criticiser Hugo De Vries.
(1) Greatest weakness: He was unable to explain the cause, origin and inheritance of variations.

(2) Raw Material for evolution: He regarded all small and continuous variations, which may be acquired
by organism during their life time due to environmental effect but somatic ones never play this role.

(3) Theory of pangenesis: As it is cleared that Darwin was failed to explain the origin of variations at
genetic level as well as their transmission to next generation. In 1868 Darwin put forward his own theory
of inheritance, the Theory of pangenesis. According to this theory every organ of the body produce
minute hereditary particles, called Pangenes or Gemmules for example live Gemmules from liver, leg
Gemmules from leg, and so forth. He thought the Gemmules were carried through the blood form every
organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes.

(4) Certain useful or harmful variations are brought about by mutation (Sudden changes in genetic material)
and Darwin knew about these sudden changes (Mutation) and called these sports, but Darwin either
ignored these observations or kept silence.

(5) The variations of Darwin originated by natural selection are gradual (not in single step) and certain varia
tions such as electric organ of Torpedoes, light producing organs of luminescent organism (Glow
worm) etc., are functional and useful only in their perfected state (in fully developed state not in under
developed state) and could not be originate through natural selection while only possible through muta-

(6) There are some examples of overgrowth of useful variations beyond the limit of usefulness and bring
down extinction of some species rather than evolution, and it is said clearly that it is not possible through
adaptation and natural selection. Ex. Antlers of Iris elk, teeth of Sweedolon.

(7) Darwin was also unable to explain how does set of coordinated organ evolved through natural selection.


Mutation theory of Hugo De Vries
According to De Vries “sudden, stable, inherited characters which are completely different from
their parents called mutation.”

(1) In 1901 Dutch Botanist Hugo De Vries rediscovered Mendalian law with two other scientists and put
forward his views regarding the evolution and formation of new species.

(2) Exp. Material : Evening primrose (Oenothera Lamarkiana)

(3) Term Mutation : Given by Hugo De Vries

(4) Key concept of Mutation theory: Hugo De Vries believed that mutation causes origin of new species
and hence he used the term Saltation.

(5) Saltation means single step large mutation (Variation originates in single steps and in full form.) and just
opposite to adaptation and natural selection of Darwin (Variations are small and gradual, directional.

(6) Useful mutations are selected by natural white Lethal and harmful mutations are eliminated.

(1) Mutations are one of the sources of variations and become the cause of evolution.

(2) This theory explains both progressive and retrogressive evolution (as seen in Herdmania).

(3) Ancon sheep is a short-legged variety which appeared suddenly in Massachusetts in 1791 was due to
first natural mutation.

(4) Hornless cattle developed as sudden (Mutation) from the horned cattle first in 1989.


(5) Hairless cats, double toed cats had developed through mutation.
Note: First mutant animal, appeared naturally and discovered was short legged ancon sheep in 1791.

(Great criticiser Morgan)

(1) T.H. Morgan (Father of experimental genetics), experimented on fruit fly (Drossophila) and Defined
Mutation as following–
“Heritable chemical changes in genetic material are mutation”.

(2) Different Varieties of Oenothera obtained by De Vries were the result of numerical changes in chromo-
some that is not chemical change hence these varieties was not the result of mutation.

(3) Most of the mutations are harmful and lethal then how do they help an organism to develop in progressive
direction. They will only help in retrogressive development. That is completely against the evolution.

(4) Mutations are generally recessive while traits participating in evolution are usually dominant.
(5) It can not explains mimicry and living fossils.

Modern theory of Evolution : Dobzhansky

Population Genetics and Hardy Weinberg law

“Under certain conditions of stability, allelic frequencies remain constant form generation to generation in
sexually reproducing organism”, proposed by two scientist hardy and Weinberg and the law are called
Hardy-Weinberg law.

(1) Population genetics: Application of Mendilian genetics to Darwinion natural selection.

(2) Hardy-Weinberg law: Hardy Weinberg equilibrium that define the genetic structure of a non-
evolving population.
(3) Genetic Equilibrium: If all other factors remain constant then the frequency of a particular gene
and allele will remain constant in a population through generation to generation and such kind of
genetic stability is called Genetic equilibrium.

Applications of Hardy-Weinberg law

Hardy-Weinberg explained the gene/allele frequency as well as the frequency of individuals of particular
genotype through a mathematical formula in a large size population inhabiting in stable environmental
(p+q)2 = p2+2pq+q2


p+q = 1 (Means sum total of all the allelic frequency is 1)

p = frequent of dominant gene of a trait

q = frequency of recessive gene of first trait that is expressed by p or frequency of recessive allele
of gene p

p2 = Frequency of homozygous dominant individuals

q2 = Frequency of homozygous recessive individuals

2pq = frequency of heterozygous individuals

If the above equation with its components compared with albanic trait-
p = A (Frequency of Dominant gene)

q = a Frequency of recessive gene

p2 = A2 (AA) Frequency of Homozygous normal individuals

q2 = a2 (aa) frequency of homozygous albanic individuals

2pq = 2Aa (Frequency of Heterozygous normal individuals)

Note: To calculate of frequency of a gene or individual it is necessary to have at least one data (value)
among two-
(1) Frequency of Homozygous individuals either Homozygous dominant or recessive homozygous.

(2) Frequency of a gene, either dominant or recessive one.

Problem 1 – If the frequency of gene A is 4% then find out the frequency of – Individual with genotype – AA,
aa, Aa

Solution: First it is necessary to find out frequency of both allelic genes otherwise the problem will not be
p+q =1 or A+a=1
A = 4% means A 0.4% because sum total of all alleles frequency is always 1
0.4 + a = 1
a = 1 – 0.4
a = 0.6
AA = A2 = (4)2 = 16 %
Aa = a2 = (6)2 = 36%
Aa = 2Aa = 2x4x6 = 48%

Problem 2 – If we try to go reversely means if the frequency of Homozygous dominant individuals in a large
sized population is 16% the calculate or find out –
Frequency of Homozygous recessive individuals (aa) and Heterozygous individuals (Aa)

Solution: We had already discussed that to find out the frequency of any genotype individuals it is neces
sary to have the frequency of at least of one of the both genes –
Given AA = A2 = 16%

A= 16
A = 4%


A = 0.4 % because the sum total of all the allelic frequencies is always 1. The frequency of
second gene a will be –
0.4 + a = 1
a = 1 – 0.4
a = 0.6 %
a = 6%
Frequency of Homozygous recessive individuals (aa) = aa = a2 = 6x6 = 36%

Frequency of Heterozygous individuals (Aa) = 2Aa = 2x4x6 = 48%

Problem 3 – If the frequency of Heterozygous individuals in a large size population is 48% then find out –

1. Frequency of Homozygous dominant individuals (AA)

2. Frequency of both Homozygous individuals (AA +aa) as a single unit

Solution – Through easy mathematical way it is not possible to find out the frequencies of both allelic genes
A and a separately through the frequency of Heterozygous individual means if we try to look at
the given mathematical data –
2pq = 48% or 2Aa =48
There is no simple way to find out the value of p(A) or q(a) hence first question could not be solved.
But second one is easily solved because. If 2Aa are 48% then remaining rest two genotype will be =
100 – 48 = 52%

Surety of Hardy-Weinberg law

Hardy-Weinberg law is only tree and applicable in following conditions –
i. Population must be large (not small)
ii. Must be random mating (not selective) and free gene flow
iii. Mutation must occur
iv. Gene flow, gene migration and genetic drift must be avoided.
v. Hybridization and gene recombination must be avoided.

Note: Free gene flow of 3rd point explains the free movement (passing) of all genes of a gene pool to
next generation from present generation, while gene flow or gene migration of 4th point explains
emigration or immigration.

Source of Variation
(Five Factors affect Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium)
(i) Gene Migration or Gene flow
(ii) Genetic Drift
(iii) Mutation
(iv) Genetic Recombination
(v) Natural Selection

(i) Gene migration or Gene flow:

(1) When migration of a section of population to another place occurs, gene frequencies change in the
original population as well as in the new population or in other words new genes/alleles are added to the
new population (immigration) and these are lost from old population (emigration). If this gene migration
happens multiple times then called gene flow.


(2) Some times the change in allele frequency is so different in the new sample of population (new population
that is formed by immigration) that they become a different species (origin of new species means evolu
tion occurred due to gene migration).

(3) Genetic drift: If the same changes occurs by chance then called genetic drift. The original drifted popula
tion (changed from original type) becomes founders for preceding generation and the effect is called
founder effect.

Note: Although genetic drift is second another factor then after short discussion is done together with gene
migration because it will be quite easy to understand it along with gene migration.

(ii) Genetic Drift: (Sewall wright effect) – “Drift is a binomial sampling errors of the gene pool.” Sampling errors
(error in gene pool of next generation mean gametic error) by chance often lead to the elimination of
certain alleles and fixation of other and it ultimately cause the loss of genetic diversity.
The random changes in the allele frequency occurring by chance alone are called genetic drift.

Founders and Founder effect: Genetic drift can cause dramatic changes in allele frequencies in a
population derived from small band of colonizers and become a different species, called founders to next
generation and the effect is called founder effect.

Founder and Founder effect = Change in allele frequency in some members of a population that they
appear as new species (original drifted population)

(iii) Mutation:
(1) Mutation according to Hugo De Vries: Sudden heritable changes. Single step large mutation (saltation)
brings speciation according to Hugo De Vries.

(2) Mutation according to Morgan: Chemical change in genetic material which are heritable.

(3) Mutation according to Darwin: Darwin used the term sports for mutation.

(4) Mutation according to Bateson: Saltatory or discontinuous Variations.

(5) Mutations are non-directional, random originate during adaptation and environmental impact with little
adaptive value. Mutations are –

Most of the mutations are harmful or with no effect (neutral)

If the environment changes, however previously harmful or neutral alleles may become advanta


Mutation rates are very slow (one mutation in billions occurs) nevertheless, these mutation rates
are sufficient to create considerable genetic variation.

(6) Mutations are pre-adaptive – Experiently proved by J.Lederberg and E. Lederberg.

Replica Plate Exp. of J.Lederberg and E.Lederberg : According to J.Lederberg and E. Lederberg muta-
tion are preadaptive, means they appear without exposure to the environment in which they would be
advantageous to the organism. Actually the preadapted mutations express themselves only after expo-
sure to the new environment to which the organism is to adapt themselves. The new environment does
not induce their formation.

“Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution”

Main theme of this theory - Evolution is natural fact
Explaining evolution by applying Mendalian law in a population (population genetics) is Neodarwinism
(Modern synthetic theory of evolution)

“Genetics and evolution of species” – book was written by Dobzhansky while title of the book given by
Huxley and modern synthetic theory developed from this book.

Basic factors of modern synthetic theory

(i) Gene and Chromosomal Mutation- Ultimate source of change in gene pool and
raw-material of evolution
(ii) Hybridization and Genic Recombination- Increase variability of individual geno-
type in a population.
(iii) Migration and Hybridization – Bring variation in gene pattern.
(iv) Reproductive isolation- Increase variability of individual genotype in a population.
(v) Genetic drift- Causes reduction in gene pool of next generation.
(vi) Natural selection- Determine the direction of evolution.



(iv) Natural Selection
Microbial experiments show that pre-existing advantageous mutations when selected will result in observation
of new phenotypes. Over few generations, this would result in Speciation. Natural selection is a process in
which heritable variations enabling better survival are enabled to reproduce and leave greater number of
progeny. A critical analysis makes us believe that variation due to mutation or variation due to recombination
during gametogenesis, or due to gene flow or genetic drift results in changed frequency of genes and
alleles in future generation. Coupled to enhance reproductive success, natural selection makes it look like
different population. Natural selection can lead to–
(a) Stabilisation- In which more individuals acquire mean character value.
(b) Directional change- More individuals acquire value other than the mean character value.
(c) Disruption- More individuals acquire peripheral character value at both ends of the distribution curve.


(On the basis of chronological history of fossils)
(1) Age of fossils: Age of fossils = age of sedimentary rock by rock dating
(2) Most common method of rock dating is K40 Ar40 because these radio-active dements are most common
in rocks, and second reason is very slow rate of degradation.
(3) Half life of K40 Ar40 1.3x109 year.

Geological Time scale: On the basis of rock dating

Geological revolution:
(1) 1st and 2nd great revolution: After Archeozoic and Proterozoic era.
(2) Appalachian revolution: Happened after Paleozoic era that leads the formation of Appalachian
mountain chain.
(3) Rocky Mountain Revolution: Happened after Mesozoic era that lead the formation of Himalaya, Alps
and Andes mountain chain.

Enough Matter for AIPMT

(1) Appearance of first cellular form of life on earth: Anaerobic Heterotrophic bacteria were the first
cellular form of life on earth, that originated about 3.5-3.2 billion year back. (According to new NCERT
2000 million years back and made contradiction itself at two places in text book so you are advised not
to go with NCERT)
(2) Appearance of invertebrates: By the time of 500 million year ago, Invertebrates formed and active.
(3) Appearance of first Vertebrates (Jawless fishes): Jaw less fishes evolved around 350 mya. These
fishes were flashy and lobed fined.
(4) Lobed fin fishes (Coelacanth) and origin of Amphibian: Fish with stout and strong flashy lobed fins
(coelacanth) could move on land and gave rise primitive amphibian and then go back to water.
(5) Coelacanth as living fossil: In 1938, a fish caught in South Africa was coelacanth which was thought
to be extinct but the reality is there are no specimens of flashy lobed fin fishes except coelacanth
(Lattimeria) with us hence called living fossil.
(6) First life that migrated from aquatic to terrestrial habitat: Plants (Mass or Bryophytes)
(7) Ancestor of Amphibia (Frogs and Salamanders): Lobbed fin fishes (coelacanth) are the ancestor of
amphibian. Amphibia were first animal but second organism (because first were plants) which migrated
from aquatic to terrestrial habitat.
(8) Origin of Reptiles and reason of their successful life: Reptiles originated from amphibian and reptiles
have thick shelled eggs which do not dry up in sun unlike those of amphibian, in next 200 million years
or so.


Ex. 1. Turtle, Tortoise, Crocodiles

2. Dinosaurs:
i. Ichthyosaurs: Fish like and aquatic
ii. Tyrannosaurus rex: Biggest dinosaur with 20 feet height and huge dagger like
(9) Golden age of Reptiles extinction of Dinosaurs: Jurassic period was the golden age reptile and after
that dinosaur an extincted because of two probable reasons –
i. Climatic changes killed them
ii. Most of them evolved in birds.
(10) Origin of Birds: Birds originated from reptiles and evidences comes from Archaeopteryx (Connective
link b/w reptiles and birds)
(11) Origin of mammals and their domination upon others: Mammals also originated from reptiles
(therapsid) with separate line of birds. Mammals dominated over others because of following reason-
i. They were viviparous and protected their unborn young inside the mother’s body.
ii. They (mammals) were mare intelligent in sensing and avoiding danger at least.
(12) Mammals with interest of evolutionary history: Horse, elephant, dog with special stories of
(13) Most success full story of Human evolution: With language skills and self consciousness.


Summarized Table of Evolution through Ages :

Era Period Epoch Fauna (Animals) Flora (Plants)

Age in million Age in
years from million years
present from present
Azoic 4600 Origin of solar system
(Era of no life) No life
Archaeozoic 3500 Origin of life; no recognizable
(Era of fossils
invisible life)
Proterozoic 1000 Primitive metazoans (Sponges,
(Era of early cnidarians)
life) 2000 Primitive eukaryotes;
3000 Scanty fossils. Prokaryotes
Palaeozoic Cambrian All invertebrate phyla Colonial
(Era of 570 established; origin of trilobites unicellular and
Ancient life) filamentous algae
were abundant.
Ordovician Origin of vertebrates Marine algae
500 (Age of (jawless fishes); invertebrates were highly
invertebrates) abundant, also called age of developed.
giant molluscs
Silurian Origin of jawed fished and Earliest mosses
440 wingless insects; earliest coral and ferns. First
reefs. time aquatic life
migrated to land
and these were
Devonian Origin of amphibians, golden Earliest mosses
400 (age of age of fishes. and ferns.
Fishes) Fishes abundant;
Spiders appeared. First animal
migrated aquatic to terrestrial
Carboniferous Origin of reptiles from stem Abundance of
350 (Age of reptiles called seymouria or tree ferns,
Amphibians) cotylosaurus and winged forming coal bed.
insects. Amphibians dominant. Origin of first
seeded fern
Permian Extinction of trilobites. Origin of flowering
280 Origin of mammals-like reptile plants.
(therapsids) and most modern
orders of insects. Extinction of
many marine in vertebrates.
Mesozoic Triassic Origin of dinosaurs and Abundance of
(Era of 225 mammals cycads and
medieval life) conifers
Jurassic Origin of toothed birds (first Origin of flowering
Age of 145 birds) Dinosaurs dominant. plants.
Reptiles & (Age of Reptiles) Gymnosperm
Gymnosperms dominated.
Cretaceous Extinction of dinosaurs & toothed Dominance of
135 birds; Rise of modern fishes & flowering plants
birds, & of placental mammals.
Cenozoic Tertiary Palaeocene Rise of first primates.
(Era of 2-65 65
Modern Life) Eocene Diversification of placental Angiosperm
Age of 54 mammals, origin of horse as dominance
Mammals and Eohippus. increases
Angiosperms Oligocene Extinction of archaic mammals.
38 Rise of first monkeys and apes.
Miocene Mammals at peak, first man-like
26 apes formed.
Pliocene Emergence of man. Adaptive radiation
6–7 (age of Formation and adaptive radiation of flowering
mammals) of modern mammals. plants.
Quaternary Pleistocene Extinction of great mammals;
0-2 2 Humans appeared Evolution of
human society and culture.
Origin of Equs. Ice age.
Recent Modern man dominant; Rise of
(Holocene) Modern mammals, birds, fishes, Herbaceous
(0.01) age insects. plants, decline of
of Man woody plants


1. T.A. Huxley: Book – “Man’s place in Nature”. He said that our closest living relatives are Apes.

2. Charles Darwin: Book - “Descent of Man”

i. He did not know any human fossil
ii. His ideas were based entirely on the evidences from living men and primates.
iii. He suggested that Man, Ape, Monkey have a common ancestor.

3. Linnaeus:
i. Father of Taxonomy
ii. Used the term “Homo sapiens” Human. Sapience = Man who is wise
iii. He placed man between Monkey and Apes.

4. Molecular Evidence: Molecular evidence comes from similarities in the sequence of protein
and nucleic acids

5. Monophyletic origin: All primates have common ancestry.

6. Origin of Primate: Paleocene Epoch. (Strews like in crustaceous period)

7. Closest relative of Human: Chimpanzee and Gorilla re similar to Human in Behavior, Anatomy,
Body chemistry, Susceptibility to infectious disease.

8. Place of origin of a man Central Asia, China, Java and India (Shivalic Hills)
9. Dryopithecus: Oldest fossil which in Turn evolved in to Ape and Man.
10. Australopithecus africanus:
i. Supposed to be First ape Man
ii. Supposed to be most immediate ancestor of Man among the primates.

11. Homo habilis (Handy Man): Considered as Early free Man commonly called fool maker

12. Cannibalism: Showed by Java and Peiking man

13. Brachiation: Swinging of Apes from the tree branches with the Arms.

14. Other less known Human type:

i. Rhodesian Man
ii. Soloman
iii. Zizanthropus
iv. Paranthropus
v. Heidelberg man
vi. Pitdown Man (hypothetical Man)

15. Future Man: Prediction by Dr. Saprio

i. Homo sapience future
ii. All taller
iii. Hairless
iv. Larger brain
v. Without fifth toe

16. Cultural Evolution of Man:

a. Paleolithic phase (Old Stone Age): Evolution of knowledge of crude hunting tools primi
tive language (Non syllabic and Non-articulate language). Ex. - Homo erectus.
b. Mesolithic phase (Middle Stone Age): Evolution of delicately shaped tools for group
hunting, Animal hides, Rock painting, Ivory Making syllabic speech. Ex. Neanderthal Cro-


c. Neolithic phase (New stone age): Evolution of Agriculture, domestication, marriage, edu
cation, science, technology and also followed by – Bronze age, For age, Machine age,
Atomic age. Ex. Modern man

17. Fossil apes:

a. Propliopithecus
b. Aegyptopithecus
c. Limnopithecus – Supposed to be ancestor of Modern gibbon.
d. Pliopithecus
e. Dryopithecus
f. Proconsul
g. Shivapithecus

19. Microsomatic Brain:

a. Lateral hemisphere is very large
b. Have greatly convoluted surface completed cover the cerebrum.

20. Macrosomatic brain:

a. Cerebral hemisphere is relatively small
b. Have fully convoluted surface
c. Do not cover cerebellum


Some evolutionary trend during the course of Human evolution:
(1) Human evolution associated with intelligentsia and bipedal locomotion towards posture.
(2) Increasing cranial capacity
(3) Development of culture in man was largely due to increased mental ability.


Enough Matter for AIPMT
(1) Dryopithecus – Arose about 15 Million yr ago, more ape-like, walked like Chimpanzee and Gorilla. It
is supposed as common ancestor of Ape and man.

(2) Ramapithecus – Arose about 15 million yr ago, walked like apes. It was more man-like hence called
oldest human ancestor and direct line towards human evolution.

(3) Few Hominids fossils of Ethiopia and Tanzania – Few fossils of man like bones have been discov
ered (excavated) in Ethiopia and Tanzania. These revealed hominid features leading to the
belief that about 3-4 million yr ago, man like primates walked in eastern Africa. Similarity and
difference in fossil bones, possibly they were two types
1st type – Australopithecines
2nd type – Homo habilis
(4) Australopithecines –
They were Man like primates walked in east African grassland about 2 million yr ago.
They were probably not taller than 4 feet but walked up right.
Many evidences reflects that they hunted with stone weapons but essentially ate fruit means
hunting was their way to entertain and amusement but they actually were veg etarian.
(5) Homo habilis – It was first human being the hominid with 650-800 cc brain capacity. It was first tool
maker or Handy man but after being hunter it probably did not eat meat.
(6) Homo erectus –
Arose about 1.5 million yr ago with cranial capacity 900 - 950 cc (Java ape man).
Homo erectus used fire and probably eat meat.
(7) Neanderthal-
Arose about 1, 00,000 - 40,000 year back, near east and central Asia.
Cranial capacity-1400 cc
Neanderthal used hides to protect their domestic animals and himself.
First burial funeral of their dead started by Neanderthal.
(8) Homo sapiens-
Arose during ice age between 75,000-10,000 year back near Caspian Sea.

Prehistoric art- developed by Cro-Magnon about 18,000 yr back.

Homo sapiens sapiens developed in to three races-
White race
Negroid race
Agriculture and human settlements started about 10,000 year back.


Few Information About Hominids:(With increasing cranial capacity as evolutionary trend)

1. Ramapithecus 1. Time age of origin: Pliocene period.

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: G.E. Lewis (1930) discovered

from Shivalik Hills of India.

3. Cranial Capacity :

4. Other Information: Direct line towards human evolution.

2. Australopithecus 1. Time age of origin: Early Pleistocene.

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: Discovered by Raymond Dart in

1924 from Africa.

3. Cranial Capacity: 300 – 500 cc

4. Other Information: Tuang baby (A. africanus) discovered by

Raymond Dart in 1924 from Africa.

Lucy (A. Afarensis) – Skeleton of female Australopithecus excavated

by Donald Johanson (1981) and named Lucy.

3. Handy man 1. Time age of origin: Early Pleistocene

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: Leakey (1960)

3. Cranial Capacity: 650 - 800 cc

4. Other Information: First tool maker, Nut cracker.

4. Java Ape man 1. Time age of origin: Middle Pleistocene

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: Eugene Dubois (1890) from Java.

3. Cranial Capacity: 900 - 950 cc

4. Other Information: Probably first used fire, Cannibalism habit.

5. Peking man 1. Time age of origin: Middle Pleistocene

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: W.C. Pei (1924) in China.

3. Cranial Capacity: 1100 cc.

4. Other Information: Clear evidence to use fire, cannibalism habit.

6. Neanderthal man 1. Time age of origin: Late Pleistocene

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: First human fossil discovered in

1856 by C. Fuhlrott from Neander valley (Germany).

3. Cranial Capacity: 1400 cc and Prognathus

4. Other Information: First civilized man, cave dweller and also used
hides for themselves and domesticated animals. Believes in
mortality of soul, burial funeral started first.


7. Cro-Magnon man 1. Time age of origin: Recent (Holocene)

2. Place of origin and Discoverer: Discovered by Mac Gregor in

1868 from Cro-Magnon rocks of France.

3. Cranial Capacity: 1600 cc

4. Other Information: Art and rock painting is evident, direct ancestor

of present man.

8. Man of today 1. Time age of origin: Recent (Holocene).

2. Cranial Capacity: 1450 - 1660 cc

3. Other Information: Originated near Caspian Sea. Agriculture and

cultural evolution occur near Nile river.

9. Man of future
Homo sapiens futuralis. A prediction by American anthropologist Dr. Saprio.

Evolutionary history of Horse




Closest Living Relative of man (Chimpanzee and Gorilla)
(Proved by Homology in chromosome of Man and Ape)

(1) Common ancestry as well as closest relative of man and Ape comes through Similarities in -
i. Chromosome number 46 and 48
ii. Banding pattern of chromosome (3 and 6 chromosome of Human and Ape are apparently
same in Banding pattern)
iii. D.N.A. content

(2) Total amount of DNA in human and Apes is not much different. This proves that Apes are more closer to
human than monkeys.

(3) Some other evidences that support common ancestry of great apes and man-
i. Presence of nearly similar types of blood protein
ii. About 99% homology in Hb of man and apes.
iii. Presence of two A and B blood groups in Apes but not in monkeys and M, N, Rh+, Protein also.
iv. Amino Acid sequence of cytochrome C is similar in man and chimpanzee.

(4) DNA – DNA Hybridization done by Billhoyer between Apes and Man and showed that there exist 2.5%
difference between the chimpanzee and man while about 10% in monkey and man.
Man is presumed to have originated with 48 chromosome by centric fusion (Fusion of two pair of chromo
somes to form two chromosomes)

Proconsal: Gave Rise to chimpanzee and Gorilla and considered the direct ancestor of these two apes.
It moved upon 4 limbs and hence is not considered among the direct ancestor of man.

Ramapithecus: Shivapithecus Ramapithecus Man line of human evolution was widely accepted.
How ever this theory was propounded when our fossil records of Ramapithecus included very few bone
fragments. Recently a skull of this fossil has been excavated from china. The molar of this fossil closely
resembles those of Dryopithecus. Naturally, this discovery has rendered the theory of Shivapithecus
Ramapithecus Man genealogy very doubtfull. It has indicated that both Shivapithecus and Ramapithecus
were more likely to be ancestor of Ape line which led to the evolution of modern orangutan. After this discov-
ery Ramapithecus shifted from hominid family to ape family.

Systematic position of man:

Phylum : Chordata

Sub-phylum : Vertibrata

Class : Mammalia

Order : Primates

Sub-order : Anthropoidea

Super-family : Hominoidea

Family : Hominidae

Genus : Homo

Species : H. sapiens sapiens


Type (I) : Very Short Answer Type Questions : [01 Mark Each]
1. Define fossils
2. Write name of two Vestigial organ of human
3. Define genetic Drift.

The random changes in the allele frequency occurring by chance alone are called genetic drift.
Type (II) : Short Answer Type Questions : [02 Marks Each]
4. What is meant by analogous organ? Taking a suitable example, explain how they support the theory of
organic evolution.
5. What is speciation?
6. Explain Disruptive Nature of selection ?
Type (III) : Long Answer Type Questions : [03 Mark Each]
7. How does industrial melanism explain Darwin's theory of Natural Selection?
8. What are fossils? Mention any two way in which the study of fossils support biological evolution of an
9. Explain Evidence from fossils for Evolution
Type (IV) : Very Long Answer Type Questions: [05 Mark Each]
10. Explain Darwinism and criticism
11. Explain in brief regarding origin of source of variation.
12. Explain in brief regarding human evolution.


Origin of Life
1. Earth originated in the past period of about
(1) 4· 5 billion years (2) 8·0 billion years (3) 3 billion years (4) 1 billion years
2. Atmosphere of earth just before the origin of life consisted of
(1) Water vapours, CH4, NH3 and Oxygen (2) CO2, NH3 and CH4
(3) CH4, NH3, H2 and water vapours (4) CH4, 03, O2 and water vapours
3. Life originated in
(1) Air (2) Soil (3) Mountains (4) Water
4. Spontaneous generation theory of origin of life was disproved through experiment involving swan-neck
flasks by
(1) Van Helmont (2) Reddi (3) Louis Pasteur (4) Spallanzani


5. The age of big bang is roughly
(1) 104 millions years (2) 106 millions years (3) 109 millions years (4) 104years
6. The primitive atmosphere of earth contained water vapours, hydrogen, ammonia and
(1) CO2 (2) Oxygen (3) Nitrogen (4) Methane
7. The scientist associated with formulation of modern theory of origin of life and having written ‘Origin of Life’
(1) Oparin (2) Huxley (3) Lamarck (4) Darwin
8. Experimental proof that some simple molecules like H2 , NH3, CH4 and H2O gave rise to amino acids during
origin of life was provided by
(1) Lamarck (2) Darwin (3) Stanley Miller (4) Harold Urey
9. English scientist who worked on origin of life and settled in India was
(1) A.I. Oparin (2) Archbishop Usher (3) Louis Pasteur (4) J.B.S. Haldane
10. The first organisms were
(1) Chemoautotroph (2) Chemoheterotrophs (3) Autotrophs (4) Eukaryotes
11. Which was not present freely in the early atmosphere of the earth?
(1) Water (2) Carbon monoxide (3) Hydrogen (4) Oxygen
12. The most primitive cell-like chemical aggregates capable of growth and division were
(1) Chemoautotroph (2) Eobionts (3) Prokaryotes (4) Microspheres
13. Under certain conditions, scientists have got cell-like structures but without its true organisation. They are
(1) Eobionts (2) Protists (3) Coacervates (4) Microbes
14. Organic compounds first evolved on earth and required for origin of life were
(1) Urea and amino acids (2) Proteins and nucleic acids
(3) Proteins and amino acids (4) Urea and nucleic acid
15. Russian scientist who proposed the theory of origin of life was
(1) Oparin (2) Haldane (3) Miller (4) Fox
16. Choose the correct sequence during formation of chemicals on early earth
(1) Ammonia, Water, Nucleic acid, Protein
(2) Ammonia, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic acid
(3) Ammonia, Nucleic acid, Proteins, Carbohydrates
(4) Proteins, Carbohydrate, Water, Nucleic acid
17. For testing Oparin’s hypothesis, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey used H2, NH3 and two other chemicals
which were
(1) O2 and Methane (2) O2 and H2O (3) CH4 and H2O (4) Salt and H2O
18. Scientist connected with overthrow of the theory of spontaneous generation was
(1) Van Helmont (2) Miller (3) Louis Pasteur (4) Ernst Haeckel
19. First photosynthetic organisms to appear on earth were
(1) Bacteria (2) Green algae (3) Cyanobacteria (4) Bryophytes
20. Oparin’s theory is based on
(1) Artificial synthesis (2) Spontaneous generation
(3) God’s creation (4) Panspermia


21. Who said that organisms develop from pre-existing organisms
(1) Aristotle (2) Louis Pasteur (3) Oparin (4) Morgan
22. Coacervates are
(1) Lipoproteins (2) Mixtures of ammonia, carbohydrates and water
(3) Colloidal suspensions (4) Fatty acids and nitrogenous compounds
23. Who demonstrated that life comes from life with the help of flask with boiled broth?
(1) Reddi (2) Pasteur (3) Van Helmont (4) Arrhenius
24. Most advanced theory of origin of life is that of
(1) Catastrophic (2) Haldane and Oparin (3) Cosmozoic (4) Spontaneous
25. Life cannot originate from inorganic materials now because of
(1) Low atmospheric temperature (2) High degree of pollution
(3) High atmospheric oxygen (4) Absence of raw materials
26. Possible early source of energy was
(1) Chlorophyll (2) CO2
(3) UV radiations and lightning (4) Green plants
27. Presence of NaCI in body fluid indicates that life originated in
(1) Primitive ocean (2) Rain water lakes (3) Salt solution (4) All the above
28. Swan-necked flask experiment was performed by
(1) Louis Pasteur (2) Robert Koch (3) Francisco Reddi (4) Aristotle
29. Which is the most important for origin of life?
(1) Oxygen (2) Water (3) Nitrogen (4) Carbon
30. Chemical theory for origin of life was given by
(1) Stanley Miller (2) Oparin and Haldane (3) Spallanzani (4) Louis Pasteur
31. Spark discharge apparatus for testing chemical origin of life was designed by
(1) Urey and Miller (2) Jacob and Monad (3) Oparin and Haldane (4) Dixon and Joly
32. Protobiogenesis occurred
(1) 1.2 billion years ago (2) 2.0 billion years ago
(3) 2.5 billion years ago (4) More than 3.5 billion years ago

Evidences of Evolution
33. Correct order is
(1) Palaeozoic Archaeozoic Coenozoic
(2) Archaeozoic Palaeozoic Proterozoic
(3) Palaeozoic Mesozoic Coenozoic
(4) Mesozoic Archaeozoic Proterozoic
34. Haeckel’s biogenetic law or recapitulation theory states that
(1) Life history of an animal reflects evolutionary history of the same species
(2) Progeny resembles parents
(3) Mutilations are acquired characters
(4) All organisms begin their life from zygote


35. Homologous organs are
(1) Dissimilar origin and dissimilar structures
(2) Dissimilar origin but similar functions
(3) Similar origin with similar or dissimilar functions
(4) Similar origin with dissimilar functions
36. Vestigial organ of python is
(1) Teeth (2) Hind limbs (3) Scales (4) Nose
37. Golden Age of Dinosaurs’/Age of reptiles was
(1) Mesozoic (2) Coenozoic (3) Palaeozoic (4) Psychozoic
38. Birds and mammals evolved during
(1) Carboniferous (2) Permian
(3) Oligocene-Miocene period (4) Jurassic
39. Process of evolution is
(1) Discontinuous
(2) Discontinuous in the past but continuous presently
(3) Continuous in the past but discontinuous presently
(4) Continuous
40. Which will be true in sedimentary rocks
(1) Upper strata older and lower younger (2) Upper strata younger and lower older
(3) There is no stratification (4) None of the above
41. Mammals are believed to have evolved from reptiles in
(1) Jurassic (2) Triassic (3) Cretaceous (4) Permian
42. Resemblance between widely different groups due to a common adaptation is
(1) Parallel evolution (2) Divergent evolution
(3) Convergent evolution (4) Retrogressive evolution
43. Which one is a vestigial organ in Humans
(1) Iris (2) Nasal epithelium (3) Malleus (4) Pinna muscles
44. Biogenetic law/recapitulation theory, was proposed by
(1) Wallace (2) Lamarck (3) Haeckel (4) Mendel
45. Homologous organs are
(1) Wings of Pigeon and Butterfly (2) Wings of Pigeon and Housefly
(3) Wings of Pigeon and arms of Humans (4) Wings of Bat, Housefly and Butterfly
46. Which one is not a vestigial structure in humans
(1) Epiglottis (2) Vermiform appendix (3) Wisdom teeth (4) Body hair
47. Palaeozoic era is the era of
(1) Fishes (2) Reptiles (3) Birds (4) Mammals
48. Which of the following sets represents vestigial organs
(1) Vermiform appendix, body hair and patella (2) Wisdom teeth, body hair and atlas vertebra
(3) Ear muscles, cochlea and coccyx (4) Vermiform appendix, ear muscles and coccyx
49. Angiosperms flourished during
(1) Mesozoic (2) Coenozoic (3) Palaeozoic (4) Precambrian


50. Fossilization is
(1) Organisms destroyed by scavengers
(2) Organism eaten by predators
(3) Animals buried and preserved by natural process
(4) Organisms destroyed by calamities
51. Fossil reptile having mammalian traits was
(1) Peripetus (2) Pelycosaurus (3) Tyrannosaurus (4) Archaeopteryx
52. A connecting/missing link between reptiles and birds is
(1) Archaeopteryx (2) Platypus (3) Java Ape Man (4) Whale
53. Which is a set of evidences of evolution
(1) Homologous and analogous organs (2) Homologous and vestigial organs
(3) Analogous and vestigial organs (4) All the above
54. Basic principles of embryonic development, were pronounced by
(1) Van Baer (2) Weismann (3) Haeckel (4) Morgan
55. Archaeopteryx is known as missing/connecting link because it is a fossil and has characters between
(1) Fishes and amphibians (2) Birds and reptiles
(3) Reptiles and mammals (4) Chordates and non-chordates
56. Name the law that states embryonic development of an animal repeats the embryonic stages of ancestors
(1) Biogenetic Law (2) Anaximander’s Law (3) Florkin’s Law (4) Law of Segregation
57. Origin of first mammals occurred
(1) 500 million yrs (2) 220 million yrs (3) 1600 million yrs (4) Over 1600 million yrs ago
58. Analogous organs are
(1) Wings of Bird and Butterfly (2) Wings of Bird and Bat
(3) Limbs of Horse and Human (4) Teeth of Human and Gorilla
59. Which animal has become extinct recently
(1) Draco (2) Dinosaur (3) Mammoth (4) Pteridosperms
60. Age of mammals and birds is
(1) Mesozoic (2) Coenozoic (3) Archaeozoic (4) Palaeozoic
61. Carboniferous period of coal deposition was
(1) 50 million years ago (2) 500 million years ago
(3) 300 million years ago (4) 2000 million years ago
62. Dinosaurs disappeared during
(1) Jurassic (2) Triassic (3) Cretaceous (4) Permian
63. Which one is vestigial in humans
(1) Extra-abdominal muscles (2) Body hair
(3) Thumb (4) Conjunctiva
64. Fossil X is older than fossil Y because
(1) Fossil X was found in deeper sedimentation
(2) Fossil Y was found in deeper sedimentation
(3) Fossil Y has homologous and analogous organs of X
(4) Fossil Y has some vestigial organs functional in X


65. Which one is vestigial in humans
(1) Pinna muscles (2) Eye lids (3) Canine teeth (4) Nails
66. Homologous organs are
(1) Wings of insects and Bat (2) Gills of Fish and lungs of Rabbit
(3) Pectoral fins of Fish and fore limbs of Horse (4) Wings of Grasshopper and Crow
67. Fossils indicate the evolution of
(1) Monkey (2) Dinosaur (3) Horse (4) Man
68. Biogenetic law was propounded by
(1) Von Baer and Haeckel (2) Von Baer and Aristotle
(3) Haeckel and Mendel (4) Mendel and Griffith
69. Animals of cold countries have shorter ears. This is
(1) Allen’s law (2) Cope’s law (3) Bergmann’s law (4) Dollo’s law
70. Existence of Coal/Petroleum can be known from study of
(1) Ecology (2) Economic Botany (3) Palaeobotany (4) Bacteriology
71. Two geographical regions separated by high mountains are
(1) Oriental and Australian (2) Palaearctic and Oriental
(3) Nearctic and Palaearctic (4) Neotropical and Ethiopian
72. The earliest fossil form in the phylogeny of Horse is
(1) Merychippus (2) Mesohippus (3) Eohippus (4) Equus
73. Fossils are dated by
(1) Amount of calcium (2) Radioactive carbon content
(3) Association with mammals (4) Stratigraphic age
74. Fossil remains of Archaeopteryx indicate that
(1) It was a flying reptile from Triassic (2) It was a flying reptile from Permian
(3) Reptiles gave rise to birds during Permian (4) Reptiles gave rise to birds during Jurassic
75. In human beings vestigial organs are
(1) Wisdom tooth, coccyx, nail, eye lid and vermiform appendix
(2) Wisdom tooth, coccyx, vermiform appendix, pancreas and elbow joint
(3) Wisdom tooth, coccyx, vermiform appendix, nictitating membrane and auricular muscles
(4) Coccyx, wisdom tooth, nail, auricular muscles
76. Famous palaeontologist/palaeobotanist of India was
(1) P. Maheshwari (2) S.R. Kashyap (3) B. Sahni (4) B.P. Pal
77. Which one provides direct and solid evidence in favour of organic evolution through ages
(1) Atavism (2) Paleontology/fossils
(3) Vestigial organs (4) Galapagos island fauna
78. Study of the fossils comes under
(1) Organic evolution (2) Palaeogeography (3) Palaeontology (4) Herpetology
79. Rule of embryonic development was given by
(1) Van Baer (2) Haeckel (3) Mendel (4) Darwin


80. Wings of Mosquito, Bat and Bird show evolution called
(1) Divergent (2) Convergent (3) Atavism (4) Parallel
81. Birbal Sahni worked on
(1) Algae (2) Fossil plants (3) Angiosperms (4) Bryophytes
82. Organisms present at different places without any traces in between show
(1) Speciation (2) Discontinuous distribution
(3) Punctured equilibrium (4) Migration
83. Wings of bat and insect show
(1) Analogy (2) Homology (3) Connecting link (4) Atavism
84. Mammals occur on land, air and water. It is
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Microevolution (3) Adaptation (4) Adaptive radiation

Human evolution
85. Cranial capacity was highest in
(1) Cro-Magnon Man (2) Neanderthal Man (3) Java Man (4) Peking Man
86. Which one is the closest to modern man?
(1) Peking Man (2) Cro-Magnon Man (3) Java Ape Man (4) African Man
87. Peking Man was known as
(1) Australopithecus (2) Pithecanthropus (3) Homo sapiens (4) Sinanthropus
88. Which one of the following is closest relative of man?
(1) Sinanthropus / Chimpanzee (2) Orang Utan
(3) Gorilla (4) Gibbon
89. Evolution of Man is believed to have taken place in
(1) Central America (2) Australia (3) Asia (4) Africa
90. Cro-Magnon Man was
(1) Sanguivorous (2) Frugivorous (3) Carnivorous (4) Herbivorous
91. Primate closest to humans in evolution is
(1) Lemur (2) New World Monkey (3) Gorilla (4) Tree Shrew
92. Which one of the following was the first to stand erect/show bipedal movement,?
(1) Peking Man (2) Australopithecus (3) Java man (4) Cro-Magnon Man
93. Fossil man expert in making cave paintings and tools was
(1) Cro-Magnon Man (2) Peking Man (3) Java Man (4) Neanderthal man
94. Pithecanthropus was discovered in
(1) China (2) Germany (3) Java (4) Africa.
95. Fire was used possibly for cooking and protection first by
(1) Peking man (2) Cro-Magnon Man (3) Neanderthal Man (4) Modern Man
96. Direct ancestral race of Modern Man was possibly
(1) Neanderthal Man (2) Cro-Magnon Man (3) Peking Man (4) Java Man.
97. Java Ape Man was discovered by
(1) Dubois (2) Leakey (3) Cuvier (4) Black


98. Maximum resemblance at to-day’s man is with
(1) Australopithecus (2) Cro-Magnon Man (3) Java Man (4) Neanderthal Man
99. Modern Man differs from apes in
(1) Protruding eyes (2) Sparse body hair
(3) Arms shorter than legs (4) Wearing of clothes.
100. Zoological name of Java man is
(1) Homo habilis (2) Homos (3) Homo erectus (4) Australopithecus
101. Common origin of man and chimpanzee is best shown by
(1) Cranial capacity (2) Binocular vision (3) Chromosomes (4) Dental formula.
102. Cranial capacity of Modern Man is
(1) 450 - 650 cc (2) 600 - 1000 cc (3) 900 -1100 cc (4) 1200 - 1600 cc.
103. Pre-historic man who gave a proper burial to the dead for the first time was
(1) Peking Man (2) Java Man
(3) Neanderthal man (D Cro-Magnon Man.
104. History of modern man goes back to
(1) 25000 years (2) 10000 years (3) 1 lakh years (4) 5000 years.
105. Which amongst the following is nearest to modern man?
(1) Java Ape man (2) Australopithecus (3) Neanderthal Man (4) Homo habilis.
106. Which is the most primitive ancestor of man?
(1) Ramapithecus (2) Australopithecus
(3) Homo habilus (4) Homo neanderthalensis.
107. Man (Homo) originated in
(1) Palaeocene (2) Miocene (3) Oligocene (4) Pleistocene
108. Neanderthal man lived in
(1) Desert (2) Deep forest
(3) Mountains (4) Caves
109. Which is correct regarding evolution of mankind?
(1) Homo erectus was preceded by Homo habilus
(2) Australopithecus lived in Australia
(3) Neanderthal Man and Cro-Magnon Man lived together
(4) None of the above
110. Which is the most recent in human evolution?
(1) Mesolithic (2) Upper Paleolithic (3) Neolithic (4) Middle Paleolithic
111. Dryopithecus occurred about
(1) 2.5 X 106 years back (2) 25 x 106years back
(3) 50 X 106years back (4) 75 x 106years back
112. Which one is irrelevant to evolution of man?
(1) Perfection of hand for tool making
(2) Change of diet from hard nuts/roots to soft food
(3) Increased ability to communicate or develop community behaviour
(4) Loss of tail.


113. Which is direct ancestor of Homo sapiens?
(1) Homo erectus (2) H. sapiens neanderthalensis
(3) Ramapithecus (4) Australopithecus
114. Which is correct?
(1) Neanderthal man is direct ancestor of humans
(2) Homo erectus is direct ancestor of man
(3) Cro-Magnon Man was found in Ethiopia
(4) Australopithecus is real ancestor of modern man.
115. Cradle of human evolution is
(1) Grassland of South Africa (2) Savannah of Central Africa
(3) Sub-arctic Europe (4) Arabia
116. Cranial capacity of Neanderthal man was
(1) 1400 cc (2) 1300 cc (2) 1200 cc (4) 1100 cc
117. In Homo habilus, ‘habilis’ refers to
(1) Wandering man (2) Modern man (3) Ancient man (4) Tool maker.

Theories of Evolution
118. For its entry into gene pool a mutation must occur in
(1) Centriole (3) Somatic RNA (2) Plasma proteins (4) Germplasm DNA.
119. 'Survival of Fittest' was used by
(1) Charles Darwin (2) Herbert Spencer (3) Jean Baptiste Lamarck (4) Hugo de Vries
120. Who believed that an organ in disuse will become vestigial ?
(1) Lamarck (2) De Vries (3) Mendel (4) Darwin.
121. Neo-Darwinism believes that new species develop through
(1) Mutations with natural selection (2) Continuous variations with natural selection
(3) Hybridisation (4) Mutations.
122. Some organisms, escape detection from enemies by resembling other organisms. The phenomenon is-
(1) Homology (2) Mimicry (3) Artificial selection (4) Natural selection.
123. Galapagos Islands were visited by
(1) Wallace (2) Darwin (3) Lamarck (4) De Vries
124. A very important factor in evolution of a new species is
(1) Extensive inbreeding (2) Extensive outbreeding (3) Reproductive isolation (4) Immigration.
125. Theory of inheritance of acquired characters was given by
(1) Wallace (2) Lamarck (3) Darwin (4) De Vries
126. 'Origin of Species' was written by
(1) Oparin (2) Weismann (3) Lamarck (4) Darwin
127. "Continuity of gerrnplasm" theory was given by
(1) De Vries (2) Weismann (3) Darwin (4) Lamarck
128. 'Philosophie Zooligique' was written by
(1) De Vries (2) Lamarck (3) Mendel (4) Spencer


129. Most modern breeds of domestic Dog have evolved through
(1) Sexual selection (2) Artificial selection (3) Natural selection (4) Isolation
130. Most important theory of general biology was proposed by
(1) Mendel and Morgan (2) Beadle and Tatum
(3) Watson and Crick (4) Darwin and Wallace.
131. Hugo de Vries' contribution is
(1) Theory of Natural selection (2) Theory of Mutations
(3) Law of dominance (4) Law of segregation
132. Hugo de Vries worked on the plant
(1) Garden Pea/Pisum sativum (2) Sweat Pea/Lathyrus odoratus
(3) Primula sinensis (4) Evening Primrose/Oellotheraiana.
133. Theory of Natural selection dwells on
(1) Role of environment in evolution
(2) Natural selection acting on favourable variations
(3) Changes in gene complex resulting inheritable variations
(4) Inheritance of acquired characters
134. Darwin was most influenced by
(1) Lamarck's theory of acquired characters
(2) Weismann's theory of germplasm
(3) Wallace's theory of origin of species
(4) Essay on Population by Malthus
135. T.R. Malthus is famous for his book on
(1) Population (2) Mathematics (3) Geography (4) Genetics
136. Evolution will not occur if
(1) There is no environmental influence
(2) Genes are without effect
(3) Somatic variations are not heritable
(4) There is no genetic variations in individuals of a populations.
137. The ship in which Darwin travelled was
(1) Gangotri (2) Beagle (3) Atlantic (4) Seagull
138. Genetic drift is change of
(1) Gene frequency same generation
(2) Appearance of recessive genes
(3) Gene frequency from one generation to next
(4) None of the above
139. Which one provides correct sequence of events in origin of new species according to Darwinism?
1. Natural selection
2. Variations and their inheritance
3. Survival of the fittest
4. Struggle for existence.
(1) 1,2, 3, 4 (2) 2, 3, 1,4 (3) 3,4, 1,2 (4) 4, 2, 3, 1.


140. Sumtotal of genes in a population is
(1) Genotype (2) Karyotype (3) Genetic constitution (4) Gene pool
141. Improved race of Pigeon developed due to
(1) Environmental selection (2) Natural selection
(3) Artificial selection (4) Protective selection.
142. Weismann cut off tails of mice generation after generation but tails neither disappeared nor shortened
showing that
(1) Darwin was correct
(2) Tail is an essential organ
(3) Mutation theory is wrong
(4) Lamarckism was wrongn in heritance of acquired characters.
143. Major defect of Darwinism was
(1) Nondescription of survival of fittest
(2) Nondcscription of inheritance of fittest
(3) Nondescription of overproduction of young ones
(4) Nondescription of reason for variations.
144. Which one does not favour Lamarckian concept of inheritance of acquired characters ?
(1) Lack of pigment in cave dwellers (2) Absence of limbs in snakes
(3) Presence of webbed toes in aquatic birds (4) Melanisation of Peppered Moth in industrial areas.
145. Darwin is associated with
(1) Natural selection (2) Mutation (3) Inorganic evolution (4) All the above.
146. Which book was written by Charles Darwin?
(1) Origin of Species (2) Species Plantarum (3) Genera Plantarum (4) De Naturien Familien.
147. Hexaploid Wheat developed through
(1) Hybridomas (2) Chromosome doubling
(3) Hybridisation (4) Hybridisation and chromosome doubling
148. Frequency of a gene in a population will increase if the gene is
(1) Lethal (2) Dominant (3) Recessive (4) Favourably selected.
149. Light coloured Peppered Moth/Biston betularia gets changed to its darker variety due to
(1) Translocation of block of genes in response to heavy carbons
(2) Deletion of gene segment due to industrial pollution
(3) Mutation of single mendelian gene for survival in smoke laden industrial environment
(4) Industrial carbon deposited on wings.
150. Closely related, morphologically similar, reproductively isolated sympatric populations arc designated as
(1) Clones (2) Clines (3) Demes (4) Sibling species.
151. In which respect, Darwin's theory is wrong
(1) High efficiency of reproduction (2) Origin of species
(3) Survival of the fittest (4) Arrival of the fittest


152. Presence of vestigial organs supports
(1) Natural selection (2) Germplasm theory
(3) Evolution but not Lamarck's theory (4) Synthetic theory
153. De Vries theory of mutation is
(1) Opposed to natural selection theory (2) Not opposed to natural selection theory
(3) Opposed to germplasm theory (4) Opposed to Lamarck's theory.
154. Genetic drift is found in -
(1) Small population with or without mutated genes
(2) Large population with random mating
(3) Animal population
(4) Plant population
155. Lederberg's replica experiment is connected with
(1) Adaptations (2) Evolution (3) Genetics (4) Artificial selection
156. Which are immortal?
(1) Germ cells (2) Somatic cells (3) Pituitary cells (4) Glomerular cells
157. Hybrid breakdown is failure of
(1) Hybrid Zygote to develop into offspring
(2) Hybrid adult to produce fertile offspring
(3) Fusion failure of ova and sperms of two species
(4) All the above.
158. Chief agent of evolution is
(1) Natural selection (2) Mutations (3) Acquired characters (4) Sexual reproduction.
159. Objection to natural selection theory of Darwin is
(1) Vestigial and over-specialised organs (2) Inheritance of acquired characters
(3) Struggle for existence (4) Continuity of germplasm
160. Match the following columns and find correct combination
Column - I Column - II
a. Drawin p. Mutation theory
b. De Vries q. Protobiosis
c. Pasteur r. Origin of species
d. Fox s. Special Creation
t. Swan-necked flask Experiment
(1) a = r, b = p, c = t, d = q (2) a = p, b = q, C = r, d = s
(3) a = t, b = r, C = q, d = P (4) a = r, b = t, C = p, d = q.
161. Theory of pangenesis was given by
(1) Darwin (2) Lamarck (3) Hugo de Vries (4) Oparin
162. Presence of different types of beaks in finches of Galapagos islands adapted to different feeding habits
provides evidence for
(1) Intraspecific variations (2) Natural selection
(3) Intraspecific competition (4) Interspecific competition.


163. Allopatric speciation is caused by
(1) Temporal isolation (2) Adaptive radiation
(3) Geographic isolation (4) Reproductive isolation'
164. Phenomenon of industrial melanism demonstrates
(1) Geographical isolation (2) Natural selection
(3) Reproductive isolation (4) Induced mutation.
165. Who is not related to organic evolution?
(1) T.R. Malthus (2) Erasmus Darwin (3) Darlington (4) Charles Darwin
166. Genetic drift
(1) Is random change in gene frequency (2) Has nothing in common with inbreeding .
(3) Is an orderly change in gene frequency (4) Produces greatest fluctuations 'in large populations.
167. Modern theory of organic evolution, stresses on
(1) Mutations (2) Isolation (3) Population (4) All the above .
168. Sympatric speciation is caused by
(1) Genetic isolation (2) Interbreeding (3) Geograpbical isolation (4) Reproductive isolation

1. Along the length of a river exists a species of Catla fish. In order to provide electricity to the adjoining
villages, a hydroelectric dam is built that separates the lower river area from a newly formed lake above.
After many, many years, the Catla fish in the river and lake are sampled and found to be phenotypically
very different. Which of the scenarios listed below is the best hypothesis to explain the observed changes?
(1) The presence of the dam increased the amount of random mating that occurred between the river and
lake fish, and natural selection selected for the best-fit organisms in both the populations.
(2) The newly built dam caused a genetic drift and the two different founder populations diverged exten-
sively leading to the appearance of two different species
(3) The electricity produced in the dam caused mutations in the river fish, and natural selection selected
for the best-fit organisms in both locations.
(4) The dam caused different environmental conditions to be formed in the lake versus the river, populations
accumulated mutations, and natural selection selected for the best-fit organisms, which survived in both
2. Which are actual evidence supporting the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotes?
(1) fossil evidence suggest early eukaryotes ate proteobacteria
(2) free-living mitochondria still exist in some environments
(3) mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA
(4) all of the above are true
(5) none of the above are true


3. Which of the following designs would be the best nature reserve or set of reserves from the point of view of
minimizing local extinctions and maximizing species diversity. Assume that each reserve or set of reserves
has the same types and amounts of habitats present and draw from the same species pools.
(1) 1000 small reserves that are each 1 km 2 in area and round in shape
(2) 1000 small reserves that are each 1 km 2 in area and rectangular in shape
(3) One single large reserve that is 1000 km 2 in area and round in shape
(4) One single large reserve that is 1000 km long and 1 km wide
4. In a population melanic, black-colored seagull, is due to a dominant allele. Mm and MM individuals
are black, and mm individuals are white. In each population, 81 individuals are white-colored, with 19
black- colored individuals.
Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equillibrium, what is the approximate frequency of the melanic (M) allele in
each population?
(1) 0.81 (2) 0.19 (3) 0.90 (4) 0.10 (5) .044
5. The difference in color between the new population and the old populations is due to which evolutionary
(1) Stabilizing selection (2) Mutation
(3) Founder Effect (4) Allopatric speciation (5) None of the Above
6. Humans exhibit which of the following with respect to height?
(1) positive assortative mating
(2) disruptive selection
(3) negative assortative mating
(4) none of the above
(5) A and B are true
For Questions 7-10 match the scientific contribution to the scientist or philosopher that most applies.
(1) Developed a theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
(2) Developed a theory of Evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
(3) Originated the now-discredited notion that all organisms can be ranked on a scala naturae, a
great chain of being.
(4) Is known for his experiments on Drosophila, demonstrating the role of mutation in evolution
(5) Is known for describing the pattern of punctuated equillibrium in the fossil record.
7. Alfred Russell Wallace
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
8. Charles Darwin
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
9. Georges Cuvier
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
10. Jean Lamark
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


11. Which is FALSE about conditions on the Earth 3.8 billion years ago.
(1) The atmosphere contained more CO2 than is present today
(2) The atmosphere contained more O2 than is present today
(3) Impacts with asteroids and comets were more common than today
(4) Biochemical evidence suggests there may have been life.
(5) All of the above are false.

1. A compound important in prebiotic evolution was (AIIMS 1997, Har. PMT 2000)
(1) SO2 (2) CH4 (3) SO3 (4) NO
2. Which ones are the most essential for origin of life? (AIIMS-2001)
(1) Enzymes (2) Proteins (3) Carbohydrates (4) Nucleic acids
3. Which is a pair of vestigial organs? (AIIMS-2002)
(1) Coccyx and intercostal muscles (2) Coccyx and auricular muscles
(3) Facial hairs in ladies (4) Coccyx and premolars
4. The early stage human embryo distinctly possesses (AIIMS-2003)
(1) Gills (2) Gill slits (3) External ear (Pinna) (4) Eye brows
5. Age of fossils in the past was generally determined by ratio-carbon method and other methods involving
radioactive elements found in the rocks. More precise methods, which were used recently and led to the
revision of the evolutionary period for different groups of organisms, includes [AIIMS 2007]
(1) Study of carbohydrates/protein in fossils
(2) Study of the conditions of fossilization
(3) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and fossil DNA
(4) Study of carbohydrates/protein in rocks.
6. During development mammalian heart is initially two chambered, then three chambered and finally four
chambered. It is explained by (CBSE-1998, AlIMS 2007)
(1) Biogenetic law (2) Hardy-Weinberg law (3) Mendelism (4) Lamarckism
7. Age of fossils was previously determined by radioactive elements. More precise recent method which has
led to revision of evolutionary periods is (CBSE-2004, AIIMS 2007)
(1) Study of carbohydrate and protein in fossils
(2) Study of conditions of fossilisation
(3) Electrons spin resonance and fossil DNA
(4) Presence of carbohydrate and protein in rocks
8. Potato and Sweet Potato have edible parts which are (AIIMS-2004, DPMT-2008)
(1) Homologous (2) Analogous
(3) Recent introductions (4) Two species of the same genus


In each of the following questions a statement of Assertion (1) is given followed by a correspond-
ing staterment of Reason (R) just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as
(1) If both assertion and resaon are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion
(2) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion
(3) If assertion is true but reason is false
(4) If both assertion and reason are false
9. Assertion : Human ancestors never used their tails and so the tail expressing gene has disappeared in
them. [AIIMS 2008]
Reason : Lamarck’s theory of evolution is popularly called theory of continuity of germplasm.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
10. Assertion : The earth originally had a reducing atmosphere
Reason : There was no life on the earth when it came into existence
(1) (2) (3) (4)
11. Assertion : Cro-magnon man has more intelligence evolved culture and discovered fire.
Reason : He is regarded as most recent ancestor of today's man.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
12. Assertion : Devonian period is considered the age of reptiles.
Reason : Reptiles dominated in all habitats during jurassic period.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
13. Assertion : Homo habillis was the first tool maker.
Reason : He was handy man.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
14. Assertion : The natural interspecific hybrids are lacking or are very rare.
Reason : Members of different species have some sort of reproductive isolation and generally do not
15. Assertion : Australopitheus is called African ape-man.
Reason : It had both human as well as ape characters.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
16. Assertion : Man has opposable thumb in his hand and feet.
Reason : It occurred during evolution.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
17. Assertion : Human evolution occurred in Asia and Africa.
Reason : The earliest fossils of the prehistoric man (Ranapithecus and Sivapithecus) have been found
from the late Miocene of shivalik hills in India.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
18. Assertion : Man has desended from Apes like chimpanzy and gorilla.
Reason : Apes resemble humans more than monkey do.
(1) (2) (3) (4)


19. Assertion : Natural selection is the outcome of difference in survival and reproduction among individuals
that show variation in one or more traits.
Reason : Adaptive forms of a given trait tend to become more common. Less adaptive ones become less
common or disappear.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
20. Assertion : Lamarck's theory of organic evolution states that use and disuse of organs and environment
casue inheritable variations.
Reason : The modern theory of evolution is called Neo-Darwinism.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
21. Assertion : The earliest organisms that apperared on the earth were non-green and presumably anaer-
Reason : The first autotropic organisms were the chemoautotrops that never released oxygen.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
22. Assertion : Coaservates are non-replicating protobiont.
Reason : Originated into ocean.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
23. Assertion : Man mainly differs from other primates in his large brain and high intelligence.
Reason : Lumbar curve is lacking in Apes but present in humans.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
24. Assertion : Enzymes are similar in composition and action in most animals.
Reason : These enzymes proves evidence of evolution.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
25. Assertion : Darwin held that small favrouable variations formed the raw material for evolution.
Reason : Darwin did not go into the factors which produce variations.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
26. Assertion : Isolation check inbreeding among the otherwise potential mates.
Reason : This preserves variations which can lead to speciation (evolution).
(1) (2) (3) (4)
27. Assertion : Interspecific mating often produces a more vigorous but sterile F1 hybrids.
Reason : Reproductive isolation does not let evolution to occur.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
28. Assertion : A single mutation may produce a new protein and new protein may produce new species.
Reason : Mutations cause variation in chromosomes and genes and are, therefore, inheritable
(1) (2) (3) (4)
29. Assertion : Muscles of external ears are vestigeal in humans.
Reason : Ear muscles close that ears during excessive noise.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
30. Assertion: Coacervates are believed to be precursors of life. (AIIMS 2004, 2008)
Reason: Coacervates were self duplicating aggregates of proteins surrounded by lipid molecules.
(1) (2) (3) (4)


31. Assertion: The earliest organisms that appeared on earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
Reason: The first autotrophic organisms were the chemoautotroph that never released oxygen.
(AlIMS-2006, 2008)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
32. Assertion: Among primates Chimpanzee is closest relative to the present day humans.
Reason : The banding pattern of autosomes 3 and 6 of humans and Chimpanzee is remarkably similar
(AIIMS 2004)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
33. Assertion: The earliest organisms that appeared on earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
Reason: The first autotrophic organisms were the chemoautotroph that never released oxygen.
(AlIMS-2006, 2008)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
34. Assertion: Human ancestors never used their tails so that tail expression gene has disappeared in them.
Reason: Lamarck's theory of evolution is popularly called theory of continuity of germplasm.
(AIIMS 2005, 2008)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
35. Assertion: Darwin's finches show a variety of beaks suited for eating large seeds, flying insects and
cactus seeds.
Reason: Ancestral seed eating stock of Darwin's finches radiated out from South American mainland to
different geographical areas of Galapagos islands where they found competition free new habitats.
(AIIMS 2005)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
36. Assertion: Gene flow increases genetic variations.
Reason: Random introduction of new alleles into recipient population and their removal from donor popula-
tion affect allele frequency.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
37. Assertion : Comparative biochemistry provides strong evidence in favour of common ancestry of living
Reason : Genetic code is universal. (AIIMS-2005)
(1) (2) (3) (4)
38. Assertion : Natural selection is the outcome of difference in survival and reproduction. among individual
that show variation m one or more traits.
Reason : Adaptive forms of a given trait tend to become more common. Less adaptive ones become less
common or disappear. (AIIMS-2004)
(1) (2) (3) (4)



1. Concept of chemical evolution of life is based on (AIPMT-2001)

(1) Effect of solar radiations on chemicals
(2) Interaction of water, air and clay under intense heat
(3) Combination of chemicals under hot moist environment conditions
(4) Crystallization of chemicals
2. Which experiment suggests that simplest living organisms could not have originated spontaneously from
non-living matter? (AIPMT-2005)
(1) Microbes did not appear in stored meat
(2) Microbes appeared from unsterilized organic matter
(3) Larvae could appear in decaying organic matter
(4) Meat was not spoiled when heated and kept in sealed vessel
3. Industrial melanism as found in peppered moth proves that (AIPMT-2007)
(1) Melanic form has no selective advantage in industrial area
(2) Lighter form has no selective advantage in polluted industrial area and non-polluted area
(3) Melanism is pollution generated feature
(4) True black melanic form develops by recurring random mutation.
4. A high density elephant population in an area will result in (AIPMT-2007)
(1) Mutualism (2) Predation on one another
(3) Interspecific competition (4) Intraspecific competition
5. Select the correct statement (AIPMT-2007)
(1) Darwinian variations are small and directionless
(2) Mutations are random and directionless
(3) Fittness is the end result of the ability to adapt and get selected by nature
(4) All mammals except whales and camels have seven cervical vertebrae.
6. Which one is the important consequence of geographical isolation (AIPMT-2007)
(1) Preventing speciation (2) Speciation through reproductive isolation
(3) Random creation of new species (4) No change in isolated fauna.
7. Crocodile and Penguin are similar to Whale and Dogfish in which one of the following features
(1) Have gill slits at some stage [AIPMT Mains 2010]
(2) Possess a solid single stranded central nerovous system
(3) Lay eggs and guard them till they hatch
(4) Possess bony skeleton.
8. The most apparent change during the evloutionary history of Homo sapiens is traced in
(1) Remarkable increase in the brains size (2) Loss of body hair [AIPMT Mains 2010]
(3) Walking upright (4) Shortening of the jaws


9. What was the most significant trend in evolution of modern man (Homosapiens) from his ancestors ?
[AIPMT Pre 2011]
(1) Upright posture (2) Shortening of jaws (3) Binocular vision (4) lncreasing brain capacity
10. The idea of mutations was brought forth by : [AIPMT mains 2012]
(1) Hugo do Vries, who worked on evening primrose
(2) Gregor Mendel, who worked on Pisum sativum
(3) Hardy Weinberg, who worked on allele frequencies in a population
(4) Charles Darwin, who observed a wide variety of organisms during sea voyage
11. Evolution of different species in a given area starting from a point and spreading to other geographical
areas is known as : [AIPMT Pre 2012]
(1) Adaptive radiation (2) Natural selection
(3) Migration (4) Divergent evolution
12. The extinct human who lived 1,00,000 to 40,000 years ago, in Europe, Asia and parts of Africa, With short
stature, heavy eyebrows, retreating fore haeds, large jaws with heavy teeth, stocky bodies, a lumbering gait
and stooped posture was [AIPMT Pre 2012]
(1) Hamo habilis (2) Neanderthal human (3) Cro-magnan humans(4) Ramapithecus
13. According to Darwin, The organic evolution is due to: (NEET-2013)
(1) Interspecific competition
(2) Competition within closely related species.
(3) Reduced feeding efficiency in one species due to the presence of interfering species
(4) Intraspecific competition
14. Variation in gene frequencies within populations can occur by chance rather than by natural section.
This is referred to as: (NEET-2013)
(1) Genetic drift (2) Random mating
(3) Genetic load (4) Genetic flow
15. The process by which organisms with different evolutionary history evolve similar phenotypic adaptations in
response to a common environmental challenge, is called: (NEET-2013)
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Non-random evolution
(3) Adaptive radiation (4) Natural selection
16. The eye of octopus and eye of cat show different patterns of structure, yet they perform similar function.
This is an example of : (NEET-2013)
(1) Homologous organs that have evolved due to divergent evolution.
(2) Analogous organs that have evolved due to convergent evolution.
(3) Analogous organs that have evolved due to divergent evolution.
(4) Homologous organs that have evolved due to convergent evolution.


17. Theory of spontaneous creation was supported by
(1) Van Helmont (2) Reddi (3) Spallanzani (4) Pasteur
18. One of the greatest advocates of the theory of special creation was (Pb. PMT-2000)
(1) C. Darwin (2) Aristotle (3) Father Saurez (4) Huxley
19. Simple one-celled Cyanobacteria-like organisms developed on earth (Kerala 2000)
(1) 5600 million years (2) 5000 million years (3) 4600 million years (4) 3600 million years
(5) 3000 million years
20. Approximate age of earth (in million years) is (HPPMT-2001)
(1) 3600 (2) 4600 (3) 7200 (4) 6000
21. According to theory of abiogenesis life originates from (Kerala 2002, DPMT-2009)
(1) Non-living (2) Spontaneously (3) Chemicals (4) other planets
22. Abiogenesis is (CPMT 2002)
(1) Origin of life from non living organisms (2) Origin of microbes from living organisms
(3) Spontaneous generation (4) Origin of microbes and viruses
23. Experiment to prove chemical basis of origin of life carried out by Urey and Miller used NH3 and
(Bihar PMT-2002)
(1) H2O and H2 (2) H2, CH4 and H2O (3) CH4 and H2O(4) CH4 and O2
24. Miller’s experiment provided evidence for theory of
(Orissa 2002)
(1) Special creation (2) Biogenesis (3) Abiogenesis (4) Organic evolution
25. Experimental proof that organic compounds formed the basis of evolution was given by (DPMT-2002)
(1) Oparin (2) Pasteur (3) Miller and Urey (4) Spallanzani
26. Which of the following has been basic to origin of life (CET-Chd. 2003)
(1) Carbohydrates (2) Proteins (3) Nucleic acids (4) Nucleoproteins
27. Stanley Miller performed the first successful experiment to assess the validity of the claim for origin of
organic molecules in the primeval earth condition. The control apparatus contained every arrangement
except that it was devoid of (AIEEE-2003)
(1) Ammonia (2) Methane (3) Oxygen (4) Energy source
28. Oxygen producing organisms evolved around (AMU-2003)
(1) 1600 million years ago (2) 3300-3500 million years ago
(3) 3600 million years ago (4) 4600 million years ago
29. Theory of abiogenesis or spontaneous generation was finally disapproved by (Kerala 2003)
(1) Louis Pasteur (2) A.I. Oparin (3) A.R. Wallace (4) Sidney Fox
30. Early atmosphere contained methane and other hydrocarbons. They have been now replaced by
(1) Nitrogen (2) Oxygen (3) Carbon dioxide (4) Hydrogen


31. Sequence of substances appearing during the origin of life would have been (AIEEE-2004)
(1) Amino acids, ammonia, phosphates, nucleic acids
(2) Ammonia, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids
(3) Nucleotides, amino acids, nucleic acids, enzymes
(4) Enzymes, amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids
32. Coacervates were experimentally produced by (K.C.E.T. 2004)
(1) Oparin and Sidney Fox (2) Fischer and Huxley
(3) Jacob and Monad (4) Urey and Miller
33. Who disapproved abiogenesis for the first time? (ManipaI 2004)
(1) Lamarck (2) F. Reddi (3) Pasteur (4) Darwin
34. Origin of life from pre-existing life is propounded by (J.K.C.M.E.E. 2005, Har P.M.T. 2001)
(1) Biogenesis theory (2) Abiogenesis theory
(3) Special creation theory (4) Extra terrestrial theory
35. Extra terrestrial origin of life was proposed by theory of (DPMT- 2005)
(1) Catastrophism (2) Spontaneous generation
(3) Special creation (4) Panspermia
36. Stanley Miller’s experiment supports (Manipal 2005)
(1) Abiogenesis (2) Biogenesis (3) Pangenesis (4) Chemical theory
37. Cyanobacteria originated on earth about (H.P.P.M. T. 2005)
(1) 4.3 - 4.8 billion years ago (2) 3.3 - 3.8 billion years ago
(3) 2.3 - 2.8 billion years ago (4) 1.3 - 1.8 billion years ago
38. Coacervates belong to the category of (Pb. PMT-2005)
(1) Protozoan
(2) Molecular aggregates
(3) Molecular aggregates surrounded by lipid membrane
(4) Cyanobacteria
39. The oldest fossil record of blue-green algae is 2.9 billion years old. It is (Pb. PMT-2005)
(1) Stromatolites (2) Archaeopteryx (3) Archaeospheroides (4) Chlamydomonas
40. First life consisted of (Pb. PMT-2005)
(1) Provirus (2) Virus (3) Bacteria (4) Protovirus
41. Which of the following amino acids was not found to be synthesised in Miller’s experiment?
(CB.S.E. 2006, A.F.M. C 2008)
(1) Alanine (2) Glycine (3) Aspartic acid (4) Glutamic acid
42. Miller and Urey performed an experiment to prove the origin of life. They took gases ammonia and hydro-
gen alongwith (A.M.U. P.M.D.C 2006, 2008)
(1) N2 and H2O (2) CH4 and N2 (3) H2O and CH4 (4) CO2 and NH3
43. The term hot dilute soup was given by (HPPMT-2007, DPMT-2008)
(1) Haldane (2) Urey (3) Oparin (4) None of the above


44. Coacervates are (DPMT-2001)
(1) Protein aggregates
(2) Protein and lipid aggregates
(3) Chemical aggregates
(4) Protobionts with polysaccharides, proteins and water
45. Select the wrong pair (Kerala 2007)
(1) Haldane............... Hot dilute soup (2) Oparin................ Protobionts
(3) Spallanzani........... Abiogenesis (4) Fox................ Coacervates
(5) Reddi................ Biogenesis
46. The first living form resulting from the final stage of chemical evolution of life is called
(COMED-K’s 2007)
(1) Prebiont (2) Protobiont (3) Proteinoid (4) Probiont
47. Scientists believe that life on earth originated by (HPPMT-2007)
(1) Spontaneous generation (2) Chemical evolution
(3) Special creation (4) Extraterrestrial transfer
48. First mammal occurred in which era and period? [UP CPMT 2007]
(1) Permian-palaeozoic (2) Triassic-mesozoic (3) Tertiary-coenozoic (4) None of these
49. Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between [UP CPMT 2007]
(1) Birds and mammals (2) Reptiles and birds
(3) Amphibians and reptiles (4) None of these
50. Struggle for existence and survival of the fittest theories were given by [UP CPMT 2007]
(1) Lamarck (2) Darwin (3) Wallace (4) None of these
51. Which one is linked to evolution? [UP CPMT 2007]
(1) Extinction (2) Competition (3) Variation (4) Reproduction
52. Which of the following is not a concept of lamarck? [UP CPMT 2007]
(1) Rate and survival of organism is different due to variation
(2) Environmental pressure causes variation
(3) Inheritance of acquired characters
(4) If an organ is used constantly it will continuously increase in size
53. The concept of chemical evolution is based on [CBSE PMT 2007]
(1) Interaction of water, air and clay under intense heat
(2) Possible origin of life by combination of chemicals under suitable environmental conditions
(3) Effect of solar radiation on chemicals
(4) Crystallisation of chemicals
54. The finches of Galapagos Islands provide an evidence in favour of [CBSE PMT 2007]
(1) Evolution due to mutation
(2) Retrogressive evolution
(3) Biogeographical evolution
(4) Special creation.


55. Adaptive radiation refers to [CBSE PMT 2007]
(1) Evolution of different species from a common ancestor
(2) Migration of members of a species to different geographical areas
(3) Power of adaptation in an individual to a variety of environments
(4) Adaptation due to geographical isolation
56. Among the human ancestors the brain size was more than 1000 cc in [CBSE PMT 2007]
(1) Ramapithecus
(2) Homo neanderthalensis
(3) Homo habilis
(4) Homo erectus
57. Darwin’s finches provide an excellent evidence in favour of organic evolution. These are related to which of
the following evidences? [AFMC 2007]
(1) Anatomy
(2) Biogeography
(3) Embryology
(4) Palaentology
58. Which of the following was formed in S.Miller’s experiment? (CPMT-2008)
(1) Microspheres (2) Nucleic acids (3) Amino acids (4) DV radiations
59. S.L. Miller’s closed flask contained (JKCMEE-2008)
(1) CH4 (2) NH3 and water vapours
(3) H2 (4) All the above
60. Microspheres possessed a membrane of (DPMT-2008)
(1) Lipid and protein (2) Lipid (3) Carbohydrates (4) Fats
61. Which is incorrect about protobionts in abiogenic origin of life? (CBSC-2008)
(1) They were partially isolated from surroundings
(2) They could maintain an internal environment
(3) They were able to reproduce
(4) They could separate combination of molecules from the surroundings
62. Origin of life occurred in (MPPMT-2009)
(1) Precambrian (2) Coenozoic (3) Palaeozoic (4) Mesozoic
63. In their experiment to prove origin of life Miller and Urey took gases (CPMT 2009)
(1) Methane, ethane, hydrogen, ammonia
(2) Methane, ethane, ammonia, and water vapours
(3) Methane, ammonia, hydrogen, water vapours
(4) Ammonia, water vapours, butane, hydrogen
64. A living connecting link which provides evidence for organic evolution is [UP CPMT 2009]
(1) Sphenodon between reptiles and birds
(2) Archaeopteryx between reptiles and birds
(3) Lung fishes between pisces and reptiles
(4) Duck billed platypus between reptiles and mammals.


65. Which of the following are not analogous organs? [UP CPMT 2009]
(1) Fins of fishes and flippers of Whales (2) Stings of Honey Bee and scorpion
(3) Wing of insect and wings of pterodactyl (4) Thorn of Bougainvillea and tendril of Cucurbita
66. According to the theory of mutation by Hugo de Vries [UP CPMT 2009]
(1) Only small mutation takes part in variation
(2) Only large mutation takes part in variation
(3) Both small and large mutation cause variation in species
(4) None of the above
67. Which of the following is a connecting link between mammals and reptiles? [AFMC 2009]
(1) Balanoglossus (2) Ornithorhyncus (3) Peripatus (4) Archaeopteryx
68. Which one of the following was not given by Darwin’s theory of evolution? [AFMC 2009]
(1) Over-production (2) Natural selection (3) Genetic drift (4) Struggle for existence
69. Darwin’s finches are an excellent examples of [CBSE 2008]
(1) Brood parasitism (2) Seasonal migration (3) Connecting links (4) Adaptive radiation
70. Which one of the following scientist’s name is correctly matched with the theory put forth by him?
(1) De Vries – Natural selection [CBSE 2008]
(2) Mendel – Theory of pangenesis
(3) Weismann – Theory of continuity of germplasm
(4) Pasteur – Inheritance of aquired characters
71. Thorn of Bougainvillea and tendril of Cucurbita are examples of [CBSE 2008]
(1) Vestigial organs (2) Analogous organs
(3) Retrogressive evolution (4) Homologous organs
72. According to Oparin, which one of the following was not present in the primitive atmosphere of the earth?
[AFMC 2008]
(1) Oxygen (2) Methane (3) Hydrogen (4) Water vapour
73. Evolutionary history of an organism is known as [AFMC 2008]
(1) Ancestry (2) Ontogeny (3) Phylogeny (4) Palaeontology
74. Biological concept of species is mainly based on [CPMT 2008]
(1) Reproductive isolation (2) Morphological features only
(3) Morphology and methods of reproduction (4) Methods of reproduction only
75. Which of the following was formed in S. Miller’s experiment? [CPMT 2008]
(1) Microspheres (2) Nucleic acids (3) Amino Acids (4) UV radiations
76. Which of the following provides most evident proof of evolution? [CPMT 2008]
(1) Fossils (2) Morphology (3) Embryo (4) Vestigial organs
77. The highest cranial capacity is/was present in [CPMT 2008]
(1) Peking man (2) Java man (3) Modern man (4) Handy man
78. Which of the following is not vestigial in man? [BHU 2008]
(1) Tall vertebrae (2) Nictiating membrane
(3) Nails (4) Vermiform appendix
79. Theory of pangenesis was given by [BHU 2008]
(1) Lamarck (2) Darwin (3) Hugo de Vries (4) Oparin


80. Which of the following is the most primitive ancestor of man? [BHU 2008]
(1) Homo neanderthalensis (2) Homo habilis
(3) Australopithecus (4) Ramapithecus
81. The modern man differs from the apes in [BHU 2008]
(1) Sparse body hair (2) Protruding eyes
(3) Wearing of clothes (4) Arms shorter than legs
82. Human ancestors, who left cave paintings were - [BHU Mains 2008]
(1) Neanderthal man (2) Java ape man
(3) Cro-magnon man (4) Peking man

Evidences of Evolution
83. Phylogeny is (MPPMT-1998, MBTCET-
(1) Development stages of an individual (2) Castes of flies
(3) Development of an organ (4) Developmental history of race
84. Human hand, wing of bat and flipper of whale represent (BHU-1998)
(1) Analogous organs (2) Vestigial organs (3) Homologous organs (4) Evolutionary organs
85. Existence of marsupials in Australia and New Zealand proves (CPMT-1998)
(1) Continental drift (2) Geological period (3) New evolution (4) Both A and B
86. Evolution is (CPMT-1998)
(1) Development of DNA from nucleotides (2) Development of organism through time
(3) Development of a cell from chemicals (4) Cloning
87. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany is located in (CPMT-1998, BBU-2002)
(1) Lucknow (2) Delhi (3) Calcutta (4) Jodhpur
88. A connecting link between two phyla is (RPMT-1998)
(1) Archaeopteryx-Aves and Mammalia (2) Amphioxus - Echinodermata and Chordata
(3) Peripetus - Annelida and Arthropoda (4) Orninthorhyncus - Aves and Reptilia
89. A vestigial organ in humans is (CPMT-1999, BV-2006, JKCMEE-
(1) Ear Pinna (2) Nictitating membrane
(3) Mammary glands in males (4) Knee bone
90. In which era had life not originated (AFMC-1999)
(1) Palaeozoic (2) Archaeozoic (3) Azoic (4) Mesozoic
91. Branch of botany dealing with distribution of plants is (EAMCET-1999)
(1) Ecology (2) Phytogeography (3) Phytology (4) Phytoecology
90. Wings of Bat, Locust and Pigeon are (EAMCET-1999)
(1) Vestigial organs (2) Exoskeletal structures
(3) Homologous organs (4) Analogous organs
93. A vestigial tooth is (DPMT-1999)
(1) Incisor (2) Molar (3) Premolar (4) Canine


94. Adaptive similarities in animals of the same habitat constitute (Pb. PMT-1999)
(1) Adaptive radiation (2) Parallel evolution (3) Convergent evolution(4) Divergent evolution
95. Homologous organs show (BHU-1999)
(1) Divergent evolution (2) Convergent evolution(3) Parallel evolution (4) Both Band C
96. Fossils are studied for (CET Chd.-2000)
(1) Tracing evolutionary history of organisms (2) Studying extinct organisms
(3) Filling gaps in our study (4) Providing jobs to scientists
97. Theory ‘Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny’ was proposed by (AMU-2000)
(1) Mendel (2) Haeckel (3) Erasmus Darwin (4) Weismann
98. Monkeys and some lower groups have certain blood groups which are (AMU-2000)
(1) Identical to those of man (2) Identical to those of arthropod apes
(3) Somewhat similar to white persons (4) Not identical to those of man
99. Organic evolution is change in (AMU-2000)
(1) Single individual (2) A few members of population
(3) Major portion of population (4) Entire population
100. A bird with teeth is (BHU-1985, 1991, AMU- 2000)
(1) Kiwi (2) Ostrich/King Vulture (3) Dodo (4) Archaeopteryx
101. Heart is four chambered in (AMU-2000)
(1) Amphibia (2) Fishes (3) Mammals (4) Reptiles
102. Living organism with oldest fossil history is (CPMT-2000, AMU-2000)
(1) Dinosaur (2) Archaeopteryx (3) Horse (4) Man
103. Homologous organs are (AMU-2000)
(1) Human eyes and Squid eyes (2) Gills of Fish and lungs of Man
(3) Hands of Man and wings of Bat (4) Leaf of Moss and frond of Fern
104. Coal has been mainly formed by (AFMC-2000)
(1) Bryophytes (2) Pteridophytes/pteridosperms
(3) Angiosperms (4) Algae
105. Darwin’s finches provide evidence of evolution from (CBSE-2000, AFMC-2007)
(1) Anatomy (2) Morphology (3) Biogeography (4) All the above
106. Which one is not vestigial in humans? (CBSE-2000, AFMC-2007)
(1) Third molar (2) Coccyx
(3) Segmental abdominal muscles (4) Finger nails
107. Vestigial pelvic girdle and bone remnants of hind limbs are characteristic of (Har. PMT-2000)
(1) Whale (2) Dolphin (3) Shark (4) Seal
108. The statement “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” was given by
(Kerala 2000)
(1) Dobzhansky (2) Darwin (3) Oparin (4) Hooker
(5) Wallace


109. The sequence in evolution of horse was (Kerala 2000)
(1) Equus, Eohippus, Mesohippus, Merychippus
(2) Eohippus, Mesohippus, Merychippus, Equus
(3) Mesohippus, Eohippus, Merychippus, Equus
(4) Merychippus, Eohippus, Equus, Mesohippus
(5) Merychippus, Mesohippus, Eohippus, Equus
110. Origin of life occurred in (Kerala 2000)
(1) Carboniferous (2) Cambrian (3) Pre-Cambrian (4) Ordovician
(5) Silurian
111. Coenozoic era does not include (EV-2001)
(1) Pliocene (2) Miocene (3) Devonian (4) Pleistocene
112. Homology is similarily in (B.V. 2001)
(1) Biochemistry (2) Physiology (3) Origin (4) General plan
113. Human beings have vestigial vermiform appendix. The ancestors must have been (E.V. 2001)
(1) Insectivorous (2) Herbivorous (3) Carnivorous (4) Sanguivorous
114. Evolution of a species or group can be studied through (CET Chd.-2001)
(1) Fossils (2) Carbon dating (3) DNA analysis (4) All of these
115. Phenomenon of organisms having similar structure with a similar origin is (ManipaI 2001)
(1) Mimicry (2) Analogy (3) Homology (4) Both A and B
116. Homologous organs indicate (CPMT-2001)
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Parallel evolution (3) Natural selection (4) Common descent
117. Age of evolution of man is measured by (CPMT-2001)
(1) Electron microscope (2) Chemical reaction
(3) Radioactive dating (4) Ultraviolet radiation
118. Modern birds rose in (CPMT-2001)
(1) Palaeozoic (2) Coenozoic (3) Mesozoic (4) Archaeozoic
119. Tasmanian Wolf is a marsupial while Wolf is a placental mammal. This shows (DPMT-2001)
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Divergent evolution
(3) Parallelism (4) Inheritance of acquired characters
120. Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. This is (DPMT- 2001, MPPMT-2004, JKCMEE-2008)
(1) Hardy Weinberg law (2) Pauling law (3) Biogenetic law (4) Thomas law
121. Jurassic period belongs to era (Kerala 2001)
(1) Palaeozoic (2) Mesozoic (3) Coenozoic (4) Proterozoic
122. Pioneers in the field of organic evolution were (KCET-2001)
(1) Darwin, Lamarck, Land Steiner and De Vries (2) Darwin, De Vries, Lamarck, Huxley
(3) Lamarck, Land Steiner, Malthus, De Vries (4) Land Steiner, De Vries, Malthus, Darwin
123. Occurrence of higher number of endemic species in South America and Australia is due to
(1) Retrogressive evolution (CBSE-2001, AFMC-2007)
(2) Continental separation
(3) These species have become extinct from other regions
(4) Absence of terrestrial links between these places


124. Similarities between organisms of different genotypes is due to (CBSE-2001)
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Divergent evolution (3) Microevolution (4) Macroevolution
125. Half life of C is
(1) 50 years (2) 500 years (3) 5000 years (4) 5 x 104 years
126. Which of the following is not atavistic in humans? (CPMT-2001)
(1) Tail in some babies (2) Enlarged canines (3) Six fingers (4) Dense body hair
127. Which are not homologous? (CPMT-2001)
(1) Fore arm of humans and fins of fishes
(2) Wings of bat and insects
(3) Fins of fishes and flippers of Whales
(4) Human fore arms, Bat’s wings and flippers of Whale
128. Presence of two chambered heart and gills in tadpole is example of (Har. PMT-2001)
(1) Neo-Darwinism (2) Gause’s law (3) Chargaff’s law (4) Biogenetic law
129. Presence of tail and coarse hair in human baby is
(Har. PMT-2001, AlIMS-2004, 2008, Pb. PMT-2007, MPPMT-2007)
(1) Radiation (2) Atavism (3) Mutation (4) Crossing over
130. Unit of evolution is (MHTCET-2001, B.V. 2002, Orissa 2008)
(1) Population (2) Species (3) Individual (4) Subspecies
131. Possibility of occurrence of coal in an area is determined by study of (BHU-2002)
(1) Microfossils (2) Ecology (3) Economic Botany (4) mining contents
132. Darwin’s finches occur in (Wardha 2002, Orissa 2007)
(1) Australia (2) Galapagos Islands (3) Siberia (4) India
133. Coevolution does not occur in case of (BHU-2002)
(1) Parasitism (2) Mutualism (3) Both A and B (4) Commensalism
134. Ancestral amphibians were tetra pods that evolved during (BHU-2002)
(1) Carboniferous period (2) Cretaceous period (3) Jurassic period (4) Devonian period
135. Evidences for evolution from fossils belong to the domain of (JKCMEE-2002)
(1) Biogeography (2) Embryology (3) Paleontology (4) Anatomy
136. Dinosaurs were dominant features during the period of (JKCMEE-2002)
(1) Jurassic (2) Cretaceous (3) Triassic (4) Palaeocene
137. Which of the following is not correctly paired (Orissa 2002)
(1) Mesozoic-Age of mammals (2) Study of fossils - Palaeontology
(3) Mutation theory-Hugo de Vries (4) Origin of Species-Charles Darwin
138. Study of plant fossils is (RPMT-2002)
(1) Paedology (2) Polynology (3) Palaeoinsectology (4) Palaeobotany
139. Interacting populations are (AMU-2002)
(1) Symbiotic (2) Mutualistic (3) Parasitic (4) Coevolved
140. Archaeopteryx, toothed fossil bird occurred during (AMU-2002, MPPMT-2002)
(1) Jurassic (2) Triassic (3) Cretaceous (4) Permian


141. Mesozoic era is known as golden age of (Kerala 2003, MPPMT-2007)
(1) Fishes (2) Amphibians (3) Reptiles (4) Molluscs
142. Continental drift explains (AMU-2002)
(1) Mass extinctions (2) Distribution of fossils on earth
(3) Geographical upheavals (4) All the above
143. Reptilian feature of Archaeopteryx is (EAMCET-2002)
(1) U-shaped furcula (2) Beak (3) Abdominal ribs (4) Feathers
144. Archaeopteryx is connecting link between (Kerala 2002, JKCMEE-2004, CPMT-2007, MHTCET-2007)
(1) Fishes and amphibians (2) Amphibians and birds
(3) Amphibians and reptiles (4) Reptiles and birds
145. Which is not vestigial in man ? (Kerala 2002, BHU-2008)
(1) Tail vertebrae (2) Nails (3) Nictitating membrane(4) Vermiform appen-
146. Development of adaptations along parallel lines in unrelated groups of animals is (MPPMT-2002)
(1) Adaptive convergence (2) Adaptive radiation
(3) Adaptive divergence (4) Adaptive induction
147. Which of the following is vestigial in humans (AFMC-2002)
(1) Mammary glands in males (2) Knee bones
(3) Nictitating membrane (4) Ear pinna
148. Which one is palaeontological evidence of evolution? (BV-2002)
(1) Biston betularia (2) Archaeopteryx (3) Darwin’s finches (4) Duck billed Platypus
149. Which one is used for dating archaeological specimens like bones, shells and wood? (JIPMER-2002)
(1) 3H (2) 14C (3) 121l (4) 32p
150. Which is sequenced during study of phylogeny? (CBSE-2002)
(1) m RNA (2) r RNA (3) t RNA (4) DNA
151. Convergent evolution is illustrated by (CBSE-2003)
(1) Rat and Dog (2) Bacterium and Protozoan
(3) Starfish and Cuttle fish (4) Dogfish and Whale
152. Which one correctly describes homologous structures (CBSE-2003, Pb. PMT-2003)
(1) Organs with anatomical similarities but performing different functions
(2) Organs with anatomical dissimilarities but performing same function
(3) Organs that have no function now but had an important function in ancestors
(4) Organs appearing only in embryonic stage and disappearing later in the adult
153. Mesozoic era was dominated by (CPMT-2003)
(1) Birds (2) Fishes (3) Reptiles (4) Mammals
154. Law of embryonic development was proposed by (CPMT-2003)
(1) Darwin (2) Von Baer (3) Haeckel (4) Mendel
155. Wings of bird and bat are (Kerala 2003)
(1) Homologous with no analogy (2) Analogous with no homology
(3) Neither homologous nor analogous (4) Both homologous and analogous


156. Which is not a vestigial organ (Kerala 2003)
(1) Flipper of Seal (2) Coccyx of man (3) Pelvic of Python (4) Wings of Kiwi
157. Organs related through common descent but now functionally different are
(AIEEE-2003, CPMT-2004, JKCMEE-2005)
(1) Analogous (2) Homologous (3) Divergent organs (4) Parallel organs
158. Which one is correct homologous pair (AIEEE-2003)
(1) Wings of Bat and Butterfly (2) Wings of Bird and Moth
(3) Wings of Bird and pectoral fins of fish (4) Eyes of Cow and Cockroach
159. Which is not vestigial in humans (AIEEE-2003)
(1) First premolars (2) Caudal vertebrae (3) Muscles of Pinna (4) Vermiform appendix
160. Immediate ancestor of present day horse was (BV-2003)
(1) Eohippus (2) Merychippus (3) Pliohippus (4) Mesohippus
161. Which one is incorrect (Orissa 2004)
(1) Wings of insects and birds are analogous (2) Wings of bat and birds are homologous
(3) Wings of insects and bat are analogous (4) Wings of insects and birds are homologous
162. Flippers of Seal are modified (AFMC-2004)
(1) Hind limbs (2) Fore limbs (3) Fins (4) Gills
163. Organs having similar functions but different origin and development are known as
(JKCMEE-2004, Har. PMT-2005)
(1) Homologous organs (2) Analogous organs (3) Metalogous organs (4) Vestigial organs
164. The classical example of adaptive radiation during formation of new species is (CPMT-2004)
(1) Marsupials of Australia (2) Darwin’s finches
(3) Giant Tortoise (4) All the above
165. Mammals like Whale, Dolphin, Bat, Monkey and Horse have some common characters but also show
conspicuous differences. This is due to phenomenon of (MPPMT-2004)
(1) Divergence (2) Convergence (3) Genetic drifts (4) Normalization
166. Which of the following pairs of structures is homologous? (MPPMT-2004)
(1) Wings of Grasshopper and forelimbs of Flying Squirrel
(2) Tentacles of Hydra and arms of Starfish
(3) Forelimbs of a Bat and forelegs of a Horse
(4) Wings of a bird and wings of a Moth
167. According to Darwinism, fossils of organisms found in South America resemble fossils of (Orissa 2004)
(1) North America (2) Africa (3) Australia (4) Both B and C
168. The biogenetic law of Haeckel is (BHU-2005, CPMT-2009)
(1) Omnis vivum ex vivum (2) Omnis cellula e cellula
(3) Ontogeny repeats phylogeny (4) Phylogeny repeats ontogeny
169. Which is relatively most accurate method of dating of fossils? (CBSE-2005)
(1) Radiocarbon method (2) Potassium - Argon method
(3) Electron spin - resonance method (4) Uranium - lead method


170. Dinosaurs were present during the (JKCMEE-2005)
(1) Palaeozoic era (2) Coenozoic era (3) Mesozoic era (4) Precambrian era
171. Which is correct? (Orissa 2005)
(1) 99% of existed species are extinct (2) 65% of existed species are extinct
(3) 40% of existed species are extinct (4) 30% of existed species are extinct
172. What is correct arrangement of periods of Palaeozoic era in ascending order in geological time scale ?
(1) Cambrian Devonian Ordovician Silurian Carboniferous Permian
(2) Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian
(3) Cambrian Ordovician Devonian Silurian Carboniferous Permian.
(4) Silurian Devonian Cambrian Ordovician Permian Carboniferous
173. An important evidence in favour of organic evolution is the occurrence of (CBSE-2006, DPMT-2008)
(1) Homologous and analogous organs (2) Homologous and vestigial organs
(3) Analogous and vestigial organs (4) Homologous organs only
174. Jurassic period of Mesozoic era is characterized by (CBSE-2006)
(1) Flowering plants and first dinosaurs appear
(2) Gymnosperms are dominant plants and first birds appear
(3) Radiation of reptiles and angiosperms appear
(4) Dinosaurs become extinct and angiosperms appear
175. Evolutionary history of an organism is known as (CBSE-2006, AFMC-2008)
(1) Ontogeny (2) Phylogeny (3) Ancestry (4) Palacontol
176. Major radiation of mammals, birds and pollinating insects took place in the epoch (Kerala 2006)
(1) Oligocene (2) Palaeocene (3) Pliocene (4) Eocene
(5) Miocene
177. Trilobites evolved during the period (BV-2006)
(1) Cambrian (2) Silurian (3) Ordovician (4) Pre-Cambrian
178 Which is correct (CET Chd. 2006)
(1) Wings of birds and insects are homologous
(2) Archaeopteryx lithographica is missing link between birds and mammals
(3) Paired fins of fish and flippers of whale are analogous
(4) Caecum and appendix in Rabbit and man are analogous
179. First mammals are found in era-period (CPMT-2007)
(1) Permian..... Palaeozoic (2) Triassic..... Mesozoic
(3) Tertiary..... Coenozoic (4) None of these
180. Most of the fossils occur in rocks (Orissa 2007)
(1) Sedimentary (2) Metamorphic (3) Igneous (4) None of these
181. Platypus is connecting link Duck-billed between (Orissa 2007, A.F.M.C 2009)
(1) Echinodermata and chordata (2) Arthropoda and mollusca
(3) Reptilia and Mammalia (4) Reptilia and Aves


182. Plants and animals of Galapagos islands resemble plants and animals of main land in (Orissa 2007)
(1) North Africa (2) South Africa (3) North America (4) South America
183. Fossils found in Mandla district of M.P. is (MPPMT-2007)
(1) 260 million years old (2) 100 million years old (3) 50 million years old (4) 20 million years old
184. Tendrils of Cucurbita and thorns of Bougainvillea are (DPMT-2007, CBSE-2008)
(1) Homologous organs (2) Analogous organs (3) Vestigial organs (4) Atavistic divergence
185. Parallism is due to (DPMT-2007)
(1) Adaptive divergence (2) Adaptive convergence
(3) Adaptive convergence of unrelated species (4) Adaptive, convergence of closely related species
186. Which one is correct (CBSE-2007)
(1) There is no evidence of presence of gills in mammalian embryos
(2) Ontogeny repeats phylogeny
(3) All plant and animal cells are totipotent
(4) Stem cells are specialized cells
187. Finches of Galapagos provide evidence for (CBSE-2007)
(1) Retrogressive evolution (2) Special creation
(3) Biogeographical evolution (4) Evolution due to mutation
188. Two species of different genealogy show resemblance due to similar adaptation. The phenomenon is
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Divergent evolution
(3) Micro-evolution (4) Co-evolution
189. Adaptive radiation is (CBSE-2007)
(1) Evolution of different species from a common ancestor
(2) Adaptation due to geographical isolation
(3) Migration of members of a species to different geographical areas
(4) Power of adaptation of an individual to a variety of environments
190. What is common to Whale, Seal and Shark (CBSE-2007)
(1) Homeoothermy (2) Seasonal migration
(3) Thick subcutaneous fat (4) Convergent evolution
191. Which ones are not analogous organs (Kerala 2007, CPMT- 2009)
(1) Wings of birds and wings of butterfly
(2) Eye of Octopus and eye of mammals
(3) Flippers of penguins and flippers of Dolphin
(4) Thorns of Bougainvillea and tendril of Cucurbita
(5) Tuberous root of Sweat Potato and stem tuber of Potato
192. Descendent of fossil Protylopus is (MHTCET-2007)
(1) Giraffe (2) Camel (3) Elephant (4) Cow
193. Vestigial organs provide evidence of organic evolution in the category (JKCMEE-2007)
(1) Anatomical (2) Embryological (3) Morphological (4) Palaeontological


194. Life has existed on earth for the last (HPPMT-2001)
(1) 2.3 billion years (2) 3.9 billion years (3) 4.3 billion years (4) 5.0 billion years
195. Darwin’s finches show (HPPMT-2007, CBSE-2008)
(1) Adaptive radiation (2) Parallel evolution (3) Homology (4) Natural selection
196. Connecting link between Annelida and mollusca is (BHU-2007)
(1) Nautilus (2) Neopelina (3) Glochidium larva (4) Velliger larva
197. Which one is the earliest era? (Orissa 2008)
(1) Coenozoic (2) Mesozoic (3) Palaeozoic (4) Pre-Cambrian
198. ‘Wings of birds and fore-limbs of horse are (Orissa 2008)
(1) Vestigial (2) Analogous (3) Homologous (4) None of the above
199. Closely related species with different traits exhibit (Orissa 2008)
(1) Convergent evolution (2) Divergent evolution (3) Parallel evolution (4) None of the above
200. Which isotope is used in finding age of fossil of more than 4500 years? (DPMT-2008)
(1) 238U (2) 235U (3) 235
Pb (4) 12C
201. Which period is largely associated with extinction of dinosaurs, increase in flowering plants and reptiles ?
(1) Triassic (2) Jurassic (3) Cretaceous (4) Permian
202. Mass extinction at the end of Mesozoic era was probably caused by (DPMT-2009)
(1) Continental drift (2) Massive glaciation
(3) Collision of earth with large meteorite (4) Change in earth’s orbit
203. Tachyglossus is connecting link between (DPMT-2009)
(1) Reptiles and mammals (2) Reptiles and birds
(3) Amphibians and reptiles (4) Birds and mammals
204. Phylogeny is (CETChd.- 2009)
(1) Evolutionary history (2) Life history
(3) Group of phyla (4) Genetics of animals
205. Relatedness of two species is tested through (Orissa 2009)
(1) RNA and proteins (2) DNA and proteins
(3) Antibodies and transposons (4) none of the above
206. As per Allen’s rule, mammals of cold regions conserve body heat through (AMU-2009)
(1) Larger body mass (2) Small body mass (3) Longer extremities (4) Smaller extremities
207. Peripetus is connecting link between (CBSE-2009)
(1) Porifera and Coelenterata (2) Ctenophora and Platyhelminthes
(3) Mollusca and Echinodermata (4) Annelida and Arthropoda
208. Origin of first toothed birds and gymnosperms occurred during (CPMT-2009)
(1) Cretaceous (2) Jurassic (3) Triassic (4) Permian
209. A living connecting link that provides evidence of organic evolution is (CPMT-2009)
(1) Sphenodon between reptiles and birds
(2) Archaeopteryx between reptiles and birds
(3) Lung fishes between Pisces and reptiles
(4) Duck-billed Platypus between reptiles and mammals


Human Evolution
210. The continent where maximum fossils of prehistoric man have been found is
(1) Asia (2) Africa (BHU-1999, M.P.P.M.T. 2000)
(3) Europe (4) America.
211. Which one is connected with human evolution? (CBSE-2000)
(1) Binocular vision (2) Flat nails
(3) Loss of tail (4) Shortening of jaws
212. Dryopithecus had (B. V. 2000)
(1) Semi-erect posture (2) Rounded head
(3) Wide large jaw (4) All the above.
213. Cranial capacity of Homo erectus was (B.V. 2000, JKCMEE-2008)
(1) 1650 cc (2) 1400 cc
(3) 800 - 1300 cc (4) 6500 cc
214. Common link between apes and man was (MHTCET-2000)
(1) Ramapithecus (2) Dryopithecus
(3) Homo erectus (4) Homo neanderthalensis.
215. The earliest human has been named as (MHTCET-2001)
(1) Australopithecus (2) Homo erectus
(3) Homo habilus (4) Homo sapiens
216. Proconsuls are ancestors of (B.H.U. 2001)
(1) Apes only (2) Man only (3) Both A and B (4) All primates
217. Which is correct order in evolutionary history of man (C.B.S.E. 2001)
(1) Peking Man Habilus Man Neanderthal man Cro-Magnon Man
(2) Peking man Heidelberg man Neanderthal man Cro-Magnon Man
(3) Peking Man Neanderthal man Homo sapiens Heidelberg Man
(4) Peking Man Homo sapiens Neanderthal man Cro-Magnon Man
218. Cranial capacity of humans is (Uttarakhand 2001)
(1) 915 cc (2) 1470 cc (3) 1600 cc (4) 1700 cc
219. Primitive Man who built up dwelling huts and buried its dead was (Uttarakhand 2001)
(1) Java Ape Man (2) Cro-Magnon Man (3) Peking Man (4) Neanderthal man
220. Fossil of Cro-Magnon Man was found in (MHTCET-2002)
(1) Shivalik-Hills-India (2) Neander-Valley-Germany
(3) Africa (4) France
221. Which one is closest to modern man? (Wardha 2002)
(1) Cro-Magnon Man (2) Neanderthal man (3) Homo erectus (4) Homo habilus
222. Fossil evidence indicates that original place for start of human evolution was (C.B.S.E 2002)
(1) Java (2) France (3) Africa (4) China
223. Prosimians found only on the island of Madagascar is (A.M.U. 2002)
(1) Galapagos (2) Loris (3) Lemur (4) Bush Baby


224. Homo erectus erectus is scientific name of (DPMT-2002)
(1) Java Ape Man (2) Peking man (3) Cro-Magnon Man (4) Neanderthal man
225. Human evolution is related to (CET Chd.-2003)
(1) Development of brain (2) Migratory habit
(3) Omnivorous diet (4) All the above
226. Cro-Magnon Man differs from Neanderthal man in having (Wardha 2003)

(1) Brachiasm (2) Smaller jaws (3) Larger jaws (4) Cannibalism.
227. Taung baby is (AMU-2003)
(1) Dryopithecus (2) Australopithecus (3) Peking Man (4) Piltdown man
228. Centre of human evolution was (AMU-2003)
(1) Ethiopian realm (2) Oriental realm (3) Palaearctic realm (4) Neotropical realm.
229. Which one is correct (JKMEE-2003)
(1) Australopithecus is real ancestor of man
(2) Homo erectus is real ancestor of man
(3) Neanderthal man is direct ancestor Homo sapiens
(4) None of the above
230. What evidence suggests that Chimpanzee is more closely related to humans than other hominoid apes
(1) DNA from sex chromosomes only (CBSE-2004)
(2) Chromosome morphology only
(3) Fossil remains
(4) DNA of both autosomes and sex chromosomes
231. Which one is closer to man? (MP PMT-2004)
(1) Dryopithecus (2) Orangutan (3) Gibbon (4) Proconsul
232. There are two opposing views about origin of modern man. According to one view Homo erectus in Asia
was ancestor of modern man. A study of variations of DNA , however suggested African origin of modern
man. What kind of observation on DNA variations could suggest this (CBSE-2005)
(1) Greater variation in Asia than in Africa (2)Greater variation in Africa than in Asia
(3) Similar variation in Africa and Asia (4) Variation only in Asia and no variation in Africa.
233. Name given to fossil hominid or Shivalik hills in India is (Orissa 2005)
(1) Ramapithecus (2) Australopithecus (3) Pithecanthropus (4) lndratherium
234. Which of the following statement is correct about Cro-Magnon Man? (Wardha 2005)
(1) Cro-Magnon man is an advanced stage of man’s evolution more advanced than Homo erectus
(2) Predecessor of Homo neanderthalensis.
(3) Direct ancestor of modern man
(4) Cro-Magnon man lived during last ice age
235. Which is correct? (AMUPMDC-2006, BHU-2007)
(1) Homo erectus is the immediate ancestor of man
(2) Cro-Magnon man’s fossil has been found in Ethiopia
(3) Australopithecus is the real ancestor of man
(4) Cro-Magnon man is the most recent ancestor of Homo sapiens


236. Among’ human ancestors, brain size was more than 1000 cc in (CBSE-2007)
(1) Homo erectus (2) Homo habilus
(3) Homo neanderthalensis (4) Ramapithecus
237. The earliest hominids that evolved more than four million years ago were (JKMEE-2007)
(1) Homo erectus (2) Australopithecus (3) Cro-Magnon Man (4) Neanderthal Man
238. Hominids evolved during (AFMC-2007)
(1) Oligocene (2) Pliocene (3) Pleistocene (4) Miocene
239. Highest cranial capacity has been in (CPMT-2008)
(1) Peking Man (2) Java Man (3) Modern Man (4) Handy Man
240. During course of evolution which part of brain has shown maximum increase in size (Orissa 2009)
(1) Fore brain (2) Mid brain (3) Hind brain (4) All the above.
241. A well preserved and most complete homonid fossil named Lucy belongs to genus (AMU-2009)
(1) Dryopithecus (2) Oreopithecus (3) Pithecanthropus (4) Australopithecus
242. Prehistoric man who lived on earth during late Pleistocene was (CPMT-2009)
(1) Cro-Magnon (2) Atlantic Man (3) Australopithecus (4) Neanderthal Man.

Theories of Evolution
243. Individuals of a species which occur in a particular area constitute
(CPMT-1983, 1984, BHU-1998, JIPMER-1997, Kerala 2002)
(1) Flora (2) Fauna (3) Community (4) Population.
244. Darwin wrote "Origin of Species" in (ManipaI1999, CPMT-2002, Har. PMT-2005)
(1) 1530 (2) 1795 (3) 1859 (4) 1895.
245. Which is related to reproductive isolation? (E.A.M.C.E.T. 1999)
(1) Genetic isolation (2) Behavioural isolation (3) Temporal isolation (4)All the above
246. Gene pool of a population tends to remain stable if the population is large,' without large scale mutations,
without migration and with (B.H.U.2000)
(1) Random mating (2) Moderate environmental changes
(3) Natural selection (4) Reduction in predators

247. Naturalist who sailed round the world in ship Beagle was (A.M.U. 2000, Orissa 2008)
(1) CharIes Lyell (2) Charles Darwin (3) Alfred Wallace (4) Lamarck
248. The theory that environment can bring about changes in individuals was proposed by (A.M.U. 2000)
(1) Mendel (2) Darwin (3) Lamarck (4) Lyell
249. Darwin's theory states that (C.E.T. Chd. 2000, Pb. P.M.T. 2002)
(1) Characters are acquired through inheritance
(2) Species change morphologically with time
(3) Nature selects organisms which can adapt
(4) Evolution is due to effect of environment.
250. The animal that explains industrial melanism is (K.C.E.T. 2000)
(1) Lizard (2) Peppered Moth (3) Monkey (4) Frog
251. Lederberg's replica experiment explains (Pb. P.M.T. 2000)
(1) Lamarck's theory (2) Mutation theory (3) Darwin's theory (4) None of the above


252. Evolution is (B.V. 2000)
(1) Reproduction isolation (2) Modification and speciation
(3) Variation (4) Somatic mutation and genetic recombination
253. Presence of vestigial organs is explained in theory by (B.V. 2000)
(1) De Vries (2) Darwin (3) Lamarck (4) Russel
254. Hybrid sterility is found in (Kerala 2000)
(1) Horse (2) Hinny (3) Lion (4) Crocodile (5) Earthworm.
255. Reproductive isolation is (Kerala 2000)
(1) Inability to interbreed (2) Ability to interbreed
(3) Breeding in isolation (4) Intraspecific breeding
256. What is correct (ManipaI 2001)
(1) Lamarck's theory- struggle for existence
(2) Biogenetic law- Recapitulation theory
(3) Lamarck's theory-Theory of continuity of germplasm
(4) Darwin's theory- Use and disuse of organs.
257. Mutation theory cannot explain (C.P.M.T. 2001)
(1) Mimicry (2) Industrial melanism (3) Connecting link (4) Living fossils.
258. New species develop due to (Kerala 2001, CB.S.E. 2002)
(1) Isolation and mutation (2) Competition and mutation
(3) Isolation and competition (4) Isolation and variation
(5) Competition and variation
259. The antibiotic used in Lederberg's replica plating experiment was (Kerala 2001)
(1) Penicillin (2) Streptomycin (3) Erythromycin (4) Neomycin
(5) Terramycin
260. "Human population grows III geometric ratio while food materials increase in arithmetic proportion." It is a
statement from (Kerala 2001)
(1) Darwin (2) Bateson (3) Amritya Sen (4) Malthus
(5) Swaminathan
261. Transfer of genes from one gene pool to another is (K.C.E.T. 2001)
(1) Genetic drift (2) Gene flow (3) Speciation (4) Mutation.
262. Which was not proposed by Darwin ? (A.F.M.C. 2001)
(1) Struggle for existence (2) Natural selection
(3) Genetic drift (4) Survival of the fittest.
263. Forthcoming generation will be less adaptive than the present generation due to (C.B.S.E. 2001)
(1) Genetic drift (2) Adaptation (3) Mutation (4) Natural selection
264. Frequency of an allele may change in isolated population due to (CBSE-2001)
(1) Genetic drift (2) Mutation (3) Natural selection (4) Gene flow
265. Reason for diversity in living beings is due to (CBSE-2001)
(1) Short term evolutionary changes (2) Long term evolutianary changes
(3) Mutations (4) Gradual change.
266. In Lederberg's replica plating, streptomycin resistant strain can develop by using (CBSE-2001)
(1) Minimal medium and streptomycine (2) Complete medium and streptomycine
(3) Only minimal medium (4) Only complete medium.


267. Darwin's theory of pan genesis proposes (C.B.S.E. 2001)
(1) Some physical basis of inheritance
(2) Development of useful organs and degeneration of useless organs
(3) Increase in organ size with age
(4) Development of organs due to will power
268. What is true for Lamarck? (D.P.M.T. 2001)
(1) American botanist who later became zoologist
(2) English naturalist who propounded theory of evolution
(3) Polish scientist who gave law of inheritance
(4) French scientist who gave "Inheritance of Acquired characters."
269. Different species occurring in different geographical areas are known as (D.P.M.T. 2002)
(1) Allopatric (2) Sympatric (3) Sibling species (4) Deme
270. Formation of new species from pre-existing ones is (J.K.C.M.E.E. 2002)
(1) Mutation (2) Speciation (3) Isolation (4) Polyploidy.
271. Speciation in geographically separated region is (A.F.M.C. 2002)
(1) Sibling (2) Geopatric (3) Sympatric (4) Allopatric
272. Recombination of genes occurs at (J.K.C.M.E.E. 2002)
(1) Prophase of mitosis (2) Prophase I of meiosis
(3) Metaphase II of meiosis (4) Prophase II of meiosis.
273. Theory of evolution by Charles Darwin is called (J.K.C.M.E.E. 2002)
(1) Theory of inheritance of characters (2) Mutation theory
(3) Theory of natural selection (4) Origin of species.
274. In which condition gene ratio remains constant in a species (C.B.S.E. 2002)
(1) Gene flow (2) Mutation (3) Random mating (4) Sexual selection.
275. Unit of natural selection or survival of the fittest is (M.H.T.C.E. T. 2002, A.I.E.E.E. 2004, K.C.E.T 2006)
(1) Species (2) Population (3) Family (4) Individual.
276. Which is most important for speciation ? (CBSE-2002)
(1) Seasonal isolation (2) Reproductive isolation
(3) Temporal isolation (4) Behavioural isolation
277. Some bacteria can grow in streptomycin containing medium due to (CBSE-2002)
(1) Induced mutation (2) Natural selection (3) Reproductive isolation (4) Mimicry
278. Population is (B.V. 2002)
(1) Individuals of a species (2) Individuals of a family
(3) Species in it community (4) All individuals of a community,
279. Variations giving rise to new species are serialised by the process of (A.M.U.2002)
(1) Law of dynamics (2) Naturalselection (3) Fusion speciation (4) Organic evolution
280. Genetic recombination occurs due to (CPMT-2002)
(1) Mitosis and meiosis (2) Fertilisation and mitosis
(3) Fertilisation and meiosis (4) None of the above.
281. What is incorrect for evolution ? (Orissa 2002)
(1) Fossils provide important information
(2) Early development stages of higher animals are similar
(3) Fore limbs of cows and wings of birds are homologous
(4) Variations among individuals are not important in natural selection.


282. Dark coloured Peppered Moth is able to survive in industrial areas as compared to light coloured form
because of (Manipal 2002, C.B.S.E. 2009)
(1) High fecundity (2) Mimicry
(3) Natural selection in smoky environment (4) Lethal mutation.
283. According to Lamarckism long necked Giraffes evolved because (K.C.E.T 2002)
(1) Nature selected only long necked animals
(2) Of stretching of necks by short one over many generations
(3) Humans preferred long necked animals
(4) Mutation
284. Phenomenon of industrial melanism proves (A.F.M.C. 2002)
(1) Natural selection (2) Reproductive isolation
(3) Induced mutation (4) Geographical isolation
285. Ultimate source of variation is (C.E.T. Chd. 2003)
(1) Mutation (2) Sexual reproduction (3) Genetic drift (4) None of the above.
286. Which one of the following sequences was proposed by Darwin and Wallace for organic evolution
(1) Overproduction, variations, constancy of population size, natural selection (C.B.S.E. 2003)
(2) Variations, constancy of population size, overproduction, natural selectiob
(3) Overproduction, constancy of population size, variations, natural selection
(4) Variations, natural selection, overproduction, constancy of population size.
287. Random genetic drift in a population probably results from (CBSE-2003)
(1) Highly genetically variable individuals (2) Interbreeding within small population
(3) Constant low mutation rate (4) Large population size
288. Industrial melanism is an example of (CBSE-2003)
(1) Drug resistance
(2) Darkening of skin due to smoke from industries
(3) Protective resemblance with the surroundings
(4) Defensive adaptation of skin against ultraviolet radiations.
289. Initiating force of evolution is (M.P.P.M.T. 2004)
(1) Variations (2) Natural selection (3) Competition (4) Adaptation
290. Maintenance of genetic equilibrium is known as (Manipal 2004)
(1) Gause principle (2) Bergman law (3) Glogger principle (4) Hardy-Weinberg principle
291. Which one supports Darwin's concept of natural selection? (CBSE 2005)
(1) Development of transgenic animals
(2) Production of Dolly sheep by cloning
(3) Prevalence of pesticide resistant insects
(4) Development of organs from stem cells for organ transplantation
292. Using imprints from a culture plate having bacterial colonies, you can select,streptomycin resistant mutants
and prove that such mutations do not originate as adaptation. The inprints need to be inoculated on
(1) Plates with and without streptomycin (2) Plates with minimal medium (CBSE 2005)
(3) Plates with, streptomycin (4) Plates without streptomycin


293. Select the pair which does not match (Kerala 2005)
(1) Coacervates - Aggregates of organic compounds separated by an organic membrane
(2) Species are not immutable - Lamarck
(3) Allopatric - Separated by space
(4) Darwin's finches - Unique to Galapagos
(5) Hugo de Vries - Evolution is discontinuous
294. Which is likely to hasten organic evolution? (Kerala 2005)
(1) Favourable environment (2) Abundant genotype variations
(3) Over-production (4) Reproductive isolation
295. Hardy-Weinberg principle explains (DPMT 2005)
(1) Genetic drift (2) Genetic equilibrium
(3) Genetic incompatibility (4) Genetic load.
296. A group of interbreeding individuals reproductively isolated from others is (DPMT 2005)
(1) Biological species (2) Morphospecies
(3) Linnean species (4) Evolutionary species
297. When two gametes 'come together to form sporophyte, the sporophyte dies due to (DPMT 2005)
(1) Genetic incompatibility (2) Hybrid sterility
(3) Sporophytic inviability (4) Sporophytic breakdown
298. Inclusive fitnes theory was proposed by (DPMT 2005)
(1) Hamilton (2) Wilson (3) William (4) Dangered
299. Sudden and a heritable change in a character of an organism is (JKCMEE 2005)
(1) Selection (2) Heterosis (3) Inbreeding (4) Mutation
300. Match the columns
Column - I Column - II
(i) Darwin (1) Use and disuse theory
(ii) Lamarck (2) Origin of species
(iii) Hugo De Vries (3) Origin of life
(iv) A.I. Oparin (4) Mutation theory
(1) (i)-(2), (ii)-(1), (iii)-(1), (iv)-(3) (2) (i)-(1), (ii)-(2), (iii)-(3), (iv)-(4)
(3) (i)-(2), (ii)-(3), (iii)-(4), (iv)-(1) (4) (i)-(4), (ii)-(1), (iii)-(2), (iv)-(3)
301. Inheritance of acquired characters comes under (Orissa 2005)
(1) Darwinism (2) Neo Darwinism (3) Lamarckism (4) Neo Lamarckism
302. Two species occupying same or overlapping area are (Orissa 2005)
(1) Allopatric (2) Sympatric (3) Parapatric (4) Peripatric
303. According to Neo Darwinism, evolution is due to (Manipal 2005)
(1) Gene flow (2) Change in gene structure
(3) Change in size of gene pool (4) Change in gene frequency
304. Which is correct about species? (Wardha 2005)
(1) Members of a species occupy the same hahitat
(2) Members of a species are morphologically similar
(3) Memhers of a species can interbreed amongst themselves
(4) Members of a species cannot interbreed with members of other species.


305. Which is correct? (Wardha 2005)
(1) Natural selection discriminates variations
(2) Natural selection IS essential for evolution
(3) Natural selection is not the basis of evolutionary change
(4) None of the above
306. Best description of natural selection is (Pb. P.M.T. 2005)
(1) Survival of the fittest
(2) Struggle for existence
(3) Change in proportion of variations within a population
(4) Reproductive success of the member of a population best adapted to the environment.

307. To Cuvier, the differences in fossils from different strata were evidences for (Pb. PMT-2005)
(1) Divine creation (2) Evolution by natural selection
(3) Local catastrophic events (4) Continental drift.
308. Reproduction can occur within members (AMU 2005)
(1) Genus (2) Species (3) Family (4) Order.
309. Which of these cells are immortal? (AMU-2005, MPPMT-2007)
(1) Germ cells (2) Liver cells (3) Kidney cells (4) Neurons.
310. According to Darwin which one is not of much importance in formation of species. (Manipur 2006)
(1) Over-production (2) Survival of the fittest
(3) Struggle for existence and variations (4) Inheritance of acquired characters
311. Which cannot be explained by Lamarckism (Orissa 2006)
(1) Loss of tail by humans (2) Elongation of neck in Giraffe
(3) Weak progeny of a Nobel laureate (4) None of the above.
312. Nondirectional force altering Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is (Orissa 2006)
(1) Genetic drift (2) Gene flow (3) Gene recombination (4) Mutation
313. Struggle for existence and survival of the fittest theories were proposed hy (C.P.M.T. 2007)
(1) Darwin (2) Lamarck (3) Wallace (4) None of the above
314. Which is related to evolution (C.P.M.T. 2007)
(1) Reproduction (2) Competition (3) Variations (4) Extinction.
315. Which is not a concept of Lamarckism (C.P.M.T. 2007)
(1) Rate and survival of organisms are different due to variations
(2) Environmental pressure produces variations
(3) An organ in constant use will grow ill size
(4) lnheritance of acquired characters
316. Species are differentiated on the basis of (MP-PMT-2007)
(1) Interbreeding (2) Reproductive isolation
(3) Species diversity (4) None of the above
317. Two related populations occupying geographically separate area are (Keraia 2007)
(1) Allopatrie populations (2) Parapatrie populations
(3) Quantum populations (4) Saltational populations
(5) Sympatric populations.


318. The idea of natural selection as fundamental process of evolutionary changes was reached.
(1) By Charles Darwin in 1866 (KCET 2007)
(2) Alfred Russel Wallace in 1901
(3) Independently by Darwin and Russel in 1859
(4) Independently by Darwin and Russel in 1900.
319. Which initiated study in population genetics and related fields (COMED K's 2007)
(1) Hardy-Weinberg law (2) Lamarckism (3) Mechanistic theory of Darwin(4) Neutral theory
320. Importance of survival of, the fittest as basic principle of competition in organic evolution was explained by
(1) Lamarck (2) Darwin (3) Mendel (4) De Vries
321. An example of reproductive isolation is (JKCMEE 2007)
(1) Mule (2) Bonellia (3) Dinosaurs (4) Archeopteryx
322. Weisman proposed the theory of (Manipur 2007, JKCMEE 2008)
(1) Germplasm (2) Pangenesis (3) Acquired characters (4) Natural selection
323. Which is not a Lamarckian concept? (Pb. PMT 2007)
(1) Environmental pressure causes variations
(2) Rate of survival of organisms is different due tf' variations
(3) Inheritance of acquired character
(4) If an organ is used-constantly, It will contmuously increase its size
324. Genetic drift operates in (Har. PMT 2007)
(1) Large isolated population
(2) Small isolated population
(3) Fast reproductive population
(4) Slow reproductive population
325. Who wrote the book "Genetics and Origin of Species"? (Har. PMT 2007)
(1) Oparin (2) Hooker (3) Dobzhansky (4) Darwin.
326. Match the columns and find out the correct combination (Keraia 2008)

(a) Charles Darwin 1. Mutation theory

(b) Lamarck 2. Germplasm theory
(c) Hugo de Vries 3. philosophic
(d) Ernst Haecker 4. Origin of species
(e) Weisniimn 5. Biogenetic law
(f) 6. Essay on population

(1) a-4, b-3, c-1, d-5, e-2 (2) a-4, b-3, c-5, d-1, e-6
(3) a-4, b-2, c-5, d-3, e-1 (4) a-2, 6-3, c-1, d-5, e-6
(5) a-3, 6-4, c-1, a-5, e-2
327. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is influenced by gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination and
(1) Evolution (2) Limiting factor (3) Over-production (4) 'Natural selection
(5) Saltation (Keraia 2008)
328. What is correct formulation Hardy-Weinberg law?
(1) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (2) p2 +pq + q2 = 1 (3) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 0 (4) p2 + pq + q2 = 0
329. Industrial melanism is connected with (DPMT-2009)
(1) Defence against UV radiations (2) Skin darkening due to smoke
(3) Protective resemblance to surroundings (4) Drug resistance


330. Darwinism explains all except -
(1) Within each species there are variations
(2) Variations are inherited from parents to offspring through genes
(3) Organisms tend to produce more offspring than can survive
(4) Organisms with better traits that overcome competition are best suited under the environment.
331. Whose doctrine influenced Charles Darwin to formulate theory of natural selection? (COMED-K's 2009)
(1) Malthus (2) Haldane (3) Hardy Weinberg (4) Sewall Wright
332. Species inhabiting the same geographical area are (CET. Chd. 2009)
(1) Sympatric (3) Taxonomic (2) Sibling (4) Allopatric
333. Darwin could not properly explain the theory of evolution because of lack of (Orissa 2009)
(1) Evidences (2) Speciation (3) Variations (4) Genetics.
334. Which was not given by Darwin? (AMU-2009)
(1) Varations (2) Natural selection (3) Survival of the fittest (4) Struggle for existence
335. Who was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species? (Kerala 2009)
(1) Darwin (2) Lamarck (3) Robert Hooke (4) WilIian Harvey
(5) Stanley Cohen
336. Which one is not an artificial selection? (Kerala 2009)
(1) Shetland pony (2) Great dane dog (3) Arabian race horse (4) Peppered Moth
(5) Broccoli
337. Natural selection theory was given by (Manipur 2009)
(1) Lamarck (2) Hugo de Vries (3) Malthus (4) Darwin
338. Ultimate source of variations is (CPMT 2009)
(1) Meiosis (2) Sexual reproduction (3) Mutation (4) Independent assortment
339. Theory of mutation by de Vries considers that (CPMT 2009)
(1) Only small mutations take part in developing variations
(2) Only large mutations take part in developing variations
(3) Both small. and large mutations cause variations
(4) None of the above


SECTION - A (1 Marks each)

1. Identify the examples of homologous structures from the following : (2013)
(i) Vertebrate hearts.
(ii) Thorns in Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita.
(iii) Food storage organs in sweet potato and potato.
SECTION - B (2 Marks each)
2. How do Darwin’s finches illustrate adaptive radiation? (2008)
SECTION - C (3 Marks each)
3. (a) How does the Hardy - Weinberg’s expression (p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1) explain that genetic equilibrium is
maintained in a population? (2010)


(b) List any two factors that can disturb the genetic equilibrium.
4. Comment on the similarity between the wing of a cockroach and the wing of a bird. What do you infer from
the above, with reference to evolution? (2012)
5. How does industrial melanism support Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection ? Explain. (2012)
SECTION - D (5 Marks each)
6. Explain the salient features of Hugo de Vries theory of mutation. How is Darwin’s theory of natural selection

different from it ? Explain. (2011)

7. (a) Name the primates that lived about 15 million years ago. List their characteristic features.
(b) (i) Where was the first man-like animal found ?
(ii) Write the order in which Neanderthals, Homo habilis and Homo erectus appeared on earth. State
the brain capacity of each one of them.

(iii) When did modern Homo sapiens appear on this planet ?


1. Fossils are preserved remains, traceces or prints of organism that lived in past.
2. (i) Vermiform appendix (ii) Tail vertibrae
3. (ii) Genetic Drift: (Sewall wright effect) – “Drift is a binomial sampling errors of the gene pool.” Sampling errors
(error in gene pool of next generation mean gametic error) by chance often lead to the elimination of certain
alleles and fixation of other and it ultimately cause the loss of genetic diversity.
The random changes in the allele frequency occurring by chance alone are called genetic drift.
4. The organs which have different developmental origin and structural design but perform similar functions are
called analogus organs. The wings of birds and insects are analogous organs indicating that they have
different ancestors but show a convergent evolution.
5. Formation of one or more new species from pre-existing species.


6. Refer Page no. 35
7. In England, it was observed before industrialisation that white-winged moth (Biston betularia) were more in
number than dark-winged moth. But the situation became reversed after industrialisation. It was argued that
predator will spot and pick a moth (Biston betularia) against a contrasting background. In pre-industrialisation
the tree trunk was covered by white lichens and on white background dark colour moth can be picked up. The
situation changed during industrialisation, the tree was covered by dar, dust, coal particles and become dark
on which white moth can easily be picked up. Thus, it is a case of natural selection which built pressure on
population and some members are selected for evolution.
8. The remains or evidences of pre-historic life is called fossil.
Two ways in which study of fossils support biological evolution :
(i) The study of Archaeopteryx reveal that birds have evolved from reptile, so fossil provide evidence for
(ii) Phylogeny can be reconstructed from the fossils.
(iii) The habitat and behaviour of extinct organisms can be inferred from well preserved fossils.
9. See page no. 9
10. See page no. 26
11. See page no. 30
12. See page no. 46

1. (1) 2. (3) 3. (4) 4. (3) 5. (1)
6. (4) 7. (1) 8. (3) 9. (4) 10. (2)
11. (4) 12. (4) 13. (3) 14. (2) 15. (1)
16. (2) 17. (3) 18. (3) 19. (1) 20. (1)
21. (2) 22. (3) 23. (2) 24. (2) 25. (3)
26. (3) 27. (1) 28. (1) 29. (2) 30. (2)
31. (1) 32. (4) 33. (3) 34. (1) 35. (3)
36. (2) 37. (1) 38. (4) 39. (4) 40. (2)
41. (2) 42. (3) 43. (4) 44. (3) 45. (3)
46. (1) 47. (1) 48. (4) 49. (2) 50. (3)
51. (2) 52. (1) 53. (4) 54. (1) 55. (2)
56. (1) 57. (2) 58. (1) 59. (3) 60. (2)
61. (3) 62. (3) 63. (2) 64. (1) 65. (1)
66. (3) 67. (3) 68. (1) 69. (1) 70. (3)
71. (2) 72. (3) 73. (2) 74. (4) 75. (3)
76. (3) 77. (2) 78. (3) 79. (1) 80. (2)
81. (2) 82. (2) 83. (1) 84. (4) 85. (1)
86. (2) 87. (4) 88. (1) 89. (4) 90. (3)
91. (3) 92. (2) 93. (1) 94. (3) 95. (1)
96. (2) 97. (1) 98. (2) 99. (3) 100. (3)
101. (3) 102. (4) 103. (3) 104. (1) 105. (3)
106. (2) 107. (4) 108. (2) 109. (1) 110. (3)
111. (2) 112. (4) 113. (1) 114. (1) 115. (2)
116. (1) 117. (4) 118. (4) 119. '(2) 120. (1)
121. (1) 122. (2) 123. (2) 124. (3) 125. (2)
126. '(4) 127. (2) 128. '(2) 129. (2) 130. (4)
131. (2) 132. (4) 133. (2) 134. (4) 135. (1)
136. (3) 137. (2) 138. (3) 139. (4) 140. (4)
141. (3) 142. (4) 143. (4) 144. (4) 145. (1)


146. (1) 147. (4) 148. (4) 149. (3) 150. (4)
151. (4) 152. (3) 153. (2) 154. (1) 155. (1)
156. (1) 157. (2) 158. (1) 159. (1) 160. (1)
161. (1) 162. (2) 163. (3) 164. (2) 165. (3)
166. (1) 167. (4) 168. (4)

1. (4) 2. (3) 3. (3) 4. (4) 5. (2)
6. (5) 7. (3) 8. (1) 9. (5) 10. (2)
11. (2)

1. (2) 2. (4) 3. (2) 4. (2) 5. (3)
6. (1) 7. (3) 8. (2) 9. (4) 10. (2)
11. (4) 12. (4) 13. (1) 14. (1) 15. (1)
16. (4) 17. (1) 18. (1) 19. (1) 20. (2)
21. (2) 22. (2) 23. (2) 24. (1) 25. (2)
26. (3) 27. (3) 28. (1) 29. (3) 30. (4)
31. (2) 32. (1) 33. (2) 34. (4) 35. (1)
36. (2) 37. (2) 38. (1)

1. (3) 2. (4) 3. (4) 4. (4) 5. (3)
6. (2) 7. (1) 8. (1) 9. (4) 10. (1)
11. (1) 12. (2) 13. (4) 14. (1) 15. (1)
16. (2) 17. (1) 18. (3) 19. (4) 20. (2)
21. (1) 22. (3) 23. (2) 24. (4) 25. (3)
26. (3) 27. (4) 28. (2) 29. (1) 30. (3)
31. (2) 32. (1) 33. (2) 34. (1) 35. (4)
36. (4) 37. (2) 38. (2) 39. (3) 40. (4)
41. (4) 42. (3) 43. (1) 44. (4) 45. (3)
46. (2) 47. (2) 48. (2) 49. (2) 50. (4)
51. (3) 52. (1) 53. (2) 54. (3) 55. (1)
56. (2) 57. (2) 58. (3) 59. (4) 60. (2)
61. (3) 62. (1) 63. (3) 64. (4) 65. (4)
66. (3) 67. (2) 68. (3) 69. (4) 70. (3)
71. (4) 72. (1) 73. (3) 74. (1) 75. (3)
76. (1) 77. (3) 78. (3) 79. (2) 80. (4)
81. (4) 82. (3) 83. (4) 84. (3) 85. (4)
86. (2) 87. (1) 88. (3) 89. (2) 90. (3)
91. (2) 92. (4) 93. (2) 94. (3) 95. (1)
96. (2 97. (2) 98. (1) 99. (3) 100. (4)
101. (3) 102. (3) 103. (3) 104. (2) 105. (3)
106. (4) 107. (1) 108. (1) 109. (2) 110. (3)
111. (3) 112. (3) 113. (2) 114. (1) 115. (3)


116. (4) 117. (3) 118. (2) 119. (1) 120. (3)
121. (2) 122. (2) 123. (2) 124. (1) 125. (3)
126. (3) 127. (2) 128. (4) 129. (2) 130. (1)
131. (1) 132. (2) 133. (4) 134. (4) 135. (3)
136. (1) 137. (1) 138. (4) 139. (4) 140. (2)
141. (3) 142. (4) 143. (3) 144. (4) 145. (2)
146. (1) 147. (3) 148. (2) 149. (2) 150. (4)
151. 4) 152. (1) 153. (3) 154. (2) 155. (4)
156. (1) 157. (2) 158. (3) 159. (1) 160. (3)
161. (2) 162. (2) 163. (2) 164. (4) 165. (1)
166. (3) 167. (4) 168. (3) 169. (3) 170. (3)
171. (1) 172. (2) 173. (1) 174. (2) 175. (2)
176. (2) 177. (1) 178 (3) 179. (2) 180. (1)
181. (3) 182. (4) 183. (2) 184. (1) 185. (4)
186. (2) 187. (3) 188. (1) 189. (1) 190. (4)
191. (4) 192. (2) 193. (3) 194. (2) 195. (1)
196. (2) 197. (4) 198. (3) 199. (2) 200. (1)
201. (3) 202. (3) 203. (1) 204. (1) 205. (2)
206. (4) 207. (4) 208. (3) 209. (4) 210. 2)
211. (4) 212. (4) 213. (3) 214. (2 215. (3)
216. (3) 217. (2) 218. (2) 219. (4) 220. (4)
221. (1) 222. (3) 223. (3) 224. (1) 225. (1)
226. (2) 227. (2) 228. (1) 229. (2) 230. (4)
231. (2) 232. (2) 233. (1) 234. (3) 235. (1)
236. (3) 237. (2) 238. (2) 239. (3) 240. (1)
241. (4) 242. (4) 243. (4) 244. (3) 245. (4)
246. (1) 247. (2) 248. (3) 249. (3) 250. (2)
251. (2) 252. (2) 253. (3) 254. (2) 255. (1)
256. (2) 257. (4) 258. (1) 259. (1) 260. (4)
261. (2) 262. (3) 263. (2) 264. (1) 265. (2)
266. (2) 267. (1) 268. (4) 269. (1) 270. (2)
271. (4) 272. (2) 273. (3) 274. (3) 275. (4)
276. (2) 277. (2) 278. (1) 279. (2) 280. (3)
281. (4) 282. (3) 283. (2) 284. (1) 285. (1)
286. (3) 287. (2) 288. (3) 289. (1) 290. (4)
291. (3) 292. (3) 293. (1) 294. (4) 295. (2)
296. (1) 297. (3) 298. (1) 299. (4) 300. (1)
301. (3) 302. (2) 303. (4) 304. (4) 305. (2)
306. (4) 307. (3) 308. (2) 309. (1) 310. (4)
311. (3) 312. (1) 313. (4) 314. (3) 315. (1)
316. (2) 317. (1) 318. (3) 319. (1) 320. (2)
321. (1) 322. (1) 323. (2) 324. (2) 325. (3)
326. (1) 327. (4) 328. (1) 329. (3) 330. (2)
331. (1) 332. (1) 333. (4) 334. (3) 335. (2)
336. (4) 337. (4) 338. (3) 339. (3)


1. (i) and (ii)
2. Darwin during his journey to Galapagos Islands observed that there were many varieties of small
black birds later called Darwin's finches.
All the varities he conjectured, evolved on the island itself.

From the original seed-eating features, many other forms with altered beaks arose, enabling them to
become insectivorous and vegetarian finches.

This process of evolution of different species in a given geographical area starting from a point and
literally radiating to other areas of geography (habitats) is called adaptive radiation.
3. (a) Gene frequencies in a population are stable, constant from generation to generation, until some
change in frequency happens, due to some factor
(b) gene migration / gene flow / gene drift / mutation / genetic recombination / natural selection
4. They are similar in function. Thus we infer that these organs are analogous which has resulted in conver-
gent evolution.
5. Before industrial revolution the environment was unpolluted. The lichens on the barks of trees were pale.
The white-winged moths could easily camouflage, while the dark-winged were spotted out by the birds for
food. Hence, they could not survive. After industrial revolution the lichens became dark (due to soot de-
This favoured the dark-winged moths while the white-winged were picked by birds. The population of the
former which was naturally selected increased.
6. Hugo de Vries based his work on evening primrose, brought forth the idea of mutations - differences arising
suddenly in a population, He believed large single step mutation called saltation, caused speciation.

7. (a) Dryopithecus , Ramapithecus

Dryopithecus is ape like and hairy , walked like Gorillas and Chimpanzees ,
Ramapithecus more man like.
(b) (i) Ethiopia / Tanzania / Eastern Africa
(ii) Order = Homo habilis , Homo erectus , Neanderthals
Cranial capacity :– Homo habilis = 650 - 800 cc, Homo erectus = 900cc, Neanderthals = 1400 cc

(iii) During ice age :– 75000 - 10000 years ago