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Vipassanā Handbook

A Vipassanā Handbook
(Insight Meditation Guide)

Ledi Sayadaw Aggamahāpaņņdita

Translated by

Miss Molly Ni Ni Win

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa

Chapter on Corporeality (Rūpa)

1. Let us give homage to the Buddha, who teaches us (rational being) Vipassana in the
whole view, before we started with his teaching.

2. The basic natures of the four elements: earth (Pathavī), water (Āpo), temperature
(Tejo), and air (Vāyo).
3. Whenever the four elements arises, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa and Ojā, always follows.
4. These eight elements are so small and delegate, that they cannot be separated from one
another. Therefore always take it as one.
5. When thousand, ten of thousand and more than that are compiled together, hardness,
softness, lightness, heavy, small, and big are formed in many ways and means.
6. When four elements are formed, if Pathavi is strong, then it will be hard, if weak, then
it will be soft. If Āpo is strong, then it will be water, if weak, then it will be coagulated. If Tejo is
strong, then it will be hot or cold, if weak, then it will be average temperature. If Vāyo is strong,
then it there will be much movements, if weak, then will be steadied.
7. It is the four elements, Kāmma, Citta, Utu, and Āhāra,
that arises and subsides on the body,(Rūpakandhā) like the flow of the river, without a moment
8. The formation of Rūpakandhā of earth, water, trees, etc that can be seen are all caused
by the Ututejo.
9. Shapes, & forms, which are convented by the worldly people, are called Paññatti.
10. Ānicca can only be realised,when one understood Paññat and Paramat
comprehandsivily by wisdom.

Nāma Chapter

11. Cakkhu, Sota, Ghāna, Jiva and Kāya which are eye, ear, nose, tongue,and body
consciousnes are, called in other word , Mano consciousness or substratum of the mind.a
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12. Appearance = Rūpa, Sadda = Sound, Smell = Ghāna, Rasa = Taste, Feelings =
Phoţţabbā, are the five factors which can be seen as Dhamma, if concentration is made by Mano
13. When six pairs of consciousnessess contact on its relevant six bases, the six Viññāna
will be arised like a lighting on Nāmakandhā, and subsided.
14. When Cakkhu (eye), came into contact with Rūpa (appearance), Cakkhu Viññāņa will
definitly be arise and subside.
15. When Sota (ear) and sound came into contact, Sota Viññāņa will be definitly arise and
16. When Ghāna (nose), and smell came into contact, Ghānāviññāņa will be definitly
arise and subside.
17. When Jīvhā (tongue) and taste, came into contact, Jīvhaviññāņa will be definitly be
arise and subside.
18. When Kāya (body) and (sensual feelings) Phoţţabbā came into contact, Kāyaviññāņa
will be definitly arise and subside.
19. When Mano (mind, thoughts) and immaterial objects, came into contact,
Manoviññāņa will definitly be arise and subside.
20. Except five Viññāņa,the rest of all are Mano Viññāņa.
These six Cittas, are not the same, they differ from each other.

End of Nāma


21. If, man, woman, atta and jīvā are viewed by wisdom, it is nothing but, Nāmma and
22. Without truely comprehending the Nāmma and Rūpa, the obsession (attachment) of
"I", such as I stand, I sit, I touch, I go, I hear, I look, Iknow, I see and etc are attached (obsessed)
23. Buddha had taught, that until you are truely dispelled from Sakkāyadiţţhi, you will
have to be suffered in the four stages of Apāya, therefore without any hesitation or turning back
you must maditate (practice) like a man struck with a spear in the heart, or a man with a fire on
his head, "Sattiyā Viya Omaţţho
24. The nature of, the base root causes can be understood by the Nāmma and Rūpa
25. One will definitly see Anicca, when he Practice with wisdom, if the appearance or
form is defencing. 26. When the six consciosnessess contact on its relavant six bases, practice
with wisdom on the Viññāņa that occurs, then only Anicca can definitly be seen.
27. Only when Anicca of Nāma and Rūpa Dhamma are definitly viewed or understood,
Anatta, which is not "I" but only the Nāma and Rūpa can be widely viewed, thus it will dispelled
28. If sakkāyadiţţhi is dispelled for a moment one will become Sotāpaŋ. If dispelled for
Samcchedapphāŋ ( the relinquishment which consists of extirpation), the doors of the four stages
of Apāya will be clossed, and he will happily be rebirth again and again in all the six plans of
devas till he reach Nibbānna.
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29. Be careful, not to follow the fools who have doubts in Vipassana. Continous
practicing Vipassana is the only means, that will free you from Saŋsārā.
30. I, who reside in "White Sand Ledi Village Monestary" had sucessfully finished this
Vipassanā manual with thirty verses in the month of Tawthalin (September) 1270.
Remarks Learn this thirty verses by heart and try to memorise it in details.

End of Exhortation

Answers to the Thirty Verses

Answer to Rūpa
1. The four elements

Question. What are the four elements?

Answer. The four elements are, earth element [Pathavī], water element [Āpo], fire element
[Tejo], and wind element [Vāyo].
Question. What are the natures of the four elements?
Answer. Pathavī, has the quality or property of hardness or softness. This property is the
earth element in the ultimate sense.
Āpo, has the property of cohesion and liquidity. These properties are the water
element in the ultimate sense.
Tejo, has the property of heat and cold. This thermal property is the fire element
in ultimate sense.
Vāyo, has the property of support and motion. These properties are the wind
element in the ultimate sense.

[Verse ommited here]

Remarks. Nature: is the faculties of elements.

Action: is the natures of happenings.

2. Rūpa, concomitant of the four elements.

Question. Show rūpa which is the concomitant of the four elements?

Answer. Light can be arisen by the flame, likewise, the four Rūpa, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa
and Ojā concomitate whenever the four elements occur.


Remarks. Vaņņa means apperance. Gandha means smell or adour.

Rasa means taste and Ojā means fuel.

3. Eight Rūpa
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Question. Which Rūpa are called " Athakalāp Rūpa'?
Answer. The taste of the soup cannot be differentiate into its ingredients, such as this is the
taste of fish, this is the taste of the oil, this is the taste of the sault, etc. Likewise, Pathavī,
Āpo, Tejo, Vāyo, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa and Ojā which stick together are called eight Rūpas.
Question. Can you illustrate the size of the eight Rūpas?
Answer. They are too subtle to illustrate their size.


Remarks. Since they are very subtle they can be seen, only when many of them are
conceived together as a group such as colour can be seen, hardness, hot, cold, motion etc can be
felt. For example, a pile of sand can be seen from a distance, but cannot see the colour of each
and every dust of sand. Only the pile of white sand dust can be seen. If thet can be seen
separately by "Cakkhu Viñña", then every arising and subsiding of it can also be seen. But it
cannot be seen, therefore, for all Vipassanā Yogī, there is a big defence of Cakkhu Viñña
[ seeing].

4. Compilation of Elements Rūpa Dātu.

Question What will happened if hundreds and thousands of "Aţhakalāpa" eight elements are
Answer. It can be formed into so, many ways, such as, hard, soft, light, heavy, small, big,
liquid, solid, chemical etc.


5. Faculties of the four elements.

Question. Which element's faculty makes things hard?

Answer. The earth ‘Pathavī’ element's faculty.

Question. How can it be known that it is ‘Pathavī’ element's faculty?

Answer. The earth element "Pathavī" tends the organs to hardness, so when one feels the
hardness, one knows that it is the Pathavī element's faculty.

Question. Which element's faculty makes the fluid flows?

Answer. The water element's faculty, Āpo.

Question. How can it be known that it is Āpo element's faculty?

Answer. Since the nature of the "Āpo" element is fluid, it can be said that it is the faculty
of Āpo element, when one see those which are fluid.

Remarks. Actually, Āpo element can not be seen only pathavī element can be seen, even
though Āpo element is fluidPathavī is gum.
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Question. Which element's faculty make things hot or cold?
Answer. It is the faculty of Tejo element.

Question. How can it be known that it is Tejo element's faculty?

Answer. Tejo element has the quality of burning, searing, boiling, heat cold and freezing,
therefore when one feels the different degrees of thermal phenonema, one can say that it is the
faculty of Tejo element.

Question. Which element's faculty make things into motion?

Answer. It is a faculty of Vāyo element.

Question. How can it be known that it is the faculty of Vāyo element?

Answer. Vāyo element has the quality of motion, swelling, inflation, pressure and support,
so when one senses the steps of all the above motions, than one can say that it is the faculty of
Vāyo element.


Remarks. In actual sense it is not movement. It means the movement of all the steps of Rūpa
only. Nama arise and subside at every step, it never move.

Nahi Rūpa Rūpadhammānaŋ Uppādadese Anirujjhitvā Kesagga

Matţaŋpi Desantara Sańkamanaŋ Nāma Atthi.

Indeed it is right, Rūpa Rūpadhammanaŋ, Nama Rūpa dhamma, Uppādadese, whereever

it happens Anirujjhitvā, not ended. Kesaggamattaŋpi, even for a space of tiny hair.
Desantarasańkamanaŋnāma, moving to another place is Na Atthi never.

6. Four Causes of Rūpa.

Question. How many causes are there to form Rūpa?

Answer. There are four causes, kamma, citta, utu, and āhāra.
Question. How are these Rūpa which are caused by the four elements, occuring on the
physical body?
Answer. The momentary appearance and disappearance of these Rūpa are so fast, like a
flame of fire or a current flow of river.


Answer to Rūpa
Catuja Rūpa
Nine kammaja Rūpa

Let me show you clearly about Cataja Rūpa. There are nine Rūpa caused by kamma.
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1. In the said eight Rūpa, Pathavī, Āpo, Vāyo, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa and Ojā, add jīvhita
Rūpa. It will then be Jīvilanavaka kalāpa, [collection].
2. Based on that Jīvitanavaka kalāpa, add cakkhupasāda Rūpa, it will become Cakkhu
dasaka collection.
3. Add sotapasādarūpa to Jīvitanavaka collection, it will become Sotadasaka collection.
4. Add Ghāna pasādarūpa to Jīvitanavaka collection, it will become Ghanadasaka
5. Add Jivā pasādarūpa to Jīvitanavaka collection, it will become Jīvādasaka collection.
6. Add kāyapasāda Rūpa to Jīvitanavaka collection, it will become kāyadasaka collection.
7. Add Itthibhāvarūpa to Jīvitanaka collection, it will become Itthibhāvadasaka collection.
8. Add Pumbhāvarūpa to Jīvitanavaka collection, it will become Pumbhāvadasaka
9. Add HadayaVatthu to Jīvitanavaka collection, it will become Vatthudasaka collection.

These are the nine kammmaja collections. Out of these nine Jīvatanavaka collection is
mainly based on Pācaka, heat energy and Usmā heat energy. Therefore it is said: “Āyūti tesu
dvāsu aggīsu patiţhitań jīvitameva vuccati.”

Āyūti = Life is, Tesudavāsu Aggīsu = Those two Pācaka heat and Usmā heat are,
Patiţhitaŋ = Placed. Jīvitameva = only jīvita rūpa is the, Vuccati = Said.
Fire within the body, which digests the food eaten by, is called Pācaka chemical fire. Sub-
bodies of this Pācaka chemical fire, wich run through the whole body is called [body guard
chemical fire] Usmā Chemical fire.
Cakkhudasaka collection is placed on a very tiny spot, in the middle of the eyeball, that
Cakkhudasaka collection can also be called Eye Consciosness.
Sotadasaka collection is placed in the ear, at the entrance of the tunnel with red hairs.
That Sotadasaka collection can also be called Ear Consciosness.
Ghānadasaka collection is plased on an organ which is like a goat shoe within the nose.
That Ghānadasaka collection can be also called Nose Consciousness.
Kāyadasaka collection is spread all over the body, except bone, hair, hair on the body,
nail and dry skin. It is spread inside and outside of the whole body, like a fire of the oil in the
cotton wool. That kāyadasaka collection can be also call sensation body consciousness.
Thes consciousness such as eye consciousness, are so pure and clean, like a mirror.
Therefore it is said: “Suparisuddha Ādāsa Manņdasadisā kammajamanņdā.”

Pasādā = consciousness, such as eye consciousness are Suparisuddha ādāsamanņdasadisā

= which is like a very clear mirror. Kammājamanņdā = the consciousness which is the result of
Like the reflection on the mirror, appearance reflected on the eye-consciousness. The rest
reflected on its respective consciousness.
Itthibhāvadasaka collection is placed inside and outside of the whole body of female
feature. Because of Itthibhāva faculty, female features differed from male.
Pumbhāvadasaka collection is placed inside and outside of the whole body of male
feature. Because of Pumbhāvarūpa, male features differed from female.
Vatthudasaka collection is mixed with the blood in the heart.
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Therefore it is said: “Taŋ pana hadaya kosabbhantare ādņda pasatamattaŋ lohitań
byāpetvā tiţhati.”

Taŋpara = That hadaya vatthurūpa is, Hadaya kosabbhantare = Within the heart.
Āddapasatamattaŋ = A cup of a hand. Lohitaŋ = Blood. Bhāpetvā = All over, Tithati = It is

End of Kammaja Rūpa.

8. Cittaja Rūpa Collections.

There are eight Rūpa collections, caused by citta.

1. The said Pathavī, Āpo, Tejo, Vāyo, Vaņņa, Gandha, Rasa, Ojā, the eight Rūpa
collections are called Suddhaţhaka kalāpa.
2. Add Saddarūpa to Suddhaţhaka collection it will become Saddanavaka kalāpa.
3. Add kāyaviñatti rūpa to Suddhaţhaka collection it will become Kāyaviñattinavaka
4. Add vacīviñattirūpa and Saddarūpa to Suddhaţhaka collection, it will become
Vacīviñatti Saddhaţhaka kalāpa.

In these four collections of Rūpa, put these three, Lahuta Rūpa, Mudutā Rūpa, and
Kammañatā Rūpa, serially.
1. Lahutādiekādasaka kalāpa,
2. Saddalahutādidvādasaka kalāpa,
3. Kāyaviñattilahutādidvādasaka kalāpa,
4. Vacīviñattisaddalahutāditerasaka kalāpa, will be the result.

They are eight Cittaja collections. Out of these eight, the effort of movement made to talk
is the faculty of Suddhaţhaka collection.
Idaŋ Vakkhāmi, Eta Vakkhāmīti
Uppajjamānaŋ Cittaŋ Atharupāni
Samuţhāpeti ( Aţhakatā )
Idaŋ = These words .
Vakkhāmi =Will be talk.
Etaŋ =Those words .
Vakkhami = Will be talk.
Iti = Like this.
Uppajjamānaŋ = Happened.
Cittaŋ = Mind is.
Aţharupāni = On eight Rūpas.
Samuthāpeti = Arrised.
The sound of breathing, sometimes coughing, foot steps, and retch and vomit-etc are the
faculty of Saddanāvaka collection.
Tasmā Visuddhimagge Vuttanayena Assāsapassā Sevā Āvacīghosesu kodāci Cittasahitesu
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Ukkāsita Khipita Vamita Chaţţhita Saddādisu Pivā Etaŋ Saddanavakaŋ Veditabbaŋ.
Tasmā = Therefore. Visuddhimagge = In that Visuddhimag . Vuttanayena = Method
which is already told . Assāsapassāsevā = Either in breath-in or breath-out. Avacīghosesa =
Which are not Vacīghosa. Kadāci = Seldom. Cittasahitesu = Citta and it concomitants are.
Ukkāsita khipita vamita chaţţhitasaddādisupivā = Or in the sound of coughing, retching,
vomiting, stepping. Etaŋsaddanavakaŋ = Those saddanavaka collections are . Veditabbaŋ =
It is the faculty of kāyaviñattinavaka collection, that makes themovements of all the body
parts such as, head, leg, haaand, lap etc: -
Therefore it is preach .
Sasombhāre Ańgapaccańgabhūte kāye pavattā viñatti kāyaviñatti.
Sasambhāre = Body and its concomitants . Ańgaaapaccańgabhute = every big and small
organs. Kāya = The body when it moves. Pavattā = That occurs. Viñatti = Viññāņa is .
kāyaviñatti = Called kāyaviññāņa.
The faculty of Vacīviñattisaddadasaka collection makes people speak (talk) .
Therefore it is preach.
Cittaja Saddasańkhātāya vācāya pavattā viñatti vicīviñatti.
Cittajasaddasańkhātāya = Cittaja voice is. Vācāya = in speaking, Pavattā = That arises.
Viñatti = Viñā is. Vacīviñatti = is called Vacīviñat.
The rest four collections are to be understood in the same way as lightness and so on.
The end of Cittaja Rūpa.

Four Utuja Rūpa

Those are four types of Rūpa, caused by the weather . In the eight Cittaja collections,
except kāyaviñat, vacīviñat, the following four are Utuja collections.
1. Suddhaţhaka collection.
2. Saddanaavaka collection.
3. Lahutādekādasaka collection.
4. Saddalahutādidasaka collection.
In the fratures of the human being, the collections of hair, hair on the body etc, are the
collection of Suddhaţha collections.
Sound of snapping of ones fingers, blowing of the wind within the stomach, passing out
air, are the faculty of Saddanavaka collection.
Similaraly, lightness of matter, softness of matter are also to be understood on
Lahutādiekā collection.
Appearance, smell, taste and touch, which occurs on the outside features are the
collection of Suddhaţhaka collection.
All sort of sound are the collection of Saddanavaka collection.
The end of Utuja Rūpa.

Two collections of ĀHĀRARŪPA.

Those are two rūpa which are caused by "Āhāra"food. In the four Utuja collection, except
sadda the following are all Āhāra collections. It is quite plain.
1. Suddhaţhaka collection.
2. Lahutādekā dasaka collection.
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End of ĀHĀRŪPA Collection.
7. Utu, that caused the Bahiddha Rūpa.
Question What is the cause of rūpa that appears on the outside
features (Bahiddha Santāŋ)?
Answer Manifestation made by the people are called Paññat.
Question Which is Paññat?
Answer Paññat which can be assumed as one ( single) are called
Samūha Paññat.
Paññat which are assumedas by the obsession of Paramattadhamma, such as men,
women, tree, bush etc, are called Upādā Paññat.
Long, short, round, flat etc, are the Paññat which are discern mentally, are called
Saņţhāna Paññat.
Paññat which discerned mantally on the particular object is called Santati Paññat. Like-
wise ther are many Paññat.
9. Knowedge of Paññat, Paramaţ.
Question How is the knowledge of Paññat?
Answer when onesaw a man, one comes to know that, ther is only
one head, one body etc,is the knowledge of Samūha
Knowledge of men, women is the knowledge of Upādā
Tall man, short man etc. ehich are definded in shape or
form are the knoeledge of Saņţhāna Paññat.

This is the man of yesterday, this is a man of today

are the knoledge of Sanatati Paññat.
Question How is the knowledge of Paramaţ?
Answer When there is no analitical veiw on a man such as one
head, one body, short man tall mam, man of yesterday,
man of today, on seing a man, and knowing that it is
only the new occurance of Nāna and Rūpa collections, is
the knowledge of Paramaţ.
Question How can you see the Anicca of Rūpa?
Answer Anicca of Rūpa can be seen by wisdom after realizing
Paññat and Paramaţ very well.

End of the answer to Rūpa

Answer to Nāma.
10. Six Dhamma of consciousness.
Question Which conscioucness are call six consciousness?
Answer 1. Eye consciousness (Cakkhu).
2. Ear consciousness (Sota).
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3. Nose consciousness (Ghana).
4. Tongue consciousness (Jevā).
5. Body consciousness (Kaya).
6. Mind consciousness (Mano).
Are the six consciousnessess.
Question Which is call Mind consciousness?
Answer Mind which is firmly established on the subatance of
the heart is calledMind consciousness.
Question Which consciousness are call Rūpa consciousness, and
Nāma consciousness?
Answer Mind consciousness is call Nāma consciousness, the rest
five are call Rūpa consciousness.
Remarks. It has already been explained in the Rūpa chapter,
about the base of five Rūpa consciousness.

11. Six Dhamma of Ārammaņa.

Question How many Āramaņa are there?
Answer There are altogher six Ārammaņa.
Question Explain the six Ārammaņa?
Answer 1. All kind of appearances are call Rūpā Ārammaņa.
2. All kind of sounds are call Saddā Ārammaņa.
3. All kind of smell are call Gandhā Ārammaņa.
4. All kind of flovour taste are call Rasā Ārammaņa.
5. All kinds of feelings are call Phoţhabbā Ārammaņa.
6. All kind of thoughts attained by theIntekkigence of
mind, mano Ārammaņa are call Dhamma Ārammaņa.
Question What can be known by the materlistic of the mind,
(Mano Viññāņa)?
Answer All paññat, rūpa, nāma, nibbāna, of present,past and
future can be known by the Mano Viññāņa (materlistic of
12. Immaterial object of mental discern.
Question What are the six Ārammaņa discerned on the six pairs of
Answer By the law of Dhamma, the six Ārammaņa are discerned on
the six pairs of consciousness.
Therefore it is preach.
Ettha ca ayampi eko dammaniyāmoyeva.
Ettha ca = Inthis word. Ayampi = Discerningof the six Āramaņa are. Eko = One and only.
Dhammaniyamoyeva = Law of Dhamma.

Question What will hapened, when six Ārammaņa discerned on the

six pairs of consciousness?
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Answer The six Viññāņa, arised respectively on it base, like a
colour of lighting.
13. Arising and Subsiding of Cakkhu Viññāņa.
Question How are Cakkhu Viññāņa arising?
Answer Reflection of the face in the mirror, is caused by the
face and the mirror. Likewise, when eye-sesitivity of
the eye comes to contact with visual object (rūpa)
eye-consciousness arises, and then subsides.
In Pali it is said.
Cakkhuñca Paticca Rūpe Ca Uppajjati Cakkhu Viñāņaŋ.
Cakkhuñca= either eye-comsciousness. Rūpeca=or in appearances. Paţicca= these two together.
CakkhuViñaņaŋ= eye-consciousness is. Uppajjati= arise.
14. Arising & Subsiding of Ear consciousness
(Sota Viññāņa)
Question How is Sota Viññāņa arising?
Answer Face and the mirror, caused the reflection of face in
the mirror. Likewise, sound (Sota) and ear-consciousness on (ear-base) Sota Viññāņa, and
In Pali it is said.
Sotañca Paticca Sadde Ca Uppajjati Sotaviññāņaŋ [Samyut Pali]
Sotañca= either ear-consciousness. Saddeca= or voices or sounds. Uppajjati= together in pair.
Sotaviññāņaŋ= hearing. Uppajjati= arise.
Remarks Image of the object in the water cannot be reflected,
when the object touch the water. Likewise vision or sound cannot arise when the object
touch the eye-consciousness or ear-consciousness.
Therefore it is preach.
Purimāni "hi" Dva Nimittavaseneva Ghaţţenti, Na Vatthuvasena.
Hi= going to enlarge. Purimań= the past beings. Dva= two of the Rūpāyatana and Sadayatana
are. Nimittavaseneva= by the faculty of shadow and sign. Ghattenti= contacted. Vatthuvasena=
by the
faculty of the objects. Naghaţţenti= does not contact.
15. Arising and Sub-siding of Ghānaviñaŋ.

Question How is nose-consciousness arising?

Answer The drum and the drum stick are the cause of the drum
sound, Likewise, when the ear-consciousness in the ear
and sound together in pair came into contact, arises
the ear-consciousness or hearing and subsides.
In Pali it is said.
Ghānañca Paticca Gandhe Ca Uppajjati Ghānaviñāņaŋ.
Ghānañca= either nostrils. Gandheca= or nose-sensitivity. Paticca= together in pair.
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Ghānaviññāņaŋ= nose-consciousness is. Uppajjati= arises.

16. Arising and Subsiding of Jivāviñana

Question How is tongue-consciousness, Jivāviñana arising?
Answer Like hand and the drum, when beating brings out the
sound when tongue-sensitivity inthe tongue and the
taste or sapid, together in pair, came into contact,
arises the tongue consciousness and sub-sides.
Jivañca Paticca Rase Ca Uppajjati Jivāviññāņaŋ. (Samyut Pali).
Jivañca= either taste or sapid. Raseca= or tongue-sensitivity in the tongue. Paţicca= together in
pair. Jivāviññāņaŋ= tongue-consciousness is. Uppajjati= arises.
17. Arising & Subsidind of Kāya Viñana
Question How is Kāya Viññāņa (body consciousness) arising?
Answer Like an example of drum & drum stick, when the body-
sensitivity and the body or object together in pair,
came into contact, arises the body-consciousness, and
Kāyiñca Paţicca Phoţhabbe Ca Uppajjati Kāyaviñaņaŋ (Samyut Pali).
Kāyiñca= either body-sensitivity. Phothabbeca= or sensuality. Paţicca= together in pair.
Kāyaviñanaŋ= body-consciousness is. Uppajjati= arises.
Remarks Nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness and body-
consciousness, can only be arisen, when there is the occurance of contact by the adour,
sapid and tactile bases, unless they cannot arise.
Therefore it is preach.
Pacchimāni Panatīni Vitthuvasena Ghattenti, Nanimittamattava Sena.
Pacchimānipana= the latters are. Tīņi= the three bases; adour base, sapid base and tactile base
are, Vitthuvasena= by the faculty of objects. Ghattenti= came into contact. Nimittamttavasena=
by the signs and shadows. Naghattenti= dose not contact.
Like the words on the palm leave which was stamped by the seal, seing, hearing, smeling, tasting
and sensitivity arises on the ralative consciousness, such as eye, ear, etc.
Therefore it is preach.
Paharanakāle Lañchanakhandhassa Tālapaņņe Ābā Dhetvā Akkharūpaţhanaŋ Viya Daţhabbaŋ.
Paharanakāle= at the time of sealing. Lañchanakhandhassa= the seal is. Tālapaņņe= on the plam
leave. Ābādhatvā= strick hard. Akkharūpathānaŋviya= the words wrer on it, likewise.
Āpātaghamanaŋ= the arising of eye-consciousnes. Datthabbaŋ= must understood.
In the bible ( Dipani) it is said the Rūpayatana= etc, are reflected on their relevant
consciousness, like a thunder strike.


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Question How are mano Viññāņa citta hap[ening?

Answer The image of bird flying in the sky, over the lake is
reflected in the lake, which is the effect of water and
the bird. Likewise, when the mind-consciousness take
place in the heart-base, Mano (mind) and Dhamma
together reflected or arises on the ( mind-base)
HadayaVitturūpa and then subsides.

Manañca Paţicca Dammeca Uppajjati Mannnnoviññāņaŋ. (samyut pali).
Manañānaŋ= either mind-consciousness. Dammeca= or heart-base. Paticca= together in pair.
Manoviññāņaŋ= abode of interlligence of mind. Uppajjati= arises.
Remarks All six Viññāņa cannot happened at the same time. It
arises and subsides separately on its corresponning
Therefore it is preach.
Ārammañādimattādivasena Ekekasamaŋ Ārammaņe Eva Pavattanti.
Vitticattāni= those unconcentrated mind are. Ārammañādimattadivasena= by the faculty of
extream consciousness etc. Ekekasmaŋ= any one of . Ārammaņa Eva= only consciousness.
Pavattanti= arises.
Even though mind-conscious functions is happenning one after another, it happened so
fast that it seemed ot be happenning at the same time.
Question Which citta is Mano-viññāņa citta?
Answer Except, Cakkhu Viññāņa and Kāya Viññāņa, the rest are Kusala Citta, Akusala
Citta and Abyākata Citta are called Mano-Viññāņa Citta.
Question Can these six Viññāņa arised together?
Answer No, it arised separately.

Remarks Even though it is said that there are ninety Rūpas in

one citta, it does not mean for all people, it depends on Pugala. In this present world,
there are more Dva Hetu Pugala then Ti Hetu Pugala.

In Ti Hetuka Puggala there are.

12. Akusala.
17. A Hetuka Citta except Hasituppād.
8. Mahā Kasala Citta.
8. Mahā Vipak Citta. Altogether fourty five.
In Dva Hetuka Puggaula, there are.
12. Akassala Citta.
17. A Hetuka Citta, except Hasituppād.
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8. Maha Kusala aacitta.
4. Maha Vipak Citta. Altogether fourty one.

Question Is it there any Dhamma, other than Nāma and Rūpa in the
form of sentient being?
Answer No, there are only two Nāma and Rūpa.
Question Why is it defined as man, woman, Rūpa and Jīva?
Answer They are only mundame vohara, actually men, women,
atta,jiva dosennot exit. Not I, not you, it is only the
Dātu Rūpa.


Question How is the obsession of Sakkāya Diţţhi?

Answer Thinking on the wrong view, such as my body, physical
body of the sentient being, my hand, my ledge etc, and
also taking the actions of Nāma as an action of Rūpa,
by thinking, I see, I hear, I know, I believe, all are
the obsession of SakkWya Diţţhi.
Question Why it is obsessed?
Answer Because there is no knowledge of the real occurance of
Rūpa and Nāma.



(The wrong view of personality-belief)

Question To those who have the wrong views of personality-
belief, will they be free from Āpaya?
Answer No, they won't be free from Āpaya since this is a main
case of arriving Āpaya.
Question Which Damma must be practice in order to be free from
Āpaya (the four worlds of suffering)?
Answer Immediate actions must be taken to pull out the spear
or to kill the fire, for the person who was striked by
the spear into the heart or to the personwhose head was
on fire. Likewise ( the wrong view of personality-
belief) Sakkāyadiţţi must be dispel as soon as
Question Why must it be dispal quickly?
Answer It has to be dispelled quickly, since no one knows
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when he or she will die . Today or tommorow or anyday.
Sattiyā Viya Omaţho Dayamānova Matthake Sakkāya Diţţhi Pahānāya Sato Bhikkhu
Paribbaje. (Samyut Pali)
Sattiyā= spear which is sharppened on both sides. OmaţhoViya= like a man who was strike in the
heart. Matthake= whole of the head. Dayamānova= like a man with a burning fire. Sakkāya
Diţţhi Pahānāya= to dispel Sakkāya Diţţhi. Bhikkhu= both lay and saŋgha who fore-seen the
danger of Samsara. Āpaya. Sato= must not forget or light hearted. Always must be very careful
with. Paribbaje= mist pratice Vipassanā continuously without turning back.

Question How can the obsession of Sakkāya be dispel?

Answer When imparmananecy of āma and Rūpa are understood,
comprehensivily the obsession of wrong view of
personality belief, Sakkāya will be dispel
automatically, so one must practice hard to realised
the Anicca of Nāma and Rūpa.
Question How must it be practice?
Answer Design a method and concentrate on one of the two, Nāma
and Rūpa.
Question How can it be design and pratice?
Answer Design the practice with wisdom.

Clue to design methods of practicing for those who want to learn.

Physical body, which is the collectiona of Rūpas is none other than the four elements.
Nature of the four elements are, hardness, cohesion, heat or vital warmth, and motion or
motive force.
Therefore the body, Rūpa is not a hard mass, the truth is only Rūpakkhandhā
The (collections of Rūpa) Rūpakkhandhā is unwholesome inthe sense. It is like a pile of
sand dust. It is only the collections of Rūpa, which are arising and subsiding from moment to
moment. These are to be realised comprehansivily by practicing with wisdom.
In these collections of Rūpas, Patavi is the most powerful elements, so it is hard due to
the nature of Patavi, but it is not a hard mass, the hardness is only in sense. One must penetrate
and practice with wisdom, that the nature is hard ( Patavi ) and that is also imparmanent. It arised
and subbided from moment to moment. One must practice hard, until he came to realised the
(imparmenent) anicca.
Question If the appearance is defencing, how it is to be
Answer Practice with wisdom.
Question How to practice with wisdom?
Answer As much as to your knowledge.
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Here is a clue to Practice with wisdom.
The dhamma which is the collections of elements must be note as Form, Saņţhāna.
Actually there is no Saņţhaŋ, only the Nature of Dhamma. This must be preceived with wisdom.
Appearance is non other than Vaņņa Rūpa which is the obsession of the four elements.
When you hold a firebrand and rounded it to a circle at night time, you can only see the
circle of fire (flame). The incessant arising of fire without a moment break cannot be seen. Thus
the fire ring is only the incessant arising and subsiding of VaņņaRūpa. This must be perceived
with wisdom.
End of concentration on Rūpa.
[Viññāņa is generally rendered "Consciousness" by thought or mind]
Question How can you perceived Anicca on the consciousness of
six set sense-bases?
Answer Try and catch hold of the consciousness that arise on
its relevant bases and practice on it.
Question How can you gain concentration?
Answer As much as your knowledge.
Clue to it
It is not the eye, only the eye-base that see all appearance. This eyebase is also not
permanent, Keep your concentration on the eye-base, and comprehanded with wosdom. that it is
the Anicca, which was caused by the two sense Cakkhu and RYpa in pair.
Similar method can be used while concentrating on, ear-base, nosr-base, tongue-base and
When Kusala Citta and Akusala, Citta are arising, you must understand it through out
your heart that they are not permanent. This is only the occurrance of Anicca which is firmly
based on Mano and Dhamma.
Try and catch hold of the consciousness on the six bases, which have been explained in
the Nāma chapter.
How can one know that he had gain concentration?
When one pentratingly preceived with wisdom, that it is not I, who see, I, who hear, etc.
If not he is not at the gaining point.
Even though it seem easy, it is not an easy tasks to work out.
The nature of Rūpa and Nāma can be easily see, but it is not easy to concentrate on it.
Try it, if you do not belive it.
Question Can Sakkāya be clear off, when Anatta is realised
through realisation of Anicca?
Answer Yes.


It is said in Pali
Anicca Sañino Meghiya Anattasañā Saņţāti Anatta Sañino Asmimāna Samugghataŋ Pāpuñā Ti
Ditheva Dhamme Nibbānaŋ ( Navaguttara Pali)
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Meghiya= my son Meghiya. Anicca Sañino= those who belives in Anicca. Anatta Sañā= beliving
to Anatta is. Santati= automactically occured. Anatta Sañino= those who belive in Anatta.
Asamimānasamugghātaŋ= to dispell the Prideness of "I". Pāpūnāti= arrived. Dithevadamme= in
this present life. Nibbānaŋ= to Nibbāna. Pāpūnāti= arrived.

27. Cūla Sotāpań Mahā Sotāpań.

Question What do you call to a person who dispelled Sakkāya

Diţhi to Dańgapahaŋ?
Answer They are call Cūla Sotāpaŋ.
Question What will happened when Sakkāyadiţhi Samucchedapahaŋ is
Answer This Puggala will become a real Ariyā, The door to
Āpaya are closs on him. He will go to Nibbāna.

Imina Pana Ñānena Samannāgato Vipassako Buddhasāsane Laddhassāso Laddhapatiţho Niya
Tagatiko Culasotāpanno Nāma Hoti.
(Visuddhi Magga)
Imināpanañānena= with the Vipassanā wisdom. Samannāgato=
completed. Vipassako= Vipassanā yogi Puggula. Buddasāsane= in this Buddha Sāsanā.
Laddhassāsane= can br obtainin ease.
Laddhapatiţho= do not go to Āpaya, go straight to Sugali Bava. Silasotāpannoma= called
Sulasotāpaŋ. Hoti= it is.
Sulasotāpań is the earlier stage of Sotāpań, Sotāpań to be, or who are in a very near stage
to be Maha Sotāpań.
Out of so many old practicing methods, Vipassanā with a wide view is a short cut method
to reach Nibbāna. Since it is the work done by wisdom, it is not easy for all the people to
understand, even though they understand, they cannot practice it, because it is the work for
Nibbāna. Therefore it is like a monkey with a coconut. He does not know how to eat or what is
the taste, for he had no wisdom, no brain. Similaly, worldly people who are far from Dhamma
are going round and round the Sańsara, enjoying life without any thinking of, future or past. Do
not be a fool like others do.

Pañavā Hi Puriso Vipassanaŋ Vādņdhetvā Ariya Maggadvāraŋ Vivaritvā Amata Nibbānaŋ

Pavisiaasti Sāvakapāramimpi Pavvekabodimipi Sammāsambo Dimpi Paţivijjhiaasti
Amatamahānibbāna Sampāpakesu Hidhammesu Pañāva Sethā Avaseaā Tassa Parivārā Honti.
(Suttanipāt Aţhakata)
Hi= to ascertain the meaning clearly. Pañavā= those with wisdom. Puriso= man are.
Vīddhetvā= by growing or increasing. Ariyamaggadvāraŋ= the door of Ariyamagga. Vivaritvā=
opened. Amatanibbānaŋ=to the holy Nibbāna. Pavisiaasti= can be entered. Sāvakapāramimpi=
either wisdom or Sāvakapārami. Paccekabodimpi= or the wisdom of Sammāsambodi.
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Pativijjhissati= come to understand. Hi Saccaŋ= it is right. Amatamahānibbāna Sampāpakesu=
can reach supreme Nibbāna. Dammesu= in those Dhamma. Pañāva= only Vipassanāpañāpārami
is the. Seţhā= the best. Avasesā= the resr Parami are. Tassa= this Vipassanāpañapāmi. Parivāārā=
sub-bodies, Honti= to be.
The wisdom arising out of learning or listening is called Sutamayañaŋ. Wisdom which
comes out of onself without any help is called Cintāmayañań. Vipassanā can be practice with the
thinking power of Cintāmayañaŋ.
In many of Ledi Sayadaw's book some Dhamma on practicing Vipassanā are mostly
comprehanded by Cintāmayañaŋ. Some people say it is worthless without Pāli. It cannot be
Cintāmayañaŋ, If it can be comprehanded by the Dhamma directly from the Pāli, it will become
Sutāmayañaŋ, the real Vipassañañaŋ cannot be arisen, then it is quite far away from Nibbāna.
One must try his best with new power and strenth, to be away from the preasure of Sakkāya, and
to be one of the Tuccha (Vain man).
It is great mistake for those who are so proud to learn the Dhamma through other's
Cintāmayañaŋ, even though they haven't got their own Cintāmayañana.

This is the end of the reminder for the wise man to be careful.
End of Exhortation.

30. Conclusion

I who reside at White-Sand-Ledi village monastery, had finished this Vipassanā manual
on the fifth waning day of Tawthalin (September).
Therefore, I who is residing at "White-Sand-Ledi Village Monestry" prepare and
successfully finished the Vipassanā Manual, with thirty Verses in the mid month of the year
White sand = named after the "White sand stream".
Ledi = being a decendent of "Monywa" Ledi Association.
Monestary is olso a village monestary, therefore all combine together it is called "White-Sand-

The End of Vipassanā Manual by Ledi Sayādaw.