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Quick Reference: Law Review Footnotes o
This table give s example s of commonly use d citation forms printed in thc type face s
uscd in law revicw footnotes (as explained in rule 2). The last page and insidc back
cover present examples in the typefaces used in court documcnts and legal memo
randa (as explained in the Bluepages).
rule ro

lackson v. Metro. Edison Co., 348 Supp. 954, 956-58 (M.D.

rutelo.j Pa.ry7z),aff'd,4gt.zd754(ldCir.rgZt),aff'd,4r9U.S.l+S
(tgt r+).

rule 19
/n re Looney, lrgSl-rg$g Transfer Binderl Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH)
lllz,44l (Bankr. WD. Va. Sept. 9, 1988). o
Atbrecht v. Stanczek, No. 8Z-C9515,
at *t n.t (N.D. ltt. Apr. r8, r99r).
r99r U.5. Dist. LEXIS

lackson v. Virginia, No.77-tzo5, stip op. at I (4th Cir. Aug. 3,


-i.io."., rgZS) (percuriam), aff'd,443U.5. lo7 (rgtil.
Ross v. Weissman, l{o.9o-345 (0. Mass. fited Sept. r8, r99o). o
Cleary v. Rizkalla, 9z5F.zd 314 (1st Cir.19gt),petition for
cert. filed,60 U.S.L.W. l,4zz (U.5. lan. U, r9g2) (No. 9z-zrz). o
rule 11
N.M. Coxsr. art. lV,5 Z.
rule l2'3
-t. tz
Administrative Procedure Act S 6, 5 U.S.C. S 555 (zoo6). o
session laws
zz U.S.C. g 2567 (Supp. I 1983).

Department ofTransportation Act, Pub. L. No. 89-67o, S 9, 80 Stat.


Lncrsrnfrvn MaTnnnl,s
yt,944-47 $966).

rule r3
unenacted bill
rule 13.2(a)
S.5r6, ro5th Cong.5 z (1992). o
rule 13.3
Transforming the Federol Government To Protect Americo from
Terrorism: Hearing Before the H. Select Comm. on Homeland Sec., o
roTth Cong. z3-25 (zooz) (statement of.lohn Ashcroft, Att'y Gen.
ofthe United States).
S. REp. No. 95-797, at 4 GglS), as reprinted in r9Z8 U.S.C.C.A.N.
rule 13.4

UrupUnrrSHnO Victoria

E. Anderson, Company Outing: How Consensual

Mm;scnrprs Relationsh p Agreements Adve rsely Affect Homosexua I Em ployees
rule r7.2.r

rz (Mar. ry, zoo4) (unpubtished comment) (on file with the

University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor and Employment Law).
rule 17.2.3
Letter from Pierre Arsenault, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review, to o
Bryan M. Killian, Supreme Court Chair, Harvard Law Review (Apr. z,
zoo4) (on fite with the Harvard Law School Library).
o DEBoRAH L. RHoDE, JusrrcE AND GENDER 56 G989).

Penguin Books
Blelx House 49-55
r97r) (1853).
(Norman Page ed.,


PRAcrcE AND PRocEDURE S roo6 (zd ed. 1987).

pamphlets WoMEN's BUREAU, U.S, Dep'r oF LABoR, LEAFLET No, 55,
rulc l5 A WoRKTNG WoMAN's GU|DE ro HER ,loB RrGHrs 4 (1978).

works in Kay Deaux & Brenda Maiot, A Social-Psychologica! Motdel of

o collection
rule 15.5
Gender, ln TseonerrclL PERspEcflvEs oN SEXUAL DTFFERENcE 89,
89 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., r99o).


in Couecreo LEGAL PApERs
in Science and Science in Law,
zto, zro Q.gzo).
fohn Adams, Argument and Report, in 2 LEGAL PAeERS oF,oHN

I ADAMs 285,

Pemoorcer MaTERTALS mle

lz2-lS L Kinvin Wroth & Hitter B. Zobel eds., 1965).

| (r

o consecutively
David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?,
27 HARv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rrv.465, 5oo (1992).

a i-ty$t,
rulc l(t''
Thomas R, McCoy & Barry Friedma n, Conditional Spending:
Federalism'sTrojan Hors-e,1988 sup. cT. REV.45, ioo.

o nonconsecutively Barbara Ward, Progress for a Smalt Planef,

journals Sept.-Oct. 7979 , at 89,90,
HARV, Bus, Rev.,

a .
sruoe nt-
*:tTl--:t* ,
Etten London, Comment,,4 Critigue of the Strict Liability Standard
for Determining Chitd Suppoft in Cases of Male Victims of Sexual
Assault and Statutory Rape, r52 U. PA. L. Rev. 1957, tgsg-61 Qoo,).

rule 16.7.1
Note, Ihe Death of a Lawyer, 56 CoLUM. L. Rev. 6o6 (1956).

review , Robert Bork's Grand Inquisition, 99 Ylr-e L.l.

book Bruce Ackerman
rulc 1(r.7.2 7479,7422-25 (rggo) (book review)'

newsPaPer Andrew Rosentha[, White House Tutors Kremlin in How a

o rulc |6.6 Presidency Works,N,Y, Ttnnes, lune r5, r99o, at Ar.

Cop Shoots Tire, Halts Stolen Car,S.F. CHRoN., Oct.70 ,1915 , at 43,

I Innnnvrsws
ruk: 17 .?.5
Telephone Interview with Michael Leiter, President, Harvard Law
Review (Oct. zz, t999),

o FonTncolrncc
Sarah Greenberger, Comment, Enforceable Rights, No Child Left
Behind, and Political Patriotism: A Case for Open-Minded Section

o rulc

r7.j 1983 lurisprudence,Tsj U. PA. L. Rev. (forthcoming f an. zoo5).

Eric Posner, More on Section 7 ofthe Torture Convention,
Ilrrnmrnt VoLoKH CoNsprnlcv (Jan. 29,2oog, ro:o4 AM), http://www.
rulc | 11.2 volokh.com/ p osts/rz33z4r58.s htm l.

o Tn-netrrs
rule 21.4
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Japan-U.S., art. X,
Apr, z, 1953, 4 U.S.T, 2o63.

o Urvrrnl
U.N. GAoR, 56th sess., r st plen. mtg. at 3, U,N. Doc. Als6lPv.t
(Sept. rz, zoor).

O rul('21.7. I
Published and Distributed by
The Harvard Law Review Association
Gannett House
r5fl Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, Massachusetts o2138
U.S.A. O
First Printing 2015
Printings are updated as appropriate.
Coordinating Editor:
Mary Miles Prince, Associate Director for Library Services
Vanderbilt University Law SchooI Library
With special editorial assistance on the citations of foreign
jurisdictions from the Directorate of Legal Research ofthe o
Law Library of Congress.
Designed by Dynamic Diagrams

lsBN 928-0-692- 4oo79-7

A Uniform System of Citation'
O Twentieth Edition

o www.legalbluebook.com

t Compited by the editors of

I the Columbia Law Review,

the Harvard Law Review,
O the University of Pennsylvania Law Review,

I and The Yale Law Journal.

o Copyright @ zor5 by the Columbia Law Review Association, the Harvard Law Review
Association, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and The Yale LawJoumal'

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o Preface to the Twentieth Edition

o This edition of Tbe Bluebook retains the same basic approach to legal
citation established by its predecessors. The layout of Tbe Bluebook
has been updated to make the information easier to access. Some cita-

o tion forms have been expanded, elaborated upon, or modilied from pre-
vious editions to reflect the ever-expanding range of authorities used in

o legal writing and to respond to suggestions from the legal community.

Here are some of the more noteworthy changes:

t The Bluepages, introduced in the Eighteenth Edition, have been con-

siderably overhauled for the Twentieth Edition. The Bluepages now
parallel thc Whitepages-helping practitioners cite a broader range of

o soufces and greatly improving cross-references. Typeface rules have

been relaxed to accommodate practitioner use of r.{R(;E ANr) sMAr.r- cAPs.
Bluetable BT2 has also been expanded to include more local court
I citation rules.
In addition to edits for clariry concision, and consistency, theTwentieth

o Edition contains the following significant changes: Rule 1..4(e) clari-

fies the order of authories when federal and state legislative materials

I are citecl together. In rule 1.5(b), the order of parentheticals has been
changed to reflect the removal of the "internal quotation marks omit-
tecf" and "available at" parentheticals. Rule 3.2(A> provides additional

a guidance for citing a range of pages and a single footnote within the
range in the same citation. Rule 3.5 provides guidance on the nam-
ing conventions for subdivisions that are numbered or otherwised des-

o ignated in a piece. Rule 5.2(dXi) no longer requires indicating the

omission of internal quotation marks. Rule 5.2(f) provides guidance

o on the use of internal quotation marks. Rule 1O.2.1(f) requires thc

omission of all geographical terms that follow a comma. Rule 1O.2.2
clarilies that words in a case name that would be abbreviated ie^cord-

I ing to table T6 should not be abbreviated if the words are part of a

state, country, or other geographical unit that is the entire name of a
pafry. Rule l0.9(a)(iii) provides additional guidance on the forma-

o tion of slip opinion short f<rrms. Rule 11 now provides guidance on

the citation of multiple amendments, sections within the same article,

o and clauses within the same section.Rule 12.9.4 combines former

rules 12.9.1 and 12.9.5, provides guidance on citing principles, and
revises the citation fbrmat of model codes, restatements, standards, and

o guidelines. Dean Richard Revesz and Professor Robert Sitkoff provided

valuable advice and assistance in revising this rule . Rule L3.5 clarifies
what year should be cited when a debate occurs in a different year
o from publication in the Congressional Recorcl.Rrile 14.2(b) has been
expanded to include detailed information on citing c()mments to agen-

o cies. Examples of citing guidances and manuals have been included

in rule 14.2(d> as well as detailcd information on citing opinion let-
ters. Rule 14.4 provides detailecl infbrmation on citing administra-

o tive sources found on commercial electronic databases. The citation

firrmats frrr Bar.r.nNtNe's l-tw Dlctton.tnv and Br,lcr's L,tw f)IcLIorl,,rnv
have been updated in rule 15.8(a). Rule 15.9 removes language vtl

that requires the use of"available at" in parallel citations. New rule
15.9(c) introduces a citation format for ebooks, stipulating that the
print versions of books are authoritative , but that ebooks may be cited
if they are the sole media through which the book is available. Rule
t6.6(a') requires that opinion pieces in newspapers be cited as"Opin-
ion" rather than "op-Ed." Rule 16.6(f) clarifies that online newspa-
pers may be used in place of print newspapers. Rule lE has been
updated in a number of areas to account for the increasing use and var-
ied forms of Internet sources. The rule no longer separately categorize s
Internet citations as either direct or parallel; all citations are treated as O
direct. Rule 18.2.l(b)(ii) provides for the direct citation of Internet
sources that share the characteristics of a print source such that they
can be fully cited according to another rule, whether or not the source
is in print. Rule 18.2.1(d) provides guidance on how to cite Internet
sources using archival tools. Rule provides guidance on
citing author information on social media platforms. Rules 1A.2.2(b)
(iii) and 18.2.2(b)(v) detail how to cite titles for blogs contained
within a larger website and titles for social media posts, respectiv€ly. O
Rule 18.3 now catalogs where within Tbe Bluebook guidance is
provided for citing various sources found on commercial electronic
databases. Rule 21 has been expanded to include new rules for citinfi
materials from the International Monetary Fr-rnd and the International
Criminal Court and has adopted simpler ways of citing United Nations
documents. We are grateful to the American Society of International
Law for its assistance with rule 2l and tables T3.T4, and T5.
The tables have been updated and expanded. Table T1 has been
revised to reflect the most current titles for the various statutory com-
pilations, session laws, and administrative compilations and registers.
The abbreviations following the states and f)istrict of Columbia in
table T1.3 have been revised to follow the abbreviation convention
for jurisdiction names in the date parenthetical of cases. The citation
formats for these sources have been updated to reflect as accurately as
possible the uniquc breakdown of information within each. Table T2
has been updated to reflect changes in local law and legal citation. The
compilers are indebted to the following experts in foreign legal cita-
tion for their help in enhancing table T2: Zsuzsanna Antal, Francisco o
A. Avalos,Annette L. Demers, Christoph Malliet,Yukino Nakashima, E.
Dana Neacsu, and Charlotte Stichter. The format of table T13 has been
changed from an inclusive list of periodicals to a more general guide
to abbreviating periodicals. Table T13.1 contains the abbreviations of
common institutional names and tableTl3.2 lists common words for
in periodical titles. The table also prescribes abbreviating geographi-
cal terms according to table T1O. If a word in a periodical title is not
included in any of the previously listed tables, revamped table 13 pre-
scribes including the full word. Terms have been added to tables T6,
Ta,Tl4, and T15 as appropriate. o
The compilers wish to thank our Coordinating Editor Mary Miles Prince
for working with us in revising, clarifying, updating, and improving Tbe
Bluebook. The compilers would also like to acknowledge outside com-
vill mentators who contribute d the ir expe rtise to th€ Twentieth Edition of
o Tbe Bluebook. The compilers are grateful to the law journal editors,
law librarians, and practitioners who responded to our call for sr.rgges-
tions with helpful advice and comments.

o Finally, the compilers request that any errors, omissions, or suggestions

for revisions be reported to the Harvard Law Review, (;annett Housc,

o 151 1 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge , Massachusetts 02138.

o Acknowledgements

I Tbe Bluebrxtk: A UniJbrm System of Citation is compiled by the edi-

tors of the Columbia Lau Reuieut,tlr,e Haruard Lau Reuieu,the Uni-
aersit! of Pennqtluania Laut Reuieut, a.nd Tbe Yale Laut Journal. Tbe

o Bluebrx* is published and distributed by the Harvard Law Rcview

Association. The Coordinating Editor of Tbe Bluebook is Mary Milcs
Prince , Associate Director for Library Services, Vanderbilt University

o Law School Library with special editorial assistance on the citatk)ns of

foreign iurisdictions from the Directorate ofLcgal Research ofthe Law

a Library of Oongress.

Contents O
..., vtl

Introduction .7
Structure of The Bluebook . .t
General Principtes of Citation
Cattino qt2ripd

The Bluepages: An Introduction to Basic LegatCitation
lntroduction 3 o
Structure of Legal Citations

B1 3
a2 Typeface for Court Documents 6
B3 Subdivisions 7
Abbreviations, Numerals, and Symbols
87 Italicization for Styte and in Unique Circumstances 9
B8 Capitalization. 9
Titles ofJudges
Cases . .

Statutes, Rules, and Restatements
Legislative Materials

AdministrativeandExecutiveMaterials ........22
27 o
815 BooksandOtherNonperiodicMaterials. .......22
815 PeriodicalMaterials. . ..23
Court and Litigation Documents
. . . 24
. .26
. ..27
.. .28
.......28 o
The Bluepages Tables
BT1 Court Documents. . .

BT2 lurisdiction-Specific Citation Rules

8T2.1 Federal Courts .
and Styte Guides
30 O
8T2.2 State Courts.
BT2.3 Territories... .56
1 Structure and Use ofCitations
Citation Sentences and Clauses in Law Reviews.
Order of Signals
1.4 Order of Authorities Within Each Signat . . ... 6"t


1.5 Parenthetical Information 64

1.6 Related Authority. 65
2 Typefaces for Law Reviews
Typeface Conventions for Citations
Tvoeface Conventions for Textual Materia[ . .
o Rule
3 Subdivisions .

Volumes, Parts, and Supplements

Pages, Footnotes, Endnotes, and Graphical Materials
o 3.3
Sections and Paragraphs
Aooended Material

o 3.5 InternalCross-References.....
Rule 4
Short Citation Forms

O "Supra"and"Hereinafter" . . . .
Rule 5 Quotations
. ..80
. .42

o 5.7 Formatting of Quotations

5.2 Alterations and Quotations Within Quotations
<? Omissions

Rule 6 Abbreviations, Numerals, and Symbols . .87
6.1 Abbreviations . ..87


6.2 Numerats and Svmbols .,BB

Rute 7 ltalicization for Style and in Unique Circumstances. .. . .90

a Rule 8 Capitalization .

Rute 9 Titles of Judges, Officials, and Terms of Court

. .94

o 10 Cases
10.1 Basic Citation
10.2 Case Names.
Forms .
o 10.2.1 General Rules for Case Names
10.2.2 Additional Rules for Case Names in Citations . . .

o 10.3 Reporters and Other Sources

10.3.1 Paratlel Citations and Which Source(s) to Cite
10.3.2 Reporters ..

. 103
O 10.4
10.3.3 Public Domain Format
Court and Jurisdiction
. .
. . 1,04
10.5 Date orYear. .. 106

o 10.5 Parenthetical Information Regarding Cases

10.6.1 Weight of Authority
. ..707

o 10.7
10.6.2 Quoting/Citing Parentheticals in Case Citations
10.6.3 Order of Parentheticals
Prior and Subsequent History
.. 108
.. 109

o l.0.7.L Explanatory Phrases and Weight of Authority

10.7.2 Different Case Name on Appeal
. .. 109
. . '111.

o 10.8 Special Citation Forms. . . . '11.'I

10.8.1 Pending and Unreported Cases . !1.

10.8.2 Fifth Circuit Sptit 1,1,3

o 10.9
10.8.3 Briefs, Court Filings, and Transcripts
10.8.4 Court Administrative Orders.
Short Forms for Cases


O Rule 11 Constitutions.

Rule 12 Statutes. . .

12.1 Basic Citation Forms . .. "120

12.2 Choosing the Proper Citation Form .. 1.2r

.. xl

o 12.2.1 General Rute . . 1,21

72.2.2 Exceotions...
12.3 Current Officiat and Unofficial Codes. .
1,23 o
12.3.1 Additional lnformation 1,23
72.3.2 Yearof Code.. 124
12.4 Session Laws... 1,25
Electronic Media and Online Sources
Other Secondary Sources
Invatidation, Repeal, Amendment, and Prior History

'J.2.7.1. lnvalidation. . . . 728

12.7.2 ReoeaI "128

12.7.3 Amendment Prior Historv .

Explanatory Parenthetical Phrases

12.9 Special Citation Forms.
12.9.1 Internal Revenue Code .
"12.9.2 Ordinances. . .


12.9.3 Rutes of Evidence and Procedure 130

12.9.4 Modet Codes, Principles, Restatements, Standards,
Sentencing Guidelines, and Uniform Acts . .
12.9.5 ABA Code of Professional Responsibility and
Ooinions on Ethics
. 137

12.10 Short
Forms for Statutes
Legislative Materials.

13.1 Basic Citation Forms .
13.2 Biltsand Resotutions......
13.3 Hearings
. 1.35
Reports, Documents, and Committee Prints.
. 138
1,40 o
Separatety Bound Legislative Histories.
Electronic Media and Ontine Sources
Short Forms for Legislative Materials
14 Administrative and Executive Materials
14.1 Basic Citation Forms . .
743 o
14.2 Rules, Regutations, and Other Publications '143
14.3 Administrative Adiudications and Arbitrations 't45
14.3.1 Names 746
14.3.2 Which Source(s) to Cite
14.3.3 lssuingAgency.
14.4 CommerciaI Etectronic Databases.
14.5 Short Forms for Regutations . . . .
Rule 15

Books, Reports, and Other Nonperiodic Materials.


15.1 Author
15.2 Editor or Translator
15.3 Title
Edition, Pubtisher, and Date
ShorterWorks in Collection. . . . . .
15.5.1 Works in Cotlection Generally.
15.5.2 Coltected Documents
Prefaces, Forewords, Introductions, and Epilogues
15.7 Setial Number 1.55
o 15.8
Speciat Citation Forms. .

Electronic Media and Online Sources

Short Citation Forms .


. 757
15.10.1 Short Forms forWorks in Collection . . . . 157
Rule16 PeriodicalMaterials .....759
a 16.1
Basic Citation Forms .


o 16.4 Consecutively Paginated.lournats

15.5 NonconsecutivelyPaginatedJournalsandMagazines ........
. . 1.62

16.6 Newspapers..... ......1,63
16.7 SpeciatCitationForms.. ...1.65
16.7.1 Student-Written Law Review Materials . . 165

o 16.7.2 Non-Student-Written Book Reviews.

16.7.3 Symposia, Colloquia, and Surveys
16.7.4 Commentaries and Other Special Designations. . . .

o . L67
16.7.5 MuttioartArticles .........767
15.7.5 Annotations.. ....168

o Prcceedings, Regular Publications by Institutes,

and ABA Section Reoorts
16.7.8 Newsletters and Other Noncommercialtv Distributed

o 16.8
Electronic Media and Ontine Sources

o 16.9
Short Citation Forms . .
Unpublished and ForthcomingSources . .

Basic Citation Forms 1,72
17.2 Unpubtished Materials . . . ...1,72
17.2.1 Manuscripts..... 172

o Dissertations and Theses .

17.2.3 Letters, Memoranda, and Press Reteases. . .

17.2.4 E-mail Correspondence and Listserv Postings

o 17.2.5 Interviews.....
17.2.6 SpeechesandAddresses........
17.3 ForthcomingPublications......

o 17.4 Working Papers .

17.5 Electronic Media and Online Sources . . . . .


o 17.6 Short Citation Forms .

Rule 18

The Internet, Electronic Media, and


o Other Nonprint Resources.

18.1 Basic Citation Forms
LB.2 The lnternet.
........ 178

o 18.3
18.2.1 GenerallnternetCitationPrinciples
18.2.2 CitationstolnternetSources
Commercial ElectronicDatabases
......... 180
a 1.8.4

a 18.5.1 Microform Coltections Reproducing Preexisting

18.5.2 Microform Cottections Containing Original Materiats. . .

o 18.6 Fitms, Broadcasts, and Noncommercial Video Materials. . . . . . . 787

18.7 Audio Recordings
18.7.1 CommercialRecordings......
188 o
18.7.2 Noncommercial Recordings . . . 188
18.7.3 Podcasts and Recordings Avaitabte Ontine. ..... . 188
18.8 Short Citation Forms . .... 188


Rule 19 Services. .. .. 190

19.1 Citation Form for Services . ... 190
19.2 Short Citation Forms .
Rule 20 Foreign Materials . .
20.1 Jurisdiction....

. . ..
20.2 Non-Engtish-Language Documents.
20.2.1 Documents Appearing in More than One Language ... .
.. 1,93
1,93 o
20.2.2 Titles and Names of Documents in Languages
Otherthan Engtish .

20.2.3 Abbreviations in Languages Otherthan Engtish. . .

.... 793
.... 794 o
20.2.4 Languages That Do Not Use the Roman Alphabet
20.2.5 Citations to Translations of Non-English-
Language Documents.
. ....794
. .
20.3 Cases ... 196
20.3.1 Common Law Cases ... L96
20.3.2 Civil Law and Other Non-Common
20.4 Constitutions.
20.5 Statutes.
.. .
Law Cases . . . . .... 196
.. .. 796
.. 797
20.5.1 Statutes in Common Law Systems
20.5.2 Statutes in Civit Law and Other Non-Common

Non-English-Language and Foreign Periodicals
Short Citation Forms . . ..
. 1.97
21 lnternational Materials.
Basic Citation Forms . .
200 o
Non-Engtish-Language Documents. 202
21.3 Jurisdiction Not Evident from Context 202
21.4 Treaties and Other InternationalAgreements 202
21.4.1 Name of the Agreement . . . .
21,.4.2 Parties to the Agreement , . . .
21.4.3 Subdivisions.

203 o
. 204
21..4.4 Date of Signing 204
2L.4.5 fteaty Sources 204
21.5 International Law Cases
21.5.1 The International Court ofJustice and the Permanent
CourtoflnternationalJustice,.. ....206
Eutooean Union Courts . . 209
21.5.3 EuropeanCourtofHumanRights.. .. . ... 21.0
InterAmericanCommissionon Human Rights.. ...... 277
Inter-AmericanCourtofHumanRights.. ..... 271
lnternationalTribunatforthe LawoftheSea .... .... . 272
21.5.6 o
2!.5.7 lnternationalCriminalCourtand OtherTribunals.. . ... 21.2
21.5.8 Other International Courts .
21.5.9 lnternational Cases in National Courts. .
. . 214
xlv 21.5 lnternationalArbitrations and Claims Commissions . . . 274
o 21.7 United Nations Sources.
21.7.1 Verbatim and Summary Records
21.7.2 Resolutions and Decisions
o 21.7.3 U.N. Reports
21.7.4 Masthead Documents

a 21.7.5 U.N. Press Releases and Memoranda. . . . .

21..7.7 Sales Publications

. 21,9
21.7.6 Adjudicatory Bodies Established by the United Nations 21,9

o 27.7.8 Yeatbooks and Periodicals

21.7.9 RegionaI Organization Documents.

21.7.1.O U.N. Charter
21..7.77 U.N. Internet Materials 220
27.8 League of Nations 221,

o 21.9 European Union..

21,.70 Councit of Europe
21,.17 World Trade Organization


27.12 International Monetary Fund. . . 227

21,.73 Other Intergovernmental Organizations 228

o 21.74 International Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

27.1.5 Yearbooks
21,.1,6 .
Digests .....

o 27."17

ShortCitationForms.. ....23O

I Table T1 United States Jurisdictions

T1.1 Federat Judicial and Legislative Materiats

o T1.2 FederalAdministrative and Executive Materials.

T1.3 States and the District of Columbia . .
Atabama (Ala.)


Ataska (Ataska) 249

Arizona (Ariz.). . 250

o Arkansas (Ark.). .
California (Cat.). .
Cotorado (Coto.) .

O Connecticut (Conn.)
Delaware (Det.). . . 256

District of Columbia (D.C.)
Ftorida (Fta) 258
Georgia (Ga.) 259

I Hawaii (Haw.)
ldaho (ldaho)

Ittinois (ltt.) . . 262
Indiana (lnd.) 263
lowa (lowa). . 264

o Kansas (Kan.) 264

Kentucky (Ky.) 265
Louisiana (La.) 266

I Maine (Me.)
Marytand (Md.). .
Massachusetts (Mass.)
270 xv


Mississippi (Miss).
Missouri (Mo)..
......274 o
Nebraska (Neb)..
Nevada (Nev.)
..276 I
NewMexico (N.M.)..
... ..279
Ohio (ohio).
.. ..285
Utah (Utah).
Vermont(Vt.) ...
. ..297 o
.....300 O
T1.4 OtherUnitedStatesjurisdictions. ........303
Guam ..
Puerto Rico.
........305 o
Table T2
ForeignJurisdictions ...
........ 31.6
T2.2.7 AustralianStatesandTerritories.
......310 o
12.3 Austria,Repubticof
T2.3.L AustrianLiinder..
T2.4 Belgium,Kingdomof .....
......323 o
T2.5 Brazil,FederativeRepublicof..... .......328
T2.6 Canada . ... . ...332
T2.7 CathoticChurch. .......341
..341 I
xvl ..344
o 12.70 Colombia,Repubticof
T2.71, Czech Republic
Egypt, Arab Republic of
. ... 349

12J,3 France, Repubtic of. . . . 356
T2.14 Germany, Federal Republic 362

a I z.t)
12.14.7 German Liinder
r2.76 Hong Kong
. J67

o 12.t7 Hungary, Repubtic of .

12.78 India . . .
. 373

I T2.19 lran, lslamic Repubtic of

T2.20 lraq,Repubticof .....
T2.21, lreland (Eire), Repubtic of

o 12.22 lsraeI
12.23 Itaty, Repubtic of
T2.24 J4p4n........

o 12.25 Kenya . .

12.26 Lebanon, Republic of


t 12.27 Mexico
T2.28 Netherlands, Kingdom ofthe.
I z.z> New Zeatand

a r2.30 Nicaragua
T2.31, Nigeria .

1232 Pakistan, lslamic Republic of


... .

1233 Phitippines 441.

r234 Roman Law 444

o r235
Russian Federation
1237 SouthKorea.....

o r238 Spain .
12.39 Sweden ..
. 457

o T2.40 Switzerland 464

T2.40.1 SwissCantons. ........468
T2.41 Taiwan, Republic of China ... . 469

o T2.42 UnitedKingdom
I2.42.I EnglandandWales
... ....472
T2.42.2 Northern lretand (and lreland Until 1'924)......... 485

o 12.42.3 Scotland
T2.43 Tambia,Republicof .....
... 489

o TableT3
IntergovernmentalOrganizations. . . .
United Nations
League of Nations
.. 497
.. 497
.. 491
o T3.3
Eurooean Union . .

European Commission of Human Rights .

.. 497
.. 492
.. 492
o T3.5
European Court of Human Rights.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
Inter-American Court of Human Rights.

. ..

o T3.8
InternationalTribunal forthe Law of the Sea
Intergovernmental Organizations. ..

o 494
Table T4 Treaty Sources XVll

Offficiat .....494
lntergovernmentalTreatySources ........495
UnofficialTreatySources ........495
TableT5 ArbitralReporters ......495 O
Tabte Case Names and lnstitutional Authors in Citations 496
TabteTT CourtNames ...498
TableTS ExplanatoryPhrases .... 500
TableT9 LegislativeDocuments.
TabteTr0 GeographicalTerms....
......... 501
........ 502
T10.1 U.S.States,Cities,andTerritories ........502
T10.2 Austratian States and Canadian Provinces and Territories. . . . 503
T10.3 Countries and regions
.. . 5O4

TableTll JudgesandOfficials. ....509

TableTr2 Months. .......510
TableTr3 Periodicals
TableTl4 PublishingTerms......
TabteTl5 Services
TabteTl6 Subdivisions
..... .. 518

lndex .. ......525
A Uniform System of Citation'
a Twentieth Edition

o www.lega lblu e boo k.com

o Introduction

o Welcome to The Blueboo&, the delinitive style guide for legal citation in the
Llnitcd States. For generations, law students, lawyers, scholars, iudges, and other
legal professionals have relied on Tbe llluebook's uniform system of citation. In a

o diverse and rapidly changing legal profession, Tl:e Bluebook continucs to provide
a systematic mcthod by which members of the profession communicate impor-

o tant information about the sources and legal authorities upon which thcy rcly in
their work.

Tbe Bluebook can oftcn be intimidating for new users. This introduction is meant
to assist yru as you begin what will likely become a lifelong relationship with the
Blueboctk system of legal citation.

o Structure of The Bluebook

o The Bluebook contains three major parts. The lirst part contains the Bluepages,
a how-to guide for basic legal citation. tlnlike the remainder of Tbe Bluebook,

I which is clesigned in a style and at a lcvel of complcxity commensuratc with

the nceds of the law iournal publication process, the Bluepagcs provide casy-to-
comprehend guidance fbr the everyday citation needs of first-year law studcnts,

o sllmmer associates, law clerks, practicing lawyers, and other lcgal professionals.
The examples used throughout the Bluepages arc printed using simple typcface

o convcntions common in the legal profcssion.

The second part, printcd on white paper, is the heart of the Bluebook system
of citation: the rules of citation and style . This pan is subdivided into two main

o sections. The tirst scction, consisting of mles I through 9, cstablishcs general stan-
dards of citatkrn and style for use in all forms of legal writing. 'l'hc second section,

o consisting of rules 10 through 21, prescnts mles for citation of specific kinds of
authority such as cases, statutcs, books, periodicals, and foreign ancl internationd
materials. Thc examples used throughout this part arc printed using typeface

O convcntions standard in law journal footnotcs.

The third part consists of a series of tables to be used in coniunction with the

o rules. Thc tables show, among other things, which authorit,v to cite and how to
abbreviate propedy. Individual tables arc refcrenced throughout the b<xrk. Finally,

there is a comprehensive indcx.

General Principles of Citation

o The cenral ftlnction ofa legal citation is to allow the relder to efliciently klcate
the cited source. Thns, the citation forms in The Bluebttok are designed to pr<>

o vidc the information necessary to lcad the reader directly to thc specific items
cited. Because of the ever-incrcasing mnge of authorities cited in legal writing, no

o systcm of citation can be complete. Thcrefore , when citing material of a type not
cxplicitly discnsscd in this book, try to locate an analogous type of authority that
is discussed and use that citation form as a model. Always be sure to providc suf-

o ficient information to allow the reacler to find the cited material quickly and easily.

Getting Started o
The Bluepages provide the best place to begin your study of Tbe Bluebook ry*
tem of legal citation. Indeed, first-year legal writing professors may wish to rely
on the Bluepages as a teaching aid. The Bluepages provide only an abbreviated
introduction to Tbe Bluebook system, however, and do not contain answers to
more difficult citation questions. For this reason, the Bluepages contain references
to related rules and tables found in other parts of the The Bluebook.
nri; lr:

The Bluepages are a guide for practitioners and law clerks to use when citing

o authority in non-academic legal documents. Please keep the following in mind:

Local Rules. Many courts have their own rules of citation that differ

a in some respects from The Bluebook. Make sure to abide by any

citation requirements of the court to which you are submitting
your documents. An index of jurisdiction-specific citation rules is

I contained in Bluepages table BT2.

Typeface. The Bluepages keep the tradition of

I underscoring certain text. So long as you are consistent, however,

you may substitute itol'cs wherever underscoring is used in the

Bluepages. The remainder of The Bluebook employs a more
complex array of typeface conventions, including ordinary roman
type, italics, and Lnncr AND SMALL Cnps. These differences are

a explained in Bluepages 82.

The Whitepages. Where the Bluepages and local court rules are

I silent regarding the citation of a particular document, you may use

the other rules in The Bluebook. referred to as the "Whitepages," to
supplement the Bluepages. Keep in mind the typeface differences

O between academic documents and non-academic leqal documents

as explained in Bluepages 82.

o The Elements of a Citation. Generally, a legal citation is composed

of three elements: (1 ) a signal; (2) the source or authority; and (3)

t parenthetical information. The Bluepages explore each of these

elements in detail.

Special Note for Law Students: The Bluebook is primarily written for two

o types of users: academics and practitioners. The Whitepages provide rules

for academic publications such as law review articles and research papers.

I The Bluepages set forth permissible deviations from the Whitepages that are
designed to accommodate the needs of lawyers and law clerks. The Bluepages
are used primarily for briefs, motions, memoranda, and opinions. For the most

o part, the Bluepages only provide examples of how a citation should look. For
comprehensive discussions of the elements of a citation, you should refer to the
corresponding Whitepages as crossreferenced in the Bluepages.

o Bluepages Tip: The Bluepages parallel the Whitepages in numbering and

content. You may use a Whitepage Rule to supplement a corresponding

I Bluepage Rule.

o Structure of Legal Citations B1

a Citation Sentences and Clauses

In non-academic legal documents, such as briefs and opinions, citations

I generally appear within the text of the document immediately following the
propositions they support. Footnotes should only be used in non-academic legal
documents when permitted or required by local court rules.
o 3
A citation may be inserted into the text of a document in one of two ways: as a
stand-alone citation sentence or as a citation clause.

Citation sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a period. One
citation sentence may contain multiple citations separated by semicolons.
Use citation sentences to cite sources and authorities that relate to the entire
preceding sentenc€:

The U.S. Supreme Court has the power to invalidate statutes that
are repugnant to the U.5. Constitution. Marbury v. Madison. 5 U.S.
(1 Cranch) 137 , 177-79 (1 803) (federal laws); Fletcher v. Peck, 1 0
U.S. (6 Cranch) 87 ,'139 (1 81 0) (state laws); Dred Scott v. Sandford,
60 U.S. (19 How.) 393, 395 (1856), superseded by constitutional
amendment. U.S. Const. amend. Xlll. The U.S. Supreme Court also
has the power to review state court decisions. Martin v. Hunter's
Lessee, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 304,377-78 (1 81 6) (civil cases); Cohens v.
Virginia. 19 U.S. (6 Wheat.) 264,350 (1821) (criminal cases).

Citation clauses are set off from the text by commas and immediately follow
the proposition to which they relate. Do not begin a citation clause with a capital
letter unless the citation clause begins with a source that would otherwis€ be
capitalized. Do not end a citation clause with a period, unless it is the last clause
in the sentence. Use citation clauses to cite sources and authorities that relate
to only ea4! of a sentence:

The Supreme Court adopted a broad reading of the Commerce

Clause during the New Deal, seeWickard v. Filburn, 317 U.5. | 1 1,
128-29 (1 942), though in recent years the Supreme Court has
reined in its broad reading somewhat, see United States v. Lopez,
514 U.5. 549,624 (1 995); United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598,
612-13 (2000); Nat'l Fed'n of lndeo. Bus. v. Sebelius, 1 32 S. Ct. 2566,
2587 (201 2); but see Gonzales v. Raich. 545 U.S. 1, 39 (2005).

Br.2 IntroductorySignals
A signal is a shorthand message to the reader about the relationship between
a proposition and the source or authority cited for that proposition. Refer to
rule L.2 for more information on how to use these signals.
. Bluepages Tip: Signals are capitalized when used to begin a citation
sentence but are lower case when used to begin a citation clause.

Signal Use

[no signal] The authority directly states the proposition, is the

source of a quotation, or was mentioned in the

E€- The authority is one of multiple authorities directly

stating the same proposition
Accord The authority is one of multiple authorities directly
stating or supporting the proposition, and one
of the other authorities was mentioned in the
o See The authority supports, but does not directly state,
the proposition

o See also The authority provides additional material

supporting the proposition

t cf. The authority is different from the main

proposition but sufficiently analogous to lend

I Compare..
:-@.,- [9!!]:::
. [and] The authorities are similar or different in important
l9!"c1! ,.-
t Contra

But see
The authority directly states a proposition contrary
to the main proposition
The authority clearly supports a proposition

o contrary to the main proposition

But cf. The authority supports a proposition analogous to
the contrary to the main proposition
See qenerally The authority is helpful background material
related to the proposition

a . Bluepages Tip: You may combine "e.g.," with "see" and "but see" to form
"see, e.g.," and "but see, e.q.," respectively.

o When using more than on€ type of signal in a citation sentence, the signals

t (together with the authodties they introduce) should appear in the order in
which they appear in the table above . For more information about the grouping
and ordering ofsignals, see rule 1.3.

I Separate authorities within each signal with semicolons. If certain authorities are
considerably more helpftrl or authoritative than the other authorities, you may

list the more helpfrrl authorities fi-rst. Otherwise, cite authorities in this order:
l. Constitutions (first federal, then state, then foreign)
2. Statutes (first federal, then state, then foreign)
o 3. Federal cases (in order ofdescending authority)
4. St^te cases (alphabetically by state, in descending order of authority

I within states)
5. Legislative materials (first bills, then hearings, then reports, then

6. Administrative materials (first executive orders, then regulations,
then proposed rules)

I 7. Courrt documents (first records, then briefs, then petitions)

8. Secondary materials (first restatements, then books, then articles,

a then Intemet sources)

For further guidance on the order of authorities, see rule 1.4,

I Explanatory Parentheticals Bl.f

a Regardless of the type of authority you cite, it may be helpful to include

additional information to explain the relevance of the cited authoriry. Append

' i",f
this information parenthetically at the end of your citation Out before any
subs€quent history). I
Explanatory parentheticals should begin with a present participle unless the
parenthetical contains a quoted senteoce or a short statement. You may omit I
extraneous words such as "the" unless doing so would cause confusion. Do not
begin with a capital letter or end with a period unless the parenthetical consists
of a quotation that reads as a frrll sentence:

See Flanaqan v. United States.465 U.5. 259,264 (1984) (explaining

that the finaljudgment rule reduces potential for parties to "clog I
the courts" with time-consuming appeals).
Atl. Richfield Co. v. Fed. Energy Admin..429 F. Supp. 1052,1061-62
(N.D. Cal. 1976) ("Not every person aggrieved by administrative
action is necessarily entitled to the protections of due process.").
5 U.S.C. 5 553(b) (2000) (requiring agencies to publish notice of
proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register).
Such standards have been adopted to address a variety of
environmental problems. See. e.9.. H.B. Jacobini, The New
lnternational Sanitary Regulations, 46 Am. J. lnt'lL.727,727-28
(1952) (health-related water quality); Robert L. Meyer, Travaux
Preparatoires for the UNESCO World Heritaqe Convention.2 Earth
L.J.45, 45-81 (1 976) (conservation of protected areas). I
For further guidance on explanatory parentheticals, see rule 1.5.
82 Typeface for Court Documents
Court documents and legal memoranda use two typefaces: ordinary type and I
lfalics (or underscoring).

While the Bluepages use underscoring rather than italics, keep in mind that t
underscoring is the equivalent of italics. For citations appearing in non-academic
legal documents, follow these general des:
Italicize (or underscore) the following information in a citation clause:
Case names, including procedural phrases introducing case names;
Titles of books and articles;
Titles of some legislative materials;
Introductory signals; I
Explanatory phrases introducing subsequent case history;
Cross references, such as id. and supra; and o
Words and phrases introducing related authority, such as
"Sualedl!." I
Italicize (or underscore) the following information in the text of a legal

Titles of publications, such as the New York Times:

Words italicized in the original source of a quotation; and
Any other word that would otherwise be italicized, such as
uncommon foreign words.
a Key differences between academic citations (the Whitepages) and non'
academic citations (the Bluepages):

o Academic (,itations
Norr-Academic Citations

a Typeface:
The following are
The following ate italicized
or underscored:

I Introductory signals Introductory signals

Short form case names Full and short case names

Procedural and explanatory Procedural and explanatory
phrases in case citations phrases in case citations
"1d." "1d.." ot "ld."

o Titles of articles in
Titles ofbooks. articles. and

t Titles of congressional
committee hearings
Punctuation that falls within
Titles of some legislative
Punctuation that falls within

o italicized material
Introductory phrases for
italicized or underscored

related authority Introductory phrases for
Internal crossreferences related authority
Internal cross-references

o Typeface:
The following are in Lancr
ero Sluu Ceps:
LARGE AND Srr,r.lu Ceps
required Out may be used
are not

t Authors and titles of books,

including institutional
for stylistic purposes)

I Titles of periodicals

t Subdivisions
Give page numbers before date parentheticals, without any introductory

o abbreviation such as "p." or "at." Cite nonconsecutiv€ pages by giving the

individual page numbers separated by commas (e.g., l01 , I03").

o To cite a footnote or endnote, give the page on which the note appears, 'n.,"
and the footnote number:

o United States v. Carolene Prods. Co' 304 U.5. 144, 152 n.4 (1938).
When the volumes are numbered, cite the volume number in Arabic numerals. If

o the author of the entire work is cited, the volume number precedes the author's

3 Ronald E. Mallen, Jeffrey M. Smith, & Allison D. Rhodes, Legal
Malpractice 1 01 -02 (201 4).

If an authority is organized by section (5) or paragraph (fl), you may cite to

o these subdivisions.

Most subdivisions (such as columns or sections) in citations are abbreviated. See

# t.''.',""'

table T16 for a list of subdivision abbreviations.

84 Short Citation Forms

You may use "id." when citing the immediately preceding authority, but only
when the immediately preceding citation contains only one authority. Always
indicate when a subsequent citation refers to a different page number in the
same source (e.g., "id. at 5").

You may use "supra" and "hereinafter" to r€fer to legislative hearings; court
filings; books; pamphlets; reports; unpublished materials; non-print resources;
periodicals; services; treaties and international agreements; regulations,
directives, and decisions of intergovernmental organizations; and internal
cross-references. You should not use "supra" and "hereinafter" to refer to cases,
statutes, constitutions, legislative materials (other than hearings), restatements,
model codes, or regulations, except in extraordinary circumstances, such as
when the name of the authority is extremely long.

B5 Quotations
85.1 Generally
Enclose all quotations, except block quotations, with quotation marks. Place
commas or periods inside the quotation marks, but place all other punctuation
outside the quotation marks unless such punctuation is part of the quoted text:

"When, as here, the plaintiff is a public figure. he cannot recover

unless he proves by clear and convincing evidence that the
defendant published the defamatory statement with actual malice,
i.e.. with 'knowledge that it was false or with reckless disregard of
whether it was false or not."'Masson v. New Yorker Magazine, Inc.,
501 U.5.496, 510 (1991) (quoting N.Y. Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S.
2s4,279-80 (1964D.
"We refused to permit recovery for choice of language which.
though perhaps reflecting a misconception, represented'the sort
of inaccuracy that is commonplace in the forum of robust debate
to which the New York Times rule applies."' Masson v. New Yorker
Magazine. Inc.. 501 U.S. 496, 519 (1991) (citation omitted).
. Bluepages Tip: A quotation appearing within another quotation can
either be parenthetically attributed to its original source or otherwise
acknowledged by indicating that a citation has been omitted.
For further guidance on quotations, including omissions and alterations of
quoted material, see rule 5.

85.2 Block Quotations

Quotations of fifty or more words should be single spaced, indented on
both sides, justified, and without quotation marks. This is known as a block
quotation. Quotation marks within a block quotation should appear as they do
g in the quoted material. The citation following a block quotation should not be
indented but should begin at the left margin on the line following the quotation:
t fl |his presumptive privilege must be considered in light of our
historic commitment to the rule of law. This is nowhere more

t profoundly manifest than in our view that "the twofold aim

[of criminal justice] is that guilt shall not escape or innocence
suffer." We have elected to employ an adversary system of

o criminal justice in which the parties contest all issues before a

court of law. . . . To ensure that justice is done, it is imperative to
the function of courts that compulsory process be available for

o the production of evidence needed either by the prosecution

or by the defense.

I United States v. Nixon, 418 U.5. 683. 708-09 (1974) (citation

omitted). The Court then balanced this interest against the evils
of forced disclosure. ld. at 71 0.

o Abbreviations, Numerals, and Symbols B6

o Tables at the end of this book contain lists of specific abbreviations for arbitral
reporters (T5), case names (T6), court names (T|, explanatory phrases (T8),

o legislative documents (T!), geographical terms (T1O), judges and officials

(T11), months (T12), periodicals (T13), publishing terms (T14), services
(T15), and subdivisions (T16).

o Close up adiacent single capitals (U.5.), but do not close up single capitals with
longer abbreviations (S. Ct,). Every abbreviation should be followed by a period

o (Univ.), except those in which the last letter is set off by an apostrophe (Soc'y).

Spell out the numbers zero to ninety-nine. Use numerals for larger numbers

o (unless they begin a sentence).

For more information about abbreviations. numerals. and svmbols. see rule 6.

o Italicization for Style and in Unique Circumstances 87

t Words and phrases may be italicized (or underscored) for emphasis.

You may italicize (or underscore) non-English words and phrases unless they

o have been incorporated into common English usage. Most Latin words and
phrases that are used in legal writing are in common English usage. Obsolete
or uncommon Latin words and phrases, however, should be italicized (or

o underscored).

"Id." is always italicized (or underscored).

o For more information about italicizing for style, see de 7.

o Capitalization
In addition to capitalizing "Court" when naming any court in full or when

o referring to the U.S. Supreme Coun, also capitalize "Court" in documents when
refering to the court that will receive your documents:

o This Court has already ruled on Defendant's Motion To Dismiss.

But The court in Watkins was attempting to distinguish earlier

o precedent pointing in the other direction.

Only capitalize party designations such as "Plaintifl" "Defendant," "Appellant,"
and "Appetlee" when ref-erring to parties in the mattcr that is the subiect of I
your document:

Plaintiff denies Defendant's baseless allegations of misconduct. t

But: In 5mith, the plaintiffs alleged that the defendant acted in bad
faith. o
Capitalize the titlc of a court document only when: (1) thc docuntent has becn
filed in the mattcr that is the subject of your document; and (2) the reference
is to the document's actual title or a shortenecl form thcreof. Do ttot capitalize
references to the gencric name of a court document:

In their Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to

Defendant's Motion to Dismiss, Plaintiffs argue that Defendants are
strictly liable for Plaintiffs' injuries. o
The Cou rt's Order of May
production immediately.
7 ,2004, directed Plaintlffs to cease

But:There is no doubt that the initial temporary restraining order was

within the bounds of this Court's discretion.
Bluepages Tip: Do not abbreviate the titles of court documents in
tt tudt -^^+^^-^..
)ct ttEt tLE).

For all of the above reasons, Appellant's Petition for Rehearing

ought to be granted.
Not: For all of the above reasons, Appellant's Pet. Reh'g ought to be
89 Titles of Judges
Justices are referred to as "Justice Story" and "(,hiefJustice Jay." Parenthetical
ref'erences are to "Holmes, J.," "Cardozo,.f.," and "lllack & Vhitc, JJ." Judges
are referred to as 'Judge Wisdom," "Juclgc Hand," and "Chiefludgc Friendly."
For more inlbrmation on how to refcr to iudgcs ancl othcr oflicials, scc rule 9.

B1O Cases

Bl0.l Full Citation o

A full case citation includcs five componcnts: (1) the namc of the case; (2)
thc published or unpublished sourcc in which thc casc can be founcl; (3) a
parenthetical indicating the court and year of decision; (4) other parenthetical
information, if any; and (5) the subsctluent history of thc case, if any:
Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 ,430 (1962) ("The Establishment
Clause, unlike the Free Exercise Clause, does not depend upon any
showing of direct governmental compulsion . . . ."). O
Thompson v. Hanson, 174 P.3d 120,125 (Wash. Ct. App. 2007)
(holding that a creditor may obtain a judgment against a transferee
even in the absence of intent to defraud), aff'd,239 P.3d 536,
ru fig-41(wash.2oo9).
a 1
"i'i ' l.:,rrill

I Bluepages Tip: lf an opinion is only available through a court's website,

the opinion's webpage URL may be included at the end of the citation.

I Case Name
(i) Omit all parties other than the first party listed on each side of the "v.":

o Dow Jones & Co. v. Harrods. Ltd.

a Not: Dow Jones & Comoanv. Inc.. Plaintiff. v. Harrods. Limited and
Mohamed Al Faved. Defendants

I (ii) For names of indMduals, use only last names, omitting first names, middle
names, and initials:

Darwin v. Dawkins

Not: Charles Robert Darwin v. Clinton Richard Dawkins and Edward

Osborne "E. O." Wilson

o (iii) Omit words indicating multiple parties (such as "et al.") and alternative
names (such as "a.k.a."):

o Kant v. Bentham

I Not: lmmanuel Kant. et. al. v. Jeremv Bentham. a.k.a. The Father of
(iv) Some case names may include a procedural phrase. Abbreviate "in the

o matter o{" "petition of," and similar procedural phrases to "In re ." Abbreviate
"on the relation o{" "on behalf of," and similar procedural phrases to "ex rel."

t tWhen adversary parties are named, omit all procedural phrases except 'ex rel.":

Dombroski ex rel. Dombroski v. Chi. Park Dist.

o Not: Michael Dombroski, as Administrator of Estate of His Minor Child,

5amuel Dombroski v. Chicago Park District, et al.

I Ex parte Zeidner
Not: Ex parte Richard Zeidner

o ln re Fairfax

Not: ln the Matter of J. Fairfax

I (v) Abbreviate words listed in table T6, unless the citation appears in a textual
sentence as explained in (vi) below. Abbreviate states, countries, and other

I geographical units according to table T10 unless the geographical unit is a

named party. Never abbreviate "United States" when it is a named party. Omit
"The" as the first word of a party's name unless it is part of the name of the

o object of an in rem action. You may abbreviate any words with eight letters or
more if substantial space is saved and the result is unambiguous. You may also

abbreviate entities with widely recognized initials, such as NAACP and FCC:

Seattle Times v. Univ. of Wash.

Not The Seattle Times v. The University of Washington
o United States v. Haskell

a Not: U.S. v. Erin Haskell, et al. 1t

€-ii, 1 ,;l'i t \ t
Indus. Chems.. Inc. v. City of Tuscaloosa
Not: Industrial Chemicals, Inc. v. The City of Tuscaloosa I
Laidlaw Corp. v. NLRB
Not: The Laidlaw Corporation v. National Labor Relations Board I
For more guidance on abbreviation, see rule 10.2.
Bluepages Tip: Underline the entire case name up to but not including
the comma that follows the case name.
(vi) When referring to the full name of a case in a textual sentenc€, as opposed I
to a citation sentence or clause, underline the case name and only abbreviate
widely known acronyms and the following eight words: "&," "Ass'n,' "Bros.,'
"Co.," "Corp.," 'lnc.,' "Ltd.,' and "No." The first time you mention a case in the
text, follow the case name with the remaining elements of a fi.rll citation, set
off by commas: I
In Penn CentralTransportation Co. v. City of New York.366 N.E.2d
1271 (N.Y. 1977),the court applied a version of the diminution in I
value rule.

Not: ln Penn Cent. Transp. Co. v. City of New York. 366 N.E.2d 1271

(N.Y. 1 977), the court applled a version of the diminution in value

In a subsequent reference to the case within the same general discussion, you
may simply refer to one party's name (or a readily identifiable shorter version of
one pafty's name) if the reference is unambiguous: I
The Supreme Court's recent takings jurisprudence has gradually
moved away from the New York Court of Appeals's formulation in t
Penn Central.

Not The Supreme Court's recent takings jurisprudence has gradually

moved away from the New York Court of Appeals's formulation in
Citv of New York.

810.1.2 Reporters and Pinpoint Citations

Cite a reporter by listing: (l) the volume number of the reporter in which the
case is published;(2) the abbreviated name of the reporter (isted ia table TL);
and (3) the page on which the case report b€gins. I
To point your reader to the specifc pages that relate to th€ cited proposition,
you must also include a pinpoint citation, often called a "pincite." Place
pincites after the page on which the case report begins, separated by a comma.

A pincite may consist of a page range, in which instance you should indicate
the first and last page of the range separated by a dash. Where the page
numbers consist of three or more digits, drop any repetitive digits other than
the final two digits (e .9., 102-06; 1020-30). To cite multiple pages that are I
not consecutive, list each page or page range, separated by commas (e.g.,
103, 106-08, 132). If the material you wish to reference appears on more
nonconsecutive pages than is convenient to list in one citation, you may use t
12 passim in lieu of a pincite. To cite a footnote, give the page on which the

o footnote appeafs, "n.," and the footnote number, with no space between "n."
and the footnote number (e.g., 199 n.4):

o Baker v. Carr, 369 U.5. 186,195 (1962).

Newdow v. U.S. Cong.. 328 F.3d 466,471 n.3 (9th Cir. 2003).

I .
guez v. Holder, 7 02 F.3d 504, 529-30 (9th
Ga rfi as-Rod ri
("Chief Judge Kozinski, disagreeing with everyone.")
Ci r. 20 1 2)

a Bluepages Tip: lf the pincite

the page number:
is the first page of the case, simply repeat

o United States v. Baxter. 492F.2d 150, 150 (9th Cir. 1973).

For further guidance on pincites, see rule 3.2.

o Court and Year of Decision 810.1.3

I Indicate parenthetically the deciding court followed by the year of decision

(immediately following the page reference). When citing decisions of the United
States Supreme Court or the highest court of any individual state, however,

o do not include the name of the deciding court. Table T1 lists the coffect
abbreviations for courts in U.S. lurisdictions.

I (i) The United States Supreme Court: Cite United States Reports (U.S.) if th€
opinion appears therein; otherwise cite to Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.):

Meritor Sav. Bank v. Vinson, 477 V.5.57, 60 (1986).
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores. Inc., 134 5. Ct. 275'1,2782(2014\.

o (ii) Federal Courts ofAppeals: Cite Federal Reporter (F., F.2d, F.3d) and indicate
the name of the court parenthetically:

I Envtl. Def. Fund v. EPA, 465F.2d 528, 533 (D.C. Cir. 1972).

United States v. Jardine, 364 F.3d 1 200, | 203 (1 Oth Cir. 2004).

a (iii) Federal District Couns: Cite Federal Supplement (F. Supp.,

Supp. 3d) and indicate the name of the court parenthetically:
F. Supp. 2d, F.

I W. 5t. Group LLC v. Epro, 564 F. Supp. 2d 84,91 (D. Mass. 2008).

Harris v. Roderick. 933 F. Supp. 977 ,985 (D. ldaho 1 996).

o . Bluepages Tip: The correct abbreviation for each state is listed in

table T10. Some state names are abbreviated with two capital letters
(e.9., N.Y.), while others are abbreviated with one capital letter and

o several lower case letters (e.g., Mich.). Do not include a space between
adjacent single capital letters (e.9., S.D.N.Y.), but do include a space

o between a single capital letter and a longer abbreviation (e.9., "D. Conn."
for "District of Connecticut" and "S.D. Cal." for "Southern District of
California"). For more guidance on abbreviations, see rule 6.1.

a (iv) State High Courts: Cite the regional reporter for the region in which the
court sits, if the opinion appears therein; otherwise cite the state's official

o reporter, as listed in table T1. Indicate the state parenthetically, unless it is

unambiguously conveyed by the reporter title:

o Peoole v. Armour. 590 N.W.2d 61 (Mich. 13
,lir".i+; '

Chaudhary v. Gen. Motors Corp., 649 P,2d 224 (CaI.1982).

Bates v. Tappan. 99 Mass. 376 (1 868).

(v) Other State Courts: Cite the regional reporter for the region in which the
court sits, if the opinion appears therein; otherwise cite the state's official
reporter, as listed in table TL. lndicate parenthetically the state and court of
decision, unless unambiguously conveyed by the reporter title. Do not indicate
the department or district of intermediate state courts:

Kaolan v. Ziff. 530 N.W.2d 807 (Minn. Ct. App. 1995).

Rusk v.State,406 A.2d 624 (Md. Ct. Spec. App. 1979), rev'd. 424 A.2d
720 (Md. 1981).

Campbell v. Sellers-Morris Corp., 82 Cal. Rptr. 2d 202 (Ct. App. 1 999).

Parallel Citation in State Court Documents

In documents submitted to state courts, all case citations should be to the
reporters required by local rules. To find local des for the court in which you
are submitting a document, refer to Bluepages table BT2.
Local rules sometime s require citation of both the offrcial state rcportet and t}rc
unofficial regional or state-specific reporter. This is called parallel citation.
IJflhere a pincite is necessary, include one for each reporter citation. when
the state or court is clear from the official reporter title, omit it from the date

Pledger v. Halvorson. 324 Ark.302,921 S.W.2d 576 (1996).

Kenford Co. v. County of Erie, 73 N.Y.2d 3'12,537 N.E.2d 176, 540

N.Y.S.2d 1 (1e89).

Bl0.l.4 Pending and Unreported Cases

(i) tDffi and Vestlaw cases: Cite to the LnilS or'Westlaw electronic report of
the case when one is available.

The proper format is as follows: (l) case name; (2) case docket number; (3)
database identifier and electronic report number; (4) star page number; and (5)
court and full date parenthetical:
Albrecht v. Stranczek, No. 87 C 9535, 1 991 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5088, at
*1, *3 (N.D. lll. Apr. 1 5, 1 991).

Kvass Constr. Co. v. United States, No. 90-266C, 1991 WL47632, at

*2-3 (Cl. Ct. Apr. 8, 1991 ).

Bluepages Tip: Different courts and publishers use different formats

for case docket numbers (e.9., CIV-A, Civ. A., Civ., No.). Cite the case
docket number exactly as it appears. lf more than one docket number
is assigned to a case, the lead-in language (e.9., CIV-A, Civ. A., Civ., No.)
may be omitted after the first reference:
PKFinans Int'l Coro. v. IBJ Schroder Leasing Corp., Nos.93 Civ.5375,
96 Civ. 1816 (SAS) (HBP), 1996 WL 525862 (S.D.N.Y.Sept. 17, 1996).

o (ii) SIip opinions: When a case is unreported, but is separately available as a slip
opinion, give the docket number, the court, and the full date of the most recent

maior disposition of the case:

Groucho Marx Prods. v. Plavboy Enters.. No. 77 Civ. 1782 (S.D.N.Y.


o For further guidance on slip opinions, see rule 10.8.1(b).

t (iii) Opinions only available online, but not in an electronic database: Some
cases, particulady ones that are pending, can only be accessed through a
website. In this situation, the webpage URL may be included:

o Kaye v. Trump. No. 5128, slip op. at 1 (N.Y. App. Div. Jan. 29, 20Q9),
http://www.nycou rts. gov/reporter/3d series / 2009 / 2009


Weight of Authority and Explanatory Parentheticals 810.r.5

o To add information indicating the weight of the cited authority to a citation,

insert an additional parenthetical following the date parenthetical. Indicate

o when you are citing a concuffing or dissenting opinion:

Bush v. Gore. 531 U.5. 98,'144 (2000) (5-4 decision) (Breyer, J.,

o dissenting) ('The political implications of this case for the country

are momentous.").

I Zuni Pub. Sch. Dist. v. Dep't of Educ.. 550 U.S. 81, 1 1 3 (2007)
(Scalia, J., dissenting) ('The sheer applesauce of this statutory

interpretation should be obvious.").
Webb v. Baxter Healthcare Corp.. 57 F.3d 1067 (4th Cir. 1995)

(unpublished table decision).
Wersba v. Seiler,393 F.2d 937 (3d Cir. 1968) (per curiam).

I An explanatory parenthetical may also be added to explain briefly the

proposition for which the case stands:

Green v. Georgia. 442U.5.95,97 (1979) (per curiam) (holding that

I exclusion of relevant evidence at a sentencing hearing constitutes

denial of due process).

o For further guidance on explanatory parentheticals, see Bluepages 81 and

rule L0.7.1.

I Prior or Subsequent History 810.1.6

a A full citation should include the prior or subsequent history of the case,
subiect to several exceptions discussed in rule 10.7. Use one of the abbreviated
explanatory phrases listed in table T8 to introduce the prior or subsequent

o history. Include commonly used explanatory phrases such as "aff'd," "aff'g,"

"cert. denied" (subject to a two-year limitation per rule 10.7), "cert. granted,"
"rev'd,' and "rev'd on other grounds" forevery applicable citation. Underscore

o or italicize the explanatory phrase:

Gucci Am.. Inc. v. Gold Ctr. Jewelry.997 F. Supp. 399 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. l5
o 29,1998),rev'd,158 F.3d 631 (2d Cir. 1998).
Cooperv. Duonik,924F.2d 1520, 1530-31 (9th Cir. 1991)(holding
that police officers'actions did not rise to level of due process
violation), rcv'd_en bale, 963 F.2d 1 220 (9th Cir. 1 992).
cent. lll. Pub. serv. co. v. westervelt, 342 N.E.2d 463 (lll. App. ct. o
1 97 6), aff' d, 367 N.E.2d 661 (tll. 1 97 7 ).
. Bluepages Tip: Explanatory parenthetical information about a case
should immediately precede information about subsequent case history.
the case has a differcnt namc in thc subsequent history, providc the new
casc name, prcceded by thc phrase "sub nom." ("under thc name ot''). There is
no nccd to providc the new case nirmc if the partics' names are mercly rcversed
or if the subscqucnt history is simplv r clcnial of ccrtiorari or rchearing: I
Great W. United Corp. v. Kidwell, 577 F.2d 1 256 (sth Cir. 1 978), rev'd
sub nom. Lerov v. Great W. United Corp., 443 U.S.173 (1979). o
810.2 Short Form Citation I
Once you have provided a ftlll citation to an authorityJ you lnav use a "shott
form" in latcr citations of thc same authority, so long as (1) it is clear to the
rcadcr which authority is relbrenced; (2) the full citation falls in the same
general discussion; and (J) the reader will have little trouble krcating the full
citation. Therc arc sevcral acccptable short forms for case citations. All ofthese o
frrrms include "at" followcd by a pincite .

'I'hc firllowing arc all acceptable short ftrrm citations of page 100 of Palsgraf v.
Long lsland Railroad Co., 162 N.E. 99 (N.Y. 1928) (Cardozo, J.):
Palsgraf, 162 N.E. at 100. o
162 N.E. at 100.

ld. at '100. o
When using only one partv name in a short form citation, use the name of the
lirst parry, unless that party is a geographical unit, a govcrnmental entity, or
another typc ()f common litigant. YOu may also shorten a long party name,
frrr example fiom First Nat'l Trust & Inv. Corp. to First Nat'l, so long as thc
rcference remains unambiguous. I
Short citations take a slightlv rlifftrcnt form firr cases with parallcl citations.
Chalfin v. Soecter,426 Pa.464,465,233 A.2d 562,563 (1967), bccomcs onc o
of the fblkrwing:

Chalfin, 426Pa.at465,233 A.2d at 563.

426Pa.at465.233 A.2d at 563.
"1d." is the short firrm used to refer to the immediatcly preceding authorit)

Bluepages Tip: The "i" in "id." is only capitalized when it begins a citation
sentence. The underline always r uns under the period.

(i) Vhen used alone, "id." rcf'ers to the identical pincite refcrenced in the o
16 immediatellpreccclingcitation:
a The Supreme Court has stated unequivocally that "apprehension
by the use of deadly force is a seizure subject to the reasonableness
requirement of the Fourth Amendment." Tennessee v. Garner,471

o U.5. 1, 7 (1 985). By contrast, minimal police interference will not

always constitute a "seizure" for Fourth Amendment purposes. ld.

I (ii) To refer to a different page or footnote within the immediately preceding

authority, add "at" and the new pincite:

I To determine whether a particular exercise of non-lethal police

force was reasonable, courts engage in a balancing process that

t (iii)
weighs the nature of the intrusion against the "governmental
interests." ld. at 8.
"1d." may only be used when the preceding citation cites only one source:

a This process weighs the nature of the exertion of force against the
governmental interests at stake. See Heath, 854 F.2d at 9. This is an

I "objective reasonableness" test. ld.

In the example above, it is clear that "1d." refers to Heath. By contrnst, the use

a of "id." in the following example is improper because it is not clear to which

authodty "id." refers:

I Not: To determine whether a particular exercise of non-lethal police

force was reasonable, courts engage in a balancing process.
Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.5.1, 8 (1985); see also Heath v. Henninq,

I 854 F.2d 6,8(2d Cir. 1988). This process weighs the nature of the
exertion offorce against the governmental interests at stake. See
id. at 9.

o Bluepages Tip: 5ources identifi ed in explanatory parentheticals,

explanatory phrases, and prior or subsequent history are ignored for the

o purposes of this rule.

(w) The "id.' form for cases requiring parallel citations is as follows:

o The Pennsylvania Supreme Court grappled with a similarly

complicated issue in an election dispute in 1967. See Chalfin v.

o Soecter, 426 Pa. 464, 477,233 A.2d 562, 568 (1967). In Chalfin.
the court was forced to reach a decision under a severelv rushed

t schedule. See id. at 468, 233 A.2d at 564.

(v)'ld.'can be used for various types of authoriti€s-not only for cases. For
further guidance on the use of "id.," see de 4.1.

a Constitutions 8L1

t U.S. Const. art. l, 5 8, cl. 10.

U.S. Const. amend. XVlll, 5 1.

o Wash. Const. art. l, 5 32.

I Bluepages Tip: Do not use a short citation form (other than id.) for
For further guidance on citing constitutions, see rule 11. 17

Bl2 Statutes, Rules, and Restatements t
Bl2.l Full citation
Bl2.1.l Federal Statutes
A full citation of a federal statute includcs three clemcnts: (l) the official name t
of the act; (2) the published sourcc in which the act can be found; and (3) a
parenthetical indicating either (i) the year the sourcc was published (used firr
codcs) or (ii) the year the statute was passed (used for session laws):
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. 5S 9601-9675 (2012). o
Department of Transportation Act, Pub. L. No. 89-670,5 9,80 Stat.
931,944-47 (1966). I
Bluepages Tip: Nothing is underlined in a statute citation. "Section"
is indicated by the "5" symbol, the plural of which is "55." For further I
guidance concerning citation of individual sections and subsections, see
rule 3.3.
Codes and Session Laws
For statutcs, cite a current official or unofficial code, an oflicial or privately
published collection of session laws, or a secondary source. Rule l2
provides l full explanation of thesc sourccs and how to decide which one to
inclucle in your citation. I
Whenever possible, cite thc current oflicial code for statutes curently in
forcc. The official code for federal statutes is the United States Code. which is
abbreviated .U.S.C.'
A citation of an official or unofficial code will tell the rcader where a statute can
be found by listing: (1) the title mrmber; (2) the abbreviated name of the cocle;
(3) the section numbcrs in which the act is codilied; and (4) the year of the
cited code edition (not the ycar the act was passed). Citations of an unofficial I
codc, such as an "annotated code," must also include the name of the publisher
in thc date parenthetical:
'r u.s.c.s 1(2012).
15 U.S.C.A. 5 205 (West 2008).
Bluepages Tip: The _U.-njled Slales eode is codified once every six years.
Therefore, citations of the "U.S.C." should identify the appropriate
codifying year, such as 2012.
To cite an indiviclual provision of a statute, include thc original section number
of the provision you wish to cite following thc statutc name. Note that the o
"original section numbcr" ref'ers to a particular section of the act, not to the
scction of thc code in which that provisiol"r has been codified. Thus, in the lirst o
example below, "5 6" refers to scction 6 of the Administrative Procedure Act,
while "5 555" refers to section 555 of Title V of the United States Code:

Administrative Procedure Act 5 6, 5 U.S.C. S 555 (20'l 2).


I '1i riir:'.: ilr-rlr.,, :i::;i :i. rr r;r::::j';::. qlili

o National Environmental Policy Act

of 1969 5 102,42U.5.C. 5 4332

t Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 5 1 03, 1 7 U.S.C.A. S 1 201

(West 2008).

I Cite the session laws if the official or unofficial code is unavailable or

insufficient, for example, when the statute does not yet appear in a code or
when you need to refer to the historical fact of the statute's enactment.

o The official compilation of federal session laws is the Statutes at Large,

abbreviated as "Stat." A citation ofthe Statutes at Large includes the following

o elements: (1) the official or popular name of the statute; (2) the public law
number, abbreviated "Pub. L. No."; (3) the section number, if any; (4) the

volume number, followed by "Stat." and the number of the first page of the act;
and (5) the year the statute was passed. Session law citations may also pincite
the particular provision of the act cited and the particular page of the session

o laws on which that provision appears:

Department of Transportation Act, Pub.

931,944-47 (1966).
L. No. 89-670, S 9, 80 Stat.

T Health Professions Education Extension Amendments of 1992. Pub.

L. No. 1 02-408, 1 06 Stat. 1 992.

Bluepages Tip: Omit the year parenthetical if the name of the statute
includes its year of enactment.

I For guidance on how to indicate a statute 's prior or subsequent history, see


State Statutes Bl2.l.2

I For state statutes, cite an official code whenever possible. Table T1.3 lists the
official and unofficial statutory compilations of each state, with the preferred

o official code listed first. Although the citation form for individual state codes
varies, a full citation of most state codes includes the following elements: (l)
the abbreviated name of the code, as listed in table T1.3; (2) the cited section

I number(s); and (3) the year of the cited code edition (not the year the act was
passed). Citations of an unofficial state code must also include the name of the
publisher in the date parenthetical:

o Wash. Rev. Code 5 288.20.020 (2014).

o Cal. Penal Code 5 181 (West 201 1).

N.Y. Bus. Corp. Law S 717 (McKinney 2000).

a For guidance on citing state session laws, see rule 12.4.

o Procedural Rules, Restatements, Uniform Acts, and

Similar Bl2.l.3

I Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(bX6).

Fed. R. Evid.401.

o Restatement (Second) of Contracts 5 90 (Am. Law Inst. tg
l::::ff;:;::J::1,:il,"l t
U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual S 2D1.1(c) (U.S. Sentencing
Comm'n 2004). O
on citing proccdural n:les, restatcments, ancl uniform
i:l:::,:iil Hnce O
Brz.l.4Federal Tax Materials O
only the current ve rsion of f'cdcral tax larvs, you may omit the year ancl publishe r
from citations of thc Intemal llcvenue (irde ("|'R'C.'') and Treasury
fffit,::T:t t

ff:::ffi::,,::, Rcvenue corre, you may rcrrace .,26 U.s.c.,,with a


26 u.s.c. s 6r (2012). I
becomes: l.R.C. 5 61 (2012).

TreasuryRegulations O

l'".' l"l Z',',1',2',,i'r,e&A(3xa) I

Treasury Determinations
Whcn citing Trclsury determinations in court documcuts and legal memoranda,

l,}frxH\:ff11';ll:.fi.;:T'[: l].*:ii::xi:::;'i;1ffi;iJi: o
;*:J; ;:ffi: ;i;.H;ff:il Xil;;.Tlli ;:l:l;::: r',,ll:',1,T'l'Xl
omit the dashes from thc mling number:
Rev. Rul. B3-137,1g83-2C.8.41.
l.R.S. P.L.R. 8601012 (Sept. 30, 'l 985).

l.R.S. G.C.M.39,417 (5ept".30, 19Bs). J

- Bluepages Tip: Tax Court and Board of Tax Appeals decisions are cited
as court decisions, not agency decisions. For further guidance, see table
For guiclance on citing matcrials from othcr arlministrativc agencics, sce table
T1.2 t

nr2.2 sh; F;;; iiiutio,, a

ili.Hl,;:1ixillJ.j.l"i,'iilll;ili'l*'.ffi ::"'.TT'xil:,:['JT[::*;;,i
:rny short form that clearly idcntifies the sourcc. Rules I2.10, l3.a,,rnrl 11.5
t includc tablcs illustrrting acccptablc short firrms f<rr statutcs, rcgulations, and
legislativc nrirtcrills.

I Yon ml1' usc "id." to rclcr to r statutc or rcguhtion codificcl s'ithin tht: sxnlc titlc
as the statutcor reguhtior] citecl in thc inrmcdiatcly p|ccccling citation:

t l'Lrli (italion itatiorr

ld. (
ld. Citation lor
Dff"r"ut Provisron

S:rnre Titk:

28 U.S.C. 5 331 (2006).

1 ld= rd. 5 1 332.

s0 C.F.R. 5 10.12 (2006). ld.

ld. 5 10.13(c)(1).

Legislative Materials 813

a A firll citltion to legislative matcrial includcs the lbllorving componcnts. tlx)ugh
not ncccss:uilv in thc firllorving orclcr: (l) tl"lc titlc <>f tlre r.uateriul; (2) the

a abbrevilted name of thc legishtivc boch': (J) tltc numbcr ussigned to tltc materiall
( 1) thc nunrbcr of thc (irngress ancl/ol legislative sessiorr, lnd (5) tltc )'car of

t publication.

H.R. Rep. No. 99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1 985).

t S. Rep. No. 84-2,

Enacted Federal Bill

at 7 (1 955).

I When citing fcderal bills. inclucle (hc nxme of thc bill (if relcvxttt), thc
abbreviltecl name of thr Oongressionul chamber, the number ol tltc lrill. thc
number of thc (iongrcss, thc scction (il rny),

ancl the ycar of pLtblic:ation:

5.1983,93rd Cong.5 10 (1973).

t H.R. 8638,gsth Cong. S2(1977).

Freedom of Information Act, S. 1 160, BSth Cong. 5 1 (1965).

o Digital Millennium Copyright Act,

Unenacted Federal Bill

H.R. 2281, 105th Cong. 5 6 (1997).

I Protection from Personal Intrusion Act, H.R. 2448, 105th Cong. 5 2(a)

t Federal Congressional Hearing

Toxic Substances Control Act: Hearings on S. 776 Before the

o Subcomm. on the Env't of the Senate Comm. on Commerce,94th

Cong. 343 (1 97s).

t Federal Congressional Report

H.R. Rep. No.99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).

a 5. Rep. No. B4-2,at7 (1955).

State Bills and Resolutions

o When citing stlte bills and rcsolutious, iuclude : (1) thc r-rame ol'thc lcgislativc
bodv, (2) the numbcr of thc bill or rcsolution, (J) thc number ol the lcgislativ"

I ,",
body; and (4) the number ofthe legislative session. Parcnthetically indicrte the
name of thc state and thc ycar of enactnrent or publication: I
H.D. 636, 1999 Leg.,
413th Sess. (Md. 1999).
H.R. 89, 145th Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ga. 1 999).
For further guidance on citing legislativc materials, sec rule 13.
Bl4 Administrative and Executive Materials
Cite fbderal mles and regulations to the (i)dc of F'ede ral Regulations (C.F.R.) by
title, section or part, and vcur:

46 C.F.R. 5 166.01 (2009). o

(litations to rules or regulations in the Fcdcral Register (Fed. Reg.) should give
the commonly used nirmc of the mle or rcgulation, the volume and ptgc on t
which thc mle rtr rcgulation begins, ancl the date of the rulc or regulirtion:
Federal Acquisition Regulations for National Aeronautics and Space
Administration,55 Fed. Reg.52,782 (Dec.21, 1990) (to be codified
at 48 C.F.R. pt. 1).

For administrative adjudications, cite b1' tlte reportetl name of the lirst-listed
private party or by the oflicial subiect-mattcr ritlc:

Trojan Transp., lnc., 249 N.L.R.B. 642

(1 980).

For arbitrltirxr awards, cite xs court cases if adversan, Darties are named and as
administrative adjudications if they are not:

Kroger Co. v. Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 539, 74 Lab. Arb.

Rep. (BNA) 785,787 (1980) (Doering, Arb.). o
Charles P. Ortmeyer,23 Indus. Arb.272 (1980) (Stern, Arb.).

For further guidance on citinli administrativc rules and rcgulations, see mle 14.
815 Books and Other Nonperiodic Materials a
Bl5.l Full Citation I
(litationst<r b<xlks, treatiscs, pamphlets, and other nonpcriodic materials should
include the firllowing elemcnts: (1) thc volume numbcr (firr multi-volumc sets);
(2) the full nlme(s) of the author(s) as writtcn in the publication; (3) rhc ritle of
the publicrtion (underscorccl or italicized); (,1) a pincitc; and (5) a parenrherical
indicating the year of publicirtion, rhe namc of the editor (if any), and the edition I
(if more than one).

l'wo authors should appcar scparated by an ampersand ("&") in thc ordcr in

which they arc listed ol-r thc publication. lf a work has morc than two authors,
you may either list all <tf the authors' nanles or list the first author's name
fbllowed bv 'et al."

Matthew Butterick, Typography for Lawyers 54 (2010).

McNeill & William H. McNeill, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View
22 of World History 319 (2003).
I i {".

I David Hunter et al., International Environmental Law and Policy 555

(3rd ed.2006).

t A Bentham Reader 101 (Mary Peter Macked., 1969).

21 Charles Alan Wriqht & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice and
Procedure S '1006 (3d ed. 1998).

There are special citation forms for a few frequently cited works:

I Good-Faith Eargaining, Black's Law Dictionary (1Oth ed.2014).

7 Am. Jur. 2d Contracts S 74 (1964).


88 C.i.S. Trial S 192 (1 9s5).

I For fuither guidance on citing to books and other nonperiodic material, see
de 15.

I Short Form Citation 815.2

Use "id." to refer to a book or other nonperiodical material cited in the
immediately preceding citation. Otherwise, use "supra." The "supra" form
consists of (1) the author's last name; (2) "supra," underlined or italicized up

I to but not including the comma; and (3) a new pincite:

Full Cite ld. Cite Supra Cite

o Richard Posner, How Judges

269 (2010).
Think ld. at 204-05. Posner, supra,
at 204-05.

t Mary L. Dunnewold et al., Judicial See id. at

Clerkshios: A Practical Guide 77
80. See Dunnewold
et al., supra,
at 80.

I Fleming James, Jr. & Geoffrey

Hazard, Jr., Civil Procedure 5
ld. S 1.7. James &
Hazard, supra.

t -
(sth ed. 20ol ).
Bluepages Tip: For further guidance on short forms, see rules 4, 1 5.10,
s 1.7.

I,and 18.8.

I Periodical Materials 81.6

I Full citation
A full citation of periodical material includes the following elements:
name(s) of the author(s) aswritten in the publicatioq (2) the title of the article
(l) the full

(undedined or italicized); (3) the abbreviated name of the publication; (4) a

: pincite; and (5) the date of publication. The basic citation may differ depending

I on the type of periodicat cited. For further guidance , see rule 16.

a Consecutively 816.1.1

Most law ioumals are paginated consecutively throughout an entire volume (i.e.,
individual issues within a volume do not begin at page " I " but rather pick up

where the previous issue left ofD. To cite material appearing in a consecutively
paginated periodical, fbllow this frrrmat: <author(s)>, <tille,afurygrk>, <vol-
ume number> <abbreviated periodical name> <first page of article>, t
<pincite> (<year of publication>).
Fred R. Shapiro & Michelle Pearse, The Most-Cited Law Review
Articles of All Time, 1 I0 Mich. L. Rev. 1483, 1489 (2012).

R.H. Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, 3 J.L. & Econ. 1, 1 (1960). t
For appropdate abbrcviations of periodicirl namcs, sec table T13.

816.r.2 Nonconsecutively Paginated Journals and Magazines

Christopher Hitchens, The New Commandments, Vanity Fair, Apr.
201 l, at 1.
816.r.l Student-Wriffen Work I
Natalie Cotton, Comment, The Competence of Students as Editors
ofLaw Reviews: A Response to Judge Posner,154U. Pa. L. Rev.951, a
982 n.1 04 (2006).
For guiclance on citing student-written work, consult nrle 16.7.1. I
816.1.4 Newspaper Articles t
Abigail Sullivan Moore, This ls Your Brain on Drugs, N.Y. Times, Oct.
29. 201 4. at A1 .

Doug Esser, UW Library Freezes Bedbugs Off Infested Books, Seattle

Times, Dec. 7,2012, at 42.
816.2 Short Form Citation
Altcr providing a full citation of a pcrioclical, you ma_y usc "id." or
"supra" in subscqucnt citations. Iise "id." to refcr to pcriodical matcrial
cited in the immediately prececling citation. ()therwise , use the "SUga"
fonn intnrduccd in Bluepages Iil5.2. o
- Bluepages Tip: When your document includes citations of more than
one source by the same author, include an abbreviated reference to the t
title of the cited source in any suora citation.
Llewellyn, Remarks, supra, at 401-06. I
817 Court and Litigation Documents I
This rule f<rcuses on citltions to court documents that have becn liled as part of
thc samc case. For citations of court documcnts liled in a diffcrent case. consult
rule 1O.8.3.
817.1 Full Citation I
A hlll citation of a court docurncnt includes the following elements: (l ) the name
of the document, abbrcviated whcrc appropriatc; (2) the pinpoint citation; and a
o : '' :l ' ;t Lr::-

o (3) the date of the document, if required. The citation should also include the
Electronic Case Filing (ECF) number found on PACER.

I) Abbreviation
Abbreviate the titles of court documents according to Bluepages table BT1.

o Where there is an official record, such as the Record on Appeal in appellate

litigation, always abbreviate "Record" to "R." Do not abbreviate, however, when

I doing so will confuse the reader:

Petitioner admits filing suit more than one year after knowledge of

I the facts underlying its claim, Pet'r's Br.6, and further admits the
applicability of a one-year statute of limitations, Pet'r's Br. 7.
ln Defendant's Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Support

I of Defendant's Motion for Summary Judgment, Defendant asserts

that the dangerous conditions giving rise to the accident resulted

o from someone else's negligence, Def.'s Mem. Supp.5umm. J. 6, 9,

implying that Defendant was, indeed, aware of the risk. Yet, in his
Affidavit filed in support of the Motion, Defendant explicitly states

I that he had no knowledge of the rising water level. Def.'s Aff. lltl
5-7; see also Jones Aff. Ex. A, at 2.

I Bluepages Tip: You may enclose citations of court documents in

(Def.'s Resp. to Pl.'s lnterrog. No. 3.)

o Pinpoint Citations Br7.r.2

t Provide a precise reference to the cited document, such as to the page and line
on which the material appears in a deposition or fiial transcript. Us€ commas

t only to avoid confusion. Separate page and line references by a colon. Page
references should not be preceded by "p.," but other subdivisions should be
identilied. You are generally not required to precede pincites with "at," though

? it is customary to use 'at" in references to certain sources such as appellate

records (e.g., R. at 5):

I Hawkins Aff.6.
Trial Tr. vol. 2, 31.

o Pet'r's 8r.6.
Clark Dep. 1 5:21 -'l 6:4.

t Pls.'Am. Answer to Def.'s Countercl. 3-4.

Travis Decl. Ex. B, at 3.

c R. at 9.

r Date
Provide the date of the cited document when: (1) more than one document

c has the same title; (2) the date is relevant to the discussion; or (3) ifthe date is
needed to avoid confusion:

Plaintiff alleged that Defendant was driving at a rate far in excess of

o the posted speed limit. Compl. fl 7. However, her sworn testimony 25

is to the effect that she never saw the Defendant before the
accident and was thus unable to gauge his speed. Perryman Dep.
34:1 5-'18, Aug. 7, 2002;frial Tr. vol. 2, 51-52, Dec. 12, 2002.
Mr. Svensson attests that Plaintiffs president cared not about the ;
age of the inventory but only about its marketability. Svensson
Aff. f 5. In addition, Ms. Beatrice swears that Plaintiffs president
had the authority to waive the condition concerning the age of
the inventory, Beatrice Aff. tl 9, May 1 0, 2003, and that no other
corporate official had such authority, Beatrice Aff.n 2, June 2, 2003. o
rtt7.I.4 Electronic Case Filings (ECF)
Court documcnts lilccl with thc electnrnic case managcment system emplol'cd
by PAOER for fcderll cases are assigned ckrcumcnt nuntbers. Adcl this Electronic
Casc F'ilir-rgs (ECF) number to thc citntions of electror-rically filed documents. a
Feder Dep.5:30-12:10, ECF No.6.

Def.'s Mot. Summ. J. 2, ECF No. 15.

Bluepages Tip: Documents filed on PACER are imprinted with an ECF
header. lf these page numbers are different from the page numbers of
the filed document, use the page numbers of the original document.

817.2 Short Form Citation

Aficr providing a full citation, you may usc I short firrm if: (1) it will be clelr
to thc reader what you are citing; (2) thc firll citation falls in the same general
discussion; and (l) the readcr will hlve littlc trouble krcating the firll citation:
First Reference
App. to Pet. Cert. 137-39,ECF
Succeeding Reference
App. 137-39,
ECF No. 'l 5. or App.
Bluepages Tip: For court documents, id. should only be used if
significant space will be saved. o
The liquid left on the floor by Defendant caused Plaintiff to lose her
balance, slip, and fall. Leach Aff. 33-39. This fall led to numerous o
hospital visits costing well over 5l0,000. ld. at 52.

But: The liquid left on the floor by Defendant caused Plaintiff to lose I
her balance, slip, and fall. R. at 5. This fall led to numerous hospital
visits costing well over 510,000. R. at 12. t
818 The Internet
Blri.r Full citation
Bl8.r.r Direct Citations
A Full citation ofan Internct source includes: (1) thc name ofthe author(s) (if
applicrblc); (2) thc titlc of thc specilic page of the wcbsirc, such as I posring or
26 comment (underlinccl or italicizcd) (if applicable); (l) the ritle of thc main pa15c
o of the website; (4) the date and time (if applicable); and (5) the URl. For funher
guidance on citing Intemet sourc€s, see rule 18.2:

o David Lat, Movie Nioht with Justice Breyer. Above the Law (Oct.
27, 2A1 4, 3 :3 1 P M), http://a bovet h el aw.com / 201 4 / 1 O /
movie-ni g ht-with-justice-breyer/.

o Fabrizio di Piazza, SCOTUSbIog on Camera: Laurence H. Tribe (Part

one), SCOTUSblog (Oct. 22, 201 4,9:53 AM), http://www.scotusblog.

t com/med ialscotusblog-on-ca mera-la u rence-h-tribe-part-one/.

Eugene Kontorovich, ltaly Adopts Supreme Court's View of

ICJ Authority, Volokh Conspiracy (Oct. 28, 2014), http://www.
washin gton post.com/news/volokh-conspir acy /w p / 201 4/ 1 0 /28 /
italy-adopts-su preme-courts-view-of-icj-a uthority/.

o Bluepages Tip: lf a source is available in both HTML and PDF (which

preserves the pagination of the print version), then you should only cite

I to the PDF. Whenever possible, provide a pincite for Internet sources:

Ulrich Cubasch et al., Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science

Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 121 (2013),
http://www.i pcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/a r5lwg l AffG i AR5-
Chapter0l _FlNAL.pdf.

I If there is no date associated with the specific webpage, then the citation should
list the date when the website was "last modified" or "last updated" after the
URL lfthese indicators are unavailable, use the date on which you "last visited"

; the webpage:

Yahoo! Home Page, http://www.yahoo.com (last visited May 16,

o 20't4).

t Parallel Citations
For printed material, you may provide a parallel citation to an Intemet source :

I Am. Mining Cong. v. U.S. Army Corps of Enq'rs. No. ClV. 4.93-1754
55H (D.D.C. Ja n. 23, 1997), http://www.wetlands.com/fed/tullochl.

o htm.

Short Form Citation BlA.2

o After providing a full citation to an Intemet sourc€, you may use "id." or "supra"
in subsequent citations per rules 4 and 18.8(a):

I Lat, supra.

o Services
Cite services by volume, abbreviated title, publisher, subdivision, and date. If

o the source is a case, include the abbreviated name of the court in the same
parenthetical as the date:

o ln re Smithfield Estates. Inc., [1985-1986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L.

Rep. (CCH) [i70,707 (Bankr. D.R.l. Aug. 9, 1985).

o SEC v. Tex. lnt'l Airlines ,29 Fed. R. Serv. 2d (West) 408 (D.D.C. I 979). 27
Kovacs v. Comm'r,74 A.F.f .R.2d (RlA) 354 (6th Cir. 1994).

Whcn citing loosclcaf matcrial that will cvcntullll, be tround, nclcl the nlme of
thc bountl firnn in parcntltcses il'it is cliffl'rent fiom thc name of the l<xrseleaf
form; inclucle thc volume of the bouncl firrm if avail:rble o
Marietta Concrete Co., 3 Lab. Rel. Rep. (BNA) (84 Lab. Arb. Rep.)
1 158 (May 7,1985). o
Iror hrrthcr gr.riclance on citing scfl/iccs, sec rule t9.
B2O Foreign Materials
Whcn citinla to anl'non-[].S. suurcc, whethcr in Iinglish or in another language
indicate the jurisdiction ptrcnthetically tt the cn(l ofthe citation.
, t
For fbreign commou law clses, indicate the court parcnthetically: a
R v. Lockwood , (1782\ 99 Eng. Rep. 379 (K.8.).

Oitc forcign statutes front comr.non luw countries like statutes of the o
Ilnited Kingcbm (table 'f 2.42 United Kingdom), noting rhc iuriscliction
parcntheticxlly at thc end of thc citation:
Emergency Powers Act (Act No.3/1976) (lr.).

For firrthcr guidancc on citir-rg fbrcign sourccs, sec rule 20.

B2l International Materials t

Founding Documents:

U.N. Charter art. 94, fl r.e. o

Statute ofthe International Tribunal for the Law ofthe Sea art. r, fl
2, Dec.10, 1982,l'833 U.N.T.S.56r. o
Multilateral Treaties:

United Nations Convention on the Law ofthe Sea, Dec. ro, 1982, I
r833 U.N.T.S. 397.
Organization of American States, American Convention on Human o
Rights, Nov. 22,t969, O.A.S.T.S. No. 36, rr44 U.N.T.S. rz3.
Bilateral Treaties: I
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, Japan-U.S., art. X,
Apr. z, t953,4 U.S.T. eo63. o
Agreement Concerning Payments for Certain Losses Suffered
During World War ll, Fr.-U.5., Jan. r8, 2oo1, Temp. State Dep't No. o
ot36,2ootWL 4t6465.
International Cases:
The stlndard citation fbr an intcrnational law casc include s: ( I ) thc name of casc;
(2) thc case number; (J) the reportcr (if an)); (.1) thc charactcrization of the o
2g dccision (iudgmcnt, provisional mcasurcs, crc.); (5) a pincite (using paragrlph

o E ,r J! r .i.""::' *'"i +

o numbers, if available, rather than page numbers); and (6) a parenthetical with
the date, prefaced by name of court if not otherwise evident from the citation:

I Delimitation of Maritime Boundary in Gulf of Maine Area (Can./U.S.),

Judgment, 1982 l.C.J. Rep. 560, tl 22 (Nov. 5).

Prosecutor v. Katanga, ICC-01 /04-01 /07 -3436- Anxl, Minority
opinion of Judge Wyngaert, fl 320 (Mar. 7 ,2014).
For more on how to cite intemational sources. see rule 21.


t Court Documents
This table provides suggested abbreviations for words commonly found in
the titles of court documents. Use these abbreviations in citations to court

o documents according to Bluepages Bl7.l.l ancl 817.2. This table also

indicates certain words that should not be abbreviated. Unless otherwise

o indicated, plurals are formed by adding the letter "s."

Words of seven or more letters not appearing in this table may also be

t abbreviated, so long as the abbreviation is unambiguous.

Omit all articles and prepositions from an abbreviated title, unless the result will
confuse the reader. Other extraneous words may also be omitted, so long as the

o reader can unambiguously identi$ the cited document.

o Admission
Defendant ['s]
Defendants [']
Def. ['s]
Defs. [']

o Amended
Deny [ing]

o Appeal
,4LpS]tj"t- _ __4 s
pllgl t
Dismiss Dismiss
o _4lq_q!19.
1pegq=_ --
- -4PP-"]9",--
_ ___

I Application

I Attachment

a Certiorari

lI-el"l9_sj_ _
Complaint Compl. J"T!4pp91.1* _L4
Counterclaim Countercl. Judgment

o Court
Min. 29
Ileport and
Ile comme nclation
r Rep.
Req. o
()rcler Order l{esponclent Resp't

l)e Pet. Response Resp.

Pctitioncr I'sl Pet'r ['s]
Pcririo[efs ['l Pet'rs ['] Subl;oena Subpoena
PlaintilT l'sl Summaq Summ.

Pl. ['s]
I']laintifl.s l'l Pls. ['] Sr.pplnrcnt Ial] Suppl.

Points ancl P.&A. Srrl)p()ft supp.

Prcliminary Prelim.

l)rocluc lc, tionl
1'estimot'r,v Test. o

l{e corrsicle Recons. 'fr
Rccord R.
Vcrihccl v.5.
Rehcadng Reh'g

llcply Reply

BT2 Jurisdiction-Specific Citation Rules and Style Guides

This tablc lists krcal court mlcs lrrcl othcr ruthorities govcrning legal citntions. o
Whilc this list is interrcled to l)c as ac:cumtc lncl comprchensive as possible, it
is inrprxtant filr practitirlncrs to check thc most rccent vcrsioll of krcal rules on
ofticial couft websites.

BT'2.1 Fecleral Courts o

United States Court ofAppeals for the First Circuit
1st Cir. R. Notice to Litigants (cite as "Loc. R. ")
1st Cir. R. 32.1.0 (citation of unpublished opinions)

st Cir. R. 32.2 (citation to State or Commonwealth Courts and to

unpublished articles)
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the First Circuit
l st Cir. Bankr. App. Panel R. 8001-1(a) (shall cite as "1 st Cir. BAP L.R.
United States Court ofAppeals for the Second Circuit
2d Cir. R. 1.1 (cite as ")

2d Cir. R. 32.'l .1 (citation of summary orders)

United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
3d Cir. R. 1.2 (shall cite as "3d Cir. L.A.R. _ (2008)")

30 3d Cir. R. 28.3 (citation of various types of legal authority)

o rl

o 3d Cir. R. 1 13.13 (citation of Internet sources)

United States Court ofAppeals for the Fourth Circuit
4th Cir. R. 32.1 (citation of unpublished opinions)

o United States Court ofAppeals for the Fifth Circuit

5th Cir. R.28.7 ,47.5 (citation of unpublished opinions)

o United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit

6th cir. R. 1 (cite as "6 cir. R. _")

o 6th Cir. R. 32.1(a) (citation of unpublished opinions)

Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Sixth Circuit

o 6th Cir. Bankr. App. Panel

LBR _")
R. 8018 - 1 (shall cite as "6th Cir. BAP

o 6th Cir. Bankr. App. Panel

R. 8010 - 1(c) (citation of unpublished

o United States Court ofAppeals for the Seventh Circuit

7th Cir. R. 32.1 (citation of unpublished opinions)

o United States Court ofAppeals for the Eighth Circuit

8th Cir. R. 32.1A (citation of unpublished opinions)

o United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

9th Cir. R.36-3 (citation of unpublished opinions)

o Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Ninth Circuit

8018-2 (shall cite as "9th Cir. BAP

9th Cir. Bankr. App. Panel R. R.
United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit

o 1 Oth Cir. R. 1 .3 (should cite as

1Oth Cir. R. 32.1
" loth Cir.
(citation of unpublished opinions)

o Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Tenth Circuit

l Oth Cir. Bankr. App. Panel R. 8018-1 1 (may cite as "1 Oth Cir. BAP L.

o R. _")
1Oth Cir. Bankr. App. Panel R. 8018-6
(citation of unpublished

o United States Court ofAppeals for the Eleventh Circuit

1 1 th Cir. R. Title Page (cite as "1 I th cir. R.

1 1th Cir. R. 28-1

(k) (citations shall comply with The Bluebook or the
ALWD Citation Manual)

o 1 1th Cir. R. 36-2 (citation of unpublished opinions)

United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia

o D.C. Cir. R. 28(b)

D.C. Cir. R. 28(aXl XB)
(citation of various types of legal authority)
(citation of rulings under review)

o D.C. Cir. R. 32.1(a) (citation of published opinions and statutes) 31

D.C. Cir. R. 32.1(b)
D.C. Cir. Handbook
(citation of unpublished opinions)
of Practice and Internal Procedures LD (cite local
rules as "D.C. Cir. Rule
D.C. Cir. Handbook
of Ptactice and Interna
(citation of various types of legal authority)
lX.A.8 o
United States Court ofAppeals for the Federal Circuit o
Fed. Cir. R.

Fed. Cir. R. 32.1

2B(e) (citation of cases)
(citation of nonprecedential opinions or orders) o
United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama
M.D. Ala. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (should cite civil rules as "M.D. Ala. LR _") o
(should cite criminal rules as "M.D. Ala. LCrR

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Alabarna

Bankr. M.D. Ala. R. 1000-1 (shall cite as "LBR

United States District Court for the Southern District of Alabama

_, Bankr. M.D. Ala.")
S.D. Ala. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "SD ALA LR
S.D. Ala. Adm. R. 1 (may cite as "SD ALA LAR
_") o
United States District Court for the District of Alaska
D. Alaska Adm. R. (a)-1 (may cite as "D.Ak. LAR _")
D. Alaska Civ. R. 85.1 (may cite as "D.Ak. L.R.
D. Alaska Civ. R. 7.1(c)
(citation of unpublished opinions) o
D. Alaska Crim. R. 61.1 (may cite as "D.Ak. LCrR.
D. Alaska Habeas Corpus R. 1 .1
(b) (may cite as "D.Ak. HCR _'l o
D. Alaska Mag. R. i (a) (may cite as "D.Ak.LMR

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Alaska

Bankr. D. Alaska R. 1001-1(e) (may cite as "AK LBR

United States District Court for the District of Arizona

D. Ariz. R. Foreword (may cite
criminal rules as "LRCrim _")
civil rules as "LRCiv _") (may cite
United States Bankmptcy Court for the District of Arizona
D. Ariz. R. Foreword (may cite as "LRBankr _") o
United States District Court for the Central District of California
C.D. Cal. R. 1 1-3.9 (citation of various types of legal authority)
C.D. Cal. Adm. & Mar. R. A.3 (may cite as "LAR
C.D. Cal. Bankr. App. R.
Footnote 1 (should cite as C.D. Cal. L. Bankr.
R. _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Central District of California o
Bankr. C.D. Cal. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "LBR
Bankr. C.D. Cal. R.
9013-2(c) (citation of various types of legal o
32 authority)
o frll r,r r i

o United States District Court for the Eastern District of California

E.D. Cal. R. 1 -100(a) (may cite as "1.R. _")

o E.D. Cal. R. 5-1 33(i) (citation of various types of legal authority)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofCalifornia

o Bankr. E.D. Cal. R. 1 001-1 (a) (may cite as "LBR

United States District Court for the Norrthern District of California


o N.D. Cal. Adm. & Mar. R. 1-1 (should cite as

N.D. Cal. Civ. R. 1-1 (should cite as "Civil L.R.
"Admir. L.R.
o N.D. Cal. Civ. R. 3-4(d)
-') of legal authority)
(citation of various types
N.D. Cal. Civ. R.3-4(e) (citation of uncertified opinions)

o N.D. Cal. Crim. R. 1-1 (should cite as "Crim. L.R.

N.D. Cal. Habeas Corpus R.2254-1 (should cite as "Habeas L.R.

o N.D. Cal. Pat. R. 1-1 (should cite as "Patent L.R.

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of


o California
Bankr. N.D. Cal. R. 1001-1(b) (cite as "B.L.R.

o United States District Court for the Southern District of California

5.D. Cal. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "CivLR

o 5.D. Cal. Civ. R. 5.1 (l)

-") and regulations)
(citation of federal statutes
5.D. Cal. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "CrimLR

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of


o Bankr. 5.D. Cal. R. 1001- l (shall cite as "LBR

United States District Court for the District of Colorado


o D. Colo. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "D.C.COLO.LCivR

D. Colo. Civ. R. 7.1(e) (citations in motions)

o D. Colo. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "D.C.COLO.LCrR

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Colorado


o Bankr. D. Colo. R. 1001-1(b) (shall cite as "L.B.R.

o United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
D. Conn. Civ. R. 1(a) (may cite as "D. Conn. L. Civ. R.
o D. Conn. Crim. R. 1(a) (may cite as "D. Conn. L. Cr. R.

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Connecticut


o Bankr. D. Conn. R. 1 001-1 (a) (may cite as "D. Conn. LBR

United States District Court for the District of Delaware


o D. Del. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "D. Del. LR

D. Del. R.
7.1.3(aX5) (citations shall be made in accordance with The

o Bluebook) 33
lq;trlifit!;::;l,\{r{', r1i; i.ri;jlra:}{i litrJ;:r lllti :r;iit: {irnri..r o
D. Del. R. 2.1.3(aX6) (citation of earlier-filed papers)
D. Del. R. 7.1.3(a)(7) (citation of unpublished opinions) t
United $tates Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware
Bankr. D. Del. R. 1001 -1 (a) (may cite as "Del. Bankr. L.R. _")
Bankr. D. Del.
with The Bluebook)
R. 7007-2(aXv) (citations acceptable if in accordance
Bankr. D. Del. R. 7007-2(aXvi) (citation of earlier-filed papers)
Bankr. D. Del. R. 7007-2(a)(vii) (citation of unreported opinions) o
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Columbia
Bankr. D.C. R. 1001-1 (a) (may cite as "LBR _" or "D.C. LBR _") a
United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida
M.D. Fla. R. 7.01(b) (shall cite supplemental rules for certain o
admiralty and maritime claims as "Supplemental Rule _") (shall
cite local rules as "Local Rule _") (shall cite local admiralty and
maritime rules as "Local Admiralty Rule _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida
Bankr. M.D. Fla. R. 1001-'l (e) (shall cite as "Local Rules

United States District Court for the Northern District of Ftorida

N.D. Fla. R. 1.1 (may cite as "N.D. Fla. Loc.
N.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar.

A(2Xa) (shall cite supplemental rules for

certain admiralty and maritime claims as "Supplemental Rule _")
N.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. A(2Xb) (shall cite local rules as "Local Rule
N.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. A(2Xc) (shall cite local admiralty and
maritime rules as "Local Admiralty Rule _") o
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Florida
Bankr. N.D. Fla. R. 1001 -1 (A) (may cite as "N.D. Fla. LBR _") o
United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida
S.D. Fla. R. 1.1(a) (cite as "S.D. Fla. L.R. _")
5.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. 2(a) (shall cite supplemental rules for certain
admiralty and maritime claims as "Supplemental Rule _") t
S.D. Fla. Adm. & Mar. R. 2(b) (shall
rules as "Local Admiralty Rule _")
cite local admiralty and maritime
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Georgia
Bankr. M.D. Ga. R. Title Page (shall cite as "M.D. Ga. LBR _") o
United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia
N.D. Ga. Civ. R. 1.1 (may cite as "LR --- NDGa") o
N.D. Ga. Crim. R. 1.1(A) (may cite as "LCrR
N.D. Ga. Patent R. 1.1 (may cite as "Patent L.R. - _")
o ,i1l,ri,'t{irXillt.\iiIr'{llir {. it;liiaiii }il,ilo,i 1liui .'tl;iri'trrririr"r f,lffiitl

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Georgia

Bankr. N.D. Ga. R. 1001-1 (may cite as "BLR _")
o United States Banftruptcy Court for the Southern District of Georgia
Bankr. S.D. Ga. R. 13 (citation of Internet sources)

o United States District Court for the District of Hawaii

a D. Haw. R. 1.1 (should cite as "LR_" or "CrimLR-")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Hawaii

o Bankr. D. Haw. R. 1001-l (a) (may cite as "LBR

United States District Court for the District of Idaho


o D. ldaho Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "Dist. ldaho Loc. Civ.

D. ldaho Crim. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "Dist. ldaho Loc. Crim.
R. _")
R. _")

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Idaho

Bankr. D. ldaho R. 1001.1(a) (shall cite as "LBR _")
o United States District Court for the Central District of Illinois
C.D. lll. R. 1.1 (may cite as "CDIL-LR _")
o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Central District oflllinois

o C.D. lll. R. 1.1 (may cite as "CDIL-LR _")

United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois

o N.D. lll. Crim. R. 1.1 (may cite as "LCrR. _")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Illinois

o Bankr. N.D. lll. R. 1 001-2(A) (cite as "Local Bankruptcy Rules")

United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois

o S.D. lll. R. 1.1(a) (encouraged to cite as "SDIL-LR

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of lllinois
o Bankr. 5.D. lll. R. 1001(A) (shall cite as "5.D. lll. LBR _")

t United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana

N.D. Ind. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "N.D. Ind. L.R.
o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Indiana
Bankr. N.D. lnd. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "N.D. Ind. L.B.R. B--")

o United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana

5.D. Ind. R. i -1(a) (may cite as "5.D. Ind. L.R.

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Indiana

Bankr. S.D. Ind. 9029-1(a) (may cite as "S.D. Ind.

United States District Court for the Northern District of lowa

o N.D. & 5.D. lowa Civ. R. I (a) (shall cite as "LR

-") lS
N.D. & S.D. lowa Civ. R. 10(e) (citation of statutes)
N.D. & S.D. lowa Crim. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "LCrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Iowa
Bankr. N.D. lowa 9004-1(a) (may cite as "Local Rule
or "1.R.
United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa
N.D. & S.D. lowa Civ. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "LR
-" -")
N.D. & S.D. lowa Civ. R. 10(e)
(citation of statutes)
N.D. & 5.D. lowa Crim. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "LCrR
United States District Court for the District of Kansas
D. Kan. R. 1.1(d) (should cite as "D. Kan. Rule _")
D. Kan.
D. Kan.

7.6(c) (citation of unpublished opinions)
83.1.2(a) (citation of standing orders)
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Kansas
Bankr. D. Kan. R. 1001.1(b) (should cite as "D. Kan. LBR
Bankr. D. Kan. R.
9013.1(d) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Bankr. D. Kan. R. 9029.2(a) (citation of standing orders)

United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky

Joint Ky. Civ. Prac. R. 85.1 (may cite as "LR _")
Joint Ky. Crim. Prac. R. 60.1 (may cite as "LCrR _") o
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky
Bankr. E.D. Ky. R. 100'l -1 (may cite as "KYEB LBR ") o
United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky
Joint Ky. Civ. Prac. R. 85.1 (may cite as "LR _") o
Joint Ky. Crim. Prac. R. 60.1 (may cite as "LCrR _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Kentucky o
Bankr. W.D. Ky. R. 5001-1(b) (shall cite as "W. D. Ky. L.B.R.

United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana

E.D. La. Civ. R. Preamble (may cite
admiralty rules as "LAR _")
civil rules as "LR ,__") (may cite
E.D. La. Crim. R. Preamble (may cite as "LCrR ")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana o

Bankr. E,D. La. R. 1001-1(B) (may cite as "1.R. _" or "Local Rule

United States District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana

-") o
M.D. La. R. Preamble (may cite civil rules as "LR -, ") (may cite
admiralty rules as "LAR _") (may cite criminal rules as "LcrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maine
Bankr. D. Me. R. 1001-i (mav cite as "D. Me. LBR ")
I United States District Court for the District of Maryland
D. Md. Adm. R. A(2) (may cite as " LAR _")
o United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maryland
D. Md. Admin. Order 07-02 (cite as "MD LOCAL BANKRUPTCY


United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts

I D. Mass. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "LR, D. Mass _" or "LR _")

United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan

o E.D. Mich. R. 1.1(a) (may cite civil rules as "E. D. Mich.

cite criminal rules as "E.D.Mich. LCrR _")
LR _") (may

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Michigan

I _")
Bankr. E.D. Mich. R. 9029-1(b) (shall cite as "E.D. Mich. LBR

United States District Court for the Western District of Michigan

o W.D. Mich. Civ. R. 1.2 (may cite as "W.D. Mich. LCivR

W.D. Mich. Crim. R. 1.2 (may cite as "W.D. Mich.

I United States Bankruptcy Court for the Westem District of Michigan

Bankr. W.D. Mich. R. 1001(b) (may cite as "LBR
o United States District Court for the District of Minnesota
D. Minn. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "LR
or "D. Minn.

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Minnesota

Bankr. D. Minn. R. 9029-1(d) (may cite rules as "Local Rule (may

o cite forms as "Local Form _")

United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri


o E.D. Mo. R. 1.01 (may cite as "E.D.Mo. L.R.

E.D. Mo. R. 2.16
(citation of Internet sources)

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Easterar District of Missouri

Bankr. E.D. Mo. R. 1001(A) (shall cite as "1.R.

o -"
United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri

o W.D. Mo. R. Preface (should cite as "Local Rule

United States District

Court for the District of Montana
or "1.R.

o D. Mont. R. 1.1(a) (may cite civil rules as "1.R.

rules as "1.R. CR _") -")
(may cite criminal

D.Mont. R. 1.5(c) (citations shall comply with The Bluebook or the
ALWD Citation Manual) (citation of cases and Internet sources)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana

o Bankr. D. Mont. R. 1001 -1 (a) (shall cite rules as "Mont. LBR

cite forms as "Mont. LBF ") -")

o 37
Bankr. D. Mont.R. 5005-2(aX7) (citations shall comply with The
Bluebook or the ALWD Citation Manual) o
United States District Court for the District of Netrraska
D. Neb. Gen. R. 1.1(a) (cite as "NEGenR
D. Neb. Civ. R. 10.1(aX4)
D. Neb. Civ. R. 85.1 (may cite as "NECivR
-") sources)
(citation of Internet
D. Neb. Crim. R. 61.1 (may cite as "NECrimR
D. Neb. Crim. R. 49.2(a)(4) (citation of Internet sources)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nebraska
Bankr. D. Neb. R. 1001-'l (A) (shall formally cite as "Neb. R. Bankr. P o
") (may also cite as "Local Rule _")

United States District Court for the District of Nevada I

D. Nev. Civ.
D. Nev. Crim.
R. 7-3 (citation of various types of legal authority)
R. 47-B (citation of various types of legal authority) o
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nevada
Bankr. D. Nev. R. 1001 (a) (may cite as "LR _")
United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire
D.N.H. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LR _")
D.N.H. Civ. R. 5.3 (citation of cases)
D.N.H. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LCrR _")
D.N.H. Pat. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "SPR _")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Hampshire

Bankr. D.N.H. R. Preface (shall cite as "LBR
Bankr. D.N.H. R. 1050-1 (citation of cases)
Bankr. D.N.H. R.9029-2 (cite administrative orders)

United States District Court for the District of New Jersey

D.N.J. Civ. R.9.2(aX2) (may cite
"LAMR _")
admiralty and maritime rules as
D.N.J. Civ. R. 85.1 (may cite as "L.Civ.R.
D.N.J. Crim. R. 60.'l (may cite as "L.Cr.R.
_") o
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Jersey
Bankr. D.N.J. R. 1001-1 (shall cite as "District of New Jersey Local
Bankruptcy Rules, D.N.J. LBR _")

United States District Court for the District of New Mexico o

D.N.M. Civ. R. 1.1 (cite as "D.N.M.LR-Civ.
D.N.M. Crim. R. 1.1 (cite as "D.N.M.LR-Cr.
_") I
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Mexico
Bankr. D.N.M. R. Preface (cite as "NM LBR \
a ,$lilr'i:;*{itil,'r,l h$rr:rtlrt {"ilirrllrrrt iilrl, ,r,r{ l'[1 {' ;i{fi":1r, ;;rliill

I United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of New York
Bankr. E.D.N.Y. R. 1001-1(bxii) (shall cite as "E.D.N.Y. LBR
o United States District Court for the Northern District of New York
N.D.N.Y. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "1.R.

I N.D.N.Y. R.

N.D.N.Y. Adm. & Mar. R. (aX3) (may cite as "LAR

Crim. P. 1.1 (shall cite as "1. R. Cr. P.
o N.D.N.Y. Patent R. 1.4 (shall cite as "1. Pat. R.

United States
Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of New

I York
Bankr. N.D.N.Y. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "Local Bankruptcy Rule
I or "LBR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New

o York
Bankr. S.D.N.Y. R. 1 001 - l (a) (shall cite as "LBR
I United States District Court for the Western District of New York
W.D.N.Y. Civ. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "1.R. Civ. P.
o W.D.N.Y. Civ. R.56(aX3) (citation of evidence)
W.D.N.Y. Crim. R. 1(a) (shall cite as "L.R. Crim. P.
United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina
O E.D.N.C. Civ. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "Local Civil Rule
I E.D.N.C. Civ.R.7.2 (citation of opinions)
E.D.N.C. Crim. R. 1.1 (shall cite as "Local Criminal Rule
o E.D.N.C. Crim. R. 47.2 (citation of opinions)
E.D.N.C. Pat. R. 301.1 (should cite as "Local Civil Rule
E.D.N.C. Adm. & Mar. R. A(1) (shall cite as "Local
-") Rule

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofNorth


Bankr. E.D.N.C. R. Preface (will cite as "E.D.N.C. LBR
o United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina
M.D.N.C. Civ. Title Page (cite as "LR
t M.D.N.C. Civ. R. 7.2 (citation of opinions)
M.D.N.C. Crim. R. Title Page (cite as "LCrR
M.D.N.C. Pat. R. 101 l (should cite as "LR -")

for the District of North Dakota
United States District Court

o D.N.D. R. Preface (may cite general rules as "D.N.D. Gen. L. R.

(may cite civil rules as "D.N.D. Civ. L. R.
as "D.N.D. Crim. L. R.
(may cite criminal rules

o -")

I 39
United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio
N.D. Ohio Civ. R. 1.1(b) (shall cite civil rules as "Local Rule or "LR
(shall cite admiralty rules as "Local Supplemental Rule
-" or
_" or
N.D. Ohio Crim. R. 1.1(b) (shall cite as "Local Criminal Rule

-") Pat. R. 'l .'l (should cite as "1.
Ohio P. R. ")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Ohio

Bankr. N.D. Ohio R. 1001-1(b) (shall cite as "Local Bankruptcy Rule
_" or "LBR _")
United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio
S.D. Ohio Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "S. D. Ohio Civ. R. _")
5.D. Ohio Civ. R. 7.2(b) (citation of various types of legal authority)
S.D. Ohio Crim. R. I.l(a) (may cite as "S. D. Ohio Crim. R.

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District ofOhio

Bankr. S.D. Ohio
R. 9029-1(a) (may cite as "Local Rule _" or "LBR
Bankr. S.D. Ohio R. 9013-2(b) (citation of unpublished opinions)

United States District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma

E.D. Okla. Civ. R. 1.2(e)
E.D. Okla.
(may cite as
Crim. R. i.1(A) (cite as "LCrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma
Bankr. E.D. Okla. R. 1001-1 (B) (may cite as "Bankr. E.D. Okla. LR _" or
"LR _" or "Local Rule ')
United States District Court for the Northern District of Oklahoma
N.D. Okla. Civ. R. 1.2(e) (may cite as "LCvR
N.D. Okla. Crim. R. 1.1 (may cite as "LCrR
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of
Bankr. N.D. Okla. R. 1001-1(B) (may cite as "Bankr. N.D. Okla. LR
or "LR _" or "Local Rule _")
_" o
United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma
W.D. Okla. Civ. R. 1.2(d) (may cite as "LCvR _")
W.D. Okla. Crim. R. 1.2(e) (may cite as "LCrR _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Oklahoma
Bankr. W.D. Okla. R. 1001-1(B) (may cite as "Local Rule _") o
United States District Court for the District of Oregon
D. Or. R. 1.3 (will cite as "LR ')
o ".

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Oregon

Bankr. D. Or. R. 1001-1(a) (must cite as "LBR _")
o United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
E.D. Pa. Crim. R. 1.1(b) (may cite as "Local Criminal Rule or "L.C.R.

o _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of

t Pennsylvania
Bankr. E.D. Pa. R. 1 001 -1 (b) (shall cite rules as "Local Eankruptcy

I Rule _" or "L.B.R. _") (shall cite forms as "L.B.F.

United States Bankruptcy Court for the illiddle District of


o Pennsylvania
Bankr. M.D. Pa. R. 1001-1(b) (may cite rules as "Local Bankruptcy
Rule _" or "L.B.R. _") (may cite forms as "L.B.F.

a -")
United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsvlvania

o W.D. Pa. Civ. R. 1.1(A) (may as "LCvR

W.D. Pa. Crim. R. 1 (may cite as "LCrR
W.D. Pa. Adm. R. (aX3) (may cite as "LAR _")

I W.D. Pa. Pat. R. 1.2 (may cite as "LPR _")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of

o Pennsylvania
Bankr. W.D. Pa. R. 1001-'l (shall cite as "W.PA.LBR

I United States District Court for the District of Rhode Island

D.R.l. R. 101(a) (shall cite as "Local Rules" or "DRl LR

o D.R.l. Adm. R. A(3) (may cite as "LAW

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Rhode Island

I Bankr. D.R.l. R. 1001- l(a) (shall cite as "R.1. LBR

United States District Court for the District of South Carolina

o D.S.C. Civ. R. 1.01 (shall

D.S.C. Crim. R. 1.01
cite as "Local Civ. Rule
(shall cite as "Local Crim. Rule


o United States Bankruptry Court for the District of South Carolina


Bankr. D.S.C. R. 1001-1(a) (may cite as "SC LBR or "Bankr. D.S.C.
R. _") -"
United States District Court for the District of South Dakota

o D.S.D. Civ. R. 1.1(A) (shall cite as "D.S.D. Civ. LR

D.S.D. Crim. R. 1.1(A) (shall cite as "D.S.D. Crim. LR

I United States
Bankruptcy Court for the District of South Dakota
Bankr. D.S.D. R. 1001-1 (shall cite as "Bankr. D.S.D.


United States District Court for the Eastern District ofTennessee

Tenn. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "E.D. Tenn. L.R.

-") 41
E.D. Tenn. R. 7.4 (citation of various types of authority)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofTennessee

Bankr. E.D. Tenn. R. 1001-1 (b) (may cite as "E.D. Tenn. LBR
-") o
United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee
M.D. Tenn. R. 7.0 1 (e) (citation of various types of legal authority)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Tennessee

Bankr. M.D. Tenn. R. 9029-1(b) (shall cite as "LBR _") o
United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee
W.D. Tenn. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite
"LCrR ')
civil rules as "LR _1 (shall cite I
criminal rules as
United States Ban*ruptcy Court for the Western District of Tennessee
9029-1(b) (cite rules as "L.B.R.

Bankr. W.D. Tenn. R. (cite forms as
"Local Form ') -")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas
E.D. Tex. Civ. R. 1(b) (may cite as "Local Civil Rule _")
Crim. R. 1(b) (may cite as "Local Criminal Rule _")
E.D. Tex.
E.D. Tex. Adm. R. (a)(3) (may cite as "LAR _")
E.D. Tex. Pat. R. 1-1 (should cite as "P. R. _")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District ofTexas

Bankr. E.D. Tex. R. 1001(a) (may cite rules as "LBR _") (may cite
forms as "TXEB Local Form _")
United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District ofTexas
Bankr. N.D. Tex. R. 1001-1(a) (shall cite as "N.D. Tex. L.B.R.

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District ofTexas

Bankr. 5.D. Tex. R. 1001(a) (may cite as "BLR

United States District Court for the Western District of Texas

W.D. Tex. Civ. R. 1(c) (may cite as "Local Court Rule
W.D. Tex. Crim R. 1(c) (may cite as "Western District of Texas Rule
_") o

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Texas

Bankr. W.D. Tex. R. 1001(a) (shall cite as "Bankruptcy Local Rule
or "1. Rule _")
United States District Court for the District of Utah
D. Utah Civ.R.7-2 (citation of unpublished opinions)
Local Rules of Practice Information (shall cite civil rules as "DUCiv
_") (shall cite criminal rules as "DUCrim R _")

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Utah
Bankr. D. Utah R. 1001-1(a) (should cite as "Bankr. D. Ut. LBR _" or I
"Local Rule "\

o i{{r r.${.J!{'ri{1)i[.iig:il1:ilrr: {.,'l;llifill {i]rr{t'rr ;irtri lrf ,, {r. irllill;.::i lm;;;*

o Bankr. D. Utah R. 9013-1(i) (citation of unpublished opinions)

United States District Court for the District of Vermont

o D. Vt. R. 1.1(a) (cite

R. _")
civil rules as "L.R. _") (cite criminal rules as "L.Cr.

a United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Verrnont

R. 9029-1 (aX1) (should cite rules as "Vermont Local
Bankr. D. Vt.

I Bankruptcy Rule _" or "Vt. LBR _")

Bankr. D. Vt. R. 9029-1(aX2) (cite appendices as "Vt. LB Appendix

o _") (cite forms as "Vt. LB Form _")

United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia

I E.D. Va. Adm. R. (aX3) (may cite as "LAR _")

United $tates Banknrptcy Court for the Eastern District of Virginia

t Bankr. E.D. Va. R. 1001-1 (may cite as "Local Bankruptcy

Rule-" or

I United States District Court for the lVestern District of Virginia

W.D. Va. R. 1(d) (may cite general rules as "W.D. Va. Gen. R.
(may cite criminal rules as
cite civil rules as "W.D. Va. Civ. R.
"W.D. Va. Crim. R. _") -")
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington

o E.D. Wash. R. Introduction (shall cite as "LR

or "LMR
E.D. Wash. R. 10.1(4) (citation of documents in the record)

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of


I Bankr. E.D. Wash.

Bankr. E.D. Wash.

9029- l(a) (shall cite as
9013-l (dX2) (citation of opinions)

o United States District Court for the Western District of Washington

W.D. Wash. Civ. R.85 (should cite civil rules as "Local Rules W.D.

o Wash. LCR _") (should cite criminal rules as "Local Rules W.D.
Wash. CrR
Wash. MJR-")
(should cite magistrate rules as "Local Rules W.D.
I W.D. Wash. Civ. R. 10(eX6) (citation to the record)
W.D. Wash. Supp. Adm. R. 100 (may cite as "Local Admiralty Rule

I W.D. Wash. Supp. Pat. R. 100 (may cite as "Local Patent Rule
I United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia
N.D. W. Va. R. Preface (cite general practice rules as "LR Gen P
I (cite civil rules as "LR Civ P (cite criminal rules as "LR Cr P
(cite prisoner litigation rules as "LR PL
as "LR Bk P
(cite bankruptcy rules -")

o United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of West


t Bankr. N.D. W. Va. R. Title Page (cite as "N.D.W.V. LBR

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of West
Virginia I
Bankr. S.D. W. Va. R. Title Page (cite as "Bankr. S.D. W.Va.
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin
R. _")
E.D. Wis. Civ. R. 7U) (citation of unpublished opinions)
United States District Court for the District of Wyoming
D. Wyo. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "U.S.D.C.L.R.
D. Wyo. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "U.5.D.C.L.Cr.R.
_" or "Local Rule _")
_") I
United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Wyoming
Bankr. D. Wyo. R. 1001-1(A) (may cite as "Wyoming LBR _")
United States District Court for the District of Guam
D. Guam R. 1.1(a) (may cite general rules as "GR _") (may cite civil
rules as "LR _") (may cite admiralty rules as "LAR _") (may cite
habeas corpus rules as "LHCR _") (may cite tax rules as "LTR
(may cite bankruptcy rules as "LBR _1
_'l I
D. Guam R.4.1(b) (citations shall be in
Bluebook (16th ed.))
the form found in The
United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands
D. N. Mar. l. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LR _")
D. N. Mar. l. Civ. R. 5.2a(c) (citations shall be in a generally
recognized form) I
D. N. Mar. l. Crim.
D. N. Mar. l. Bankr.
D. N. Mar. L Disc.

Table of Contents (shall cite as "LCrR _")
Table of Contents (shall cite as "LBR _")
Table of Contents (shall cite as "LDR _")

D. N. Mar. L Adm. R. Table of Contents (shall cite as "LAR _")

United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico

D.P.R. Civ. R. 1(d) (shall cite civil rules as "Local Civil Rule
"L.Cv.R. _") (shall cite admiralty rules as "Local Admiralty Rule
or _"
or "L.Adm.R.
Crim. R. 101(d) (shall cite as "Local Criminal
Rule " or I

United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Puerto Rico

Bankr. D.P.R. R. 1001-'l (a) (will cite rules as "P.R. LBR
forms as "P.R. LBF ')
_") (will cite
United States District Court for the District of the Virgin Islands
D.V.l. Civ. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LRCi ") o
D.V.l. Crim. R. 1.1(a) (shall cite as "LRCr _")
D.V.l. R. App. P. 1(a) (shall cite as "V.1. R. App. P.
D.V.l. R. App. P. 22(i) (citation of opinions)
_" or "VIRAP _") t
D.V.l. Bankr. R. 1001-1 (shall cite as "Local Bankruptcy
,LBR ")
Rule_" or
o United States Court ofAppeals for the Armed Forces
C.A.A.F. R. 37(cX2) (citations shall conform with The Bluebook)

t United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims

Vet. App. R. 30 (citation of nonprecedential and supplemental

o authority)
United States Court of Federal Claims

I U.S. Ct. Fed. Claims R. 1 (may cite as "RCFC

United States Court of InternationalTrade

o U.5. Ct. Int'l Trade R. B1

United States Tax Court

(citation of various types of legal authority)

I T.C. R. 23(0 (citation of opinions)

o State Courts n'l'2.)

Ala. R. App. P. 28(aX10) (citations shall comply with The Bluebook or
the ALWD Citation Manual or the style and form used in opinions

t of the Ala. Sup. Ct.)

Ala. App. P. 53(d) (citation of no-opinion order of affirmance)

App. P. 49 (shall cite as "The Alabama Rule of Appellate

Ala. R.
Procedure _" or "ARAP _")
Ala. R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Alabama Rule of Civil Procedure

I Ala. R. Evid.

1 102 (may cite as "Ala.R.Evid. _") -")

o Alaska R. App. P. 214(d) (citation of unpublished opinions)

Alaska R. Evid. 58 (shall cite as "Rule of Criminal Procedure

o Alaska Adoption R. 1(a) (will cite as "Adoption Rule

Alaska Dist. Ct. R. of Civ. P. 33 (shall cite as "District Court Rule of

o Civil Procedure _")

Alaska R. of Admin. 51 (shall cite as "Rule Governing the
Administration of All Courts _")
I Alaska Child in Need of Aid R. of P. 1(a) (will cite as "Child in Need
Aid Rule _" or "ClNA Rule _")

I Alaska Delinquency R. 1(a) (will cite as "Delinquency

Alaska R. of Prob. P. 1(a) (will cite as "Probate
Alaska Stat. 5 01.05.01 1 (may cite statutes as
"AS ")

o Atizona

o Ariz.

Civ. App. P. 1 3(aX6) (citation of cases)
Civ. App.P.28(c) (citation of memorandum decisions)
Sup. Ct. 'l (c) (citation of memorandum decisions)

R. 11

Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. 5 1-10'l (may cite as "A.R.S.


I 45
Ark. R. Civ. P. 85 (mav cite as "Arkansas Rule of Civil Procedure " or
Crim. P. 1.1 (mav cite as "Arkansas Rule of Criminal Procedure I
Ark. R. Evid.
Ark. Sup. Ct.
1 102 (may cite as "A.R.E. Rule - _")
R. 4-2(a)(7) (citation of opinions)
Ark. Sup. Ct. 5-2 (citation of opinions)

Ark. Code Ann. 5 1-2-1 13(c) (may cite as "A.C.A. _") o

House Style Gu ide (20 1 0), https://cou rts.a rka nsas.govlsites/default/
fi les/Ho u seo/o20Styleo/o20Gu ide0/o20Septem be 120 1 0.pdf o
Cal. R. Ct. 1.200 (citations
must be in the style established by the

California Stvle Manual or The Bluebook)
(citation of opinions)
Cal. R. Ct. 3.1 I 13(c)
California Style Manual (4th ed. 2000), http://www.sdap.orgl
downloads/Style-Man ual.pdf
Colorado o
Colo. R. Civ. P. I (c) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Civil Procedure
_" or "C.R.C.P. _")
Colo. App. 58 (shall cite as "C.A.R. _")

Colo. R. Prob. P. 1(b) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Probate

Procedure _" or "C.R.P.P. _")
Colo. R.P. Small Cl. Cts. 501(a) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Civi
Procedure " or "C.R.C.P. _") o
Colo. R. Prof'l Conduct 9 (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Professionar
Conduct" or "Colo. RPC _")
Colo. R. County Ct. Civ. P. 301 (b) (shall cite as "Colorado Rule of Civil
Procedure _" or "C.R.C.P. _")
Connecticut t
Conn. R. App.P. 5 67-11 (citation of opinions)
The Manual of Style for the Connecticut Courts (3d ed. 2013), http:// a
wwwjud.ct.gov/Pu blications/Man ual_of_style.pdf
Del. Sup. Ct. R. l4(SXi) (cite reported opinions according to The
Del. Sup. Ct. R. 14(gxii) (citation of unreported opinions)
Del. Sup. Ct. R. 1a(g)(iii) (cite other authority according to The
Del. Ch. Ct. R. 171(g) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook) o
Del. 5uper. Ct. Civ. R. P. 107(dX Xa) (cite reported opinions
according to The Bluebook)
Del. 5uper. Ct. Civ. R. P. 107(dX4Xb) (citation of unreported
^c opinions)
t ,llt nr-iir l{ll!.i:;;r i rir; {.il"rli,,rt lir" ' l . 'i ;t ;:;t i,

I Del. Super. Ct. Civ. R. P. 107(dX4Xc) (cite other authority according

to The Bluebook)

o Del. Super. Ct. Crim. R. P.60 (may cite as "Super. Ct. Crim.
Del. Ct. C.P. Civ. R. 107(cXa) (citations are appropriate if made in
accordance with The Bluebook)
R. _")

I Del. Ct. C.P. Civ. R. 107(cX5) (citation of unreported opinions and


a Del. Fam. Ct. R. Civ. P. 7(bX6) (citations are appropriate if made in

accordance with The Bluebook)

I Del. Fam. Ct. R. Civ. P. 10(d) (citations are appropriate if made in

accordance with The Bluebook)
Del. Fam. Ct. R. Civ. P. 107(cX5) (citations are appropriate if made in

I accordance with The Bluebook)

Del. Fam. Ct. R. Civ. P. 107(0 (citation of unreported and

I memorandum opinions)
R. Crim. P. 1(b) (may cite as "Family Court Rule of
Del. Fam. Ct.
Criminal Procedure _")

I Del. Code Ann. tit. 1 S 101(b) (may cite as Del. C. "-

Delaware Uniform Citation (2008), http://courts.delaware.gov/
I 5uperior/pdf/de-un iform-citation-2008.pdf
District of Columbia

o D.C. Ct. App. R. 28(h) (citation of administrative agency materials)

D.C. Super. Ct. R. Civ. P. 1 2-l(e) (citation of opinions from the D.C.

o Cir.)
D.C. Super. Ct. R. Civ. P.85 (may cite as "Superior Court
or "SCR-Civil-")

o -"
D.C. Super. Ct. R. Crim. P.47-l(b)
(citation of opinions from the D.C.

o D.C. Super. Ct. R, Crim. P.60 (may cite as "Superior Court

or "SCR-Criminal

I D.C. Super. Ct. Dom. Rel. R. 7(bX1XA)

D.C. Cir.)
(citation of opinions from the

D.C. Super. Ct. Dom. Rel. R. 1(a) (may cite as "Rule Governing

I Domestic Relations Proceedings

D.C. Super. Ct. Juv. P.R. 47
or "SCR-Dom. Rel.
-"of opinions from the-")
(citation D.C. Cir.)

o D.C. Super. Ct. Juv. P.R.60 (may cite as "SCR-Juvenile

D.C. Super. Ct. Land. & Ten. R. 1 (may cite as "Superior Court
-") Rule-

a Landlord and Tenant

Claims or "5CR-5C
or "SCR-LT
-" -")
D.C. Super. Ct. Small Cl. R. 1 (may cite as "Superior Court Rule-Small

I -" -")
D.C. Super. Ct. Small Cl. R. 13(a)
(citation of opinions from the D.C.

o citation and style Guide (2009), http://www.dccourts.gov/internet/

docu ments/RevisedCitationGuide2009.pdf

I 47
Fla. R. App. P. 9.010 (cite as "Florida Rule of Appellate Procedure _"
or "Fla. R. App.
Fla. R. App. P. 9.800
(citation of various types of legal authority) o
Fla. R. App. P. 9.800(o) (citations shall be in the
The Bluebook and the Florida Style Manual)
Fla. R. Crim. P. 3.010 (may cite as "Fla. R. Crim. P.
form prescribed by

Fla. R. Jud. Admin. 2.1 1 0 (cite as "Florida Rule of Judicial
Administration _" or "Fla. R. Jud. Admin. ") I
Fla. R. Juv. P. 8.000 (may cite as "Fla. R. Juv. P.
Fla. P.R. 5.010 (may cite as "Fla. Prob. R. _")
Fla. Small Cl. R. 7.010(a) (shall cite as "Florida Small Claims Rule
or "Fla. Sm. Cl. R. _")
Florida Style Manual (7th ed. 2010), http://www.law.fsu.edu/
jou rnals/lawreview/down loads/fl oridastylemanua l.pdf

Ga. Ct. App. R. 24(d) (citation of opinions)
Ga. Code 5 1-1-B(e) (may cite as "O.C.G.A. _")
Haw. R. App. P. 1(c) (shall cite as "Hawai'i Rule of Appellate
Procedure _" or "HRAP _")
Haw. R. App. P. 2B(bXl ) (citation of opinions)
Haw. App. P. 35(c) (citation of dispositions)

Haw. R. Evid. 100 (may cite as "Rule _, Hawai'i Rules of Evidence, o

Chapter 626, Hawai'i Revised Statutes")
Haw. R. Penal P. 60 (may cite as "Hawai'i Rule of Penal Procedure o
Haw. Fam. Ct.
R. 85 (shall cite as "Hawai'i Familv Court Rule " or
Haw. R.Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Hawai'i Rule of Civil Procedure
Haw. Civ. Traffic R. 1 (shall cite as "Hawai'i Civil Traffic Rule
" or o
Haw. Dist. Ct. R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "District Court Rule of Civil
A Handbook of Citation Form for Law Clerks at the Appellate Courts
of the State of Hawaii (2008), https://www.law.hawaii.edu/files/

content/library/HandbookofCitation Form.pdf
ldaho R. Evid.
"r.R.E. "l
'101 (a) (shall cite as "ldaho Rule of Evidence " ol

ldaho Crim. R. 2(b) (shall cite as "ldaho Criminal " or "l.C.R.

ldaho App. R. 'l (shall cite as "ldaho Appellate Rule " or "l.A.R. _")
o ldaho
R. Civ. P. 87 (may cite as "ldaho Rule of Civil
Procedure " or

o ldaho Juv.
R. 60 (shall cite as "The ldaho Juvenile Rule _" or "l.J.R.

lll. Sup. Ct. R. 6 (citation of various types of legal authority)

o Style Manual for the Supreme and Appellate Courts of lllinois

(4th ed. 20 1 2), http://www.state.i l.us/cou rtlstyleMan ual/5upCrt,

o Indiana
App. P. 22 (citation of various types of legal authority)

Ind. R.

Ind. Small Cl. R. 1(B) (may cite as "S.C. _")

Ind. Code 5 1-1-i -i (may cite as "lC ')

I Iowa
lowa R. App. P. 6.904(2) (citation of various types of legal authority)

a lowa R. Evid. 5..1 103 (shall cite as "lowa R. Evid. _")

t Kansas
Kan. Sup. Ct. R. 6.08 (citation of opinions)

Kan. R. Prof'l Conduct Prefatory Rule (may cite as "KRPC
Kan. Stat. Ann. Title Page (cite as "K.5.A. ') -")

o Ky. R. Civ. P. 1(1) (may cite as "Civil Rule _"

(citation of statutes and opinions)
or "CR _")

Ky. R. Civ. P.7612@)(g)
Ky. R. Civ. P.76.28(4)(c) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Ky. R. Crim. P. 1.02(1) (may cite as "Criminal Rule or "RCr
o Ky. R. Evid. 101 (should cite as "KRE
Ky. Sup. Ct. R. 1.000 (may cite as "Rule of
_") -"
the Supreme Court

o "scR


o La. Code Civ. P. 2168 (citation of unpublished opinions)

La. Code Crim. P. 1 (may cite as "C.Cr.P.

t La. Sup. Ct. Gen.

-") of opinions)
Admin. R. Pt. G. 5 B (citation
(mandatory use of a uniform public domain citation)
La. Ct. App. Unif .R.2-12.4(B)(2) (citation of opinions)

o Maine

I Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. Preface (cite as "M.R.S.A.

Uniform Maine Citations (2014), http://mainelaw.maine.edu/wp-
content/uploa ds/ 201 a / 02/ UMC20 1 4.pdf

o Maryland
Md. R. 1 103 (may cite general rules as ")
Md. R. 1-104(b) (citation of unreported opinions)
Md. R. 6-103 (cite settlement of estates rules as "Rule

R. B-504(aX1) (citation of opinions)
Mass. R. App. P. 16(9) (citation of statutes and opinions)
Mass. Dist. & Mun. App. Div. R. 16(g) (citation of statutes and
Massachusetts Reports Style Manual (201 4-201 5), http://www.
Mich. Ct. R. 1.101 (may cite as "MCR _")
Mich. Ct. R. 7.215(CX1) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Mich. R. Evid. 1 I02 (may cite as "MRE _")
Mich. Prof'l Conduct R. 1.0(a) (cite as "MRPC _")
Michigan Appellate Opinion Manual (201 4), http:/ /courts.mi.gov/
Cou rts/MichiganSupremeCourt/Documents/MiAppOpManual.pdf o
Minn. R. Civ. P. 85 (cite as "Rule of Civil Procedure _")
R. Civ. App. P. 136.01(1)(b) (citation of unpublished and order
Minn. R. Civ. App. P. 146 (may cite as "Rule of Civil Appellate
Procedure _")
Minn. Gen. R. Prac. 1.01 (may cite as "Minn. Gen. R. Prac. _")
Citing Min nesota Lega I Sources, http://www.leg.state.mn.us/leg/
leg h ist/citation s.a spx I
Miss. R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "M.R.C.P. _")
Miss. App. P. 2B(fX2) (citation of opinions)

Miss. R. App. P.49 (may cite as "M.R.A.P. \ I

Miss. R. Evid. 1 102 (may cite as "M.R.E. _")
Miss. Unif. Cir. & County Ct. R. 1.01 (may cite as "URCCC _") o
Mo. 5up. Ct. R. 1.01 (may cite as "Rule _") o
Mont. App. P. 1 (shall cite as "M. R. App. P. _")
AF 06-0632 (02-25-10),ln re the Matter of Opinion Forms and
Citation Standards of the Supreme Court of Montana I
Mont. Code Ann. Preface (cite as "MCA
_") httpl/leg.mt.gov/bills/
t Nebraska

Neb. Sup. Ct. R. S 2-i 09(C) (citation of various types of legal

I authority)
Neb. Unif. Dist. Ct. R. S 6-1505(C) (citation of various types of legal

I authority)

t Nev. R.
Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Nevada Rule of Civil Procedure
R. App. P. 48 (shall cite as "Nevada Rule of Appellate Procedure
_" or

a _" or "NRAP _")

Nev. Short Trial R. 35 (may cite as "Nevada Short Trial Rule _" or

I "N.S.T.R. _',]
Nev. Sup. Ct. R. 1 (may cite as "Supreme Court Rule _" or "S.C.R.

o Nev. Justice Ct.

Procedure _"
R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Justice Court Rule of Civil
oT "JCRCP _")
o Nev. Rev. Stat. 220.170(4) (may cite as "Nevada Revised Statutes
or "NRS _")

I New Hampshire
(citation of orders)

N.H. 5up. Ct. R. 12-D(3)
N.H. 5up. Ct. R. 16(9) (citation of opinions)
N.H. Sup. Ct. R. 25(5) (citation of summary dispositions)

o New Jersey
N.i. Ct. R. I:1-3 (may cite as "R. _")

o N.J. R. App. Prac. 2:6-2(a)(5)

N.J. Stat. 1:1-5.1 (may
New Jersey Statutes as "N.J.S.
(citation of opinions)
cite Revised Statutes as "R.5. _") (may cite
o New Jersey Manual on Style for Judicial Opinions (2004), httpJ

o New Mexico
N.M. R. App. P. 1 2-21 3(E) (citation of various types of legal authority)

o N.M. Sup. Ct.

N.M. 5up. Ct.
R. 23- l 1 2 (citation of various types of legal authority)
R. 23-1 12(F) (shall follow the form of citations set forth

I in The Bluebook)
N.M. Dist. Ct. R. Civ. P. 1 -001 (D) (shall cite as "Rule 1-_
Crim. P. 5-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule 5-_")

N.M. Dist. Ct. R,

N.M. Magis. Ct. R.Civ. P. 2-101 (D) (cite as "NMRA, Rule 2-_")
N.M. Magis. Ct. R. Crim. P. 6-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule 6-_")
o N.M. Metro. Ct. R. Civ. P. 3-'101(D) (cite as "NMRA, Rule 3-_")
Crim. P. 7-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule 7-_")

N.M. Metro. Ct. R.

N.M. Mun. Ct. R.P. 8-101(D) (shall cite as "NMRA, Rule 8--")
N.M. Child. ct. R. 10-101(E) (may cite as "Rule 10-_ NMRA")

I 51
New York

N.Y. C.P.L.R. 5529(e) (McKinney 2003) (citation of opinions)

N.Y. Ct. App. R. 500.1 (g), 51 0.1 (a) (citation of various types of legal
authority) I
New York Law Reports Style Manual (2012),http:l/www.courts.
state.ny.us/reporter/new*styma n.htm
New York Rules of Citation (5th ed. 2005), published by St. John's
L. Rev.

North Carolina
N.C. R. App. P. 1(a) (may cite as "N.C. R. App. P.
N.C. R. App. P. 30(eX3)
(citation of unpublished opinions)
N.C. R. App. P. App. B (citations
should be made according to The
North Dakota
N.D. Ct. 1 1.6 (use of public domain citation format)

N.D. R. Ct. 11.7 (may cite as "N.D.R.Ct. _")

Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "N.D.R.Civ.P. _")

N.D. R.

N.D. R. Crim. P.60 (may cite as "N.D.R.Crim.P. _")

N.D. App. P.48 (may cite as "N.D.R.App.P. _")

N.D. R. Evid. i 103 (may cite as "N.D.R.Ev. _")

N.D. R. Prof'l Conduct 9.'l (may cite as "N.D.R. Prof. Conduct _") o
N.D. R. Juv. P. (may cite as "N.D.R.Juv.P. _")
North Dakota Supreme Court Citation Manual (2000), http://www. I
ndcou rts.gov/citation

Ohio R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "Civil Rule _" or "Civ.
Ohio Crim. R.60 (may cite as "Criminal Rule _" or "Crim. R. _")

Ohio R. Evid. 1 103 (may cite as "Evidence Rule _" or "Evid. R. _")

42 (may cite as "Appellate Rule _" or "App. R. _")

48 (may cite as "Juvenile Rule _" or "Juv. R. _")


Prof'l Conduct Form of Citation (shall cite as "Prof. Cond.
Ohio 5up. Ct. Prac. R. 1.05 (shall cite as "S.Ct.Prac.R.
Writing Manual: A Guide to Citations, Style. and Judicial Opinion
Writing (2013]|, httpf /www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/ROD/manual.
Okla. Sup. Ct. R. 1.1(a) (may cite as "Okla.5up.Ct.R.
Okla. 5up. Ct. R. 1.200(c) (citation of opinions)
Okla. Sup. Ct. R. 1.200(fl (opinions shall be cited by reference to
public domain citation system)
I Okla.R. Crim. App. 1.0(D) (shall cite as "Rule _, Rules of the
Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, fifle22, Ch.1B, App. (year)";

o Okla. R. Crim. App.3.5(C) (citation of opinions)

Okla. Stat. Ann. (cite as "_ Okl. St. Ann. 5 _")

I Oregon
Or. R. Civ. P. 1(G) (may cite as "ORCP ")

I Or. R. App. P. 1.10(1) (shall cite as "ORAP

Or. R.
App. P. 5.20(5) (citation of memorandum opinions)
R. App. P. 5.35(3) (citations are to be in the form prescribed by

the Oregon Appellate Courts Style Manual)
Or. Unif. Trial Ct. R. 1.070(1) (shall cite rules as "UTCR _")

I Or. Unif. Trial Ct. R. 1.070(2) (shall cite supplementary local rules as
"sLR _")

o or. Unif. Trial Ct. 2.010(13) (citation of opinions)


Or. Tax Ct. Reg. Div. R. Preface (should cite as "Tax Court Rule _" or
"TCR ')
o Or. Tax Ct. Reg. Div. R. 61 (AX3) (citation of cases)
Or. Tax Ct. Magis. Div. R. Preface (should cite as "Tax Court Rule-

I Magistrate Division _" or "TCR-MD _")

Or. Rev. Stat. Preface (should cite as "Oregon Revised Statutes

t or "ORS ')
Oreqon Appellate Court Style Manual (2013), http://www.
pu blications.ojd.state.or.us/docs/UpdatedStyleManual2002.pdf

o Pennsylvania
Pa. R. Civ. P.51 (may cite as "Pa. R.C.P. No.

o Pa. R. App. P. 101 (may cite as "Pa. R.A.P.

Pa. R. App. P. 21 19(b) (citation of various types of legal authority)

o PAstvle: A Pennsylvania Stylebook and Citation Guide for Legal

Writinq (5th ed.2014)

o Rhode Island

R.l. R. Dom. Rel. P.85 (may cite as "R,Dom.Rel.P.

o R.l. R. Juv. P. 36 (may cite as "R.juv.P. ")

R.l. Super. Ct. R. Prac. 1.1 (may cite as "R.P. --")

a R.l. 5uper. Ct.

R.l. Super. Ct. R.
R. Civ. P. 1 (may cite as "Super.R.Civ.P.
Crim. P.60 (may cite as "Super.R.Crim.P. "l

o R.l. Super. Ct. R. Prac. 1.1 (may cite as "R.P.

R.l. Dist. Ct. Civ. R. 85 (may cite as "D.C.R.
Crim. P.60 (may cite as "Dist.R.Crim.P.

R.l. Dist. Ct. R,
South Carolina

I 5.C. App. Ct. R. 101 (b) (may cite as "Rule

S.C. App. Ct. R.
220(a) (citation of memorandum opinions)

t S.C. App. Ct. R. 268 (citation of various types of legal authority) 53

S.C. R. Civ. P. 85(a)

5.C. R. Crim. P. 38 (shall cite as "Rule

_, SCRCP")
(may cite as "Rule
_, SCRCrimP") I
S.C. R. Evid.

S.C. Fam. Ct. R. 1

1 103(a) (may cite as "Rule _, SCRE")

(may cite as "Rule

A Guide to South Carolina Legal Research and Citation (2d ed. 2009)

South Dakota I
S.D. R. Civ. P. 5 I5-6-85 (shall cite as "RCP ")
S.D. R. App. P. 5 15-264-69.1 (citation of opinions) I
S.D. R. App. P. 5 15-264-69.2 (shall
follow a public domain citation

S.D. R. App. P. 5 15-264-93 (may cite as "S.D.R.C. App.P. Rule _")


Crim P.60 (shall cite as "Tenn. P. \

Tenn. R. R. Crim.
Tenn. R. App. P. 27(h) (citation of various types of legal authority)
Tenn. Sup. Ct. R. 1 (shall cite Supreme Court Rules as "T.R.A.P. _" or
Tenn. Sup. Ct.
R. B (shall cite Rules of Professional Conduct as "Tenn. o
Sup. Ct. R. B, RPC _")
Tenn. 5up. Ct. R. 28 5 1 2 (cite Tennessee Rules of Post-Conviction
Procedure as "Tenn.Sup. Ct. R. 28, S _")
Tenn. Ct. App. R. 12 (citation of unpublished opinions)
Tenn. Ct. Crim. App. R. 19(4) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Tenn. Code Ann. 5 1-2-101 (a) (cite as "Tenn. Code Ann. " or "T.C.A.
_") I

Tex. R. App. P.47.7 (citation of unpublished opinions)

The Greenbook: Texas Rules of Form (1 2th ed. 201 0)
Utah R. Civ. P. 85 (may cite as "U.R.C.P.
Utah Code Jud. Admin. R. 1-101(1XE) (may cite as "CJA
Utah Sup. Crt. Standing Order No. 4 (Jan. 18, 2000) (citation of
opinions) o
Vt. R. Civ. P. 85 (mav cite as "Vermont Rule of Civil Procedure " or t
"v.R.c.P. _")
Vt.R. App. P. 1(d) (may cite as "Vermont Rule of Appellate
Procedure _" or "V.R.A.P. _")
Vt. R. App. P. 28.2 (citation of opinions)
Vt. R. Prob. P. 85 (may cite as "Vermont Rule of Probate Procedure
_" or "V.R.P.P. _")
Vt. R. Small Cl. P. 14 (may cite as "Vermont Rule of Small Claims
54 Procedure _" or "V.R.S.C.P. _")
t Vt. Env. Ct. Proc. R. 7 (may cite as "Vermont Rule for Environmental
Court Proceedings _" or "V.R.E.C.P. _")
5l (cite as "_ V.S.A. S _")
o Vt. Stat. Ann. 5


o Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5:1 7(cX3)

Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5:28(a)
(citation of various types of legal authority)
(citation of various types of legal authority)

o Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5A:20(a) (citation of various types of legal authority)

Va. Sup. Ct. R. 5A:21(a) (citation of various types of legal authority)

t Washington
Wash. Civ. R. Ct. Ltd. J. 85 (may cite as "Civil Rule for Courts of

I Limited Jurisdiction
Wash. Crim. R.
_'"CRU _")
Ct. Ltd. J. 1.8 (may cite as "Criminal Rule for Courts of

Limited Jurisdiction _"
or "CrRU
Wash. R. App. P. 18.21 (may cite as "RAP -")
App. Dec. Cts. Ltd. J. 1 1.9 (shall cite as "Rule for Appeal of

Wash. R.
Decisions of Courts of Limited Jurisdiction or "RALJ
Wash. R. Evid. 1
103 (may cite as "Washington Rule of Evidence
or "ER -"
a -")
Wash. Infraction R. Ct. Ltd. J.6.3 (may cite as "lnfraction Rule for
Courts of Limited Jurisdiction or "lRU
o Wash.
Gen. Application 14 App. 1 (citations must follow The

o Wash. R. Gen. Application 14.1 (citation of unpublished opinions)

Wash. Super. Ct. Civ.
or "CR _")
R. 85 (shall cite as "Superior Court Civil Rule
o Wash. Super. Ct. Mandatory Arb.
Mandatory Arbitration Rule
R.8.4 (shall cite as "Superior Court
or "MAR

I -"
Wash. 5uper. Ct. Spec. P. R. Exolanation (may cite as "SPR
Wash. Juv. Ct. R. I 1.21 (may cite as "JuCR

I Wash. Rev. Code Ann. 5 1.04.040 (cite as "RCW

Washington Courts Style Sheet (201 0), http://www.courts.wa.gov/

t a ppel late-tria l-courts/su preme/?fa=atc*su preme.style

West Virginia

o W. Va. R. Civ. P.85 (may cite as "W. Va. R. Civ. P.

W. Va. Crim. P. 60 (may cite as "W.Va.R.Crim.P.

W. Va. R. Evid. 1 102 (may cite as "West Virginia Rule of Evidence

o or "\IWRE _")


a Wis. Sup. Ct. R. 80.02 (citation of opinions)

Wis. Sup. Ct. R.99.03 (shall cite as "SCR

o -")
Wis. Stat. 809.19(1Xe) (cite authorities and the record as set forth in
The Bluebook)

I 55
Wis. Stat. 91 1.02 (may cite chapters 90'l to 91 1 as "Wisconsin Rule
Evidence _")
Wisconsin Guide to Citation (7th ed. 2012)

Wyoming o


85 (may cite as "Wyoming Rule of Civil Procedure
Cir. Ct. 1 1 (may cite as "W.R.C.P.C.C. _")
Wyo. R. Crim. P.60 (shall cite as "Wyoming Rule of Criminal
Procedure _" or "W.R.Cr.P. _")
Wyo. R. Evid. 103 (may cite as "Wyoming Rule of Evidence _" or
"wRE _")
Wyo. Unif. R. Cir. Ct. 1.01 (may cite as "U.R.C.C. _")
Wyo. Unif. R. Dist. Ct. 100 (may cite as "Uniform Rule for District
Courts of the State of Wyoming _" or "U.R.D.C. _")
Wyo. App.P. 28 (may cite as "Wyo. _")
R. R. App. P.

BT2.3 Territories
Guam Code Ann. tit. 1, 5 101 (b) (may cite as "GCA _")
How to Cite Guam Law (3d ed. 2002), http://wwwjurispacific.com/
public/g uam_law'citation_g uide_09-02.pdf

Northern Mariana Islands

Northern Mariana lslands Supreme Court Stvle Manual (2010),
Puerto Rico
P.R. Sup. Ct. R. 44(d) (citation of unpublished opinions)
Virgin Islands
V.l. Code Ann. tit. 1, 5 1(b) (may cite as " V.l.C. _")
App. P. 15(b) (citations shall be according to The Bluebook)
V.l. R.

to authorities so that rcaders mav iclentifi ancl find those
Pror.icle citutior-rs

a authorities for ftiture rescarch. Citations are made in citation scntences and
chnscs (de 1.1) and arc introducetl b.v signals. Sigtrals organize authoritics

o and show how those authorities support or relatc to u proposition given in thc
tcxt (rule 1.2). Citation scntcnces and clituses mav contain more than one sig-
nal. Order signals accorcling to rule 1.3.Within cach signal, arrangc tuthorities

o rccording to rule 1.4. Parcntheticals may bc necessary to explain thc rclcvancc

of a particular authority to the proposition given in thc tc'xt (rule 1.5). (lertain
additional infirrmation, specific to thxt authoriqi ma,v also be appcntlcd accord-

o ing to rule 1.6.

I Citation Sentences and Clauses in Law Reviews

Citations mav be madc in one of two wavs: in citation sentenccs or in citation

o clauses. In law rcview pieccs, all citations appear in fixrtnotcs appcnclecl to the
portions of thc tcxt to which they refer. For an explanltion of citation sentences
and clause s in pmctitioners' docume nts, see Bluepages 81.

o (a) Text. (litations to authorities that support (or contradict) lt Proposition

made in thc main text (as olrposed to f(Dtnote text) tre placecl in firotnotes.

I A fbotnotc call number should appear tt the end of a texttnl sentence if the
citcd authurity supports (or contradicts) the entire sentcnce. In contfttst, a call
number shoulcl appear within the sentence next to thc portion it st4rports if
o tl-re cited authorit)' supports (or contradicts) only' that plrt of thc sentence. The
call number comes lfter any punctu:ttion mark-sttcl-t as a commt, scmicolon,

I or periocl-with the exccption of a dash or a colttrr. ln tddition to cilation to

authorities, r fbotnotc may includc tcxtu:tl sentenccs that are relatcd to thc main

I text to which thc footnotc is appendecl.

ts This is sentence one.1 Sentence two contains two call numbers;2
however, onty one of these-this ones-is surprising. Recal[ one

o thing+' 6s11 numbers precede dashes and colons.

(b) Footnotes. If a fixxnote itself cotttlins an asscrtion requiring support, lt

o citation to the relevant authorit)'shotrlcl appear dircctl,v after the :tssertion lts
either a citation sentence (x a citation clause.

o (i) Citation sentences. Authorities thxt stlpport (or contradict) an cntire lbot-
note sentcnce are citcd in l separatc citation sentence immecliatclv lfter tl-tc
sentence thcy support (or contradict). The citatkrn sentence stlrts with a capi-

o tal letter and encls with a period.

(ii) Citation clauses. Auth0rities that support (or curtradicf) onh part of a sen'
tence within x fcrotnote are citcd in clauses, sct off b.v commas, that imme cliatclv
follow thc proposition thcy support (or contradict).

o (c) Example. The f<rllowing exccrpl illustrates thc

antl cllruscs in l llu rcvicw picce.
ttse of citation scntences

o tr Some American lurisdictions place the burden of sustaining crim-

inal defenses on the accused.l States have required defendants to

prove both insanity2 and self-defense.3 ln several lurisdictions the
defendant must even establish that a homicide was accidentat.4 I
w See.lohn Calvin Jeffries, Jr. & Paul B. Stephan lll, Defenses,

Presumptions, and Burden of Proof in the Criminal Law, 88 YALE

L.1.1325,1,329-30 (1979). The authors point out that the use of
affirmative defenses may relieve the state of its duty to prove a
sufficient factual basis for punishment,id. at457,and argue that o
the reasonable doubt standard should not be limited to those facts
formatly identified as elements of the offense charged, id. aI qz7. I
M 'E.9., State v. Caryl,543P.zd 389,39o (Mont. 1975); State v.
Hinson, q z S.E.zd 548, 551 (S.C. rqZo).

M' 3see, e.9., Quitlen v. State, rro A.zd 445, 449 (Del. r955); State
v. Skinner, rc4P. zz3, zz4 (Nev. ryo9). See general/yWnvrue R.
LnFnve & Ausrru W. Scorr, Jn., Hnuoeoor oru Cnrmrunl Lnw $ 8.r,
at7o4-o6 (zd ed. rg86) (discussing the origin of embezzlement
and false pretense).
s'" 4 See, e.9., Chandle v. State, r98 S.E.zd 289, z9o (Ga. 1973); State
v. Enlow, 536 S.W.zd 533,541(Mo. Ct. App. 1976).

1.2 IntroductorySignals
(a) Signals that indicate support.

Ino signal] Cited authority (i) directly srares the proposirion,(ii) identffies the
source of a quotation, or (iii) identilies an authority referred to in

the t€xt. Use no signal, for example, when clirectly quoting an au-
thority or when restating numerical data from an authoriry
Cited authorify states the proposition; other authorities also state
the proposition, but citation to rhem would not be helpful or is
not necessary. "E.g.i' may be used alone or attached to any other
signal (whether supportive or not).When it is attached to another
signal, it should be preceded by an italicized comma and followed I
by a non-italicized comma.
See, e.9., I
But see, e.9.,
Accord "Accord" is commonly used when two or more sources state or
clearly support the proposition, but the text quotes or r€fers to
only one; the other sources are then introduced by " occord." Simi-
larly, the law of one jurisdiction may be cited as being in accord o
with the law of another
Cited authority clearly supports the proposition."See" is usecl in-
stead of "[no signat]" when the proposition is nor directly stated
by the cited authority but obviously follows from it; there is an
inferential step betwcen the authority cited and the proposition
it supports.

t See also Cited authority constitutes additional source material that supports
the proposition."See olso" is commonly used to cite an authority

supporting a proposition when authorities that state or dircctl,\'' sup-
port the proposition already have been citcd or discussed. The usc
of a parenthetical explanation of the sourcc's rclcvance (rule 1.5)

a Cf.
following a citation introduced by"see also"is encouraged.
Cited authority supports a proposition different fiom the main

I proposition but suthciently irnalogous to lend support. l.itert[',

"cf." mcans "compare."The citation's tclevance will usrrally bc
clear to the rcader only if it is explained. Parcnthetical explanations

I (rule 1.5), however brief, are thcrcfbre strongly recommendecl.

(b) Signal that suggests a useful comparison.

o Compare... Comparison of the authorities cited will oflbr support for or illtts-
[and]... tr.lte the proposition. whcn uscd as a signal, "Compare" must

o with...
bc usecl in coniunction with "with"; thc "with" is preccdecl by
a comma, as is "and" whcn uscd. 'fhe rclevance of thc compar-
ison will usually be clear to thc rcader only if it is explaincd.

o Parcntheticirl explanations
thercfore strongly recommended.
(rule 1.5) folkrwing cach authorit-v are

o , Compore Michael H. v. Gerald D., 49r U.S. 7to,72t (t989) (relecting

the claim by a putative naturaI father of the right to visit his chitd

I conceived by a married woman), ond CATHARTNE A. MACKINNoN,

Feurrursn Uruoorrreo 49 O9B7) (contending that what connects
all women is their oppression in a sexual hierarchy), wifh Loving

o v. Virginia, 3BB U.S. 1, p G96) (invatidating laws prohibiting inter-

racial marriage), Doe v. McConn, 489 F. Supp. 26, Bo (S.D. Tex. rg8o)

I (holding a cross-dressing ordinance unconstitutional as applied to

individuats undergoing therapy for sex-reassignment surgery), ond
Kenneth L. Karst, The Freedom of lntimote Association, 89 Ynre

o L.J.6zt',,6;r (rg8o) ("The denial of the society of an intimate may

be partiat, as in the case of a parent who loses a contest over child
custody but is atlowed visitation rights, or virtually totat, as when a

O noncustodial parent is denied visitation rights.").

(c) Signals that indicate contradiction.

o Contro Citcd authority directly states the contrnry of the proposition.

"Contra" is used whcre "[no signat]"would bc used for support.

o But
Cited authority clead.v supports a proposition contrary to thc
nuin proposition. "But see" is uscd where "see" would be ttsccl

I But cf.
for support.
Cited authoriq.' st-lpports a proposition analogt)tts to the contrar)'
of thc main proposition. 'I'hc use of a parcntheticirl explanation of

o the sourcc's relcvlnce (rule 1.5) fbllowing a citittion introduced

by"but cf "is strongly recommended.

o "Buf" should bc omittcd from"but see" and "but cf." whenever onc of these
signals follows another nefiative signal:

) Contra Blake v. Kline, 6rz F .zd 7t8, 723-24 (Zd Cir. ryl);
see CHARLES Alnn WnrcHr, Law or Frornnl Counrs 5 +8 (+th ed. I

(d) Signal that indicates background material.

generally the
Cited authority prescnts helpful background matcrial related to
proposition. Thc use of a parenthetical explanation of thc
sourcc material's relevancc (rule 1.5) following each authority
intmduccd by "see generally" is encouragcd.
(e) Signals as verbs. In footnotes, signals may be used as thc verbs of textual
sentences. rJ/hen using signals in this wiry, inclnde matcrial that woulcl other-
wisc be included in a parenthetical explanation as part of the sentence itself.
Signals shoulcl not be italicized when usecl as verbs in tcxtual scntences (rule
2.1(d)). I
b See Christina L. Anderson, Comment, Double Jeopardy: The
Modern Dilemma for Juvenile Justice, r5z U. Pn. L. Rev. m8r,
72o4-o7 (zoo4) (discussing four main types of restorative justice
programs). o
p See Christina L. Anderson, Comment, Double Jeopardy: The
Modern Dilemma for Juvenile Justice, r5z U. Pn. L. Rev. rr8r,
12o4-o7 Qoo4), for a discussion of restorative justice as a reason-
abte replacement for retributive sanctions. I
" Cf, "
becomcs "com pare" and "e.g. " becomes "for exam ple" when used in this
r.3 Order of Signals o
rJfhen more than onc signal is used, the signals (along
with the authofities they
introduce) should appear in the order in which those signals are listed in rule
1.2. \Vhen "e.g.," is used in conjunction with another signal, the other signal's
position in rule 1.2 shoulcl be used. Notc that the order of ar.rthorities within
each signal must conform to rule 1.4. Signals of the same basic rypc-sup- o
portivc, compafative, contf:rdictory, or background (rule 1.2(a)-(d))-mLrst be
strung together within a single citation sentence and separated by semicolons,
Signals of different types, however, must be grouped in different citation sen-
tences. For examplc:

h See Mass. Bd. of Ret. v. Murgia, 427 U.S. Zol GgZ6) (per curiam);
cf, Palmer v. Ticcione, 433 F. Supp. 653 (E.D.N.Y. 1977) (uphotding
a mandatory retirement age for kindergarten teachers). But see,
e.q., Gault v. Ga rrison, 569 F.zd g% (7th Cir. ryt )
(hotdin g that
a ctassification of pubtic school teachers based on age viotated
equat protection absent a showing ofjustifiable and rational state o
purpose). See generally Comment, O'Neil v. Baine: Application of
Middle-Level Scrutiny to Old-Age Clossifications, n7 U. Pn. L. Rrv.
798 (!97il (advocating a new constitutionaI approach to otd-age
c [assi ficatio ns).

I Vithin a citation clausc (de 1.1),howcveqcitation strinlas may contain silanals
of more than one type , separatcd by scmicolons.

o Order of Authorities Within Each Signal r.4

o Authofities within each signal are seplr.rtcd by scmicolons.

If onc authorit_v or sevcral authorities tol{cther are consiclcrably morc helpful or

authoritativc than thc other authorities cited within a signal, thel' shoulcl prc-
ccdc thc others. Except in this situation, cite authorities in the ordcr in which
thel'are listcd below. Authoritics citcd in short fbrm are ordcrcd as though

t citcd in full.
(a) Constitutions ancl other foundational documents are cited in the folkrw-

t ing orcler:
(I ) federal
(2) state (alphabetically by statc)

o ( J) foreign (alphabetically by uriscliction)


(.i) foundational documents of thc Llnite d Nations, the League of Nations,

a ancl thc tsuropcan Union, in that order

(lonstitutions of the same juriscliction are cited in reverse chronokrgical ortlcr.

(b) Statutes rre citetl according to jurisdiction in the following olcler:

O Feclcral:

I (1) statutes in tl.S.C., Ll.S.O.A.. or { l.S.C.S. (b,v progrcssive orcle r of I I.S.( ).

(2) statutes currcntly in forcc but not in tl.S.C.,II.S.(;.A., or tl.S.O.S. (by

o (l)
rcverse chronological order of cnactnrcrtt)
rules of evidcnce and procedtrrc
(.1) repcaled statutcs (b-v reverse chtrnokrgical ordcr of enactntent)

o State (alphabcticall)' b)' state):

(5) statutcs in thc current codilicrtion (ry order in the codilicttion)

o (6) statutcs currcntl_v in firrce but not in thc current codffication (bY
revcrse chronological order of cnactmcnt)
(7) rulcs of evidence and proceclure

O (8) repealcd statutes (b_v rcversc chronological ordcr of enactmcnt)

F'oreign (alphabetically by jnrisdiction):

o (9) codcs or statutes in thc current codilicati<xr (by order in the

(10) statutes currently in ftrrce but not in cocles or thc current

O codification (bv revcrsc chronological orcler of cnactment)

(l 1) repealed strtutes (b1' reversc chronokrgical orcler of cnactment)

O (c) Treaties and other international agreements (otl-rer than the firunch-
tional documents of thc Unitcd Nations, the League of Nations, and the Euro-

o pean LJnion) are citcd in revcrsc chronological ordcr.

(d) Cases lre arrangecl within a signal accorcling to the courts issuing thc cited

t opinions. Subsequcnt and prior historics are irrelevant to the order of citation, as
is whethcr the opinion is published or unpublished. Cascs deciclctl by thc same
court are arrlnged in rcversc chronokrgical ordcr; for tlris purposc, all lJnited

States circuit courts of appeals are treated as one court (including the District of
Columbia and Federal Circuit). and all federal district courts are treated as one I
court. Thc ordering system is as follows:
Supreme Court
(2) courts of appeals, Emergency Court ofAppeals, andTemporary
Emergency Court ofAppeals
(3) Court of Claims, Court of Customs and Patcnt Appcals, and bankruptcy
appellate panels o
(4) district courts,Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation, and Court of
International Trude (previously thc Customs Court)
(5) district bankruptcy courts and Railroad Reorganization Court
(6) Court of Federal Claims (previously the trial dMsion for the Court
of Claims), Court ofAppeals for the Armed Forces (previously the
Court of MilitaryAppeals), andTax Court (previously the Board ofTax
(7) administrative agencies (alphabetically by agency)
(t|) courts (alphabetically by state and then by rank within each state)
(9) agencies (alphabetically by state and then alphabetically by agency
within each state)
(10) courts (alphabetically by jurisdiction and then by rank within each

(l l)
agencies (alphabetically by jurisdiction and then alphabetically by
agency within each jurisdiction)

(12) International Court ofJustice, Permanent Court of International

Justice O
(13) other international tribunals and arbitral panels (alphabetically by

(e) Legislative materials are cited in the following order:

1l,) bills and rcsolutions
(2) committce hearings a
(l) reports, documents, and committee prints
(4) floor debates
Cite materials within each classification in rcverse chronological ofder. If citing
both federal and state materials, cite federal materials lirst, in reverse chronologi-
cal order Cite state matcrials in reverse chronological order and then alphabeti
cally by state.

(f) Administrative and executive materials are cited in the followinq order:
(l) Executive Orders I
(2) current Treasury Regulations, proposed Treasury Regulations
(l) all other regulations currently in force @y progressive order of C.[R.
t (4) proposed rulcs not )'et in force (bv progressive ordcr offirture (l.FR
title, if any; otherwise by rcversc chronological order of proposal)

I (5) all matcrials rcpealcd (b1'rer-ersc chronological orcler of


((r) state (alphabetically by statc), currently in firrce, thcn reperled


o (7) foreign (alphabetically b,v jurisdiction), currently in forcc, then


(g) Resolutions, decisions, and regulations of intergovernmental orga-

o nizations are cited in the following ordcr:
(l) llnitecl Nations antl League of Nations, in revcrse chnrnokrgical ordcr

I b_v issuing body (Gcneral Assembly, thcn Security Council, thcn other

organs in alphabetical orcler)

(2) othcr organizations (alphabetically by name of organization)

o (h) Records, briefs, and petitions are cited in that orcler, and within each
classification by orclcr of the court in which liled (see rule 1.4(d)). Bricf.s

o within the samc casc and court are cited in the folkrwing ordcr: plaintiff/pcti-
tioner, defendant/respondcnt, and then amictts curiac in alphabctical order by

Iirst word of thc amicus party's name.
(i) Secondary materials are citcd in the folkrwing order:
unilbrm codes, model codes, and restatements, in that orcler (in
reverse chronological order by categ(x)')
(2) books, pamphlets, and shorter works in a collcction of a singlc

o author's works (afhabctically by last namc of author;if none , b1' first

worcl of titlc)
(J) works in iournals (not magazincs or Itcwsptpers), inclucling

o fbrthcoming works and shortcr works in a collection of variotts

authors'works (llphabetically by last namc of author)
(4) book reviews not writtcn by stuclents (alphabetically by last name of

o revicwe r)
(5) student-writtcn hw revicw matcrials inclr.rding book rcviews (alphl-

o be tically by last n:rme of author; if none , by lirst worcl of title ; if none , bv

periodical as abbreviated in cittttion)
(6) annotations (in rcverse chronological ordcr)

o (7) maglzine and newspapcr article s (alphabetically by last namc of author;

if none , by lirst word of title)

t (ti) working papers (a$habetically by last namc of atrthor; if nonc, by lirst

word 0f title )
(9) unpublished matcrials not lbrthcoming (alphabetically by last name of

o author; if none, by lirst word of title)

(10) electronic sources, including Internct sources (alphabctically by hst
nanc of author; if none, by first worcl of title)

o When not acldresscd above , for thc purposes of a$habctizing within cach clas-
silication, use only the name of the first authof listed (if any) antl thcn proceed

I to use thc titlc.

(i) Cross-references to thc author's own text or f(x)tnotcs.
t.5 Parenthetical Information
(a) Substantive information. Use parcntheticals, to explain thc
as needed,
relevance of a particular authority to the proposition givcn in the tcxt. Paren-
thetical infbrmation is recommencled when the relevance of a cited authority
might not otherwise be clear to the reader (see rule 1.2). Explanatory informa-
tion takes the form of a present participial phrase, a quOted sentence, or a short
statement that is appropriate in context.
(i) Phrases not quoting the authority. Explanatory parenthetical phrases
not directly quoting the authority usually bcgin with a present participle and
should nevcr begin with a capital letter:
W See generallyAkhit Reed Amar, Reports of My Death Are Greatly O
Exaggerated: A Reply,48 U. Pn. L. Rev. 165r (r99o) (arguing that
the author and the two-tier theory of federal lurisdiction are still
Vhen a complete participial phrase is unnecessary in context, a shorter parcn-
thetical may be substituted:
b' Such standards have been adopted to address a variety ofenviron-
mental problems. see, e.9., H.B. Jacobini, The New International
Son itary Re g u lati o n s, 46 AM. l. lNt' t L. 7 27, 7 z7 -zB (rgS z) (health-
related water quality); Robert L. Meyer, Travaux Pr6paratoires for c
the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, z EnnrH t.l. qS, qS-Bt
(1926) (conservation of protected areas).

(ii) Phrases quoting the authority. If, howeve r, the parenthctical information
quotes one or more ftlll sentences or a portion of material that rcads as a full
sentence, it sl-rould begin with a capital lctter and include appropriate closing
* 3 Consequences ofChonging U.S. Population: Hearing Before the O
H. Select Comm. on Population, g5th Cong. n Q97B) (statement of
Dr. David Birch) ("[T]here are more mayors of Rockville, Maryland,
than there are mayors of Detroit.").
F' Mari J. Matsuda, Public Response to Rocist Speech: Considering
the Victim's Story, 87 MrcH. L. Rev. z3zo, 4Bt 9989) ("We are a a
legalized culture. lf law is where racism is, then law is where we
must confront it.... IL]et us presenta competingideology....").

Not: Mari J. Matsuda, Public Response to Racist Speech: Considering

the Victim's Story,87 MrcH. L. Rev. z3zo, 4Bt Q989) (exptaining
that "[w]e are a legalized cutture. lf taw is where racism is, then
law is where we must confront it . . . . IL]et us present a competing
ideotogy. . . ."). a
When dircctly quoting only a short phrasc from an authority, folkrw rule 1.5
But see Flanagan v. United States, +6S U.S. 259,264 OgBg)
(exptaining that the finalludgment rule reduces the potential for
parties to "clog the courts" with a succession of time-consuming
o (b) Order of parentheticals within a citation.
multiple parcntheticals, place thcm in thc fbllowing order:
W'hen a citation requires

I F" (date) [hereinafter short name] (en banc) (Lastname, J., concurring)
(pluratity opinion) (per curiam) (alteration in originat) (emphasis
added) (footnote omitted) (citations omitted) (quoting another

a source) (citing another source), http://www.domainname.com

(explanatory parentheticat), prior or subsequent history.

o In citations to online
such tlut
sor-rces that slurc the charactcristics of a print sotlrcc
thc-v coultl bc cited according to de 18.2.l(bxii), thc URL should

t immcdiatell' precedc the cxplanatorv parenthetical.

sourccs (rule 18.2.2), the "hcrcinafter" parcnthcti
In citations to Internet
follow the liRl. or if there is onc, thc "last visited''
cal should immediately

In citations to online and Internet sourccs that utilizc archival totlls, the archival

o link should immediately'follow thc IIRL (rule 18.2.1(d)).

Notc that explanatory parcnthcticals prccecle an.v citati(xl of sttbsctluent histor.v

o or othcr relatcd authoritl'(rule 1.6):

t, Att. Richfietd Co. v. Fed. Energy Admin., 429 F. Supp. 7052, 1067-62

o (N.D. Cat. rqZ6) ("[N]ot every person aggrieved by administrative

action is necessarily entitted to the protections of due process."),

t ir
aff d, SS6 F.zd 5 4z (Temp. Emer. CI. App. tgtil.
Louis Loss, Ihe Conflict of Laws ond the Blue Sky Laws, 71 Hnnv.
L. Rev. 209 (1957) (discussing the bewitdering array of state laws

o then governing interstate securities transactions), reprinted in

Lours Loss & Eownno M. Cowrrr, Brue Srv Lnw 1.80 (1958).

o If the matcrial cited quotes or cites two or more dillcrcrtt sotlrces. includc lll
sorlrces in thc ordcr in which thcy wcre citctl within one qtlotillg or citing

t ptfenthetical:
** Duncan v. Louisiana, 39r U.S.
omitted) (first quoting Powell
t45,t48-49 (t968) (footnote
v. Alabama, zB7 U.S. 4s,6l lt93z);
o then quoting /n re Oliver, 333
quoting Gideon v. Wainwright
U.5. 257,273 (1948); and then
,37ztJ.S. i;s,343-44 bS6)).

I Related Authority r.6

t Whcn citing a work, citations to rclatcd authorities may be hclpful to lricl in

locating thc primarl' work or to provicle relevant information not reflcctcd in
thc primary citation. (litations to relatecl authority may be appencled to thc pri-

o mar)' citation with thc use of att italicized cxplanittory phrase.

(a) Related authority intended to increase access.

a (i) "In." Vhcn citing it shortcr rvork such as an article, cssal'. or spe ech originalll'
published in a volume collecting such works, ttsc "in" to introdttce tlre collec-

o tion as a whole (see rule 15.5):

ts Kay Deaux & Brenda Major, A Social-Psychological Model of
Gender,in THEonerrclr Prnspecrrvrs oru Sexunl Drrrrnerucrs 89, I
93 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., r99o).
(ii) "Reprinted in." A work that conveniently reprints a sourcc originally pub-
lished elsewhere may be introduced by "reprinted rn." As far as possible, pra
vide a complcte citation for the original work, followed by"reprinted in" and
the citation for the volume containing the reprint (see rule 15.5.2):
+ Louis Loss, Ihe Conflict of Laws and the Blue Sky Lows, 7r Hnnv.
L. REV. 2o9 Q95), reprinted in Lours Loss & Eowano M. Cowerr, o
Blue Sry Lnw r8o (1958).
Thomas Jefferson, Kentucky Resotutions of 1798 and q99,
reprinted in 4 Dranrrs oN THE ADoploN oF rHE Feoennl CoNSTt-
ruroN 540 (Jonathan Ettiot ed., zd ed., Phitadetphia, J.B. Lippincott
To indicate excerpts or partial reprints, add the word "as":
p"" S. REp. No. 95-r8r, at 4 Q97), os reprinted in 1977 U.S.C.C.A.N.
(iii) Other phrases. Othcr phrases may be used by analogy to rule 1.6(a)(i)
and (ii), as appropriate (e .g.,"microformed on" (see rule 18.5.1), or"trons-
lated in" (see rule 20.2.5)). a
(b) Relevant history. The prior or subscquenr history of a case (rule 10.7)
or of a statute (rule 12.7) may bc appended to the main citation for that case o
or statute . See rules 10.7 tnd 12.7 for circumstanccs in which the subsecuent
history of a case or statutc must be indicated:
k' Matthews v. Konieczny, 488 A.zd 5 (Pa. Super. Ct. t985), rev'd,527
A.zd 5oB (Pa.ryV).
(c) Commentary. Works that discuss or quote the primary authority may also
be appended to the citation without parentheses as related authorities when
particularly relcvant or when locating the original soufce may be difficult. Use
italicized phrases such as "noted in:"'construed inl"'quoted in:',,reviewed
by,""cited with approval inl'and,"questioned in" to inrroduce these works.
Works that th€ primary authority discusscs, cites, or otherwise mentions, how-
ever, should be indicated parenthetically. Thus:

i" Filled MitkAct $ r, zr U.5.C. 5 6r (zoo6), construedrn MilnotCo.v. I

Richardson,35o F. Supp. zzr (S.D. tll.t97z).
But: Milnot Co. v. Richardson, 350 F. Supp. zzt (5.D.lll. t97z)
(construing Fitted Mitk Act g r, zr U.S.C. g 6r (zoo6)).
Lelaal writing uses four typefaces, though choice of font may varv (e.!a.,Timcs

a New Roman,

Couri cr, etc.):

Ordinary Roman (Plain Text)
+ Underlined
't ltalicized

I - Lnnce nno SmalL Caprrals

Law reviews usc two sets of t_vpcface convcntions-one firr law review tcxt
(eitlrcr main tcxt or footnote text) (rule 2.2) lnd one firr law review citations

o (rule 2.1). tlnless otherwise notccl, the examples in The Bluelnok correspond
to thc convention firr law revicw f<xltnotes.

o l'or an cxplanation of thc tvpefacc convcntions commonly uscd in othcr forms

of lcgal rvriting, sec Bluepages 82. Practitioncrs can mlkc rcady usc <>f the

I exrnrplcs in Tbe Bluebutk b)' substituting thc typefacc convcntions outlincd

in the Bluepages firr those firuncl in thc exlmplcs thrcughout thc rcst of thc

o For cxample , a practitioner's brief might look likc this:

Directors manage the business and affairs of a corporation. See

a Revlon, Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Hotdings, Inc., 5o6 A.zd t73,
q9 (DeI. 1986); seqalso Del. Code Ann. tit. B, 5 rz+r(a) (zooo). In

o Guth v. Loft, the court held that directors also owe a duty of loyalty
to the shareholders. 5 A.zd 5q,5ro (Det. 1939) (hotding that

directors' duty of toyalty demands that "there shalt be no conflict
between duty and setf-interest").

A simihr scction of a law revicw article mifiht reacl:

t. Directors manage the business and affairs of a corporation.l In

Guth v. Loft, the court hetd that directors also owe a duty of loyalty

I r'
to the shareholders.'
1See Revlon, Inc. v. MacAndrews & Forbes Hotdings, Inc.,
5o6 A.zd

o '
773, 179 (Det. rg86); see olso Der. Cooe ANN. tit. 8, 5 r+r(a) (zooo).
5 A.zd 503, 510 (Del. rg;q) (holding that directors'duty of
loyalty demands that "there shal[ be no conflict between duty and
o se tf-interest").

rule rule 2.2, Bluepages 82.

F.<rr rtdditional guichnce , see 2. 1, ,n'rd

Typeface Conventions for Citations 2.7

o Most law revicws r.rse threc tlifl'crcnt typctaces in citations:

OrdinarV Roman (Plain Text), /tolics, and LARGE AND SMALL


Some replace large and small capitlls $'ith orclinlrv roman ttpe.'l'hus:
t Colin S. Diver, The Optimal Precision of Administrotive Rules,93

Ynre L.l.6S (rq8;).
s Colin S. Diver, The Optimal Precision of Administrative Rules,93
Yale L.l. 6S (rq8;).

Othcr law revicws replace some italics, as wcll as all large and small capitals,
with ordinary roman typc:
I Cotin S. Diver, The Optimat Precision of Administrative Rules, 93 I
Yate L.l. 6s OgB).

1'he cxamples in this book follow thc lirst convention, using all three typefaces. o
The following list explains the more important typefacc conventions usecl in
law review citations:

(a) Case names (rules 1O.2, 14.3.1,2O.3,21.5, and 21.6).IIse ordinary

roman type fbr case namcs in full citations, exccpt for procedural phrases,
which are always italicized:
ts Lochner v. New York, r9B U.S. 45 (1905).
9 State exrel. Scottv.Zinn,39zP.zd 4t7 (N.M. 1964).
rvhen a casc name appears within an article title in a citation, do not italicize it:

F Thomas J. Madden et
al., Bedtime for Bivens: Substituting the
United Stotes as Defendant in Constitutional Tort 5uits, zo Hnnv.
oN LEGrs. +69 (tg91).
Use itirlics fbr thc short form of case citations:

* Lochner, r98 U.S. at 5o.

(b) Books (de 15). tJsc largc and small capitals firr both authors and titlcs: I
Sruple Justtct(t976).
F= RrcHnno KLUGER,

(c) Periodicals (rule L6). Italicize article titles and usc largc and small clpitals
lbr periodicll names. Authors'names shoulcl appear in ordinary roman type:
h^ Katherine K. Baker, Once a RapistT
Relevancy in Rape Low,11o HARV. L.Rw.563
Motivational Evidence and
ts Cass R. Sunstein, Lochner's Legacy, 87 Coruu. L. Rev.873 (1987). o
e* David E. Bernstein, Lochnefs Legacy's Legocy, Bz
Trx. L. Rev. r
(d) Introductory signals (rule 1.2). Itrlicize all introdr.rctory
thcy appear within citation scntcnces or clauscs:
signals when
See, e.9., Parker Drilling Co. v. Ferguson,3gtF.zd 58r (5th Cir.

Do not, howcv'e r. italicize a signal rvord whcn it sen e s as the ve rb of an ordinary

M For an analysis of risk-allocation rules under the UCC, see Roger S.

Goldman, Note, Rrsk of Loss in Commercial Transactions: Efficiency
Thrown into the Breoch,65 Ve. L. Rev. 557, S6S-lz (rglil. I
o (e) Explanatory phrases (rules 1.6, 1O.7, and I2.7). ltr,liciz.c all explana-
tory phrases:

o 3 0reck Corp. v. Whirlpoot Corp.,579 F.zd tz6,9r (zd Cir.) (en

banc), cerf. denied, 89 U.S.gt'i6 (rgZB).

I Notc, howevcr, that phrascs in rchted authorit) parentheticals, such

ing . . . )i' " (citing . . . )," :rnd " (translating . . . )" are not itrlicizc(l.
as "(quot-

o (f) Punctuation. Itllicizc commas, semicolons, and othcr punctuxtion nlxrks

only whcn they constitute part of the italicized nraterial, and not whcn thcl lre
mcrch' an clcment of thc sentcncc or citution in which the1. appcur. For cluritl',

o thc italicizctl items in thc examplcs bekrw appeur in bluc:

':' See, e.g.,id.; Sabine Towing & Transp. Co. v. Zapata Ugland

o e
Dritling, lnc. (ln re M/V Vulcan), 553F.zd 48q (rth Cir.) (per
curiam), cert. denied, 84U.S.BSS GSI).

o Nancy Reagan, Editoriat, /usf 5oy "Whoo," Wnrr Sr. J., lan. 23,
ry96, aI At4.

o Typeface Conventions for Textual Material )',

I (a) Main text. l'he main text of law rcview pieces docs not contain citatious
lncl lrses onh' ordinrrr,y roman rnd itrlics. Most materiel rppeitrs in t.rrclirurY
roman type . Only the fblkrwing irre italicizcd:

o (i) Case names. Italicize

pfrr:rscs srrclr rs '/n
casc nanes, including
re"'tnd-ex rel.":
thc v.' ancl all proccdurd

t .' Missouri ex rel. Goines v. Conado

(ii) Titles of publications, speeches, or articles. Thus:

o r'' The library has a copy of The Path of the Law, which was published
inthe Harvard Law Review; a complete set of the Federal Supple-

T ment; and today's Woll Street Journa,l. lt does not have a copy of
Hearings on S. 776 or Alaska Statutes.

o (iii) Style. Italicize u'ords for cnrphasis or othcr st.vlistic lturltoses (rule 7). Also
itllicize words that arc emphasizcd in (luoted mlttcr (rule 1.2).

o (tr) Footnote text. tlnlike in thc main tcxt, a scntcnce in footnotc text mav coll-
tair-l citrtions, which arc placecl in cit:ttiot-t clauscs emltecldcd in thc sctltellce
(rule 1.1(b)).

o (i) Case names. When a casc namc is grantnt:tticalll plrt of thc sentencc in
which it appcars, it slrould bc itdicizccl:

o * ln Loving v. Virginia, the Court invalidated Virginia's antimiscege-

nation statute.

I w ln Loving v. Virginia,38B U.S.

ia's antimiscegenation statute.
t (tg6), the Court invalidated Virgin-

When the case name is not grammatically part of the sentence, but rather used
in a citatkrn clause embedded in the footnote text, use the typeface conventions
for citations (rule 2.1(a)):
F The Court has upheld race-specific statutes that disadvantage o
a racial minority, e.9., Korematsu v. United States, 3z3U.S.zt4
(t94Q,but those decisions have been severety criticized.
F lustice Harlan quipped that "one man's vulgarity is another's lyric,"
Cohen, 4o3 U.S. at 25, but failed to provide further exptanation.
(ii) All other authorities. When referring to any other type of authority,
whether or not the refbrence is grammatically part of the sentence, use the
typeface convcntions for citations if the full citation or a short form citation
(rule 4) is given:
e A different view is expressed in LeenneD HAND, THE BrLL oF RrGHrs
(1958), and HoLMEs, supra note 2.
If the reference appears without the full or shortencd citation information, fol-
low the typeface conventions for the main text of law reviews (rule 2.2(a)(ii)):
F' Judge Hand explained his phitosophy of ludiciat review in The Bill
of Rights. I
(iii) Explanatory parentheticals. In explanatory parentheticals, follow the
typeface convention for case names in citation text when a ftill citation clause o
is included:

h Nat't R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, S16 U.S. ror, uo (zooz)

(citing Chevron U.5.A. Inc. v. NaturaI Res. Def. Council, lnc., 467
U.S.8tz (rSB+)).
&' Nat'l R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, 536 U.S. tor, rro (zooz)
(addressing an argument based upon Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v.
Natural Res. Def. Counci[, |nc.,467 U.S. BIZ GS8+)). o
re Nat'I R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan, Sf6 U.S. ror,
(addressing an argument based upon Chevron).
uo (zooz)
(c) Puncfuation. Italicize commas, semicolons, etc., only when they constitute
part of italicized material, and not when they are merely an element of the o
citation or sentencc in which they appear. For purposes of clarity, the italicized
punctuation marks in the examples below appear in blue :

it' When it decided Sabine Towing, the Fifth Circuit presented a some-
what different rationate for its holding.
Brannon Denning's article, Reforming the New Confirmation
Process: Replacing "Despise and Resent" with "Advise and
Consent," suggests amendments to the Senate's proceduraI rules. a
Itot: Brannon Denning's atlicle, Reforming the New Confirmotion
Process: Replacing "Despise and Resent" with "Advise and I
Consent," suggests amendments to the Senate's proceduraI rules.

Most subdivisions (such as columns or scctions) in citations are abbrcviatcd. Sce

o table T16 firr a list of subdivision rbbreviations.

t Volumes, Parts, and Supplements

A single work often rppears in separ:rtely plginatecl (or scctioned or ptra-

a gr.rphcd) volnmes, parts, or supplemcnts. A citxtion to matcrial that appcars in

onc such volumc, prrt, <lr supplement mllst iclcntiff the scp:tratel.]- pllginated

subdivision in which thc material appears.

(a) Volumes. \Vhen the volumes lre numberctl, cite thc volume nuntber in Ara-
bic numcr.rls. If the author of thc entire work (all volumes) is cited. thc r,rrlttnte

o nttnthcr prt'tt'dcs tlte arrthor's nltrnc:

r' 2 FREDERTcK PoLt-ocK & Fneoentc Wtt-ltnpt Mnlrrnruo. THe Hlsronv
zo5-o6 (zd ed. rgrr).
O ' 2 SuBcoMM. oN LABoR oFrHE S. Cotum. on Lneon & Puertc

o Wrrranr,92o Couc., Lectsrnttve Htsronv

MENr OppoRruNtryAcr oF
oF rHE EQUAL EnnploY-
7972,atrco7 Q97z).

o Othcrwisc, thc volume number precedes the volumc's title:

Donald H. Zeigter, Young Adults os o Cognizable Group in Jury

I Selection, T6 MtcH. L. Rrv. ro45, to4l ltgl9).

If no volnmc number is given but the volumc is readily identiliable b.v velr, trse
thc velr of the volume as tlrc volume number and omit the yetr after thc pincite:

a ,r Thomas R. McCoy & Barry Friedman, Conditional Spending: Feder-

olism's Trojan Horse, 1988 Sue. Cr. REV. 85, 88.

o "' Donatd A. Dripps, Delegation and Due Process,lgBB DUKE L.l.657.

I If thc volume dcsignation inclutlcs worcls, use bmckcts to avoid cot-tfitsiot.t:

1t977-r978 Transfer Binderl Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) 1166,472

I If volumes are numbcred in

rumc number, br:tcketing the ,vcar and
a ncw serics each year, give both the ycar ancl vol-
phcing it befi)rc the wrlumc nttmbcr to

t avoid conftsion:

ItgqZlz K.B. r54

o (b) Separately paginated numbered parts.

separatel.v paginatcd
Wl-ren a work is clividecl into
(or sectioned or paragrlphed) scries, b<xrks, chapters, or

othcr parts, incluclc the rclevant subdivisions in the citation:

'" z6 Conc. Rec. app. at 156 (1894) (statement of Rep. Hicks).

,'' ser. 14, pt. 2, at 150

3 ,, pt. 3, 5 4, at r5

t (c) Supplements. Whct-r citinll a separately paginatecl (or scctioncd or pard-

grlphecl) supplemcnt, identilj' thc supplement ancl its clate in parenthcses:

I ',' HAW. Rrv. Srnr. g 296-46.t (Supp. rq8+).

ts Geoncr Glensor Bocrnr, THE Lnw or Tnusrs nuo Tnusrees $ 495
(rev. zd ed. Supp. 1985). I
To cite both the main volume and the st4rplement, use an ampersand:

tr 4z U.S.C. Sttgtb (1982 & Supp. I r9B3).

3.2 Pages, Footnotes, Endnotes, and Graphical Materials I
(a) Pages. (iive thc page number or numbers before the date plrenthetical,
without any introductory abbreviation ("p." and "pp." are uscd only in internal t

ARTHUR E. SurHenlaruo,
CorusrrrurroNAltsM tN AMERtcA 45 G96). I
9 H.R. Rep. No. 82353, at 4-5 b95t).
llse "at" if the page numbcr may be conftrsed with irnother part of the cita- I
tion; use a comma to set off "at." flse this form, frrr example, when thc title of a
work ends with an Ambic numeral or when the work uses Roman numerals for

h BrocnnpHrcnl DlnEcrony oF THE GovERNoRs oF rHE UNtTED

Srares ry78-t983, at 257 (Robert Sobet & John W. Raimo eds.,
F Thomas l. Emerson, Foreword lo CnrsnnrruE A. MncKrr.rtorrr, Srxual o
Hnnnssmerur or Wonrruc Womeru, atvii,ix $979).

If an article, case, or other source within a largcr source is not separately pagi- o
nated, cite thc page on which the itcm begins:

h Bernard L. Diamond, The Psychiatric Prediction of Dongerousness,

rz3 U. Pn. L.Rev. q9 j97Q.
b United States v. Bruno, r44 F. Supp. 593 (N.D. llt. r955). o
ts Government Employees TrainingAct, Pub. L. No. B5-5o7,7zStat.
zzt GgsB). I
When referring to specilic material within such a source, include both the
page on which the source bcgins and thc page on
appears (a pincitc), scparatcd by a comma:
which the spccific material
F Matthew Roskoski, Note, A Case-by-Case Approach to Pleading
Scienter Under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995,
97 Mtct-r. L. Rev. 2265, zzTt-75 Q999).
F" CATHARINE A. MAcKtNNoN , On Exceptionality: Women as Women in I
Law,in Frmrrursu Uruuoolnreo Zo,Z6-lZ OgBi.
When ref'erring specilicallv to matcrial on the first page of a source, rcpeat the o
page number:

F Christina M. Fern6ndez, NoIe, Beyond Marvin: A Proposal for I

Quasi-Spousal Support,30 SrAN. L. Rev. 359, 359 Q97B).

o Vhcn citing material within a concurring or tlisscnting opinion, givc only thc
initial pagc 0f the casc and the page on which the specilic material appears.ltot

I thc initial p:rge of thc concurring or dissenting opinion:

s, Baker v. Carr, l6q U.S. 186,297 (1962) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting).

'Whcn citing material that spans more than onc palac1 givc the inclusivc pagc
nunrbers. seplrrted b1' an en dlsh (-) or h.vphen (-). Alwa.vs retain the last two

digits. but drop other repetitious cligits:
'$p Edward L. Rubin, Note, Fairness, Flexibility, and the Waiver of
Remediol Rights by Controct, 87 YnrE L.l. to57, ro65-69 Q978).

I If a hyphcn or dash would be ambiguns bccausc of the page numbering

tcm. use the rvord 'to":

o M" BoRrs l. Brrrren & JAMES S. Eusrtcr, FeoennL luconr Tnxnrtoru or

Conponnrrorus AND SHAREHoLDERS tl l.o6,at 5-31 to -32 (5th abr.

I ed. ry87).

Cite nonconsccutive pages hy giving thc individud pagc numbcrs separatcd

o b1'commas:

[r" Kleppe v. New Mexico, 426U.5.529,5i1,546 (t976).

t Ifu source uses star paging (such 4s""3"),drop the star in tl-re ending page num-
bcr of a pagc rmge , but keep tl-rc star in lll re fercnce s to nonconscctltir,e page s.

I ;i' 2W I LL rAM B LAc K sro N E, C o rvr nn E ru

Whcn a point is oftcn repeated throughout the cntirc source, llsc "possim"
rn nte s * t5z, * t5 5-56.

o rather thrn citing spccilic plges. Do not insert I comma after thc initial pagc
\' Linda S. Mullenix, The Constitutionolity of the Proposed Rule z3
O Class Action Amendments, 39 Aatz. L. Rev. 615 passim Q997).

I (b) Footnotes. 'lb cite a footntxe, givc thc pagc on which the footnotc appcrrs,
''n.," and the firotnotc numbcr, with no sptce betwcen "n." rtnd the number:

o, Akhil Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act of

o t7B9,qB U. Pa. L. Rev. 1499, r5z5 n.Bo (r99o).
l footnotc th:rt spans ntore thln one page , cite onl,v the page on which
'l'0 cite
thc fbotnotc begins,"n.," and the lbotnotc numl'rer:
i' Akhit Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act of

o 17Bg,BB U. Pn. L. Rev. 1499, 't56o n.zzz (tggo).

When ref'erring onll to specilic pagcs tlf a footnote that splns nlore thall one

o prge , cite only' thc spccilic pages, rather than the page on which thc footllotc

a u Akhil Reed Amar, The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciory Act of

t789,98 U. Pn. L. Rrv. 1499, t56r-6zn.zzz(tggo).

o lir cite both a range of pages atrcl also a singlc firotttotc thlrt appelrs within the
pa!.ic rangc,citc thc page rangc firllowcd bv a cotnma and tlrcn citc tlte fbotrlt>tc
in thc npicll manner:

b Akhit Reed Amar,
The Two-Tiered Structure of the Judiciary Act
U. Pn. L. Rev1499, 1523-24,t524n.75$99o).
Cite multiple footnote s (or endnote s) by using "nn.":

S" r4r nn.18o-86 t

Treat nonconsecutive fq)tnotes (or endnotes) like nonconsecutive pages, but
(except for internal cross-referenccs) substitute an ampersand for the comma I
separ.lting two footnotes that appear on thc same page or the final comma in a
list of three or more footnote s that appear on the same page:
3 35o n.12, 355 n.r8
W 29tnn.r4 & 18,316 nn.4,6 & 8-9 I
To refer to both I page in the tcxt and a footnorc that begins on that page, use
an ampersand between thc page and the note number: o
9 rene Merker Rosenberg, Winship Redux: t97o to 1990,69 Trx.

Rev. ro9, 14 & n.9o (t99o).


(c) Endnotes. To cite an endnotc, give the page on which the endnote appears
(not the page on which thc call number appears)," n.," and the endnote number,
with no space between "n." and the number:
* JoHN HARr ELy, Drmocnncy AND DtsrRUSr zr5 n.85 (r98o).
To refer to both a page in text and an endnote whose call appears on that page,
use an ampersand betwcen the text page and the page on which the endnote
appears. In the following examplc, the cited text is on p.6l and the endnote is
* JoHN Hnnr Elv, DEruocnncyAND DtsrRUSr 6r&zt5 n.85 (r98o). I
Otherwisc, cite endnotes in the same manner as footnotes.

(d) Graphical materials. When citing tables, figures, charts, graphs, or other
graphical materials, give the page number on wl-rich thc graphical material
appears and the designation, if any, provided in the source, with no space
between the abhrcviation and the number. tlse the abbreviations in table TL6:
* Kevin M. Clermont & Theodore Eisenberg, Commentary, Xenophilio
in Americon Courts,log HARV. L. Rev. rrzo, tqttbl.z Q996).
ts Jennifer Gerarda Brown & lan Ayres, Economic Rotionales for Medi-
ation,Bo VA. L. REV. 323,397 fig.6 (t994).
'Io refcr to multiple charts, tables, figures, etc., on the same page pluralize the
abbreviatcd designation according to table T16. Use commas and ampersands,
not en dashes, to sepafate:
ts 9figs.3&4 o
W tz36 tbls.r, z & 3
I Sections and Paragraphs
If an ar-rthoriq' is organized bl scction ($) or paragraph (fl), cite to these

I sr,rbclivisions:

r5 U.S.C. $ 18 (r982).
, 6 JAMES WM. MooRE Er AL., MooRE's FEDERAL Pnncrrce ll S6.oZ 3d

o A pirgc nurber nlt'

the scction or paragraph:
also bc provicled if uscful in locating spccitic mattcr within

I '. Lnunerce H. Tnree, Anenrcnru Corsrrrurror,rnl Law 5 $-4,at914,

$ 15-6, at gzo (zd ed. rgBB).

o If rn authority is orl4anizccl in pirrt b1, indentecl paragraphs not introduce(l b)'

parugraph svmbols (1D, &r not cite sucl.r parlgraphs with thc svmbol. lnstead

o Llse the written lbbrevirtion (para.):

' THr De crannroN oF luoepgrornce para. z (U.5. 1776).

o Do not citc indcntccl paragr:rphs if thc uuthority is ordinaril,v cited by pagc:

Mandela Trial Scheduled Today, USA Tooav, Feb. 4, t99r., aI A4.

I Do r.rot usc
; td.S7.
'lt" bcfi)re a scction ur pamgraph svmbol:

I Not: /d. at S 7.

a MoonE Er AL., supro note 5, fl 56.o7.

Not: Moonr Er AL.,supro note 5, at llS6.ol.

o Rule 6.2(c) discusscs thc usc of scction :tnd puragraph symbols.

To citc scssion hrvs amencling prior acts that arc diviclccl into scctions within

I sections, sec rule f 2.4(d).

(a) Subsections. If thc sorlrcc contains punctultiort sepanttiug sections from

o snbsections, usc thc original punctuation:

r; N.M. Srnr. Ar,nr. g a-aa 7g) Q9fi).

I Not: N.M. Srnr. Aruru. 5 +(+4)(z)(c) (1S8i).

If tl.rc soulcc contains no such scparating punctuation, separxte thc subsection

a clesignations using parentheses. not clccimlls. hvphcns. or other nrarks. 'l'llts.

placc' 1 " irnd "a," in parcnthcses ( "( l )" uncl "(a)").

o (b) Multiple sections and subsections. When citing ntultiple scctions. usc
two scctiou s-vmbols (55). Givc inclusive numbcrs;do not use "ef Seq. " lclcrrtical
digits or lettcrs prccecling a punctuation mark ntav be omittccl, unlcss ckritrg s<r

a u,ould crcatc confirsitlrr. Otherwise rctain all cligits.

': WASH. REv. CooE Arur. 55 78.57.oo5-.52.9oo (West 1989 & Supp.

I u
Der. Cooe Arun. tit. g, 55 Brz-Brg (rg8g).

Note that letters are sometimes used to designate sections, rather than subsec-
tions, and that scction designations may contain punctuation within them: I
F 4z U.S.C. $$ r396a-r396d (zotz).
If an cn dash or hyphen wor,rld be ambignons, nsc the word "to":
F 4z U.S.C. $$ r973aa-z to-4(994).
b MoNr. CooE Ar.rru. 55 ZS-r-3or to 324 Q9B9). I
Vhen citing scattered sections, separate the sections with commas:
N..1. Srnr. Arr'r. 55 rBA:54-r, -3, -6 (West 1989).
Repeat digits if necessar_v to ar-oid confusion:
, N.l. Srnr.
Arr. 55 rBA:58-r7, :58-25,:64A-zz.r,:64A-22.6 (West
Vhen citing multiple subsections within

F- z8 U.S.C.5
a .sirzglc section, usc

ros(a)(r)-(b)(r) (zorz).
only one section

h r9 U.S.C. 5 r+8s(a)G)-() (zop).
F Der. Cooe Aruru. tit. g, S 6gro(a), (c) (rg8g).
Btrt when citing multiple subsectior"rs witltin cliJferenl scctions, use two section I

F r9 U.S.C. 55 r48r(a), u+86(b) (zotz).

(c) Multiple paragraphs. Multiple paragr,rphs should be trcated likc multiple
scctions, fbllowing

ts 1
rule 3.3(b):
BtuE Sxy L. Rep. (CCH) fl1| 4471-4474.
filr" MooRE Er AL.,supra note 5, flfl 54.32*.35. a
3.4 Appended Material
Indicate an appcndix or appencled note or commcnt by placing the appropriate
abbrcviation (sec table T16) lfter the citation to the largcst firll subdivision to
which thc item is appendecl, whether pagc, section, paragraph, chapter, titlc, or o
votume :

W James Edwin Kee & Terrence A. Moan, The Property Tax and Tenant t
Equality, Sg Hnnv. L. Rev. 53r app. Ggt6).
M ResrnrEuerur (Secor'ro) or Tonrs 5 6z14 cmt. a (Am. Lnw lrusr.


Citc a particular page, section, or othcr subdivision in an appendix as follows:

M 5o U.S.C. app. $ 454 (zorz).

e Samue[ lssacharoff & George Loewenstein, Second Thoughts
About Summory Judgment, roo Ynlr L.1.73 app.aI e4-25 $99o).
Other Wpes of uppencled matcrial thxt serve as commcntary on the material to o
which thel arc appendcd, or that firrther discuss a point related to thc tcxtual
cliscussion, should be citcd as notes or appcndices:
I $" Feo. R. Ctv. P. 6o(b) advisory committee's note to 1946

I & REsrArEMENr (Secoruo) oF PRop.5 z.r cmt. c, illus. z (Arrir. Lnw

lusr. r97).

I Further informrtion neccssar)' to identi$' which of sevcral namecl notcs is citecl

may bc ldded parenthctically:

t 7, 4z U.S.C. $ 186z note (rg88) (Denial of Financial Assistance to

Campus Disrupters).
s' N.Y. Bus. CoRp. 624 note (McKinney 1963) (Legislative

Studies and Reports).

I Appcndices that reprint matcrills normalll citctl to anotlrcr sourcc shoulcl bc

citetl rccortling to rule 1.6(a):

y" An Act for the Prevention of Frauds and Perjuries, 1677, z9 Car. z.
c. z, $ t7 (Eng.), reprinted in lonn P. DAWSoN, Wrr-lrnn Bunuerr
Hnnvgv & SrnNlrv D. HEuoEnsoru. CnsEs AND CoMMENTS oN

o Cournncrs app. 1, at g+z (Sth ed. 1988).

I Internal Cross-References
Portior-rsof text, lbotnotcs, ancl gronps of authorities within thc piecc mirl' be
citecf using "supro" or"infra;'tlse supra to reftr to nutcrial thut has alrcadt'

a appcrrrccl q'ithin thc picce. tise infra to refer to matcrial that appcars later in
the piece.

o flsc lr consistcnt naming convention lor subdivisions that arc nuttrbcred ttr oth-
erwisc designlted in the piecc (Tbe lJluefux* suggests using Part'firr tnaiu
snbdivisons and "Section" fur all snltllcr subdivisions): use "note" to rcfcr to

o footnotesvgithinthe sxmepiecctuse p.'and-pp."torefertoothcrplgeswithin

the samc piecc: "Figure" and "Tabte" are uscd to retcl to figurcs lnd tables

o within the sarne piece . A varict,v of fbrms may bc used. F-or examplc:
w See supra text accompanying notes jo5-o7.

o \'
See supro notes 12-15, 9z-97 and accompanying text.
See cases ciled supro nore 22.

o L' But see sources ciled supra note 24.

w See discussion infra Sections ll.B.z, lll.C.r.

o t,
See supra Part lV.

o See infro pp. ro6-o7.

.b See infro p. 5o and note 1oo.

a w' 9ee supro Figure z.

it' See infro Tabte 3.

o Notc that "suprd" is ltlso used in short firrm citutiot-ts fbr ccrtain
(sce rule 4.2).
t,v1te s of sourccs

This rulc provicles general guidrnce for all short forms. For guidance as to spe-
cific short fbrms see the followine rules:

Cases.. ..ru1e10.9
. ... .. rule 1l
..ru1e12.L0 I
Books,Reports,and Othef Nonperiodic .... rule 15.10
Pcriodical Matcrials ....ruIe16.9
Unpublishecl and Forthcoming Sources ....rule17.6
Internet, Electronic Media, and Other Nonprint Resources. . . . .
rule 18.8
....rule19.2 o
International Materials
For additional guidance on the usc of short forms in court documents and le-
gal memoranda, sec Bluepages 84, B10.2, B12.2,815.2, 816.2,and,Bl7.2.

4.1 "Id"
"ld." may bc uscd in citation sentences and clauses for any kind of authority
except internal crossrefbrences (as describcd in rule 3.5). In court documents
and legal memoranda, usc "ld. " when citing the immediately preceding author- I
iry, but only uben tbe immediately preceding citatiL,n contains onry one
autborit!.ln law review footnotes, use "id." when citing the immediately pre-
ceding authority within the same f(x)tnote or within the immediately preccding
footnote when tbe prececlingfootnote contains onl! one autbority.Note that
the period at the end of "rd." is always italicized. o
Indicate where a subsequent
page number being cited.
citation varies from thc former, such
If the lirst citation refers only to
work con-
a shorter
tained within an authority, do not use "id. " for a subsequent citation to the entire
the specilic
authorify. Instcad, use the "suprd" form (see rule 4,2(a)).

The folkrwing examples illustrate the use of "ld." to refer to a variety of com-
monlv cited materials:

;* 1 Chalfin v. Specter, 43 A.2d 562,562 (Pa. ry61). o

* 2ld. at563.
F" 3 42 U.S.C. $ r9B3 (1994).
W, 5
4 See id. g

f-:oz(z) (Arvr. Lnw lrusr. & Ururr. LnwCowrwr'r.t 1977);see
also id.5 r-tof (a).
k' 6 Dupuy v. Dupuy, [t977-t978 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec. L. Rep.
(CCH) fl 96,048,at9t,7o7 (Sth Cir. May 9,r97).
t . 7Id. I196,o52, a|91,705; see olso U.S. CoNsr. art. l, 5 8, cl. ro
(giving Congress the power to punish "Offences against the Law of

I '
8 FrErvrrr.ic

55 r.t-.r
Gd ed.
& Georrnrv C. Hnznno, Jn., Crvrr PRocEoune

o e See id. 5 t.Z.

I , 10
3 WTLLTAM Horoswonru, A
Hrsronv or El,tct-tsH Lnw 255 (3d ed.

t1 t id. al 5-q bd ed. 19r4).
, 12 Tr-rouns C. ScHelltuc, A Pnocrss or REsroErulnr Secne cnltoru:
NercHeonFrooo Trpprruc z, reprinted in Ecottolttc FoUNDATtoNS oF

I Pnopenrv LAW 3oZ, 3oB (Bruce A. Ackerman ed., t97).

ld. at 3.

o , 14
JAMES & Haznno, supra nole 8, 5 1.5.

See id.

"/d." mly not be usccl to rcfcr to one ruthority in l preccding fbotnote il thc

t prcccding fixrtnotc cites nrorc than one sourcc:

See Robert B. Reich, Toward a New Consumer Protection, 728
U. Pn. L. Rrv. r (1929); Note, Direct Loan Financing ofConsumer

o Purchases, 85 Hnnv. L. Rrv. r4o9, 14t5-r7 Q97z); see olso ChaLfin

v. Specter, 233 A.zd 562 .Pa. ry67).

I Not:
'7 See
Chalfin,43 A.zd aI S7o.
See id. at 57o.

o Sourccs idcntified it-t cxplanatorl'parerttheticals, explanatory phritses, or prior/

subsequcnt histor),, howevcq arc ignorcd firr the purposes of this rulc. Thtts, thc

o firllowing cxrmples are corrcct:

46o U.S. 66o,663 (1983) (quoting

'8 Tuten v. United States,

a Ralston v. Robinson,454 U.S. zot,zo6 (rq8r)).

'e See id. at 664.

t , Ditlon v. Gtoss, z56U.S. 168, ll6 (rgzt), quotedin Nixon v.


United States, 5o6 U.S. zz4,4o (t993).

I .

See id. at 37 4.

Kohter v. Tugwel[, z9z F. Supp.978,985 (E.D. La. ry68), off d per

o '
curiam,393 U.S. SZt (tg6g).
23 See id. aI9Bo.

I ''/d." ma1' not be usecl to rcfcr to an intcrnal cross-refcrencc:

24 See supra text accompanying note z.

o 2s See supra text accompanying note z.

t Not:25 5ee supro id.

4.2 "Satpra" and "Herein ftef' t
"Supra" and"hereinafter" may be used to refer to legislative hearings;court lil-
ings; books; pamphlets; reports; unpublishcd materials; nonprint resources; pcri-
odicals; serviccs; trcaties and intcrnational agreements; regulations, directivcs,
and decisions of intergovernmental organizations; and intcrnal cross-references.
"Supra" and"hereinafter" shoulcl not be used to refer to cases, statutes, consti-
tutions, lcgislative materials (othcr than hcarings), restatements, model codcs, or
regulations, except in cxtrnofdinary circumstances, such as when the name of
the autl-roriry is extremely long: o
? 2b
ln re Multidistrict Private CivilTreble Damage Antitrust Litig.
Invotving Motor Vehicle Air Potlution ControI Equip., 5z F.R.D. 398
(C.D. Cat. 197o) [hereinafter Air Pollution Control Antitrust Case].
Appropriate shurt forms for cases, statutes, and legislativc materials (othcr than
hearings) are providecl in their fcspectivc rules.
(a)"Supra."When an authority hirs been ftrlly citcd previously,the"supro"form
may be used (unless "id." is appropriatc or "supra" is inappropriate for that
authority). Thc "supra" form gencmlly consists of the last name of the author of
the work, followed by a comma and the word"supra." Indicate any particular I
manner in which the subsequent citation difTers from the former

If the author is an institutional author, use the firll institutional name. If no I

author is cited, use the titlc of the work; for unsigned stude nt-writte n law rcview
materials,use the appropriate designation (see rule 16.7.1(b)).

Indicate the footnote in which the ftrll citation can be found, unless thc fi.rll
citation is in thc same footnote, in which cnse"supre" should be used without
any cross-refercnce. Indicate any particular manner in which the subsequent I
citation differs fiom thc former. Volume , paragraph, section, or page numbers
may be added to rcfer to specific material:

h 27
Reich, supra note at 6.
* 28
z HoLoswoRTH, supro note ro, at 6.

$F 29 JAMES & Hezano, supra note 8,9 7.zt; W. Pnce Keeron Er ar.,
Pnossen AND KEEToN oN rHE LAW or Tonrs 5 r, at z (Sth ed. rg8+);
see also supra text accompanying note 7.

ts 3o Keeroru
Er AL., supra note 29, $ z, at 4; Note, supra note 16, at
* 31 Cf. ScHellrNc, supra nole 12, at j.
Note that citation of a second item or work founcl within a volume of collected
materials dready cited takcs the form:

F" s2CntnnnnE A. MAcKtNNoN,On Exceptionality: Women asWomen

in Law,in FEralrursu UrrrwroorrrEo 7o,7o
CnrHnnrrE A. MAcKTNNoN, Desire ond Power,in Femrrursn
rreo, sup ro nole 32, at 46, 47.
U trrtvtoor

(b) "Hereinafter." For authoritl' that would be cumbersome to citc with the o
rusual "supra'' form or fbr which the regular shortcned form may confuse the

t reader. the author may establish a specilic shortcned form. After the lirst cita-
tion of the authorit)', but befrrre any cxplanatory parcnthetical, place the word

"hereinafter" and the shortcncd form in brackets. The shortened form should
appear in the same typcface as in the full citation. In subscquent citations, cite
the authority using the shortencd form folkrwed by a comma lnd the appropri-

o rte "supro" cross-rcf'erence (nlle 4.2(a)):

* 34Proposed Amendments to the Federol Rules of Criminol Proce-

o dure: Hearings Before the Subcomm. on Criminal Justice of the H.

Comm. on the Judiciory, g5th Cong. 9z-% (197) [hereinafter Heor-
ingsl (statement of Prof. Wayne LaFave).

a F 35 RrcHnno H.
Counrs AND rHE
Fallor.r, Jn. er nr., Hnnr nlto WrcHslen's THe FEornnr
Froennr Svsrem llo (Sth ed. zoo3).

o v 36 H ea ri n g

s, su p ro note 3 4, ar 33 (statement of H on. Edward

o I)o not usc the "hereinafter" firrm when r simple "supra" torm is adeqtratc:
37 FnLLOT't Er AL.,s\pro note 35, aI343.

The "hereinafter" firrm, however, should be used to distingtrish two authorities

rppearing in the samc footnote if thc simplc "s upro" form would bc confttsing:

o ts 38 See Edward B. Rock, Saints ond Sinners: How Does Deloware

Corporate Law Work?,44 UCLA L. Rev. roo9, tot6-r7 (rggz) lhere-

o inafter Rock, Soints and Sinnersl; Edward B. Rock, The Logic and
(lJncertain) Significance of lnstitutional Shareholder Activism, 79
Geo. L.J. 445 G991) [hereinafter Rock, Shareholder Activisnl.

I ? 3eSee Rock, Sainfs and Sinners, supra nole 38, at 1019; Rock,
Shareholder Activism, supro note 38, aI 459-63.

5.r Formatting of Quotations
fifty or more words.
(a) Quotations of
(i) Indentation and quotation marks. The quotation should be indented on
the left and right without qu)tation marks, and quotation marks within a block
quotation should appear as they do in thc original:

lr [T]his presumptive privilege must be considered in light of our historic

commitment to the rule of law. This is nowhere more profoundly
manifest than in our view that "the twofold aim [of criminaI iustice]
is that guilt shalt not escape or innocence suffer." We have elected to
emptoy an adversary system of criminaI justice in which the parties
contest all issues before a court of law . . . . The ends of criminal o
lustice would be defeated if judgments were to be founded on a
partiaI or speculative presentation ofthe facts. The very integrity of
the ludiciat system and pubtic confidence in the system depend on
full disclosure of att the facts, within the framework of the rules of
evidence. To ensure that f ustice is done, it is imperative to the func-
tion of courts that compulsory process be available for the produc-
tion of evidence needed either by the prosecution or by the defense.
United States v. Nixon, 4r8 U.5. 683,7o8-o9 (1974) (second altera-
tion in originat) (citation omitted). The Court then balanced this
interest against the evils of forced disctosure. ld. a|7rc. t
(ii) Footnote and citation placement. In law review text (in which citations
are not permitted), the footnote number should appear after the final punctua-
tion of the quotation. In law review footnotes, court documents, and legal mem-
oranda (in which citations are permitted), the citation should not be indented
but should begin at thc left margin on thc line immediatelv following the quota- o
tion.ln law review footnotes,where the quotation is placed within a parentheti-
cll, it should be enclosed in qtxrtation marks and not otherwisc set off from the
rest of the text.
(iii) Paragraph structure. The paragraph structurc of an indented quotation
should be indicated by further indenting the first line of each paragraph. The
lirst sentencc of the lirst quoted paragraph is only indented, however, if the first
word of the quoted passage is also the first word of a paragraph in the sourcc
bcing quoted. If language at the beginning of the first paragraph is omitted, do
not indent thc first line or use an ellipsis. To indicate omission at the bcginning
of subsequent paragraphs, inscrt and indcnt an ellipsis. Indicatc the omission of o
one or more entire paragraphs by inserting and indenting four periods (". . . l')
on a new line. The folkrwing example illustrates thcse rules:
$fr 0n appeal to the federal courts via a habeas petition,
McCleskey alteged that Georgia's capitaI sentencing process was
administered in a racially discriminatory manner in viotation of the
Equat Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. McCleskey
based his claims on a study, conducted by respected law and o
I economics Professors Baldus, Pulaski, and Woodworth . . . . The
Baldus study examined roughly z,5oo murder cases . . . .

I . . . Professors Baldus, Pulaski, and Woodworth also subjected

o their data to an extensive statistical analysis.

In law review footnotes, when the quotation is placed within a parenthetical, it

t should be enclosed in quotation marks and not otherwise set off from the rest
of the text.

t (b) Quotations of forty-nine or fewer words.

(i) Indentation and quotation marks. The quotation should be enclosed in

quotation marks but not otherwise set off from the rest of the text. Quotation
marks around material quoted inside another quote should appear as single
marks within the quotation in keeping with the standard convention.

o (ii) Footnote and citation placement. The footnote number or citation

should follow immediately after the closing quotation mark unless it is more

o accurate to place it elsewhere shortly before or after the quotation.

(iii) Paragraph structure. Do not indicate the original paragraph structure

of quotations of forty-nine or fewer words except when the material quoted
would commonly be set off from the text, such as lines of poetry or dialogue
from a play. In this case, the quotation may appear as a block quote per rule

I 5.l(a)(iii), regardless of its length.

(iD Punctuation. Always place commas and periods inside the quotation

I marks; place other punctuation marks inside the quotation marks only
are part of the original text.
if they

t Alterations and Quotations Within Quotations

(a) Substitution of letters or words, When a letter must be changed from

o upper to lower case, or vice versa, enclose it in brackets. Substituted words or

letters and other inserted material should also be bracketed:

o ) "[P]ubtic confidence in the [adversary] system depend[s upon] futt

disclosure of all the facts, within the framework of the rules of

a evidence."
(b) Omission of letters. lndicate the omission of letters from a common root

o word with empty brackets ('iudgment[]").

(c) Mistakes in original. Significant mistakes in the original should be fol-

o lowed by "[sic]" and otherwise left as they appear in the original:

) "This list of statutes are [sic] necessarily incomplete."

o (d) Changes to citations.

(i) Use a parenthetical clause after the citation to indicate when the source

I quoted contains any addition of emphasis, alteration to the original in the

quoted text, or any omission of citations, emphasis, or footnote call numbers.
When a citation requires multiple parentheticals, place them in the order indi

o cated in de 1.5(b):
) "The fact that individuals define themselves in a significant way
through their sexual relationships suggests. . . that much ofthe t
richness of a relationship will come from the freedom to choose
the form and nature of these intensely personal bonds." Bowers
v. Hardwick, qz8 U.S. t85, zo5 (1985) (Blackmun, J., dissenting)
(second emphasis added).
in limiting the sound emanating from the bandshell. The court
concluded, however, that the city's sound-amplification guideline
was not narrowly tailored to further this interest, because "it has
not [been] shown . . . that the requirement of the use of the city's
sound system and technician was the least intrusive meons of o
regulating the volume."
Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 49r U.S. 78L,797 (1989) (alteration
in original) (citation omitted).
(ii) Do not indicate the omission of a citation or footnote call number that fol-
lows the last word quoted.
(iii) Do not indicate that emphasis in the quotation appears in the original. a
(e) Quotations within quotations. Whenever possible, a quotation within a
quotation should be attributed to its original source. lnsert a parenthetical fol-
lowing any parenthetical required by de5.2(d):
) Chief Judge Skelty Wright noted Congress's"firm resolve to insure
that the CIA's'power that flows from money and stealth' could not
be turned loose in domestic investigations of Americans." Marks v.
ClA, 59o F.zd 997, roo8 (D.C. Cir. ry28) (Wright, C.J., concurring in I
part and dissenting in part) (emphasis added) (quoting Weissman
v. ClA, 555 F.zd 69z,6gS (D.C. Cn. gZ)).

Note that sources included in parentheticals pursuant to this rule should be for-
matted as though they appear in citation clauses (see des 2.1and2.2@-)Gtr)).

(f) Internal quotation marks.

(i) Internal quotation marks should be omitted if the opening mark appears at
the very beginning of an in-line quotation and the closing mark appears at the
very end.

) Original: lf "the agency's answer is based on a permissible t

construction ofthe statute," that is the end ofthe matter.
The dispositive question is whether "the agency's answer is based o
on a permissible construction of the statute."

ilot: The dispositive question is whether "'the agency's answer is

based on a permissible construction ofthe statute."'
(ii) Do not omit multiple levels of nested
marks except as this rule allows,
even though "quoting" parentheticals beyond the first level may be omitted
under rule 10.6.2. Alternate between double and single quotation marks as
appropriate. o
o ts Originat: In this context, "the distinction between 'iurisdictional'
and 'non-jurisdictional' interpretations is a mirage."

o F The Court noted that, "[i]n this context, 'the distinction between
"iurisdictional" and "non-jurisdictional" interpretations is a

o Not: The Court noted that, "[i]n this context,'the distinction between
jurisdictional and non-jurisdictional interpretations is a mirage."'

a (iii) Do not fail to include a"quoting"parenthetical because this rule requires

omission of internal quotation marks (rather, omit "quoting" parenthcticals only

a as allowed by rule f 0.6.2).

(iv) Do not omit internal quotation marks in block quotations.

I Omissions 5.3

a Omission of a word or words is generally indicated by the inscrtion of an ellipsis,

three periods separated by spaces and set off by a space bcfore the lirst and
after the last period ("....... "), to take the place of the word or words omittcd.

o Note that ". " indicates a space.

An ellipsis should ncver be used to begin a quotation; nor should it be used

o when individual words are merely altered (rules 5.1(a)(iii) and 5.2).
(a) When using quoted language as a phrase or clause. Do not indicatc

a omission of matters before or after a quotation:

p Chief Justice Burger wrote that the availabitity of compulsory

I process is "imperative to the function of courts" and that "[t]he

very integrity of the ludiciat system and public confidence in the
system depend on full disclosure ofall the facts."

o Howevei indicate omission of matter within such a phrase or clause with an


o s Chief Justice Burger wrote that the availabitity of compul-

sory process is "imperative to.......courts" and that "[t]

o he.......iudicial system and public confidence in the system

depend on futl disclosure of all the facts."

I (b) When using quoted language as a full sentence. For example, assume
the text of the original language is as follows:

o F National borders are less ofa barrier to economic exchange now

than at almost any other time in history. As economic activity
continues its relentless drive toward wortd-wide scope, trademarks

o become even more important. Why, then, are certain scholars

advocating less comprehensive trademark protection? In fact, this

c seems counterintuitive.

(i) Where the beginning o/ the quoted sentence is being omitted, capitalize
the first lctter ofthe quoted language and place it in brackets ifit is not already

o capitalizcd:

ts "[B]orders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now than at

o almost any other time in history."

(ii) Where the midd.le of a quoted sentence is being omitted, insert an ellipsis
where the language is omitted: o
) "National borders are less of a barrier.......now than at almost
any other time in history."

(iii) Where the end of a quoted sentence is being omitted, insert an ellipsis
between the last word being quoted and the final punctuation of the sentence
being quoted:

) "National borders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now

than at almost any other time........"

(iv) Do not indicate the deletion of matter after the period or other final punc-

tuation that concludes the last quoted sentence.

) "National borders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now

than at almost any other time in history."
(v) Where language after tbe end of a quoted sentence is deleted and is fol-
Iowed by further quotation, retain the punctuation at the end of the quoted o
sentence and insert an ellipsis before the remainder of the quotation.

) "National borders are less of a barrier to economic exchange now

than at almost any other time in history........IE]conomic activity
continues its relentless drive toward world-wide scope, [so] trade-
marks become even more imoortant."
(vi) If language both at tlte end. and afrer tbe end of a quoted sentence is omit-
ted and followed by further quoted material, use only one ellipsis to indicate
both of the omissions:
) "National borders are less of a barrier.........[E]conomic activity t
continues its relentless drive toward world-wide scope, Iso] trade-
marks become even more important."
Note that the punctuation at the end of the first sentence should follow the

"Why, then, are certain scholars advocating tess.......? [T]his
seems counterintuitive."

(c) Vhen ornitting a footnote or citation. Indicate omission of a footnote

or a citation with the parenthetical phrase "(footnote omitted)" or'(citation
omitted)" immediately following the citation to the quoted source. Do not o
insert an ellipsis for an omitted footnote or citation.


o Abbreviations
Tables at the end of this book contain lists of specific abbreviations for arbi-

I tral reportcrs (T5), casc namcs (T6), court names (T7), explanatory phrases
(T8),legislative documents (T9), geographical terms (T10), fudges and oflicials

I CIl l),months (T12),periodicals (T13), publishing terms (T14), services (T15),

and subdivisions (T16).

Abbreviati<lns not listed in this book shor-rld be avoided unless substantial spacc

o will be savcd and the resulting abbreviation is unambigtxrus.

Note that in legal writing the same word may be abbreviated differently for

o diffbrent uscs:
p' F. and Fed.

I F, app. and App'x

(a) Spacing. In general,close up all adiacent single capitals:
+ N.W.

o P S.D,N,Y.

But do not close up single capitals with longer abbreviations:

t ts D. Mass.
Pe S. Ct.

C In abbreviations of periodical names (scc table T13), close up all adiacent sin-
gle capitals except when one or more of the capitals refers to the name of an

o institutional entiry, in which case set the capital or capitals referring to thc entity
off from othe r adiacent single capitals with a space . Thtts:

t * Geo.

'$ 8.C. L. Rev.


o lr
N.Y.U. L. Rev.

S. lrl. U. L.l.

I Individual numbers, including both numerals and ordinals, are treated as single

l tur-



o {r A.L.R.4th

But, inscrt a spacc ad.jacent to any abbreviation containing two or more letters:

o ts So. zd
o ts
Cal. App. 3d

F. Supp. zd

Close up initials in personal names:

) W.C. Fietds ?
(b) Periods. Generally, every abbreviation should be followed by a period,
except those in which the last letter of the original word is set off from the rest
of the abbreviation by an apostrophe. Thus:

}' Ave. t
Some entities with widely recognized initials, e.9., AARP, CBS, ClA, FCC, FDA, o
commonly referred to in spoken language by their ini-

tials rather than by their firll names; such abbreviations may be used without
periods in text, in case names, and as institutional authors. Do not, however,
omit the periods when the abbreviations are used as reporter names, in names
of codes, or as names of courts of decision. Thus:

> Baptist Hosp., Inc., 442 U.S.7n Gg7).


But: E. Betden Corp.,z39 N.1.R.B.776(t978).

United States may be abbreviated to "U.S." only when used as an adlective (do
not omit the periods):

) U.S. history
But: history of the United States o
In addition to the abbreviation " U . S . ;' always retain periods in abbreviations not
commonly referred to in speech as initials (e.g., N.Y., S.D.). t
6.2 Numerals and Symbols
(a) Numerals. In general, spell out the numbers zero to ninety-nine in text
and in footnotes;for larger numbers, use numerals. This general
however, to the following exceptions:
de is subiect,
(i) Any number th^t begins a sentence must be spelled out.
(ii) "Hundredi"thousand," and similar round numbers may be spelled out, if
done so consistently.

(iii) uflhen a series includes numbers both less than 100 and grearer than or
equal to 100, numerals should be used for the entire series:

) The ptaintiffs gained, respectively, tr7,6,and 28 pounds.

(iv) Numerals should be used if the number includes a decimal point.
(v) Where material repeatedly refers to percentages or dollar amounts, numerals
should be used for those percentages or amounts.

(vi) Numerals should be used for section or other subdivision numbers.

o (vii) In numbers that appear in text and citations use commas to separate
groups of three digits when those numbers contain live or more uninterrupted

digits. Thus:

> t,234,567

o But:9876
But: $5678.9o

o Do not cmploy this convention in citations to pages, statutes, volume numbers,

Intcrnet database locators, docket numbers, the U.S. Code, or other sourccs
whose classification systems do not themselves include commas:

e [e United States v. Watker, No. oo-4oo98-JAR, zoo3 WL

Kan. Jan. 6,zoo3).
r3r7u (D.

o (b) Ordinals.

t (i) tlnless part of

are controlled by
a citation, ordinal numbers appearing
rule 6.2(a).lf part of a citation, ligures
numbers. f)o not use supcfscfipts:
in text and footnotes
are used for all ordinal

o b 4rst Leg.
F ath ed.
o (ii) In textual sentences, where rule 6.2(a) requires that the numcral be uscd,
usc "znd" or "3rd" for ligures representing ordinal numbers ending in two or

o thrce. But, in citations, for ligures representing ordinal numbers ending in the
numbcr two or thrce, use "2d" or "3d;' not "2nd" or "3rd." Do not use super-

o scripts in any case. Thus:

F The roznd Congress coutd not pass a rute that would bind the

o 1O3rd congress.

But, in citations:

t e ro3d Cong.
S zd ed.

I (c) Section ($) and paragraph (u) symbols. The first word ofany sentence
must be spelled out.ln addition,spell out the words"section"and"paragraph"

t in the text (whether main text or footnote text) of law review pieces and other
documents, except when referring to a provision in the U.S. Code (see rule
12.10) or a federal regulation (see rule 14.5).ln citations, the symbols should

t be used (except when citing session laws amending prior acts as noted in rule
12.4(d)).Vhen the symbols are used, insert a space between "$" or "fl" and

I the numeral. See rules 3.3G) and 3.3(c) when citing to multiple s€ctions or

(d) Dollar ($) and percent (%) symbols. These symbols should be used
o wherever numerals are used, and the words should be spelled out wherever
numbers are spelled out, but a symbol should never begin a sentence. There

o should zol be a space between"$"or"%"and the numeral.

See rule 2 for a general discussion on the uses of typefaces. The conventions
below apply to italicization for emphasis, italicization of foreign words and c
phrases, and italicization in other unique circumstances.

(a) Emphasis. Words and phrases may be italicized for emphasis. I

(b) Foreign words and phrases. Italicize non-English words and phrases
unless they have been incoqporated into common English usage. Latin words
and phrases that are often used in legal writing are considered to be in common
English usage and should not be italicized. However, very long latin phflses
and obsolete or uncommon Latin words and phmses should remain italicized. ?
For example:

) expressio unius est exclusio alterius o

ignorantia legis neminem excusat
sero sed serio t
ex dolo malo non oritur actio
quid pro quo
amicus curiae
corpus juris
ab initio
obiter dictum
modus operandi
de jure
habeas corpus
non obstante veredicto
mens rea
prima facie
en banc
Note, however, that "id.' is always italicized. Note also that other typeface mles
may control. For example, when "e.g." is used as a signal it should be italicized
as per de 2.1(d). Similarh always italicize procedural phrases in case names,
such as'/n re" or " ex rel.i under rule f 0.2.f(b). ?
(c) Ietters representing hlaothetical parties, places, or things. ltalicize
and capitelizs ildividual leners when used to represent the n:rmes of hypotheti- t
cal parties, places, or things:

) A went to bank I in state X.

(d) The lowercase letter "1.' Italicize the lowercase letter'/" when used as a
subdivision, as in a statute or de, to distinguish it from the numeral'l ":

) cmt. / a
(e) Mathematical expressions. Italicize mathematical formulas and variables:
) E: mc2
(a) Headings and titles. Capitalize words in a heading or title , including the

o initial word and any word that immediately follows a colon. Do not capitalize
articles, coniunctions, or prepositions when they arc four or fewer letters, unless

o they begin the heading or title , or immediately folkrw a colon.

(b) Internet main page titles and URLs. Capitalize URLs and words in an
Internet main page title in accordance with the actual capitalization of the
o source.

(c) Text. Exccpt for headings, titles, and Internet main page titles and tlRls,

O capitalize according to this rule. When this rule does not address a particular
question of capitalization, refer to a stylc manual such as the Chicago Manual

t of Stfle or the Gouernment Printing OfJice Style Manual. Practitioners should

also refer to Bluepages 88 for further advice on capitalization. Additional
words that should be capitalized in legal writing include :

o (i) Nouns that identify specific persons, ofificials, groups' government

offices, or government bodies. These words and phrascs should always be

o capitalized according to the following examples:

s" the Social Security Administrator

o The plaintiff was dectared disabted by the Sociat Security Admin-

istrator and was awarded benefits.

o ts the Administrator

For fifty years, the statute has provided that the Administrator

o make all necessarv determinations.

M the FDA

o &u
The FDA has approved the satts as safe and effective.

the Agency

o The Agency reported that all areas of the country met the stan-
dard for nitrogen dioxide.

I e Congress
Members of Congress are immune from false imprisonment

o claims under certain circumstances.

tr the President

a A sitting President's executive power allows him or her to pardon

convicted criminats.

a But:
e the congressional hearings

o The congressional hearings were held on the potential cumuta-

tive effects of these three rules.

o v the presidential veto

The presidential veto does not confer such power upon the

o President.
(ii) Exceptions. Certain words are exceptions to the above rule and should be
capitalized according to the following rules: o
Act Capitalize when referring to a specific legislative act:
) A union has a statutory duty offair representation o
under the NationaI Labor Relations Act.
The record of the hearing shows that the Act
required operators to pay for their own retirees.
Circuit Capitalize when used with a circuit's name or number:
) We have decided to follow the Fifth Circuit and
District of Columbia Circuit in that regard, rather
than this circuit's unclear precedent. o
Code Capitalize when referring to a specifc code:

)' At teast one court considered the significance of o

the change between the t939 and r954 Codes.
Commonwealth Capitalize if it is a part of the full title of a state, if the word
it modifies is capitalized, or when refering to a state as a
governmental actor or
a parfy to a

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts sued

several companies.
The Commonwealth may not relitigate the issue in
a post-conviction hearing.
Constitution Capitalize when naming any constitution in full or when
refering to the U.S. Constiturion, but do not capitalize the
adjective form "constitutional." Also, capitalize nouns that
identify specific parts of the U.S. Constitution when refer-
ring to them in textual sentences, but not in citations:
) Students in this class have studied the full faith
and credit clause of the Pennsylvania Constitution.
The students agree that the clause in that consti-
tution is substantially similar to the Full Faith and o
Credit Clause in the U.S. Constitution.
But: He claims his constitutional rights were violated.
Of att the amendments in the U.S. Constitution, the
Fifth Amendment may be the most complex.
) Accordingly, there was no violation of Article l,
Section 8, Clause r7 of the Constitution.
But: See U.S. CoHsr. art. l, 5 8, cl. t7 (granting
Congress the power to "exercise exclusive Legis-
lation in all Cases whatsoever . . . over alt Places
purchased" by the United States).
Court Capitalize when naming any court in fi.rll or when refer-
ring to the United States Supreme Court (with some
exceptions for court documents and legal memoranda,
see Bluepages BE): o
o fu' The Catifornia Suoreme Court found no violation in
sucn a case.

o *" The argument in the state supreme court

concerning the lack of prior notice was based
solely on state authorities.

o iw" When the Court approves the argument, it

becomes constitutional doctrine for the entire

o uE
The court of appeals reversed the trial court.

o Fede ra I
e. The Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed.

Capitalize whcn the word it modilies is capitllized:

o F The FederaI Constitution provides for three

branches of government.

o I A higher level of clarity is required in statutes that

require federal spendin g.

o .ludge, lustice Capitalize when giving the name

iusticc or whcn refcrring to
Suprcmc Court:
of a specilic fudge or
Justice of the []nited Stxtes

o I In one ofthe first decisions on point, Judge Cedar-

baum reiected a group appointment.

o in This era of constitutional non-interference ended

when the Justices proclaimed a profound national

o +
commitment to the principle that debate on public
issues should be uninhibited.
will hear
The lustices of the state's highest court

o oral arguments on the issue of gay marriage at the

end ofthe month.

o State Oapitalize if it is a part of thc firll title of a statc,

it modifics is capitalized, or when refcrring to a state
if thc word
as a

governmental actor or as a party to a litigiltion:

1* The principal issue is whether the State of Kansas

may impose its motor fuet tax. The State Commis-

o sioner adopted a broad-based poticy.

9: The State brought this action two years ago.

o Term Capitalize whcn refcrring to a'l'erm of thc [inited States

Supremc Oourt:

o F The United States Supreme Court considered this

issue in this Term and in four other Terms since

o F
the 1978 Term.
The central common law courts sat onty four times
a year, but customarity the year began with Mich-

o aetmas term.

(a) Justices and iudges. Justices are referred to as "Justice Ginsburg'and
'Chief Justice Robertsl'Parenthetical references are to "Brennan, J.,""Scatia,
J.,'and'Brennan & Scalia, JJ."Judges are referred to as "Judge Surrick" and
"Chief Judge Scirica." Capitalize 'justice,"'chief justicei and "judge'accord-
ing to rule 8(cXii). For parenthetical references, abbreviate titles of iudges and
officials as indicated in table T11.
(b) Ordering. As a matter of etiquette, lists of judges should be in the order
indicated at the beginning of each volume of the official reporter for the court.
Justices of the United States Supreme Court are always listed with the Chief
Justice first and then in order ofseniority. o
(c) Term of court. A term of court currently in progress may be referred to as
"this term.'The immediately preceding term,no longer in progress at the time
of publication, should be refe rred to as " last te rm." Any terrn may be indicate d
by year:

) the 1999 term

The Supreme Court Term should be indicated by the year in which the Term
began, not the year it ended. Capitalize "term" according to de 8(cXii).
Citation of a U.S. Supreme

'vl for 'versus"

Court case:
reporter volume no. first page of case specific page refened to
Meritor Sav.
\ \
U.5.,' 57',,: 60, (1986). o
L--------r-----r + f !-r,|
nrstparty seconjparty
"ri[j:J.fi:i:.,Iij.,"1*:#iljlt:h:,13:,"1;;1 o
Citation of a case decided by the U.S. Court ofAppeals for the Fourth Circuit,
later reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court, with parenthetical information about o
the Fourth Circuit decision:

("1:Hi'Jrt?$"il'i:L*) ;jrt?:rT"".T; oli'*l""j

parties reporter volume no. | first page of case
l, | ,A
I deciding court I

United States u MacDonald, " 531..t.2d,,196," 199-200, (4th Cir.. 7976) "
(resting review of the dispositive issue on the principle of iudicial economy),

* rev'd,,,435 " U.5. " 850,, (1978).

parenthetical phrase describing
decision of Fourth Circuit
action of higher court citation of reversal

Short form for the above case after it has been cited in full:
volume no. and reporter abbreviation specific page refened to
MacDonold, 537 F.2d'
shortened case name in
italics denotes

that page number follows

(do not use governmentar parry)
o Main Elements
Case Names. .. rule 1O.2

o ReponersandOtherSources.....
Court andJurisdiction.
Date oryear.
rule 10.3
rule 10.4

o Parentheticallnformation
...... de
rule 10.5

.. rule 10.7

o Basic Citation Fofins 10.1

o Filed but not decided Hoshiiima v. Jensen, No. 9o-345 (D. Mass. fited
Sept. r8, r99o).

o Unpublished interim
Sansone v. Sauder, No. 9o-345 (D. Mass.
Oct. 25, r99o) (order granting pretiminary

o Published interim order

inl unction).
Haber v. Scotten, 725 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Mass.
r99o) (order granti n g prelimi nary iniunction).

o Unpublished decision Kitchens v. Grohman, No. 9o-345, stip op. at 6

(D. Mass. Dec. 4, r99o).

o Decision published in
service only
Tice v. Scotten, r99o Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH)
1c2,342 (D. Mass. Dec.4, t99o).

o Decision published in
newspaper only
Mishra v. Grohman, N.Y. I.i., Dec. 5, r99o, at r
(D. Mass. Dec. 4, r99o).

o Decision available in
electronic database
Yee v. Kitchens, No.
LEXIS 2o837, at
9o-345, r99o U.5. Dist.
*6-8, *ro (D. Mass. Dec.4,


Decision available in Phibrick v. Haber, No. 9o-345, r99o U.S. Dist.

electronic database after LEXIS 2o837, at *4 (D. Mass. Dec. 4,t99o,

o revision

Published decision
revised lan.3, t99i.
Ward v. Reddy, 727 F. 5upp. t4o7, r4tz lD.

o Appeal docketed
Mass. r99o).
Yee v.Grohman,TzT F. Supp. r4o7 (D. Mass.

o ry9o), appeal docketed, No. 9o-567 (rst Cir.

Dec. zo, r99o).

appendix Brief for Appellant at 7, Kitchens v. Scotten,

Brief, record, or

ryt !^3ra (1! cir.tgrt) (l.'| o.4';10q)._

Disposition on appeal Philbrick v. Mishra, 925 F.zd 314,315 (rst Cir.

o Disposition in lower
1991) '

Haber v. Yee,7z7 F. Supp. 7407, t4r2 (D. Mass.

o court showing
subsequent history
rygo), aff'd, 925 F.zd 3r4 (rst Clr. t99r).

o Petition for certiorari

Grohman v.Tice,9z5F.zd 3t4 (rst Cir. t99r),
petition for cert. filed,6o U.S.L.W. 34zz (U.5.
lan.U, rgqz) (No. 9z-zrz).

Petition for certiorari
Scotten v. Kitchens, 925 F.zd 3r4 (rst Cir.
t99t), cert. granted,5o U.S.L.W. f S6z (U.S.
Disposition in Supreme
Jan. zr, r99z) (No. 9z-ztz).
Flynn v. Kaplan, 6o U.S.L.W. 442o, 44zt (U.5. o
Court published only in
Feb. 4, t99z), vacating as moot 925 F.zd 3t4
(rst Cir. r99r).
LO.2 Case Narnes o
The only significant differences befween case nzrmes in textual sentences and
case names in citations are the italicization (rule 2) and the extent to which
the case name is abbreviated. The provisions of rule LO.2.1 apply to every case
name,whether in text or citations, but case names in citations are further abbre-
viated according to rule 10.2.2. Thus:

ln Southern Pocific Co. v. Jensen, z44U.S. zo5 (t9r7), Justice
McReynolds stressed the value of uniform laws.
Southern Pocific also indicates the breadth of federal lawmaking
power under the admiralty jurisdiction.

Noh In 5. Pac. Co. v. lensen, z44U.S. zo5 Q9q), Justice McReynolds

stressed the value of uniform laws.

But: in citations:
) See, e.g.,S. Pac. Co. v. Jensen, z44U.S. zo5,
J., dissenting).
zz5-26 (r9r7) (Pitney, o
Note that the examples throughout de82 employ the typeface conventions
for law review citations. For an explanation of typeface conventions, see rule 2.
For typeface conventions in couft documents and legal memoranda, see Blue-
pages 82. o
10.2.1 General Rules for Case Names o
Use the case name that appears at the beginning of the opinion in the cited
reporter as modified by the paragraphs below. If no name appears in the cited
reporter, use a popular name or cite as "Judgment of <date>":

Shelley's Case

Judgment of Oct. rr, zooS

Always retain in full the first word in each pafiy's name (including a relator)
except as provided below In extremely long case names, omit words not neceg
sary for identification; the running head (the short identifier printed at the top
of each page of the case) may serve as a guide. Make the following modifications I
where applicable:

(a) Actions and parties cited. If the case is a consolidation of two or more
actions, cite only the fust listed:

) Shetleyv. Kraemer
ilot: Shelley v. Kraemer, McGhee v. Sipes
I Omit all partics other than the first listed on each side. Do not omit the lirst-
listed relator or any portion of a partnership name:

o F Fry v. Mayor of Sierra Vista

Not: Fry v. Mayor & City Council of Sierra Vista

I But:
* Massachusetts ex rel. Alison v. Pauly

o ts Eisen v. Spradlin, Lincotn & Amorosi

Omit words indicating multiple parties, such as "et a[."Also omit alternative

o names givcn for thc firstlisted party on cither side:

F Cheng v. Seinfetd

o Not: Cheng et al. v. Seinfetd d/b/a The Man, Inc.

Similady, for in rem jurisdiction cases, omit all but the lirstlisted itcm or group
O of items:

o In refhree Pink Cadittacs
Not: /n re Three Pink Caditlacs, Two Turtte Doves, and a Partridge in a

Pear Tree

S(/herc real propcrfy is a party, use its common street address, if available :

* United States v. 6ro9 Grubb Road

O Not: United States v. ParceI of Real Property Known as 6ro9 Grubb

o Road, Mitlcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania

In bankruptcy and similar cases, the casc name might contain both an adversary

o and a nonadversary name. If both appear at the beginning of the opinion, cite
the adversrry name first, followcd by the nonadversary name in parentheses.
Include a procedural phrase such as" ln re" or" ex rel." bcf<rrc the nonadversary

o name, followed by a descriptive or introductory phrase such as "Estate of" or

"lnterest of;'if any. lf only an adversary name or only a nonaclversary name
appears at the beginning of the opinion, citc the name supplicd:

o s. Watlingford's, Inc. v. Waning (/n re Waning), rzo B.R. 6o7,6tt

(Bankr. D. Me. r99o).

o * /n re Drexel Burnham Lambert Group, Inc.,

S.D.N.Y. r99o).
rzo B.R. 724(Bankr.

o a /n re Estate of Benson, No. C7'95-2r85,1996 WL 118367 (Minn' Ct.

App. Mar. ry,ry96).

o fr State v. Powers (/n re Interest of Powers),493 N.W.zd 16Z (Neb.


a (b) Procedural phrases. Abbrcviatc "on the relation ofl' "for the use of;'
"on behalf ofi"'as next friend ofl' and similar expre ssions to "ex rel. "Abbrevi-

a ate "in the matter ofl' "petition of] "application of;'and similar expressions
to "/n re. " Omit all procedural phrase s exccpt the lirst. Whcn adversary partie s
are named.omit all proccdural phrases cxcept-ex rel".

) Gorman v. Bruh

Not: /n re Gorman v. Bruh

Massachusetts ex rel. Kennedy v. Armbruster

) ExparteYoung

lnclude any introductory or descriptive phrases such as'Accounting

"Estate ofj'and"Will of." Thus:

In re Witl of Hott

Estate of Haas v. Commissioner o

Procedural phrases should always be italicized, regardless ofwhether the rest
the case name is italicized. Thus. in law review text:
) Ex parte Young
(c) Abbreviations. In textual sentences, whether in main text or in footnote o
text, abbreviate only widely known acronyms under rule 6.1(b) and these
eight words: "&," "Ass'n," "Bros.," 'Co.," "Corp.," "lnc.," 'Ltd.," and "No." If o
one of these eight begins a party's name, however, do not abbreviate it.

) Philadetphia Electric Co. v. Hirsch


PECO v. Hirsch
But: NMCP v. Kaminski

For abbreviations in citations, see

(d) "Ihe." Omit 'The" as

rule 10.2.2.
the fust word of a party's name , except as part of the o
name of the obiect of an in rem action or in cases in which "The King" or "The
Queen" is a party. Thus:
Miami Herald v. Sercus

ln re The Ctinton Bridge
The Kingv. Broadrup o
Do not omit "The'in an established popular name, except when referring to the
case textually. Thus: O
) See The Civit Rights Cases, ro9 U.S. I (1881).
But: Neither of the Civil Rights Cases opinions was correct. I
Noh Neither of The Civil Rights Cases opinions was correct.
(e) Descriptive tems. Omit terms such as'administrator," 'appellee,"
"executor," "licensee,' and "trustee" that describe
) Burns v. McMillen
a party already named:
Not: Burns v. McMillen, Administrator
But: Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Garodnick
o (f) Geographical terms. Omit "State of;"'Commonwealth of]'and "People
ofl'except when citing decisions of the courts of that state , in which case only

o "State,""Commonwealth," or " People" should be retained:

F Blystone v. Pennsytvania, 494U.5.299 Q99o).

o Not: Btystone v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 494U.5.299 Q99o).

But: Commonwealth v. Ferrone, 448 A.zd 6ll Qa. Super. Ct. r98z).

I Omit "City of;"'County ofl"'Viltage of," "Township of," and like expressions
unless the expression begins a party name:

t s. Mayor of New York v. Clinton

Not: Mayor of the City of New York v. Clinton

I But: Butts v. City of New York

Omit all prepositional phrases of krcation not following "Cityj'or like expres-

o sions, unless the omission would leave only one word in the name of a party or
the location is part of the full name of a business or similar entity:

t * Surrick v. Board of Wardens

Not: Surrick v. Board of Wardens of the Port of Philadelphia

o But: Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsvlvania v. Casev

Not: Planned Parenthood v. Casey

o *
Shapiro v. Bank of Harrisburg

o Eimers v. Mutual of Omaha

Include designations of national or larger gcographical areas except in union

names (rule 10.2. f (i)). Omit "of America" aftcr " U nited States"


F Flatow v. lslamic Repubtic of lran

o F United States v. Atuminum Co. of America

Retain all geographical designations not introduced by a preposition:

o F" Biltman v. Indiana Department of Corrections

Omit all geographical clcsignations that folkrw a comma:
ts City of Artington v. FEC

Not: City ofArlington, Texas v.


(g) Given names or initials. Gcncmlly, omit given name s or initials of individu-

t als,but not in names of business lirms or where a party's surnamc is abbreviated:

ts Courtneyv. Sandman

o Not: Paul Vincent Courtney v. Joseph M. Sandman


o h Tanya Bartucz, Inc. v. Virginia

ts Linda R.S. v. Richard D.

J. Wise & Co.

Do not omit any part of a sumame made up of more than one word:

) Van der Velt v. Standing Horse

) Abdul Ghani v. Subedar Shoedar Khan

Given names that follow a surname should be retained. Thus, retain the full
name where the name is entirely in a language in which the surname is given
fust, such as Chinese, Korean, orvietnamese: O
Yao Zhen Guangv. Yeh Zhi An

Chowv. Ha QuangJin
iloh Timothy Chow v. Ha Quang Jin
Similar$ if a party's name is of Spanish or Portuguese derivation, cite the sur-
name and all names following:

) Ortega y Gasset v. Alcala de Larosa

If in doubt,
reporter cited.
use the name under which the party appears in the index of the O
(h) Business firm designations. Omit "lnc.,""Ltd.;"'1.1.C.,"N.A.,,''F.S.B.,"
and similar terms if the name also contains a word such as"Ass'n,""Bros.,"'Co.,"
"Corp.,""lns.ior'R.R.icleady indicating that the party is a business firm:
) Wisconsin Packing Co. v. Indiana Refrigerator Lines, Inc.
flok Wisconsin Packing Co., Inc. v. Indiana Refrigerator Lines, lnc.

This rule should be read narrowly. The omission of the business flrm designa-
tion is only appropriate if the name of the business could notpossl'bl7 be mis
taken for the name of some other entity, such as a natural person. o
(i) Union and local union names. Cite a union name exactly as given in
the offrcial rreporter. This general rule is subiect, however, to the following I

(i) Only the smallest unit should be cited: t

> NLRB v. Radio & Television Broadcast Engineers Local pp
tlok N LRB v. Radio & Television Broadcast Engineers Local ptz, I

(ii) All craft or industry designations, except the frst full such designation, o
should be omitted:

) Douds v. Loca[ 294, International Brotherhood ofTeamsters

Not: Douds v. Local 294, International Brotherhood ofTeamsters,
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen & Helpers
But: lnternational Union of Doll & Toy Workers v.Local379
(in)A widely recognized abbreviation of the union's name (e.g., UAI/I/) may be o
used in accordance with rules 6.1O) and 10.2.1(c).
(iv) All prepositional phrases of location, including those of national or larger
areas, should be omitted.
o (j) Commissioner of Internal Revenue.
in citations,"Com m'r."
Cite simply as "Commissioner" or,

o (k) Common names different from name in reporter. For cases not known
by the name that appears in the reporter, but known instead by a common
name, the common name must either be substituted for the reporter name in

o its entircty, or indicated parenthetically in the same rypeface as the case name
in the reportcr:

o F The Brig Amy Warwick

(The Prize Cases), 6l U.S. (z Btack) 6:f

o b The Prize Cases,67 U.5. (z Btack) 6lS G86).

Not: The Prize Cases (The Brig Amy Warwick), 6Z U.S. (z Black) 6:S

I (r86r).

For cases known by the name in the reportcr, blut ako commonly known by a

I short name different from that appearing in the reporter, the common name
mry rufibe substituted for the reportcr namc in its entirety in a full citation, but

it may be indicated parenthetically in italics:
h Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Steel Seizure), f+f U.S.
579 9952).

o Not Steel Seizure,34jU.S. Slg GgSz).

Similarly', for mandamus actions against courts where the case is known by the

o name of thc ludge against whom the

parenthetically in italics:
writ is sought, the name may be indicated

I S." United States v. U.S. District Court (Keith),4o7 U.S. 297 Q97z).

And, for cases with multiple dispositions, a helpful identifier of the number of

o the decision may be indicated parenthetically in italics:

F Hamdiv. Rumsfeld (Hamdi llD,3t6F3d +So (qth Cir. zoo3).

o This parcnthetical identi{ier is givcn only when a case is cited as the primary
citation. Once given, the parenthetical identilicr alone may be used as the case

o name when the case is cited again, even in circumstances where a ftlll citation
would otherwise be required.

o h 1
Stations, Inc. v. FCC (Fox l), z9o F 3d tozT (D.C.
Fox Television
Cir.), modified on reh'g, z93F3d fi7 @.C. Cir. zooz).

o ts 2 Fox Television Stations, Inc. v. FCC (Fox ID, 293 F3d
(D.C. Cir. 2oo2) (quoting Fox l, z8o F.3d at ro43).

I In conformiry with rule 2.L(f), when citing cases according to the above rule.
the parcntheses themselves should ncver be italicized in eithcr main text or
footnote text.

o Additional Rules for Case Names in Citations 10.2.2

I Cite case names in citations according to the rules given above, but with the
following fu rther modifi cations:

Always abbreviate any word listed in table T6, even if the word is the fust word
in a party's name, unless the word is part of a state, country or other geographi- o
cal unit that is the entire name of the parry:

) S. Consol. R.R. v. Consol. Transp. Co. o

ln re Acad. Answering Serv., Inc.

McGaugh v. Comm'r o
But: South Dakota v. Dote
Not: 5. Dakota v. Dole
Abbreviate states, countries, and other geographical units as indicated in table
TlO unless the geographical unit is the entire name of the party (as opposed to
iust a part thereof). This includes "United States." Thus:
) ln reW. Tex. PepperCo. o
) LeBeau v. Univ. of Md.

But: Staub v. District of Columbia

) Ctr. for Nat'l Sec. Studies v. U.S. Dep't of Justice

But: Alvarez-Machain v. United States

But: Fritz v. County of Los Angeles o
Abbreviate other words of eight letters or morc tf substantial space is thereby
saved and the result is unambiguous.
10.3 Reporters and Other Sources
10.3.1 Parallel Citations and Which Source(s) to Cite
The federal and state iurisdictions table (table Tl) indicates which reporters to
cite for the decisions of most courts. Note that many state court decisions are
published in two or more sources. o
(a) Parallel citations in state court documents. ln documents submitted to
state courts, all case citations must be to the source(s) required by local rules.
Many state rules require that citations to state court decisions include a cita-
tion to the official state reporter,followedby a parallel citation to a regional
reporter. Thus, these local rules, and not the citltion rules set forth in table Tl, o
govern state court filings. See Bluepages table BT1O.I.3 for further guidance
concerning iurisdiction-specific citation rules.

(b) Case citations in all other documents. In all other documents, including
ordinary legal memoranda and law realew pieces, cite the relevant regional
reporter, if the decision is found therein. For example: o
) Swedloff v. Phila.Transp. Co.,t87 A.zdt5z(Pa.ry6).
If the decision is availableas an official public domain citation (also referred to
as medium-neutral citation), that citation must be provided, as well as a parallel
citation to the regional reporter, if available.

o If the decision is not found in a regional reporter or available as a public domain
citation, cite the other sources indicated in table T1. Cite decisions of unlisted
courts as you would those ofcourts listed in the table.Ifa case is not available

o in an official or preferred unofficial reporter or as a public domain citation,

cite another unoflicial reporter, a widely used computer database (rule 18.3),

o a service (rule 19), a slip opinion (rule 10.8.1(b)), an Internct source (rule
18.2.2), or a newspaper (rule 16.6), in that order of prefercncc:

o b United States v. Cartisle, No. 9o-246551, r99r U.S. App. LEXIS S86:,
at *3 (8th Cir. Apr. rc, ry91 her curiam).

o F

/n re Smithfield Estates, Inc., [t985-1986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L.
Rep. (CCH) 1'7o,7o7 (Bankr. D.R.l. Aug. 9, 1985).

Simmons v. Brothers, No. 9o-627 (D. Mass. Dec. r9, r99o).

o ;' State v. McArthur, No. C4-99-5oz (Minn. Ct. App. Sept. 28, t99),
http://www.lawlibrary.state.mn.us/archiv e I ctapun | 99o9 | 5oz.

o l

United Statesv. Patermo, N.Y.Ttmes, Aug.z7,1957,aI zzr (S.D.N.Y.

I Aug. 26, r95).

For citation to administrativc reportcrs, see rule 14.3,2.

I Reporters ro.3.2

I Bound publications that print only cases (or cascs and annotations) are consid-
ered reporters and are cited in roman type. A citation to a rcporter consists of a
volume designation (rule 3.1), the abbreviated namc of the reportcr (as shown

o in table Tl), and the page on which the case report begins
on spacing in reporter abbreviations, sec rule 6.1(a).
(rule 3.2). For rules

o ) Burt v. Rumsfetd, 3zz F. Supp. zd t8g (D. Conn. zoo4).

Eady American rcportcrs were often named after their cditors rathcr than after

o thc courts whose cases thcy rcported. Subsequently, official editor-named serics
havc been combined into iurisdiction-named scries with continuous volume

o numbering. Such reporters are now generally cited by the official serics name
and number only;thc name of thc reportcr's cditor is omitted:

> (Sup. Ct. 186z).

Cobb v. Davenport, 32 N.l.L. l6q
Not: Cobb v. Davenport, 3 Vroom 16g (Sup. Ct. 186Z).

o But for tlnited Statcs Supreme Court rcportcrs through 90 tl.S (2lWall.) and
few early state reporters (sec table Tl.3), give the name of the repofter's editor
and the volumc of that series. If the pagination of thc oflicial iurisdiction-namcd

o reprints and thc original reporters is thc same , usc the following form:

) Green v. Biddte, zr U.S. (8 Wheat.) r (r8zl).

I ) Hattv. Belt, +Z Mass. (6 Met.) +lr (r8+l).

If the pagination differs, givc parallel citations to the reprints and the original
o reportcfs:
F Wadsworth v. Ruggles, z3 Mass. 62,6 Pick.6l (rBzB).

Some very eady Pennsylvania federal and state court decisions are reported in
the initial volumes of the United States Reports.Wherc this occurs,include the I
cite to "U.S.," along with a parallel cite to the appropriate lower court reporter:

) Barnes's Lessee v. lrwin, z U.S. (z Dall.) r99, r Yeates zzt (Pa. I

rZg:) (mem.).
) United States v. Fries, 3 U.S. (: Datt.) 5t5, 9 F. Cas. 826 (C.C.D. Pa.
rzgg) (No. srz5).

10.3.3 Public Domain Format

When citing a decision available in public domain format (also referred to as
medium-neutral format),if the iurisdiction's format can be cited in the following
form (see table Tl), provide the case name, the year of decision, the state's two-
character postal code, the tableTT court abbreviation (unless the court is the
state's highest court), the sequential number of the decision, and, if the decision
is unpublished, a capital "U" after the sequential number of the decision.When
referencing specifc material within the decision, a pinpoint citation should be o
made to the paragraph number at which the material appears. If available , a par-
allel citation to the appropriate regional reporter must be provided.
The following examples are representative of the recommended public domain
citation format:
) Beckv. Beck, 1999 ME 11o, Ii6,ZllA.zd 98r,983.
) Gregory v. Ctass, 1998 SD ro6, fl :, S8+ N.W.zd 8ll,8lS. o
) Jones v. Fisher, 1998 OK Civ. App.

If a jurisdiction adopts
a public domain format that differs from the above, the I
requirements of the jurisdiction's format should be observed (table Tl):

) Cannon v. Am. Bowling Cong., 94-o641 , p. t (ta. 4lzg lgt+); 637 So.
zd 463,463.
) Morton v. New Orleans Police Dep't,96-L799 (La. App. 4 Cir.
zlslgi;687 So. 2d699.
Sullivan v. State,98-KA-oo5zr-SCT (fl zf) (Miss. 1999).

State v. Brennan, 1998-NMCA-r76,117, tz6 N.M. 389, 97o P.zd

ro.4 Court andJurisdiction

Every case citation must indicate which court decided the case. In American
and other common law citations,give the name of the court and its geographical
iurisdiction (abbreviated according to tables TI or T2 if included therein and
according to tables T7 and T10 in all other cases) in the parenthetical phrase I
that immediately follows the citation and includes the date or year of decision.
For court names that include ordinals, format and abbreviate the ordinals in
accordance with de 6.2(b):
Commonweatth v. Virelli, 6zo A.zd

United States v. Andolschek, 4zF.zd

58 Pa. Super. Ct. r99z).
5o3 (2d Ci. tgqq).
t For citations to foreign cases, see rule 2O.3 and tableT2.
A more detailed court designation than those specified by the following para-

o graphs may be given ifnecessary

(a) Federal courts. In citations to United States LawWeek,the United States

o Supreme Court is indicated with "U.S." In citations to the Suprerrxe Court

Reporter andthe United States Rqports,omit the Supreme Court's name.When
a Supreme Court Justice sits alone in his or her capacity as a Circuit Justice, cite

o the decision


rzrg (Douglas, Circuit Justice r97z).

Russo v. Byrne, 4o9 U.S.

United States courts of appeals for numbered circuits, regardless of year, are
indicated as:

o )
zd Cir.

O Not: CAz

When citing the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
Circuit and its predecessors, or when citing the Federal Circuit, use the follow-
ing abbreviations:

I )
D.C. Cir.

Fed. Cir.

I For

disrict court cases, give the district but not the division:


> D.D.C.

C.D. Cal.

ilo& C.D. Cat. E.D.

o Cite the old circuit courts (abolished

> c.c.s.D.N.Y.

I ) C.C.E.D. Mo.

Cite the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation:

I > J.P.M.L.

Cite the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and Court of Review,

o respectively:

> FrsA ct.,

o > FISA Ct. Rev.

Cite decisions of bankruptcy courts and bankruptcy appellate panels:

) Bankr. E.D. Va.

I > B.A.P.9th Cir.

O) State courts. In general, indicat€ the state and court of decision. However'
is the highest court

do not include the name ofthe court ifthe court ofdecision
of the state:
) People v. Armour, 59o N.W.zd 6t (Mich. t999).
llot: People v. Armour, 59o N.W.zd 6r (Mich. Sup. Ct. 1999).
Omit the iurisdiction and the court abbreviation if unambiguously conveyed by
the reporter title:

) DiLucia v. Mandelker,493 N.Y.S.zd 769 (App. Div. rgSS).

ilot: DiLucia v. Mandelker,493 N.Y.S.zd Z5g (N.Y. App. Div. 1985).

) Dubreuilv. Witt, 80 Conn. App. 4ro (zoo3). o
iloft Dubreuilv. Witt, 80 Conn. App. 4ro (App. Ct. zoo3).
Thus, when a decision is rendered by the highest court in a particular jurisdic- o
tion and the name of the reporter is the same as the name of that iurisdiction,
neither the name of the court nor the name of the state need be given:

) Batesv. Tappan,99 Mass. lt6(1868).

Do not indicate the department or district in citing decisions of intermediate
state courts unless that information is of particular relevance:
) Schiffman v. Corsi, 5o N.Y.S.zd 8gZ (Sup. Ct. t94Q. a
When the department or district is of particular relevance, that information
should be indicated

as follows:
Schiffman v. Corsi, 5o N.Y.S.zd 8qZ (Sup. Ct. N.Y. Cnty. t94Q.

) Lee v. Perez,tzo S.W.3d 461 Oex. App. r4th zoo3).

lO.5 Date or Year o

(a) Decisions published in reporters. If possible, provide the year of deci-
sion; use the year of the term of the court only if the year of decision is unavail-
able. In ambiguous cases, follow the year given in the running head (at the top
of each page) in the reporter. Before Volume 108 of the U.S. Reports (1882),
opinions do not usually list their date of decision but rather list only the term in t
which they were decided. For the dates of these opinions, refer to the Librarian
of the Supreme Court's list of dates, available at http://www.supremecouft.govl
opinions/datesofdecisions. pdf.

(b) Decisions published in other sources. Give the exact date for all unre-
ported cases and for all cases cited to a looseleaf service, a slip opinion, an o
electronic database, or a newspap€r:

) Bedell v. Nessim, No. 9o-567, slip op. l4S8 (rst Cir. Jan. 19, t99r). o
Per rule f0.5(a), the exact d^te is not necessary for cases that are labeled
'unpublished'but are nevertheless reported, including cases reported in the
Federal Appendix and "unpublished" cases reported in the appropriate reporter
for the jurisdiction:

) United States v. Tando, 68 F. App'x 85 (9th Cir. zoo3).

(c) Pending cases and cases dismissed without opinion. Use the date or
year of the most recent major disposition. "Major dispositions" include onfil
the initial filing, whether in the trial court or on appeal (e.g., "fited," "appeal
o docketed," "petition for cert. filed"l, oril argument ("argued"), and, for
cases dismissed without opinion, the dismissal ("dismissed"). Indicate the sig-

o nificance of the date within a parenthetical phrase, unless its signilicance is

explained elsewhere:

F Bedetl v. Nessim, No.9o-567 (rst Cir. argued Jan. ro, r99r).

o Otherwise no special notation is neccssary:

o * Bedett v. Nessim,7z5F.Supp.t4o7 (D. Mass. r99o), oppeol dock'

eted, No. 90-567 (rst Cir. Dec. zo, r99o).

o (d) Multiple decisions within a single year. when citing a case with several
different decisions in the same year, include the year only with the last-cited
decision in that year:

I s United States v. Eller, rr4 F. Su pp. 284 (M.D. N.C.), rev'd, zo8 F.zd
It6 (r+th Cir. r953).

o However, if the cxact date of decision is required in either case, include both

I * DiNapoti v. Ne. Reg'[ Parole Comm'n,764F.2d 43 Qd Cir. 1985),

petition for cert. filed, S+ U.S.L.W. lr+6 (U.S. Aug.29, rg8S) (No.

o 8s-rrs).

Parenthetical Information Regarding Cases 10.6

t Weight of Authority 10.6. r
(a) Generally. Information regarding the weight of the authority (e.g., en banc;
in banc; z-r decision; mem.; per curiam; Brandeis, J.; unpubtished tabte

o decision) may be added in a separate parenthetical phrase f<rllowing the datc

of decision:

* Webb v. Baxter Healthcare Corp.,57 F3d ro67 (+th Cir. rqgs)

O (unpublished table decision).

o When a casc is cited for a propositi<)n that is not the singlc, clcar holding of
a majority of the court (e.g., alternative hotding; by imptication; dictum;

dissenting opinion; pluratity opinion; hotding unclear), indicate that fact

b Parker v. Randotph, 442 lJ.S. 62, 8 t, Ggl ) (Stevens, J., d issenting).

t F Garcia v. San Antonio Metro. Transit Auth., 469 U.S. 528, 57o
(rS8S) (S-+ decision) (Powetl, 1., dissenting).

o Information regarding related authority (rule 1.6) or prior or subsequent

history (rule 1O.7.1(a)) that can properly be indicated with an explanatory

o phrase (table T8) should not be given parenthetically. Thus:

* Wersba v. Seiler, 393 F.zd %7 Gd Cir. 1968) (per curiam).

o But: Wersba v. Seiler, 263 F. Supp. 8;8,

curiom,393F.zd%7 bd Cir. 1968).
8+l (E.D. Pa. ry6), affd per

(b) "Mem." and "per curiam." The abbreviation "mem." stands for the word
"memorandum" and should be used in a parenthetical if, and only if, a court o
disposition was issued without an opinion. District court and other opinions
denominated"memorandum decision" are not designated"mem."in citations.
The phrase "per curiam'refers to an opinion issued"by the court" as an institu-
tion as opposed to a decision issued by a particular judge."Per curiam" is used
in a parenthetical to describe an opinion so denominated by the court. o
(c) Seriatim opinions. Prior to the Marshall Court (which began February
4, l80l), the U.S. Supreme Court followed the traditional British practice of
eachJustice writing his own opinion rather than producing a majority opinion
for the Court. To cite such an opinion, include the parenthetical "(opinion of
Lastname, J.)." o
10.6.2 Quoting/Citing Parentheticals in Case Citations t
When a case cited as authority itself quotes or cites another case for that point,
a"quoting"or"citing"parenthetical is appropriate per rule 1.56).Within the o
parenthetical, the same rules regarding typeface, pincites, and short forms apply
to the quoted or cited authority as if it were the direct source:

) Zadvydasv. Davis,533 U.S.678,7t9 (zoor) (Kennedy,J.,

dissenting) (citing Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel. Mezei,345
U.S. zo5 Gssr)). o
Note, however, that only one level of recursion is required. Thus, if a case quotes
a case,which itself quotes another case, only one level of"quoting" or "citing'
parentheticals is necessary. An additional level of parenthetical information may
be used ifthe information conveyed is particularly relevant.
10.6.3 Order of Parentheticals
Parenthetical phrases should be placed in the following order: (i) weight of I
authority parentheticals; (ii) "quoting" and "citing" parentheticals; (iii) explana-
tory parentheticals. For more detailed information, see

de 1.5(b). Thus: I
Wotf v. Colorado, 338 U.5. 25, 47 Gg49) (Ruttedge, J., dissenting)
fteiectingthe Court's conception of the exclusionary rule),affg
t87 P.zd 925 (Coto. t947), overruled by Mapp v. Ohio, 367 u.5.643
If an explanatory parenthetical contains text that itself requires a,,quoting"or
"citing"parenthetical, the two parentheticals should be nested:

) Kansas v. Crane, 534 U.S. 4o7,4o9 (zooz) ("[T]he statutory crite-

rion for confinement embodied in the statute's words 'mental
abnormality or personality disorder' satisfied "'substantive" due
process requirements."' (quoting Kansas v. Hendricks, 5zr U.S.
346, r55 (tgg))).
Fultilove v. Klutznick, 448 U.S. 448, 519 (r98o) (Marshal[, J., concur-
ring) (noting that conventional strict scrutiny is "strict in theory,
but fatal in fact" (citing Regents ofthe Univ. ofCal. v. Bakke,438
U.S. 265, t6z (tgtg))).
I fO.Z Pri"t ""d Subsequent History
Whcnever a decision is cited in full, give the entire subsequent history of the

o case , but omit denials of certiorari or denials of similar discretionary appeals,

unless the decision is less than two years old or the denial is particulady rel-

I evant. Omit also the history on remand or any denial of a rehearing, unless
relevant to the point for which the case is cited. Finally, omit any disposition
withdrawn by the deciding authoriry such as an aflirmance followed by revcrsal

o on rehearing. Thus:

ts Cent. ltt. Pub. Serv. Co. v. Westervelt, 34zN.E.zd q6: (ltt. App. Ct.

I ry26), off d,367 N.E.zd 66t (lll. tgz).

Not: Cent. llt. Pub. Serv. Co. v. Westervelt, 342 N.E.zd 46f (ltt. App. Ct.

o )
ry26), affd,367 N.E.zd 66r (llt. t977), cert. denied, 434U.5. toTo

o Cheng v. GAF Corp.,

go: (rg8r).
63tF.zd ro5z (zd Cir. r98o), vocoted,45o U.S.

I Not: Cheng v. GAF Corp., 63rF.zd to5z (zd Cir. rg8o), vocated, 45o
U.S. gol, remanded to 659 F.zd ro58 (zd Cir. rg8r).
(;ivcp,'ior history only if signilicant to the point for which thecase is cited or if

I the disposition cited does not intelligibly dcscribe the issues in the case, as in a
Suprcmc Court "mem." Give se parate decisions of other issues in the case with

o their prior and subsequent history only if relevant.

I Explanatory Phrases and Weight of Authority

A partial list of explanatory phrases (as abbreviated) appears in table T8.

t (a) Prior or subsequent history. Appcnd the prior or subsequent history of

a case to thc primary citation. Introduce and explain each prior or sttbscqttent
dccision with italicized words between each citation:

o b Cooperv. Dupnik, 9z4F.zd!52o,t53o & n.zo (9th Cir.ry9l,rev'd

en banc,963 F.zd tzzo (9th C'r. t99z).

a If a subsequent disposition occurrcd in the same year as the primary citation,

omit the year from the primary citation's parenthetical.

I If subsequent history itself has subscquent history, append the additional sub-
scquent history with another cxplanatory phrase. For example , in the folklwing

o case the Supreme Court reverscd thc Sccond Circuit, which had reversed the
Southern District of NewYork:

o F Herbert v. Lando, 73 F.R.D. f8z (S.D.N.Y.), rev'd, 568 F.zd gtr', (zd
Cjr. tgZl), rev'd, 44tU.S. tSZ 0g1il.

o To show both

prior and subscquent history, give the prior history lirst:
Kubrickv. United States,58r F.zd togz{3dCn.ryl9),affq 435F.
Supp. 166 (E.D. Pa. ry77), rev'd, 444U.S.nt Q979).

o Citations to prior or subsequent history should follow any parenthetical infor-

mation given for the primary citation lrule 1.5@)).

(b) Significance of disposition. Give the reason for
sition does not carry the normal substantive signfficance
a disposition if the dispo
: o
vacated as moot,

appeal dismissed per stipulation,

(c) Overnrled, abrogated, and superseded cases. Also note cases that
have been overruled, abrogated, or superseded by statute or constitutional

(i) Overnrled cases. Indicate cases where a later decision by the same court o
(or a court with appellate jurisdiction over th€ original corrrt) explicitl! repudi-
ates its earlier decision with the phrase "ove rruled by":
) Nat'[ League of Citiesv. Usery,4z5 U.S.8ll Gg76),overruled by
Garcia v. San Antonio Metro. Transit Auth., 469 U.S. Sz8 (rS8S).
Also,when one case is ovemrled by multiple subsequent decisions by the same
court (i.e., separate decisions overmle separate parts of the holding), include
"ond" between the citations to each of the overruling cases:

) Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. rB,8 (tgz8), overruled byKatz

v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 b95), and Berger v. New York, 388 I
U.S. r+t(tg6).
(ii) Abrogated cases. Cases that are effectively Out not explicitly) overruled o
or departed from by a later decision of the same court are indicated with the
phnse"abrogated by":
(t948),abrogated byBraden v.3oth
F Ahrensv. Clark,335 U.S. r88
Judiciat Circuit Court, 41o U.S. +8t+ (tgz).
(iii) Cases superseded by statute or constitutional amendrnent. When cit-
ing cases where a statute or amendment was enacted with the specific intent of
reversing the outcome of the initial case, the statute or amendment must always o
be cited, and a later case recognizing xtch may be cited for support, as long as
the later case is decided by the same court (or a court with appellate jurisdic-
tion over the original court) as the superseded case:
) Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 49o U.S. 542 (t989), superseded
bystatute,Civil Rights Actoftggt, Pub. L. No. to2-t65, ro5 Stat.
to74,as recognized in Raytheon Co. v. Hernandez,54oU.S.44
(zoo3). o
) Dred Scott v. Sandford, 6o U.S. (r9 How.) 3% GBs), superseded
by constitutional amendment, U.S. CoHsr. amend. XlV. o
to this rule should be cited to the session laws (de
Statutes cited according
12.4) wherever possible, and, if appropriate, specific sections of the statute
superseding the case may be cited.
(d) Multiple dispositions. Multiple dispositions by the same court following
a primary case citation should be connected with the word "cnd" in italics:
) United States v. Baxter, 49zF.zd r5o (9th Cir.), cert. dismissed,4t4
U.S. 8or $9p), and cert. denied,4r6 U.S. 94o Q97d. o
t Different Case Name on Appeal 10.7.2

t (a) Name changes in subsequent history. when the name of a case differs
in subsequent history the new name must bc given, introduced by the phrase
"sub nom.":

o ) Great W. United Corp. v. Kidwett, 577 F.zd tz56 (5Ih Clr. tglS),
rev'd sub nom. Le(oy v.Great W. United Corp., 48 U.S. 1n O97q.

o This rule applies even when the differencc in the name is slight, such as
change in only the proccdural phrases:

o F Paditta ex rel. Newman v. Rumsfeld, 243 F. Supp. zd +z (S.D.N.Y.),

affd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Padilla v. Rumsfeld, 35zF3d
6gSQd Cir. zoo3), rev'd,542U.5.426 (zoo4).

I (b) Name changes in prior history.

history, use the following form:
To indicate a different name in prior

o ) Rederi v. lsbrandtsen Co.,34z U.S. 95o (rgSz) (per curiam), affg

by an equally divided court lsbrandtsen Co. v. United States, 96 F.

o Supp. 883 (S.D.N.Y. rglr).

(c) Exceptions. Do not provide a different casc name (i) when the partics'

o names are merely reversed;(ii) when the citation in which the differcnce occurs
is to a de nial of certiorari or rehearing; (iii) when, in the appeal of an administra-
tive action, the name of the private party remains the samc; or (iv) when the

o change is simply stylistic (e .g.,"State" to "California"):

) United Dairy Farmers Coop. Ass'n, r94 N.L.R.B. to94, enforced, 465

o F .zd r4ot (td Ck. tglz).

But: Perma Vinyt Corp., 164 N.L.R.B. 968 (tg6l), enforced sub nom.

o U.S. Pipe & Foundry Co. v. NLRB, 398F.2d 544 (5th Cir. t968).

o Special Citation Forms 10.8

I Pending and Unreported Cases

(a) Cases available on electronic media. when a casc is unreportcd bttt
available on a widely used electronic database, it may be citcd to that database.

o Provide the case name, docket number, database identilier, court name, and full
datc of the most rccent major disposition of thc case. Cite to thc casc docket

o number cxactly as it appears. If the database contains codes or numbcrs that

uniquely identiff the case (as do LEXIS,Westlaw, and Bloomberg Law), these
must be given. Screen or page numbers, if the database assigns thcm, should bc

o preccdcd by an asterisk; paragraph numbers, if assigned, should be preceded by

a paragraph symbol:

o ) Gibbs v. Frank, No. oz-3924,2oo4 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357, at*78-79

(ld Cir. OcI. L4,2oo4.

o ) Chavez v. Metro. Dist. Comm'n, No. 3:ozCV458(MRK), zoo+ U.S.

Dist. LEXIS ttz66,at*5 n.3 (D. Conn. June uzoo4).

) Int'I Snowmobile Mfrs. Ass'n v. Norton, No. oo-CV-zz9-B, zoo4 WL
2337372, at*3,*7 (D. Wyo. Oct. r4, zoo4). I
) Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, No. 81716o6, zoo4 WL
2t5374t, at *r (Cal. Ct. App. Sept. 28, zoo4). I
P Ortho-McNeil Pharm., lnc. v. Teva Pharm. Indus., Ltd., No. zoo8-
t549, 2oo9 BL r8r48o, at *4 (Fed. Cir. Aug. 26, zoog). o
If the name of the database is not clear from the database identifier, include it
parenthetically at the end of the citation:

Staats v. Brown, No. 6568r-9, zooo WA oo4zoo7,fiz5 (Wash. Jan.
6, zooo) (VersusLaw).
Citations to cases that have not been assigned unique database identifiers
should include all relevant information, such as the specific collection within
the database in which the case can be found:
) Frankel v. Banco Nacional de Mex., S.A., No. 8z Civ.6547 (S.D.N.Y.
May 3r, rqSf) (LEXIS, Genfed Library, Dist. Fite). I
) Lindquist v. Hart, r CA-CV 98-o323 (Ariz. Ct. App. July 15,1999)
(Loislaw, Ariz. Case Law). o
(b) Cases available in slip opinions. When a case is unreported but available
in a separately printed slip opinion, give the docket number, the court, and the I
full date of the most recent major disposition of the case:

) Groucho Marx Prods. v. Playboy Enters., No. 77 Civ. rZSz (S.D.N.Y.

Dec. 3o, t977).
Note any renumbering of the docket:

United Statesv.Johnson, 4z5F.zd 630 (9th Cir.ry7o),cert.
granted, +ol U.S. gS6 (rgZr) (No. SZZ, tgTof erm; renumbered No.
7o-8, tgTtferm).
Always give the full docket number:

Not: No. 3r

If the date given does not refer to the date of decision and the significance of the
date is not indicated elsewhere, indicate that significance within the parentheti- o
cal containing the date:

) Ross v. Weissman, No. 9o-345 (D. Mass. fited Sept. r8, r99o).
To cite a particular page of a separately paginated slip opinion, use the form:

) Ross v. Weissman, No. 9o-345, stip op. at 5 (D. Mass. Dec. 4, 1g9o). o
If the case is not separately paginated, cite the page on which the case begins as
well as the page on which the particularly cited material appears: I
) Bedell v. Nessim, No. 9o-567, stip op. 3458,3465 (rst Cir. Jan. r9,
1991). I

o In pending or unreported adversary proceedings in bankruptcy, supply both

the case number ofthe underlying nonadversary proceeding and the case num-

ber of the adversary proceeding:

F Brown v. Sachs (/n re Brown), Ch. 7 Case No. B4-oor.7o-G, Adv. No.
B5-rr9o, stip op. at S (E.D. Mich. Jan. zrt,rg86).

o (c) Other pending and unreported cases. Cases that are not available in slip
opinions or on electronic databases may be citcd to services (rule 19), periodi-

o cals (rule 16), or the Internet (rule 18.2.2).

(d) Depublished cases. A number of iurisdictions allow their decisions to bc

a "depublished," usually when review is denied, and generally without a reported

ordcr. when there is no reported order depublishing the lower court decision,

the fact that the case was depublished should be indicatcd parenthetically:

F Mitchelt v. Cal. Fair Plan Ass'n, 260 Cal. Rptr. I (Ct. App. tgSg)

(depu blished).

If the order depublishing a case is reported, the order should be indicated as

subsequent history pursuant to rule 10.7, introduced with the explanatory

I phrrce"depublished by:

o Fifth Circuit Split

On October l, Circuit was
1981, the United States Oourt of Appeals for the Fifth

o divided to create the new Fifth and Elevcnth Circuits. Cite cases decided during
the transitional period leading to this reorganization according to the fbllowing

t rules: (i) cite decisions rendered in 1981 and labeled "5th Cir." by month; (ii)
givc unit information whenever available; md (iii) designate as "Former 5th"
any nonunit ludgment labeled as a Former Fifth judgment and rendcred after

o Scptcmber 30,1981:

F Birt v. Estetle, 66oF.zd 592 (5th Cir. Nov. rg8r).

o F Haitian Refugee Ctr. v. Smith, 676F.zd 1o23 Gth Cir. Unit B r98z).
b' Trailways, Inc. v. lCC, 676F.zd rorg $th Cir. UnitAAug. rg8r) (per

o )
McCormick v. United States, 68o F.zd 345 (Former 5th Cir. rg8z).

o Briefs, Court Filings, and Transcripts 10.8.3

o Citation for
a petitioner's brief in a U.S. Supreme Court case
name pincite case citatron

o Er',"f f"l. P"titil; Fili.,

(No. 05-1631), 2006 WL 3693418,
L-----r------r# at *!7.

o docket number commercial database

identifer (optional)

o In general, all court lilings follow the same general form. The full nlme of the
document, as it appears on the ftling, must come lirst, abbreviatcd accorcling

t to rule 10.2.1(c), followed by a pinpoint citation, if any The ftrll crse cita-
tion and the docket number should firlkrw the name of the documcnt lncl the
pinpoint ciation. If no decision has yet been rendered on the flling cited, cite
the case according to de fO.5(c), but the date in the parenthetical should a
be the date on wbicb tbe filing was made, regardless of subsequent disposi-
tions (e.g., oral argument). If a decision has been rendered, cite the case as you
otherwise would:
) Complaint at 17, Kelly v. Wyman, 294 F. Supp. 8gf (S.D.N.Y. rg68)
(No. 68 Civ. lgz+).
Always include the docket number, whether parenthetically (when there ls
reported citation) or as the citation (when there is no reported citation):
) Brief of Petitioner-Appellant at 48, United States v. Al-Marri, No.
c^33674 kth Cir. Nov. rz, zoo3). a
The document number assigned by the court, such as that found on PACER for
federal cases, may also be included,but is not necessary unless it is essential to o
finding the document:
|> Amended Complaint & Demand for Jury Triat, Viota v. Am. Brands,

Inc., No. 85-2496-G (D. Mass. Aug. r, rg8S), ECF No. 14.

With court-produced documents, including oral argument transcripts and tran-

scripts of record, the same general rules apply:
) Transcript of Oral Argument at 11, Ayers v. Belmontes,
q6g (zoo6) (No. oS-+gl).
e7 S. Ct.
) Transcript of Record at 76-tT,Johnson v. Eisentrager,
(rgso) (No. :o6).
ng U.S. l5l
ufith amicus briefs, the same general rules apply, with the sole exception that
there are more than two signatories to the briel"et al." may be used:
) Brief for Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, Inc. et
al. as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents, Moseley v. V Secret
Catalogue, lnc.,537 U.S. 4r8 (zool) (No. or-ror5).
Further, though the above information is sufficient, a parallel citation to an elec-
tronic database or a website may be provided, if helpful:
) Brief for Ringling Bros.-Barnum & Bailey Combined Shows, Inc.
et al. as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents, Moseley v. V
Secret Catalogue, Inc., fi7 U.S.4t8 (zoq) (No. or-ror5), 2oo2 WL
Such parallel citations rnust tnclude a pinpoint citation to the electronic data-
base where one is required for the primary document, and vice versa.

With audio recordings of court proceedings, including oral arguments and oral
dissents, the same general rules apply, except that the title may be a description
of the recording. Timestamps should be used for designating pinpoint citations.
If the recording is available online, append a URI pursuant to rule 18.7:

) Ora[ Argument at 11:38, Roe v. Wade, 4ro U.S. rrl (rgZ:) (No. o
7 o - 18),
httl || www. oyez. o rg I cases I t97 o - tg g
z | ryz! ryz t7 o _t8 |
o "t, Oral
Dissent of .lustice Ginsburg aI 4125, Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire
& Rubber Co.,tz7 S.CI.z16z (zooz) (No. o5-to74), http://www.

o oyez.org/case s I zooo-zoo9 I zoo6 I zoo6 o5-ro74/opinion.

For purposes of short fbrms (rule 10.9), a citation to a court document inclutl-

ing a case citation suflices as a citation to the case itself. Whcrc the case may bc
cited in short form pcr rule 10.9, it may be cited in short f<rrm in the citation to
the court document, but the docket numbcr must still be providcd:

I ll. 1 Brief for the Petitioner, Demore v. Kim, 538 U.S. 5ro (zoo3) (No.

o u" 2 Petition for Writ of Certiorari, Demore,

Further, the court clocument itself may be

Sl8 U.S. 5ro (No. or-t49t).
citcd Lrsing,7 supra form, unlikc thc

o case,which may not. L supra form for thc court document, howeveq does not
count for purpose s of the "live footnote" rulc. The document title will sufficc s<r
long as it does not create confusion. Hereinafter forms may also be used (rule

o 4.2(b)), if helpful:
+ 3 Brief for the Petitioner , supra nole 7, at 12.

t Court Administrative Orders r0.8.4

o (lite the oflicial reporter, if therein; givc the title of the order, if nny:
p Order Discharging the Advisory Committee, 352 U.S. Bol (rqS6).

o Short Forms for Cases ro.g

a (a) Footnotes. In law rcview footnotcs, a short form for I case may be uscd if
it clearly identilies a case that (l) is alrcady cited in the same frntnote or (2) is

cited (in either full or short form, including " id."; rn one of the preceding .firv
Jixrtnorcs. Otherwise, a full citation is requircd. Thus in thc following example,
thc use ofthe short form in footnotes 4 and 7-8 is correct:

o r

United States v. Montoya de Hernandez,
Id. at fi7-8.
4n U.S.53r (1985).

o , 3 See United States v. Martinez-Fuefte, 428 U.S. S+1, 5i7 $976);

Cat. Bankers Ass'n v. Shultz, 416 U.S. zr, 6z 6gld,); Zimmermann

o v. Jenkins (/n re GGM, P.C.), 16S F3d toz6, tozT (5th Cir. rygil;
Cohen v. Drexel Burnham Lambert Grp. (/n re Drexel Burnham
Lambert Grp.), r38 B.R. 682, Zoz (Bankr. S.D.N.Y. t99z); In re

o Draughon Training Inst., Inc., n9 B.R. 9zt,9z6 (Bankr. W.D. La.


t ' a

See Martinez-Fuerte,4zB U.S. at 550; ln re Draughon Training,
B.R. at 93o.

5 New York v. Betton, 453 U.S. 454,457 Q981.
i,, 6 See id. at 456.
o Hernandez,4nU.S.at54o; Cohen, r38
7 See Montoyo de B.R. at
''' 8 5ee Martinez-Fuerte, 4zB lJ.S. at 55o; Cal. Bankers,416 U.S. at 55;

o ln re GGM, P.C., t65 F.3d at ro3o.

(i) Generally. Use of only one party's name (or a readily identifiable shorter ver-
sion of one party's name) in a short form citation is permissible if the reference o
is unambiguous.When only one party's name (or a short form thereof; is used,
it should be italicized. Acceptable short forms include:
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. at 585.

) Youngstown Sheet &Tube Co.,343 U.5.at 585.

Youngstown,343 U.S.at 585.
343 U.S. at 585. t
) /d. at 585.
Omit the case name as in the last two examples only if the reader will have no I
doubt about the case to which the citation refers.

Per de 1O.2.1(k), a case may also be cited in short form by a different name
than that which appears in the reporter, so long as the full citation includes
both versions:

) Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Steel Seizure), 343 U.S.
579,585 G952).
becomes: Steel Seizure,343 U.S.at 585.
When citing an entire decision, and not a pinpoint therein, in short form, you
must include the shorter version of the case name, the volume number, repofter I
designation, and fust page;but do /rot include a jurisdiction/date parenthetical:

) Steel Seizure, 38 U.S. 579. o

When using only one party's name in a short form citation, avoid using the name
of a geographical or governmental unit, a governmental official, or another com- t
mon litigant. Thus:

) NMCP v. Alabama ex re l. Patterson, 357 U.S. t+t+g, r+6 r+ (tgS8).

becomes: Potterson,357 U.S. at 454.

Not: NAACP,352 U.S. at464. I


Alabama,357 U.S. at 464.
Reno v. Bossier Parish Sch. Bd., 5zo U.S. 47t,48o 999).
becomes: Bossier Parish Sch. Bd.,5zo U.S. at 48o.
Not: Reno, 5zo U.S. at 48o. I
(ii) Commercial electronic databases. For cases that are available on an elec-
tronic database (rule IO.E.L),use a unique database identifier,ifone has been I
assigned, in constructing a short form:

) Ctark v. Homrighous, No. ClV.A.9o-r38o-f , ry9tWL 554o2, at

*3 (D. t
Kan. Apr. rc,ry9t).
becomes: Clork, ry9t WL 554o2, at *3.

Albrechtv. Stanczek, No.87-C9535, r99t U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5o88, at
*r (N.D. ltt. Apr. B,t99t).
becomes:A/brecht, t99t U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5o88, at *r.
I F Lindquist v. Hart, r CA-CV 98-q23, at*2 (Ariz. Ct. App. luty r.5,
1999) (Loistaw.com, Ariz. Case Law).

o becomes: Lindquist, at *z (Loislaw.com, Ariz. Case Law).

(iii) Slip opinions. For dccisions availablc in only scparately printed slip opin-

o ions

(rule 10.8.1(b)), use the following format:

Commonwealth v. Sam, No. 4359, stip op. at rz (Pa. Ct. Com. Pl.

o Oct. zo, zoo5).

becomes: 5am, slip op. at 12.

o When citing multiple slip opinions for thc same casc, cither give each dccision
a unique identilier in its initial citation or include a iurisdiction or datc parcn-

thetical in e:rch short form.'l'he following short forms are thus both acccptable :

Doe v. Ctenchy (Clenchy lD, No. CV-o9-zor, stip op. at 4-6 (Me.
Super. Ct. Nov. zo, zorz).

o becomes: Clenchy ll, stip op. at 5.

o or:
+ Doe v. Clenchy, No. CV-og-zor, stip op. at
zo, zotz).
4-6 (Me. Super. Ct. Nov.

o becomes: Clenchy, stip op. at 5 (Me. Super. Ct. Nov. zo, zorz).

o (b) Two exceptions when using "id."'l'here are two exceptions when using
"id." ls a short form fbr cuse citations: (i) citation to thc same case , bttt to a dif-
ferent opinkrn thercin;ancl (ii) citation to thc samc case where thc c:tsc citation

o includcs per.rllcl authoritics

(i) "Id." for different opinions. Whe n an "id. " refcrs to thc samc case, and to

t the samc opinion citcd in the preceding citation, no parcnthetical is nccessarl'.

But whcn thc "id. " re ftrs t<> t diJferent opinion, that fnct must be inclicatcd par-
entheticxlly, cvcn if thc scconcl opinion cited is the majority opinion. I'htts, the

o following cxamples are all corrcct:

1Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (Steel Seizure), :+: U.S.

o 579 b952).
+, 2 ld. at 584.

o :. 3 ld. a|635
; q
M. at 638.
0ackson, 1., concurring).

o r:"


ld. at 589 (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
ld. ar 5Bz (majority opinion).
O (iD "Id." for parallel citations. Iirr cascs in which a parallel citation is
required, thc "id. " form kxrks slightly clifli:rent (to avoid confusion). 'l'hrts:

o + Chalfin v. Specter, 426Pa.464,465,43 A.zd 562,563 j967).

o becomes: ld. at
Not: /d. aI 465.
465,43 A.zd at 563.

a Not: /d. aI 465,563.

(c) Text. A case that has been cited inful in the same general discussion may be
referred to (in main text or footnote text) by one of the parties'names without I
further citation:

) The issue presented in Bakke has not been futty resotved. I

Citation of Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution:
abbreviation for'amendment' no. of amendment cited
U.S. Corsr. - amend. " XlV,,, S, 2.
-4 o
abbreviation of constitution cited
section svmbol and no. of section cited
Cite the United States federal and state constitutions by "U.S." or the abbreviated
name of the state (as indicated intableTl0) and the word'CoHsr."Abbr€viate the
zuMivisions of consitutions, zuch as articles and clauses, according to table T16:
U.S. CoNsr. art. l, 5 9, cI.2.
U.S. Corsr. amend. XlV, 5 z.
) U.S. Corsr. pmbl.
U.S. CoHsr. art. lll, 55 r-2.
) Lr. Corsr. art. X, pt. lV.

Cite constitutional provisions currently in force without a date.If the cited prc
vision has been repealed, either indicate parenthetically the fact and year of a
repeal or cite the repealing provision in full:

) U.S. CoHsr. amend. XVlll (repealed 1933).

) U.S. CoHsr. amend. \Ylll, repealed byU.S. CoHsr. amend.

When citing a provision that has been subsequently amended, either indicate
parenthetically the fact and year of amendment or cite the amending provision

) U.S. CoHsr. art. l, S 3, ct. r (amended r9r3).
F U.S. Corusr. art. l, S 3, cl. !, amended by U.S. Cottsr. amend. XVll. o
Cite constitutions that have been totally superseded or are otherwise no longer
in effect by year of adoption; if the specific provision cited was adopted in a dif-
ferent year, give that year parenthetically:
) Anr. Colsr. of 1868, art. lll,5
of r78r, art. lX, para. r.
Vrhen citing a constitution contained in an electronic database, indicate paren-
thetically the name of the publisher, editor, or compiler unless the constitution
is published, edited, compiled by, or under the supervision of, federal or stat€
offlcials. Also indicate the name of the database and information regarding the o
currentness of the database as provided by the database itself:

I WnsH. Cousr. art. l, 5 z (West, Westlaw through Nov. zoo3

I Vhcn referring to multiple anendmcnts, scctions within the sanc lrticle' or

clauscs within the same section,it is pcrmissiblc to use a single citation claltse
Otherwisc, the second citation shottlcl rtsc id. rathcr than repeat the namc of

o thc col-lstitution:
U.S. Consr. amends. V, XlV.

o U.S. CoNsr. art. l, $ B; id. art. ll, 5 z.

citation form (other than "id.") for constittltions

l)o not usc a short

Citation Text

o tJ.S.(lonstitution U.S.Corusr.art.
Article lV, Section r
or the Fut[ Faith and Credit Clause

o Strtc constitution S.C.

Cousr. art. articte l, section 12
or the double jeopardy clause

o For firrcign constitutions, see rule 20.4

Citation of an entire statute , the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Com-
pensation, and LiabilityAct, as codifed inthe United States Code:
official name of act I
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act,
s 42ft U.S.C. F
SS r 96Ot_967 5* (2012).
title number of code cited
sec tion symbols and so.l-
of sections containing statute
date of code edition cited
Citation of an individual provision of the Ilnited States Code;

title number section symbol and specific section cited

28' U.S.C.'5,, 7297.. (2072). I
abbreviation of code cited date of code edition cited
l2.l Basic Citation Foffis
Official and unoff,cial codes arrange statutes currently in force by subiect mat-
ter. official and privately published session laws report statutes in chronologi-
cal order of enactment. Cite secondary sources-such as looseleaf services, the I
CIS microform service, periodicals, newspapers, or electronic databases-only
when the above listed sources are not available.
Rule 12.2 explains when to use each of these basic citation forms. The next
four rules discuss the citation forms for official and unoffrcial codes (rule 12.3),
session laws (rule 1.2.4), electronic media and online sources (rule 12.5), and o
other secondary sources (rule 12.6). Rule 12.7 explains when the prior or
subsequent history of a statute may or must be cited, and de
12.6 discusses
the use of explanatory parenthetical phrases with respect to statute citations. I
Rule 12.9 outlines special citation forms for the Internal Revenue code, ordi-
nances, rules of evidence and procedure, model codes, principles, restatements
of the law, standards, sentencing guidelines, uniform acts, and the ABA Code of
Professional Responsibility. Rule l2.l0 provides short forms for statutes.

Table TL lists citation forms for the codes and session laws of the federal and
state govefirments, and other United States iurisdictions.
Cited to
curent official 4zU.S.C. $ 1983 (zorz).
National Environmental Policy Act of t969
$ toz, 4z U.S.C. S 4332 (zotz).
Consumer Credit Code, Oru. Srnr. tit. 144, o
Cited to current unofflcial
s 5-203 (1995).
rz U.S.C.A. g 14z6 (West zoro). I
Parking Authority Law, 53 Pn. Srer. AHH., 5
342 (West zoro).

o Cited to oflicial session
National Environmentat Policy Act of 1969,
Pub. L. No. 97-790, $ roz,83 Stat. 852, 853

o (litecl to privatel,v
(r9Zo) (prior Io ry75 amendment).

Uniform CommerciaI Code -Generat

o publishctl session laws Provisions, 2oo4 Minn. Sess. Law Serv., ch.
t6z,arl. r,5 16 (West) (to be codified at
Mrruru. Srnr. Arur. $ 336.r-3or).

o Uniting and Strengthening America by

Providing Appropriate Tools Required to

o Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, Pub. L.

No. ro7-56, zoor U.S.C.C.A.N. (rr5 SIaI.) ztz

o (litccl to commcrcial
elcctronic database
ro U.S.C.A. 5 ror73 (West, Westtaw through
Pub. L. No. rrr-4 (exctuding Pub. L. No. ur-

I 3)).
(litcd m sccondary source SociaI Security Amendments of 1983, Pub. L.

I No. 98-zr, 5r U.S.L.W. zq Q9B).

o Choosing the Proper Citation Form 12.2

I General Rule
(a) Statutes currently in force. If possiblc, citc statlltes currently in firrcc

o to the current oflicial code or its supplement. Otherwise, cite a cttrrent unof:
licial codc or its supplement, the official session laws, privately publishctl ses-
si<rn hws (e.g., tlnited States Code Ctngressional ancl Aclministratiue Neus),

I a commercial clectronic database , a kxrseleaf sclice, an Internet sotlrce , or tl

newspaper-in that order of preference :

o i' National Environmentat PolicyAct of 1969

\ toz, 4zU.S.C. 5 +llz

t Ir<rr exanrple,a new nain edition of the official Ilrxited States Code is pnb-
lishccl cvcry six y'ears, and an annual cumulative supplement is published fbr
crrch intcrvening year An exact copy <tf the (lnited States Code in PDF' firrmat

o can bc found at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectiontlScotle.tction?'

collectionCode=tlSCOl)E;these vcrsions may be cited as if they were the print

o cotle. (irdilied f'ederal statutes cnactcrl snbscquent to the latcst cdition or sup-
plcnrent of the Code should be cited to an nnoflicial code (c.g.,Vcst's []nited
Statcs (ktde Annotated) until publishcd in the United Stdtes Code.

o (b) Statutes no longer in force. (lite statutes no longer in force to thc current
oflicial or unofficial code if thev still appcar the rein. Otherwise, cite the last edi-

o tion of thc official or unoflicial code in which thc statute appeared, thc session
laws, or a secondary source-in that ordcr of preference. In any ctsc, thc fact of
invalidrtion, rcpeal, or amendmcnt must be noted parentheticall-Y tccording to

I rules 12.7.1, l2.7.2,ancl 12.7.3:

Lawof June 4:'895,ch.4322,54,189i Fla. Laws 3,20-27

(repealed t959).
) Clayton Act, ch. 323, 5 7,18 Stat. 73o,731-32 (r94) (current
version at r5 U.S.C. 5 r8 (zorz)). I
(c) Private laws. Cite private laws to the session laws if therein; otherwise, cite
a secondary source: t
) Priv. L. No. 9+-ZS, 9o Stat. 2985 j976).
12.2.2 Exceptions
(a) Scattered statutes. Cite the session laws if a statute appears in so many I
scattered sections or titles that no useful citation to the code is possible. Indi-
cate parenthetically the general location of the codified sections. Thus:

Tax Reduction Act of1975, Pub. L. No. 94-12,89 Stat. z6 (codified
as amended in scattered sections of z5 U.S.C.).

But: Robinson-Patman Act, t5 U.S.C. $$ r3-r3b, zta (zotz).

If the current version of a statute is split between the main body and the supple-
ment of a code, it should be cited according to 1.1(c):
|> 4z U.S.C.5 rlgZb (1982 & Supp. I 1983).

If the current version of a statute can be determined only by reference to mul-

tiple sources (not just a code and its supplement), it should be cited according
to rule 12.7.3:
) 3r U.S.C. 9llz+Q988),amended by ActofDec. 7,t989,3t
U.S.C.S. S yzq (Law. Co-op. Supp. rggo).
(b) Historical fact. The historical fact of enactment, amendment, or repeal
should be cited to the session laws. A parenthetical reference to the current o
version (see rules 12.7.3 and 12.8) may be added:

) Two years later, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of t965, t
Pub. L. No. 89-uo, 79 Stat. +qS (codified as amended at 4z U.S.C.
SS r97r, 1973to t973bb-t (zoo5)).
) The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2oo2 increased criminal penalties
for mail and wire fraud. See Pub. L. No. to7-2o4,5 gol(a)-(b),
zooz U.S.C.C.A.N. (u6 Stat.) 245,8o5 (to be codified at r8 U.S.C. I
5S rlzrr, rl+l).
(c) Materially different language. Ifthe language in rhe current code (includ- I
ing its supplement) differs materially from the language in the session laws and
the relevant title has not been enacted into positive law, cite the session laws. A
parenthetical reference to the code version, introduced by the phrase "codified
with some differences in language at" may be given. If differences in the lan-
guage merely reflect subsequent amendments, however, cite the current code.

Cite the official code wherever possible. A current list of federal code titles that
have been enacted into positive law appears in the preface to the latest edition o
or supplement of the United States Code.Simrlarly,state codes should indicate
whether the titles contained therein have been enacted into positive law

t Current Official and Unofficial Codes 12.3

I Cite the [lnited .States Code (U.S.C.), the official fedcral code, whenever
possible. Unofhcial fcderal codes includc thc United States (irle Annotated
(U.S.C.A.) tntlthc (lnited States Code Serrlcz (U.S.C.S.).Ofhcial and unoflicial

o cocles for each state (where they exist) are listed in table T1.3.

All citations to codcs should contain thc abbrcviated name of the codc found

o in table Tl printed in large and small capitals; the section, paragraph, or article
number(s) of thc statute; and the -vcar of the code (determincd lccording to
rule 12.3.2):

o ' N.C. Gen. Srnr. $ r-r8r (zoo3).

o Additional Information
Additional inibrmirtion nay be requircd ls follows:

o (a) Name and original section number. Give the statute's name tnd origi-
nal section numbcr (as it appears in the appropriate session laws) onlf if the

o statute is commonly citcd that way or if the information woultl otherwise aid in
identification. omit "The" as the lirst wotcl of a statute's namc. Inclucle the ycar
of the statute if it is in the ofhcial title . An Oflicial name , a popular name , or both

a may be usetl:

: Labor Management Relations (Taft-Harttey) Act 5 lot(a), z9 U.S.C.

I S 185(a) (zorz).

Family Medicat Leave Act (FMLA) of rggl, z9 U.S.C. 5 z6ot (zotz).

a (b) Title, chapter, or volume. If a code is divided into scpar:rtcly sectioned

or parapgaphcd titlcs, chapters, or volumcs, the title , chaptcr, or volttme number

I must be indicatcd.Vhen citing the fedcrarl code, give the titlc nttmber bcfore
the name of thc codc:
o '
4z U.S.C. 5 1983 (zorz).
rz U.S.C.S. $ rTro (LexisNexis 1993 & Supp. zoo4).

I The form firr citation to statc codcs varics: table Tl.3 indicatcs whethcr lnd
in what manner k) identify the title , chapteq or volume numbcr of a state code
For example:

o ',
DEL. CoDE Ar.rr'r. tit. t3, $ r3ot (1999).

I If
NEv. Rev. Srnr. $ zB.5ot (t998).
each title , chapteq or volume of a coclc contains differcntly numbered sec-
tions or paragr.lphs, then the volume , chnptcr, or title numbcr necd not be givcn

o scparately:

' Gn. Cooe Ar.rr'r. $ zr-z-16 (zoo3).

o (c) Subiect-matter codes. If

a code is
a separately scctioned or paragntphccl portion of
identilicd by subject matter rath€r than by a titlc, volumc, or chapter

a number, givc that subiect-matter namc as part of the cocle

r';. CAL. VEH. Coor $ rr5o6 (West zooo).


o TEx. Fnu. Cooe Aruru. 5 5.or (Vernon 2oo2 & Supp. zoo4 zoo5).
Table T1.3 indicates which state codes require this treatment.
(d) Publisher, editor, or compiler. Unless a code is published, edited, com-
piled by, or under the supervision of federal or state officials, give the name of
the publisher, editor, or compiler in the parenthetical phrase containing the year
of the code:

4z U.S.C.A. 5 3ooa-7 (West 2oo1). t
r8 U.S.C.S. $ r3o7 (LexisNexistgg4 & Supp. zoo4).
Crl. VEx. Coor g u5o9 (West zooo). o
Not: Cnu VEH. CoDE g u5o9 (Cal. zooo).

Table T1 indicates which federal and state codes require this information.
(e) Supplements. Cite material appearing in supplemenrs (including pocket
rule 3.1(c):
parts) according to I
|> r8 U.S.C.5 Sro(b) (Supp. I rg8l).
rz U.S.C. $ 1455 (1982 & Supp. I rg8g).

(f) Compilations of uncodified laws. If a code contains uncodified laws

printed in a sepafate compilation, cite in this manner:

) N.Y. Uucor.rsol. LAW 5 ZSr (McKinney zooo).

(g) Appendices. If a statute appears in an appendix to a code, and the statute

is numbered and otherwise printed as if it were part of that code,cite according
to rule 3.4: o
) 5o U.S.C. app. $ 5 (zorz).
If the statute is not printed as if it were part of a code, cite the session laws and
add an explanatory phrase (see rule f.6(a)(ii)) indicating thar the statute is
reprinted in the code's appendix: O
) Act of Aug. 3t, tg7o, ch.84z, t97o Mass. Acts 732, reprinted in
Mnss. Geru. Lnws Arrrr,r. ch. 4o app. at r8o (West 1985). t
(h) Notes. If a statute appears in the notes section of a U.S. Code provision, cite
according to de 3.4.Information helpful in identiffing a specific note should
be added parenthetically:
) rz U.S.C. $ r8zt note (zorz) (Continuation of Health Plan Coverage
in Cases of Faited Financial Institutions).
12.3.2 Year of Code
When citing a bound volume of the current ofhcial or unofficial code, provide
parenthetically the year that appears on the spine of the volume, the year that o
appears on the title page, or the latest copyright year-in that order of prefer-
ence. If the date on the spine or title page spans more than one year, give all I
years covered. If the volume is a replacement of an earlier edition, use the year
of the replacement volume, not the year of the original:

) Nee. REv. Srer. g 33-u4 (1998).

I Whcn citing a provision that appears in a supplement or pocket part, givc thc
1'car that appeafs on thc title pagc of thc supplement or pocket part. If therc is

none, give the latest copyright year of thc supplcment or pocket part. In either
case, if the date spans more than one ycar, give lll yelrs inclucled:

M lND. CoDE Ar.rN. $ z9-r-5-3.1 (West Supp. zoo3).

o T<rcite material that rppears in both thc nain volume lnd a supplcntcnt or
pockct part,give both ycars according to rule 3.1(c):

I Ifa
F Vr. Srer. Aruru. tit. 12,5892 (zooz & Supp. zoo4).

o code is ptrblished in looseleaffbrm,givc the year thtt appcars on thc page

on which the provision is printed or thc ycar that appcars on the first pagc of
the subdivision in which thc provision appclrs-in that orclcr of prefcrcncc-

o rather than the years indicated abovc:

*t, ALASKA Srnr. $ 28.o1.o1o (zooz).

I Other dates (such as the date on which an rct becomes effcctive) may also bc
given parenthetically according to rule 12.8:

I i. OKLA.
Srnr. tit. to, $ 73o3-t.7 (1998 & Supp. zoo5) (effective July r,

a Session Laws 12.4

o (a) Name. When citing se ssion laws, alwal's give the namc of the statute and tlre
public law or chapter number. Onlit "The" as the lirst word of a statute 's namc.
An ofhcial name , a popular name, or both may be usecl:

o ,,u, White-Slave Traffic (Mann) Act, ch. 395, j6 Stat. Bz5 (r9ro) (codi-
fied as amended at 18 U.S.C. 55 242r-2424 Qop)).

o r Foreign Assistance Act of 196r, Pub. L. No. 87-r95,75 Stat. 424.

If thc statute has no ofhcial or popular namc, identify thc ilct with a fr-rll clate


Ilsc thc form "Act of [date of enactment]," o! if that inlirrmation is r.rnavaihblc,

"Act effective [date of effectiveness]." Other idenrif.ving infbrmarion may be

I added parentheticallv:

r,. Act of Aug. 2t,r914,ch.85,r974 N.J. Laws 385 (providing unem-

o ptoyment compensation for jurors).

Not: An Act concerning unemployment compensation for persons

I serving on jury duty, and amending R.S. 43:zr-4, ch. 85, t974 N.l.
Laws 385.

(b) Volume. Give thc volume numbcr (oq if none, thc 1'ear) of the session

o laws, followed by the abbreviated name of the session laws in ordinary roman
typc. The oflicial fcclerll session laws,.l|atutes dt ldrge,rre abbrcviatcd "Stat."

o Abbrcviations for oflicial and privatcly published state session laws appcar in
table T1.3.When citing state se ssion laws, begin the abbrcviate d titlc of the scs-
sion laws with the name of the state abbreviated according to table T1O, cvcn

o if thc state name is not part of the official titlc; omit words in the official title not
ncccssary for identification:

o W, r97B Ark. Acts.

) t935-t936ll1. Laws 4th Spec. Sess.
b t878 Minn. Laws.
Not: 1878 Laws of Minn.
(c) Pages and sections. When citing an entire act,give the page of the session
laws on which the act begins:

F National Environmentat Policy Act of t959, Pub. L. No. 9t't9o,83

Stat.85z GgZo).
When citing only part of an act, give the section(s) or subsection(s) cited, the
page on which the act begins, and the page(s) on which the relevant section(s)
or subsection(s) appear(s): I
) National Environmental Poticy Act of t969, Pub. L. No. 9L-t9o,
5 roz,83 Stat.85z, 8Sl-St+(tglo). I
) Act of June !5, t995, No. 3oz, 5
344,344 (West).
l5oz(u), 995 ta. Sess. Law Serv.
(d) Session laws arnending prior acts. Session laws amending prior acts are
often divided into sections within sections;that is,the session law is divided into
primary sections, and these sections, in turn, contain sections of the amended
act. Cite the bill's sections by abbreviation (sec.) and the amended act's sections
by symbol ($): o
) Labor-Management Relations Act, ch. 12o, sec. ror, 5 8(a)(l), 5r
Stat. r35, tqvqt Gg+). I
(e) Year or date. Give parenthetically the year in which the statute was passed
by the legislature. If no date of enactment is identifled, give the date on which
the statute became effective:
) McCarran-Ferguson Act, ch. 20, 59 Stat.
amended at r5 U.S.C. $$ rou-ror5 (zoo6)).
6gr+) (codified as o
Omit the year of the statute's passage if the same year is part of the name of the
statute or of the session laws:
) Securities Actof t933, ch. 38, 48 Stat.74 (codified as amended at
15 U.S.C. 55 Z Z a-tt aa (zoo6)).
) Act ofApr. 25, t978, No. 5r5, $ 3, 1978 Ala. Acts 569, S6g (codified
as amended at Au. Coor 5 93-tz (tg8)). t
(O Codification information. If a statute has been or will ultimately be codi-
fied and the code location is known, give that information parenthetically: I
> ActofJuty t2,1985,ch.223,5 I, r98S Cat. Legis. Serv.z39,z4t
(West) (to be codified at Cnr. lHs. Cooe $ u589.5). o
12., Electronic Media and Online Sources I
(a) Commercial electronic databases. Ifhen citing a code contained in an
electronic database, give parenthetically the name of the database and informa-
tion regarding the currency of the databas€ as provided by the database itself
(rather than the year of the code according to rule 12.3.2). In accordance with
I rule 12.3.1(d), also givc the name of the publisher, cditor, or compiler unless
the code is published, edited, compiled by, or under thc supervision ol federal

I or state oflicials:
;,- 18 U.S.C.S. 5 rqS6 (LEXIS through Pub. L. No. 113-1o8).

I r"' 18 U.S.C.A. $ r956 (Westtawthrough Pub. L. No. u3-93 (exctuding

Pub. L. No. r13-7il).

I r,, CnL. Bus. & Pnor. Cooe S 167o (Deering, LEXIS through r995


& PRoF. Coor $ 167o (West, Westlaw through 1995

CAL. Bus.
portion of 995-t996 Legis. Sess.).

r. WASH. REV. CoDE $ r3.64.o6o (VersusLaw through 1999
:.' Wrs. Srnr. 5 rg.zr: (LEXIS through 1994 tegistation).

I :: Wls. SrAr. 5 rg.+: (Loislaw through r997-t998 Legis. Sess.).

r" Wls. SrAr. Aruru. $ 19.43 (West, Westlaw through lL995 Actz6).

(b) Internet and online sources. Whcn states and municipalities publish
their oflicial statutes or ordinanccs only online, the online sourcc may be

o dircctly cited.
:: BETLTNGHAM, WnsH., Mur.r. CooE 5 16.6o.o6o (zorl), http://www.

o cob.org/web/ bmcode.nsf/CityCode?OpenView.

Authentic,oflicial,or exrct copies ofa source avaihblc online can be cited as if

o they werc thc original print sourcc (rule 18.2. 1(a)).

:... NEV. Rev. Srar. $ z-r247 @oo).

I tlnofficial onlinc sources rre cited in accordance with rule 18.2.2.


HAW. Rrv. Srnr. $ 4z-23.5 (zooq), http://www.capitot.hawaii.
gov/ h rscu rrent/Voto3_Chorzr-ozooD/ H RS ot4z I HRS-or4z-

I Other Secondary Sources 12.6

o When citing a statute to any source other than a code , session laws, or an elec-
tronic database, give the name of the act and public hw or chaptcr number as if
citing to session laws (rule 12.4).Whcn re fcrring to a particular provision, givc

3 the section or subsection number aftcr the public law or chaptcr nttmbcr If pos-
sible, cite federal statutes (particularly those enacted after 1974) to the United

o States Code Congressiuul and Administra.tiue News, indicating the volume

number (irnd page numbcr, if known) of the .ltatutes at Ldrge whcrc tlrc strtute
will appcar (note that the page numbers in these two sources often diflbr):

o :" Act of July t9,t985, Pub. L. No. 99-68,1985 U.S.c.C.A.N. (qq Stat.)

a Act of Aug. 13,t954,ch.73r, 1954 U.S.C.C.A.N. (68 Stat. 7q) 8T.

When citing an entirc act, give the pagc on which the act begins.When citing
part of an act, give both the page on which the act begins and the pages on
which the cited material appears. If the statute has been or will ultimately be
codified and the code location is known, give that information parenthetically: I
) Act of Juty 9,1985, Pub. L. No.99-61, 5 uo, 1985 U.S.C.C.A.N. (99
Stat.) u3, u5 (to be codified at 3r U.S.C. $ 5uz). I
Cite other secondary sources according to de 19 (services) or 16 (periodi-
cals) in that order of preference. Give the date or year appropriate for the cited
source. If the name of a statute cited to a service includes the year, and the
service was published in that year, the year of the service may be omitted. If the
future location of the act in either a code or session laws is known, give that a
information parenthetically according to rule 1.2.E:

) Presidential and Executive Office Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L.

No. ro4-33r, [r Lab. Rel.] Lab. L. Rep. (CCH) fl 56o (tgg).
If a recent statute has not yet b€en published in any source, give only the name
of the act; the public law or chapter number; the section or subsection number
if refering to only part of the statute;the ftrll date of enactment or, if none, the
date of approval by the executive or effective date; and the future location, if
known, in a code or session laws:

) Alabama Corporate lncome Tax Reform Act, No. 8S-ltS (May 8, I


12.7 Invalidation, Repeal, Amendrnent, and Prior History

12.7.r lnvalidation
When citing a statute invalidated or declared unconstitutional by
this fact by citing the case in full:
a case, indicate
F Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) of ry93, Pub. L. No.
to3-t4t, 1993 U.S.C.C.A.N. (ro7 Stat.) 1488, involidated byCity of I
Boerne v. Flores, 5zr U.S. 5o7 O99).
12.7.2 Repeal
When citing a statute no longer in force, indicate the fact and date of repeal I
parenthetically, or include a full citation to the repealing statute when particu-
lady relevant:

h Law oflune r, 1895, ch.43zz,5 zl, rSgl Fla. Laws ch.3,zo-zt

(repeated rg5g).

Act ofJan. 24, t923, ch. 42, 4z Stat. n74, tzo8, repeoled by Budget
and Accounting Procedures Act of r95o, ch.946,5 lor(gZ), 64 Stat.
832,844. c
12.7.3 Amendment I
When citing a version of a statute that has since been amended, indicate the fact
and date of amendment parenthetically, cite the amending starure in full, or cite
the current amended version parenthetically:

t Fa Supptemental Appropriation Act of r955, Pub. L. No. 663, $ 13rr, 68
Stat. Boo, 83o (r954) (amended r959).

I .w.
33 U.S.C. $ t4z (t982), amended by tZ U.S.C. S tztz(fl (Supp.

F Clayton Act, ch. 34, S 7,38 Stat. 730,731-32 (r9r4) (current
version at r5 U.S.C. S rB (zooo)).

I Prior History 12.7.4

\ffhen citing the current r.crsion of a statutc, prior historl' mav be given paren-
thctically according to rule 12.8 if relevrnt:
* tzlz(fl (Supp. I r9B3) (amending 33 U.5.C. $ rz3z

33 U.S.C. 5
,.' z8 U.S.C. $ t65z (zorz) (originalty enacted as Act of June 25, t948,

o '.
ch. 646, $ t652, 6z Stat. 86S, gqq).

28 U.S.C. 5 t65z (zotz) (corresponds to the Judiciary Act of t789,

o :'
ch. zo,5 34, r Stat. 73,92).

Clayton Act 5 z, r5 U.S.C. $ 18 (zorz) (original version atch.3z3,

o $ 7, 38 Stat. 73o,731-32 (tSr/+)).

Explanatory Parenthetical Phrases 12.8

o Explanltorl' parenthcticirl phrases arc used to show thc cocle locati<>n

utes cited to scssion laws (rules 12.2.2 mcl 12.4) or sccondary sources (rule
of stat-

o 12.6); t<> iclentifu usefirl datcs, such us the effectivc date of a strtute (rules
12.3.2 and 12.4(e));md to indicate thc invalidation (rule 12.7.1), re pe irl (rule
12.7 .2),trmendment (rule 12.7.3),or prior historl' Gule 12.7.4) of a statute


In addition, explanator.v parenthetical phrases mq' bc used to givc an1' othcr

relevant information about a statute:

I :, 5 U.S.C. 5 SSf (b) (zorz) (requiring agencies to pubtish notice of

proposed rulemaking inthe Federal Register).

I See gcncrrlll' rule 1.5 (prrer-rthetical infrrrmation).

I Special Citation Forms t2.g

I Internal Revenue Code

In citations to the Intcrnal Revenue (irclc,"z6 U.S.C." may be replacecl with


z6 U.S.C. S 6r (zorz).

o becomes: l.R.C. 5 6r (zorz).

In law rcvicw citations, thc year of the current United States Code or its supplc-

o ment (rs appropriatc) shoulcl always he given (rule 12.3.2). Citations to the
Internal Rcvenue Coclc us it appcars in an unofficial codc should idcnti$'the
unoflici:rl code bv placing the publisher's name in the parcnthetical phrlrsc con-

I taining thc vear of the vcrsion cited. 'l'hus, citations to l1.S.C.A. shoultl lppcar:
l.R.C. 5 r3Zr (West Supp.

l.R.C. S rz+Z (West rg88).

See also rule 12.10 regarding short form citation of statutes. For special citation
forms for federal tax materials in court documents and legal memoranda, see I
Bluepages 812.1.4.

12.9.2 Ordinances
Cite ordinances analogously to statut€s. Always give the name of the politicd
subdivision (such as a city or county) and the abbreviated state name at the
beginning of the citation. Do not abbreviate the name of the political subdivi
sion unless it is abbreviated in table T10. If the ordinance is codifed, give the
name of the code (abbreviated according to table Tl), the section or other
subdivision, and the year of the code (determined according to rule 12.3.2).
Print the political subdivision, state, and code names in large and small capitals: o
MorurcomeRy, ALA., Coor 5
Ponruno, On., PoLrce CoDE
lA-tt (rgZt).
art.30 (1933).
Fonr WonrH, Tex., Rev. OnorHnnces ch. 34, art. l, $ r5 (r95o).

Cat., PolrcE Cooe art. 16, div. r, 5 roZ5(a) (zooo).


If the ordinance is uncodified, give its number (or, if none, its name) and, in a
parenthetical, the exact date of adoption. Print the political suMivision, state,
and ordinance name in ordinary roman type:

) San Jose, Ca[., Ordinancet6,o43(an.q,ry7z).

) Halifax County, Va., Ordinance to Regulate the Solicitation of
Membership in 0rganizations (Aug. 6,tgS6).
12.9.3 Rules of Evidence and Procedure I
Citation of a Federal Rule of Civil Procedure:
number of rule cited o
Feo. R. Crv. P.
'11. t
abbreviation of set of rules citeo

Cite current or uniform rules of evidence or procedure in large and small capi I
tals, v/ithout any date. Use abbreviations such as the following or abbreviations
suggested by the rules themselves:

Feo. R. Crv. P.12(b)(5).

FEo. R. Cnrm. P.4z(a). a

) FEo. R. App. P. z.

) 1sr Crn. R. 5(a). I

) Der. Cr. C.P.R.8(0.
F Fro. R. EvrD. 410.
t li'
UNIF' R' Evto' 4o4(b)'

Sup. Cr. R. 17.

When citing rules no krnger in force, give the most rccent oflicial source in
which they'appear and indicate the drte of repeal parenthetically:

I l* Sup. Cr. R. B, 3o6 U.S. 6go bglil ftepeated 1954).

I Model Codes, Principles, Restatements, Standards,

Sentencing Guidelines, and Uniform Acts

o Cite model codes, principles, restatements, standards, sentencing guiclelines,

uniform acts, and similar materials in large and small capitals, by section, rule ,

I or othcr relevant subdivision. For principles and restatcments, give the year in
which the restatement was published. For model codes, standards, and scntcnc-
ing guidelines, give the year in which the code, principles, standards, or guide-

o lines were adopted, unless the version citcd indicates that it incorpomtes sttbse-
quent amendments. In that case, give the year of the last amcndment, eve n when

citing a portion not amcnded at that time. Usually the cover or titlc pagc of
the source will indicate the date of thc most recent amendments incorpomted.
When naming the codc, principles, rcstatement, standarcls, or guidelines, use

o the abbreviations listcd in tatrle T6 (abbreviation of casc names) or suggcsted

by the source itself. Indicate the author's name parenthetically. Abbreviate the
author's namc according to rule 15.1(c) (institutional authors):

a ,:' Pntrucrpres oF THE LAw or FntvttLv

ReconmeronroNs 5 2.07 (Am. Lnw lNsr. 2002).
DtssoLuttott: AHnlvsts nruo


Cotupertrton S 3 (Awt. Lnw lrsr.

I :" U.S. SENIEr.rcrNG

Comm'ru 2004).
GUTDELTNES MANUAL 5 2D1.1(c) (U.S. SrnreNctNc

citing to a unifurm act itsel{ and not as thc hw of a particular statc, cite
it Indicate the author's name parenthetically. Abbreviatc the
as a scparate code.
author's namc accorcling to rule 1!.1(c) (institutional authors):

o ir U.C.C. S2-314 (Atu. Law lNsr. & UNtF. LAw CoMM'N 1977).

o [, UNtF. Tnusr Coor 5 105 (Ururr. Lnw Connrvr'ru 2000).

wlren citing a uniform act to the (lnirttrm laws Anruttated (U.L.A.), provide

I the titlc of the act using abbreviations in table T6, the section number, thc year
of amendment or repe:rl (if an1'), the appropriate volumc of the U.L.A., the page
number on which the rclcvant section appears, and the year of publication:

o rr UNtF. ADoproN Acr 5 ro,9 U.L.A. +S (1988).

I Give the -vear in which the uniform act was last rmended, even if the section
ref'errcd to was not amendcd at that time .If a uniform act or section hls been
withclrawn, superseded, or amended, indicate that fact parenthetictlly tccord-

a ing to rule 12.7:

r,' UNIF. Pnoentr Cooe 5 2-706 (amended zoro), B pt. r U.L.A. z9r

When citing to the law of a particular state, cite

F Oru. Srnr. tit. t2A,S 23t4

as a separate code:

Ifa code, principle, restatement, standards, or guidelines is a tentative or pro

posed draft, indicate that fact parenthetically as it appears on the publication
and give the draft number (if available) and the year of the draft:

) Mooel Lnruo DEv. Cooe 5 2-402(2) (Arvr. Lnw lrusr., Proposed Offi- o
cial Draft 1975).
) Resrare nlterur (Secoruo) oF ToRrs 5 8+ZA (Arvr. Lew lHsr., Tentative
Draft No. !7,1974).

If a restatement contains a subtitle, retain the subtitle in the citation:

|> ResreremeNT (THtRD) oF PRop.: Wrr-ls nHo DoHnrrve TnnHsrens

S 2.1 (Am. Lnw trusr. 1999). O
Cite GenerallyAcceptedAuditing
Principles as follows:

Standards and GenerallyAcceptedAccounting

CoorrrcerroN oF AccouNTtNG STANDARDs eto PnocrouREs, State-

ment on Auditing Standards No. r, g r5o (Am. Inst. of Certified Pub.
Accountants r97z).
F RrsrnncH AND DEV. Annnleeueurs, Statement of Fin. Accounting
Standards No. 58, 5 lz (Fin. Accounting Standards Bd. r98z). I
Comments, notes, and other addenda should be cited according to

> MoDEL Perual Cooe $ 24.6 note on status of section (Am. Lnw
rule 3.4:
| rusr., Proposed Offi ciat Draft
Resrnrrmelr (SecoHo) or CoHrucr or Lnws 5 3o5 cmt. b, iltus. r
(Atu. Lnw lHsr. 1977).

) Sreronnos FoR TRAFFIc Jusrrce $ 4.2 cmt. at g (Arvr. Bnn Ass'rrr

) Urrronm Pnuoetr Invrsron Acr 5 2 cnnr. (Unrr. Lnw Colrrvr'H o
ResrnreueHr (Srcoruo) or Cournacrs ch. 16, topic a, intro. note o
(Aru. Lnw lrrrsr. r98r).

Cite application notes, background commentary, introductory commentary and t

appendices to sentencing guidelines as follows:

) U.S. SErurEncrrue GuroelrruEs MANUAL 5 f Dr.S cmt. n.r (U.S.

Senreucr rrtc Comu'u zoo4).
) U.S. SeHrrHcrHc GuroeLrHes MnHuel $ zDr.z cmt. background
(U.S. SEruruNcrtrc Corvrrvr'r.r zoo4).
) U.S. SeHrrrcrrue GuroeuHES MANUAL ch. 3, pt. D, introductory cmt.
(U.S. SenreHcrHc Comm'ru zoo4).
) U.S. SeHrrHcrHe GuroeutEs MnruunL app. C (U.S.
Cotvttvt'H zoo4).
Se HrrHcrHc
t When citing a \.ersion of a code, restatement, or set of stltndards that lus bcen
withclrawn or amendecl, indicate that lnct according to rule 12.7.2 <tr 12.7.3'.

I {.' MoDEL Bus. CoRp. Acr 5 z(0 Gq6q) (AM. Bnn Ass'r.r, amended

o ABA Code of Professional Responsibility

Opinions on Ethics
and 12.9.5

I Cite thc okl llodel Ctrle rf ProJ'essknnl Responsibilit.l' ut-td thc new ,llrrlel
Rules tl'Professionul Crneltrct rccording to rule 12.9.4:

I it' MoDEL Cooe

or Pnor'l RrspottsrBrLrrY Canon z (Arrn. Bnn Ass'r.t

I r.. MoorL RurEs or

sion Draft 1983).
Pnor'l Cor.roucr t.3.72 (Au. Ban Ass'ru, Discus-

I Citc ethical consiclcratior.rs and disciplinirry rules as follows:

ii, MoDEL Coor or PRor'l RrspottsrBrLrry EC736 (Arvr. Bnn Ass'tt

o rgBo).
a, MoorL Cooe or Pnor'r RespottstBtLtrY DR B-ror (Aru. Bnn Ass'tt

o r98o).
(litc notcs or other commentary accorditrg to rule 3.4:

I ,i MoDEL Rulrs or Pnor'r Coroucr r. 1.15 cmt. (Attt. Bnn Ass'n t9B3).
Cite firrnral lncl infirrmtl opinions of thc (i)mmittec on lithics and Profl'ssilrnll

o Responsibility (or the oldcr Committces on Profcssiotlal Ilthics (l95fJ-1971)

and on Prof'essional lithics atrd Grie vanccs ( I 919- l 95ti)) b,v isstring bodl', <4rin-

I ion numbet and vcltr. Abbrcviate rccorclittg to table T6: "American llltrAssocia-
tion" nrll be rbbrcvilted"ABA for thesc ckrcuments:

t iu ABA Comm'n on Prof'l Ethics & Grievances, Formal Op. 35 G931).

tu ABA Comm'n on Ethics & Prof'l Responsibility, Informal Op.

o 'l'hc sub jcct of thc opinion rnal be givcn pxrcntheticxll].

o l,n" ABA Comm'n on Ethics & Prof'l Responsibility, Formal Op. ::S
(1974) (discussing the use of credit cards for the payment of legal
services and expenses).

o Short Forms for Statutes 12.lo

o (a)Text. In law review text and f(x)tltotc text,tlsc thc firrms listed in thc"'l'cxt"
column ()f thc tablc bekrr.v to rcf'er to statutcs. Proviclc a citation (irl firll or

o short firrm rccorcliug to rule 12.10(b)) in an lccor.upant'ing fbotttote u'hen

(b) Citations. In hw t'cvicn'citalions,
ttsc an1'of tltc lorrrs listed itl thc"Short
Citation'column ofthe table bekrrv that clelrlv iclcntifics a statutc il thc statutc
has ahcaclv been citccl (in either firll or short firrm. ittcltrcling irl. ) in either the

san e footnote or in a manner such that it can be readily found tn one of tbe
preceding fiue footltotes,^g^in including "id." Otherwise, use the "Full Citation" ;

Full Citation Iext Short Citation I

Procedure Act S r,
section 1 of
the $ r or 5 U.S.C.
$ 55r or o
U.S.C. S 55t (zotz) Procedure Act
section r
or Administrative
Procedure Act S 1
U.S.Code +z U.S.C.5 rqSl
Provisions (zotz)
4z U.S.C. $
or $ 1983

qz U.S.C.5
or $ 1983
tit. title 28, tit. 28, 5 7707ol

Srare DEL. CoDE ANN.
Provisions 28,$ tTot (t999) rTor ofthe 5 rTor
(numbered Delaware Code or

State Code Cnl. Eouc. Cooe

section 17o1

section 48222 Eouc. $ 48zzz I

$ 48zzz (West
of the California
Education Code or
section 48222
Session Laws National
section 1o2 of
the National
5 roz or National
Poticy Act of t969,
Pub. L. No. 97-Lgo,
$ roz,83 Stat. 852,
Policy Act or
section roz
Policy Act $ roz
or 5 1o2, 83 Stat.
8sl-st+ (tgzo)
(c) "Section." Note that except when refeming to Unlted States Code ptovi-
sions, the word'section" should be spelled out in law review text and footnote
text, although the symbol "g" may be used in citations. See de 6.2(c). I
(d) Electronic sources. For materials available on an electronic database, use
the name of the database in constructing a short form: t
) Wrs. Srar. AHn. 5 rg.zr: (West, Westlaw through zooT Actz4z).

becomes: 5 rg.ql (Westlaw). o

For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URL need not be repeated after a frrll citation. I
) Urnx Cooe g 4-30-5 (2o1o), http://te.utah.gov/xcode/Title+/
Chapte13o/4-3o-S5.html?v=C4-3o-S5_lSooorouSoooror. I
becomes: 5 4-lo-S.

t Ilesides statutes (rule 12), the legislative process generates bills and rcsolutions
(rule 13.2);committee hcarings (rule 13.3);reports, documents, and commit-
tee prints (rule 13.4); flor;r debates lrule 13.5); and, sometimcs, separately

I bound legislative histories (rule 13.6). \fhen citing any United Statcs legisla-
tive material except debatcs, include the title (if relevant), the abbrcviated name
of the house , the numbcr of thc Congrcss, the numbcr assigned to the material,

I and the ycar of publication. State legislativc materials are cited similarly cxcept
when indicated otherwisc. Abbreviations for commonly used words in legisla-
tive materials are listed in table T9.

o In addition, include parenthctically the scssion number firr House and Senate docu-
ments published beforc the (r0th Congress (l90D,House Repofis pttblished bcfore

I the 47th Congress (1831), and Senate Reports published before the 40th (,ongrcss
(186D. For House and Scnate materials published after these dates, the session

I number can be inferred from the year of publication: First sessions always fall in
odd-numbered years,while sccond sessions always fall in even-numbcred yems. On
rarc occasions,Congress holds third scssion. rJfhcn citing materials pr<lduced dur-


ing a third session, provide this information parenthetically

t Basic Citation Forms 13.r

!'ederal bill Privacy Protection Act of 1998, H.R. 3224, ro5th
(unenactcd) Cong. $ z(a) (tgg8).

H.R. u9, 54th Cong. (rst Sess. r896J.

o Federal resolution
H.R.J. Res. 79,to6th Cong. (rgqg).

I slte bill
State resolution
H,R. r3a,

r79th Les- rst Spec. Se11. (ea. tl21l.
Res.836, rr8th Leg., 3d Spec. Sess. (Me.

I Committee hcaring

Background and History of lmpeachment: Heoring

I Before the Subcomm. on the Constitution of the

H. Comm. on the Judiciary, to5th Cong. zz-23

(1998) (statement of Rep. Hutchinson, Member, H.
Comm. on the ludiciary).

Federal rcport H.R. Rrp. No. ror-524, at ro (r99o), reprinted in

I Federal document
r99o U.S.C.C.A.N. 1448, t45r.
H.R. Doc. No. roz-399, at3G99z).

o Cofimittcc print Srnrr or H. Coprrvr. oN rHE Juotctnnv, 93o Cottc.,


o Congressional
lmpencumrut 38 (Comm. Printryl4).
debate r45 Cot'tc.Rec. Hr8r7 (daily ed. Apr. e, ry99)

(statement of ReP. Pease).

Source reprinted in S. Corvrrvr. oN LABoR AND PuB. WELTIRE, Leeon-
separately bound MnruaGervreHr ReponrrHc AND DtscLosuRE Acr oF
legislative history 1959, 5. Rep. No. 86-787, at 4 (7959), repri nted
in 7959 U.S.C.C.A.N. 2378,2320, ond in 1 NLRB,
Lee tsLnnvr HrsroRy or rHe Lneon-MnlacetritErur
Rrponrrruc lHo DrscLosunr Acr or L959,at397,
400 (1959). t
13,2 Bills and Resolutions a
(a) Unenacted federal bills and resolutions. When ciring federal bills,
include the name of the bill (if relevant), the abbreviated name of the house, o
the number of the bill, the number of the Congress, the section (if any), and the
year of publication:

) (tgg).
S. 516, ro5th Cong. S z

) H.R.4zz, ro5th Cong. (tggg).

Clear Skies Act, S. 485, ro8th Cong. (zoo3).

Protection from Personal Intrusion Act, H.R. z448,ro5th Cong.5 I

z(a) bgg).
A parenthetical indicating the date and stage of the bill may be provided in I
order to distinguish among multiple versions of the same bill in the same Con-
gress. Subcommittee and committee names may be abbreviated according to
tables T6, T9, and TlO:

S.Sgl, rorst
Cong. g z (as passed by Senate, May 3r, 1989).

Cong. g z (as reported by S. Comm. on the Judiciary,

May n,ry89).
Cite resolutions analogously, using the following abbreviations:
House Resolution

Senate Resolution
H.R. Res.
S. Res.
House Concurrent Resolution ) H.R. Con. Res.
Senate Concurrent Resolution ) 5. Con. Res.
HouseJoint Resolution )
H.R.J. Res.
Senate Joint Resolution S.J. Res.
Senate Executive Resolution ) S. Exec. Res.

> H.R.J. Res. rz4, ro5th Cong. (1998).
A parallel citation to a published committee hearing, a legislative report, or the
Congressional Record may alsobe provided if it would assist the reader in locat-
ing the bill (rules 13.3, 13 .4,and 13.5). O
(b) Enacted federal bills and resolutions. Enacted bills and joint resolutions
are statutes (rule 12). They are cited as statutes except when used to document I
legislative history, in which case they are cited as unenacted bills.

I Enacted simple resolutions, which bind only onc house of (irngress. ancl
cnacted concurrent resolutions, which bind either onc or both houses of Con-

t gress, should be cited as unenacted bills. Llnless otherwise clear in context, thc
fact of enactment should be noted parcnthetically:

h S. Res. lry,t,lo6th Cong. (rggg) (enacted).

* H.R. Con. Res. 196, ro6th Cong. (1999) (enacted).

t b' H.R. Res.8n, ro8th Cong. (zoo4) (enacted).

A parallel citation to thc Congressionul Record (for simplc resolntions) or to the

t Statutes ot Large (for concurrent resolutions) may be provided if it would assist

the reader in krcating thc cnacted resolution. Because on[1' enacted resolutions

are printed in the Statutes at Large ("Stat."), a parenthctical notin{a cnactment
is not nccessary when a parallel citation to Stat. is given:

* S. Res. zr8, 83d Cong., roo Cor.rc. Rec. 2972 (1950 (enacted).

o * S. Con. Res.97,94th Cong.,9o Stat.3oz4Q,976).

(c) State bills and resolutions.

Whcn citing state bills ancl resolutions,
include thc name of the lcgislative bodl', x56..ut^,ed according to tables T6,
T9, and T10, the numbcr of the bill or resolution, thc number of thc lcgislative

I body (or, if not numbcrcd, the l'ear of the body), ancl the number or clcsignation
of the lcgislative scssion. Parcnthetically indicate thc name of the state, abbrevi-
irted rccording to table TlO, and the ycar of enactment (for ln enacted bill or

I resolntion) or the )rcar of publication (for an unenacted bill or resolution).

b- H.D.636, 1999 Leg.,4r3th Sess. (Md. tqqq).

I F H.R. 189, r45th Gen. Assemb., Reg. Sess. (Ga. rggg).

t A parallcl citation to state scssion laws may be providcd if it woulcl assist thc
reader in krcating an enrctcd resolution.

F H.R.J. Res. r, 4oth Leg., zd Spec. Sess., t974Utah Laws 7.

I Hearings r3.3

o (a) Federal committee hearings. Whcn citing fcderal committee hearings,

alwirys include the entirc subject mattcr title as it appcars on thc cove! the

o bill mrn"rbcr (if any), thc subcommittcc name (if any), the committec name, the
numbe r of the ()ongrcss, thc page number of the particular material be ing citcd

(if anv), and the year of publication. Subcommittcc ancl committee names may
be abbre viatcd according to tables T6, T9, and T10. (lite as folkrws:

? Protection from Personal lntrusion Act ond Privacy Protection Act

t of t998: Hearing on H.R. z44B and H.R. jzz4 Before the H. Comm.
on the )udiciory, ro5th Cong. S6-Sl GggB) (statement of Richard

Masur, President, Screen Actors Guitd).
> Copyright Protection for Semiconductor Chips: Hearing on H.R.
rc28 Before the Subcomm. on Courts, Civil Liberties & the Admin.

I of Justice of the H. Comm. on the ludiciary, g8th Cong. q OgSl)

(statement of Jon A. Baumgarten, Copyright Counsel, Association

of American Pubtishers).
Titles of the individuals providing statements may be abbreviated according to
table T11: I
) Tribal Energy Self-Sufficiency Act and the Native American Energy
Development and Self-Determination Act: Heoring on S. 424 and I
S. 5zz Before the S. Comm. on lndian Affairs, roSth Cong. r (zoo3)
(statement of Sen. Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Chairman, S. Comm.
on Indian Affairs). I
) Transforming the Federal Government to Protect America from
Terrorism: Hearing Before the H. Select Comm. on Homeland Sec., I
roTth Cong. z3-25 (zooz) (statement of joh n Ashcroft, Att'y Gen.
ofthe United States).
(b) State committee hearings. When citing state committee hearings,follow
the same form, but also include the number of the legislative session:
) Tax Credit for Cost of Providing Commuter Benefits to Employees:
Hearing on H.D.636 Before the H. Comm. on Ways & Means,t999
Leg., 4r3th Sess. 5-8 (Md. 1999) (statement of De[. Paul Carlson, I
Member, H. Comm. on Ways & Means).

13.4 Reports, Documents, and Committee Prints

(a) Numbered federal reports and documents. Citations to numbered federal
r€ports should include the name of the house, the number of the Congress con- I
nected by a hyphen to the number of the r€port, the part and/or page number on
which material being cited appears, and the year of publication. Use large and small I
caps for the house, abbreviation ofreport, and abbreviation ofnumber:

) H.R. Rep. No.99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).

) S. REp. No.84-2, at7 G955).

Cite conference reports using the following format: I
H.R. Rep. No.98-ro37, at 3 (1984) (Conf. Rep.).

S. Rep. No. 95-6or, at S Ggt) (Conf. Rep.). I

Cite numbered federal documents analogously,using the following abbreviations:

House Document ) H.R. Doc. No.

Senate Document
House Miscellaneous Document
S. Doc. No.
H.R. Mrsc. Doc. No.
The following citation formats are often used to designate intemational agree-
ments to which the United States is a parry (rule 21.4.5(.3D:
Senat€ Executive Document )
S. Exrc. Doc. No.
SenateTreaty Document S. Tnrary Doc. No.
When possible (and particulady for documenrs published after 1974), gSve a

parallel citation to the permanent edition of [Inited, States Code Congressional
andAdministratiue News (de 12.6):
) S. Rep. No.gS-lgt,at 4G978),as reprinted in 1978 U.S.C.C.A.N.
I (b) Titles and authors. Title s of numbe red reports or documcnts may bc indi-
catecl;if the title is given, the author should also bc named (scc rule 15.1(c)

I rcgarding institutional authors):

Cenlroru Korecr, THE RoAD ro INDUSTRIAL PEnce, H.R. Doc. No.

8z-563, aI 29-30 1195t.
,' U.S. lmmrcnAroN CoMM'N, ltvttrntcnnrtoru LrctsLnttott, S. Doc. No.
6t-758, at 613 (3d Sess. rgrr).

o (c) Unnumbered federal documents and committee prints. Committee

prints and unnumberecl documents must be citcd as works of institutiontl

o iltlthors (rule 15.1(c)). Note that the number of the Congrcss is part of the
author's namc:

t :, Srarr or S. Coutvt. oN THE JuDtctAny,

rRUSr LAW r7 (Comm. Print r95o).
Blsr Coruc., Rep. oN ANTI-

o If the documcnt or committee print is primarily the work of specilic persons,

that fact mly bc noted parenthctically

I (d) Federal legislative agency reports. Legislative reports, like thosc of

the Oongrcssional Research Service ((lRS) and the (iovcrnment Accountabilitl'
Office (GAO), must be citecl as works of institutional authors (rule 15.1(c));

o include the report number (as given by the agency) as part ofthe title:

", Lours FrsHen, Couc. ReseancH SERV., R131340, MtLtranv Tnteu-

o ,'
ruals: THE Qutntru PnEcrortr 3o (zooz).

U.S.Gov'r AccouNrABrLrrv Orr., GAO-08-751, Fooo nro Dnuc

I AoutrutslnnrroN: AppRovAL nruo OvenstcHT oF THE Dnuc Mtrrpnex

zz QooS).

I (e) Federal legislative iournals. Citc congressionll journals according to the

folkrwing moclel:

z4th Cong., zd Sess. tz3-24 QB36).

o (f)
' S. .lounrunl,

State materials. Citations to statc legislative reports, documents, and simi-

lar matcrials must inchldc the name of the lcgislativc bocly abbrcvilted accorcl-
ing to tables T6, T9, and T10, the numbcr of the lcgislative body connccted by
a h-vphen to the numbcr of the report or document, the number of the lel4isla-

o tive session, the part or page number on which the mate rial be ing cited appears,
:rnd the ye irr of publication. tlnle ss it is clcar from thc title or author information
appearing in thc citation, provide the name of the state abbrcviltted accorclintr4

o to table Tl0 prrenthetically:

S. t78-247,1st Sess., aI 4 Qa. ry9Q.

o Titles of numbcred reports or documcnts may be indicated; if the title is givcn,

rule f5.1(c)

the author should also be named (sec regarding institutional

:. CoMMoNWEALTH oF Pn. Dep'r or Acntc., Alluunl Repont or rHe

Srnrr Fooo PuncHnsr Pnocnnm, S. t7B-247,1st Sess., at q Oggu,).
13.5 Debates
Cite congressional debates after 1873 to the Congressional Record; use the
daily edition only for matter not yet appearing in the pemanent edition. The
primary ways in which the Congressional Record dtffers from the daily edition o
are continuous pagination, altered text, and the dropping of the prefixes H, S,
and E before page numbers:

Corue . Rec.

Corue . Rec.
q147 Q977).
Sn,455-56 (daily ed. Sept. tl,tgSS) (statement of o
Sen. Watlop).

Cite congressional debates through 1873 according to the following models: I

1837-1873 )
1824-1837 )
Coruc. Gloer,36th Cong.,1st
ro REc. Dst..347z (t834).
Sess. t6lz(t86o).
1789-1824 ) 33AruHnsoFCoNG. 6zt+G8zz).
If the debate occurred in a different year from its publication tn the Congres- t
sional Record,cite the year in which the debate was published.
For volume one of the Annak give the name(s) of the editor(s) and year of t
publication in parentheses:

) rArnnls oF CoNG. +86 (tl8g) (loseph Gales ed., 1834).

13,6 Separately Bound Legislative Histories I

The legislative histories of several important acts are published separately (e.g.,
theAdminisrrative ProcedureAcr,titlesvll and IX of the Civil RightsAct of 1964,
the Clean AirAct Amendments of I 970, the Equal Employment Opportunity Act,
the Internal Revenue Acts, the National Labor Relations Act, the Occupational
Safety and Health Act of 1970, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).lf it I
would aid the reader in locating the source, a parallel citation may be given
to such a separate publication. Cite these publications according to rule 15
(books, reports, and other nonperiodic materials): I
) at6 Ggq), reprinted in r NLRB, LEclsurrve
H.R. Rrp. No. 8o-245,
HlsroRy or rHe Lneon-Mnlecemenr REurroHs Act, t947, at 292, I
zgt Gg+8).
lnternal Revenue Amendments, Pub. L. No. 8l-81q,5 rS(a), 76 Stat. I
96o, to4r-42 (rg6z) (codified at t.R.C. 5 rzqS(a) (zooo)), reprinted
lrurentel REVENUE TnxnrroH, 90rH Corue .,
rn JorHr Corvrrvr. or,t
LecrsLnrrvE Hrsrony or rHr lrurrnrunl Reveruue Cooe or 1954.at I
13.7 Electronic Media and Online Sources
(a) Commercial electronic databases. When citing to materials contained I
in a commercial electronic database, give the name of the database and any
identiffing codes or numbers that uniquely identifr the material. If the name of
the database is not clear from the database identifier, include it parenthetically
at the end of the citation:
a Federal bill H.R. 378r, ro4th Cong. 5 z(b) (rqq6), 1996 CONG US HR
(unenactcd) 378r(Westlaw).

t Feder.rl report H.R. Rep. No.9z-98 Q97), reprinted in ry7r

ro77,197r WL 11312.
Congrcssional 142 CoNG. Rrc. Hrr,46o (daity ed. Sept. z7, 1996)

o debate (statement of Rep. Tanner), 142 Cong Rec H rr45z, at

*Htt,46o (LEXl5).

t (b) Internet and online sources. Wherc a print vcrsion is accessible, citation
shoulcl be made to thc print source . \il/hcre , howevcr, the
print sourcc is diflicult

or impossible to obtain or thc governing authority h:rs dcsignrtccl thc electronic
sourcc as the ofhcial version, citation should be mlde to the clcctronic source
with consideration of the gcncrirl principles in rule 18 regarcling authentica-

a tion and preferrcd document formats. The tlRL should be appended to the end
of thc citation in accordancc with de

t S" An Act Prohibiting Writing a Text Message While Driving, H.R. l+,
2oo9 Sess. (N.H. zoog), http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/legisla-

tion / zoogl H Boo34. html.

Short Forms for Legislative Materials 13.8

I (a) Main text. In law review tcxt, use the forms listecl in thc "'l'cxt" column of
the table below to rcfer to legislative materials. Provide a citatiotr in ftlll or short

I form according to rule 13.8(c) in an accompanf ing firotnote whcn appnrpriate.

(b) Footnote text. Similarly, whcn ref'erring to legislativc matcrials iu law

review footnote tcxt. use the fbrms listed in the "'ltxt" column of thc table

o below Provide a citation in full or short firrm according to rule 13.8(c) in an

accompanying citirtion clausc or scntcncc when lppropriatc.

o (c) Citations, In law review citations,usc an_v of the forms listecl in the"Short
Citltion"column of the tablc below that clearl.v identifies the lcgislative natcrial

o if thc lcgislati!'c material is already citccl (in either firll or short firrm, including
,d) in cither
in one rf
thc samefootnote or in t manner such that it can be readily firund
the preceding Jiue.footnotes. Otherwise , usc the "Full Oitation" firrm.

I See rule 4.2(a) rcgarding the use of "supra;'

Full Citation Text Short Citation

Federal Bill H.R. 3o55, 94th House Bill 3o55 H.R. 3o55
(uncnactcd) Cong. (1976)

a State Resollrtion S. Res. zo, 37th

Leg., zd Sess.
Okia. S. Res. zo

I Fedcral Re1;ort
(Okta. tgzg)

H.R. Rrp. No. 9z-

Resolution zo

House Report 98 H.R. REp. No.

o Fcdcnl
98 (t9tr)
H.R. Doc.
No.94- House
H.R. Doc. No.

o Documcnt zo\ Document zo8

(d) Electronic sources. For materials lvailable in :tn electronic databasc,

use a

o tunique databasc iclcntifier, if onc has be cn lssigne cl. in constructing a short firrm:
) H.R. 378r, ro4th Cong. $ r (1996), 1996 Cong US HR lZ8t
(Westlaw). t
becomes: H.R. 378r $ y 996 Cong US HR 378r (Westlaw).
For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URI need not be repeated after a firll citation.

Administrative agencies and other executive institutions produce a trcmcn-

o clous variety ofoflicial materials. This rulc providcs guidancc for thc most com-
mon forms of existing materials. Consult table T1.2 for information regarding

I specific fcdcral organizations that use unique citation formats. As with courts,
practitioners should comply with an agcncy's conventions fcrr citation whcn
authoring submissions to that agency, if that convcntion varies fiom the rulc

o cstablished hercin. Cite state materials by analogy to thc federal cxamples givcn
in this rule .

o Basic Citation Foffns 14.r

I Federal regulation cited to the

Code of Federal Requlatktns

Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. 5 +++.t

a Federal regulation cited to the

[:ederal Register
lmportation of Fruits and Vegetables, 6o
Fed. Reg. 50,379 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be

codifi ed a! pt. l99l
Administrative adiudication Reichhold Chems., lnc.,9t F.f .C. 246

o Arbitration Charles P. Ortmeyer, z3 Indus. Arb. z7z

(r98o) (Stern, Arb.).

o Rules, Regulations, and Other Publications 14.2

o Citation of a particular provision of a regulation in the Code of Federal

C.F.R.title no. section symbol and specific section cited


I 7 C.F.R.
t S 379.76 (1999).
abbreviation of set of regulations cited date of code edition cited

I (a) Final rules and regulations. Whenever possible, cite fedcral rules
rcgulations to the Code of Fbderal Regulations (C.F.R.) by title, scction or part,

o lnd year:

h" 47 C.F.R. 5 Zl.6og (tggg).

o Eaclr title ot the Code of Fbderal Regulations is rcvised at least once a year; cite
the most reccnt edition. Give the name of the rule or regulation only if the rulc

o or regulation is commonly cited that way or the infbrmation would otherwise

aid in idcntilication. The abbreviated name of thc issuing body may also bc

o included if helpful:
* FCC Broadcast Radio Serices, 47 C.F.R. 513.6o9 @ou+).

I ts
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. S 444t (zo4).
Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. S 444.t(zotQ.

Certain titles of the Code of Federal Regulations focused on specific subiects
have unique citations. For citation toTitle 26, Treasury Regulations,see table C
1.2. Titlc 48,the FederalAcquisition Regulations,may be cited as"FARl'

M FAR 52.249-z(e) (zor+).

The Federal Register (Fed. Reg.) publishes mles and regulations before they
are entered into the Code of Federal Regulottions.Citations to rules or regula- I
tions in the Fecleral Regl'sfer should give any commonly used name of the rule
or regulation, the volume and page on which the rule or regnlation (or any
preccding discussion thereof) begins, and the date of the rule or regulation.
Whcn citing a part of t rule or regulation, give both the page on which the rule
or regulation (or preceding discussion) begins and the page(s) on which thc
cited matcrial appears.When the Federal Register indicates where the rule or
regulation will appear in the Code of Federal Regulations,give that information
parenthetically: o
ts lmportation of Fruits and Vegetables, 6o Fed. Reg. 5o,379, 5o,38r
(Sept. 29, rqgr) (to be codified at Z C.F.R. pt. 3oo). I
h. Federal Acquisition Regulations for NationaI Aeronautics and
Space Administration, 55 Fed. Reg. 52,782 (Dec. zr, r99o) (to be
codified at 48 C.F.R. pt. r).
Prohibitively long titles may be shortened

F OrderApproving
as long as the result is unambiguous:
NYSE and NASDAQ Proposed Rute Changes
Retating to Equity Compensation Ptans
Not: Self-Regulatory 0rganizations; New York Stock Exchange,
Inc. and NationalAssociation of Securities Dealers, Inc.; Order
Approving NYSE and NASDAQ Proposed Rule Changes and o
NASDAQ Amendment No. 1 and Notice of Filing and Order Granting
Acceterated Approval to NYSE Amendments No. :. and z and
NASDAQ Amendments No. z and 3 Thereto Relating to Equity
Compensation Plans

(b) Proposed des, other notices, and comments. Administrative notices

that are not transferred to th.. Code of Federal Regulations should be cited t<r
rhe Federal Regl'sfer When citing notices of proposed rules and regulations,fol-
low thc form for linal rules, but add the status to the date parenthetical:
le Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor
Vehicte Engines,56 Fed. Reg.9154 (proposed Mar.7,r99r) (to be
codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 86).
Cite notices pertaining to administrative adjudications according to de 14.3.
Cite othcr administrative noticcs by volume, page, and date. The citation may
begin with a description or a commonly uscd name: o
ts Meeting Notice, 65 Fed. Reg. 3415 \an. zt, zooo).
For rules and announccments not appearing inthe Code of Federal Regulations
ortheFederalRegister,citeaservice (de 19),the originalformof issuance,or
an agency or governmental wcbsite (de 18.2). Whcn citing comments, pro- I
vide the name of thc commcnter and thc proposed nrle to which the comment
I pertains. Prohibitively krng titlcs may bc shortcned as long as the rcsult is unam-
bignons. Citing to an agcnc,v or governmental website is appropriatc:

I p Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America. Comment

Letter on Proposed Rule to Require Registration of Certain

t Hedge Fund Advisors Under the Investment Advisors Act of r94o

(5e pt. r5, zoo 4), http: I lwww.sec.gov/rules/ propose d I sl fo q I
d h irsch man no9r5o4. pdf.

o (c) Regular reports. Citc in the same manner as periodicals (rule 16). Always
give thc abbreviatccl agcncy name first and thcn usc thc abbreviations fbr peri-

a odical namcs given in table T13:

r-"- 4 NLRB Aru. Re p. % (1%q.

o w

t'942 Arr'y Geru. Arun. Rep. zz.
t955-t956 MtcH. Arr'v Grru. Btrrurutal REP. pt. \ aI6zr.

l (d) Other publications. Cite as a work by an institutional author (rule

15.1(c)), inclucling a serial numbeq if any (rule 15.7), unless issucd as a con-

I grcssional rkrcument (rule 13.4):

? Orrrce oF MGMr. & Buocrr, ExEc. Orrrce oFTHE PRESTDENT, OMB

t No.99-04. Revrseo SrnrrstrcnL Dertrtrtolts oF METRo-

poLrrAN Anrns (MAs) AND GUTDANcE oN UsEs or MA Derrrurrrons

o :=' U.S. Gov'r AccouNraerLrry OFFrcE, GAO-O1-1163T, Cotvtturnctnr

Avrnrou: A Fnnmewonr ron CorusroenrNG FEDERAL Fntnructel

o +
AssrsrnNce (1998).
U.S. Eeunr Ennp. OpponruNrry CoMM'N, EEOCMlA, A Tecnurcnl

AssrsrANcE Mnruel oN THE EMployue rur PnovrsroNS (TrrLE 1) oF
THE AMENDMENTS wrrH Drsngrrrrres Act lt99z).
tr U.S. FooD & Dnuc Ass'N, Pnemnnxer AssessuENT oF PEDTATRTc

o MEorcnl Devtces: Gutoaxce ron lNoustnv AND FooD nruo Dnuc

Aomrrrsrnnrroru Srnrr (zor4).

I When citing an opinion lcttcr, cite as a work by an institutional author in ordi-

naqr romrn type, including the datc of its publication ancl, if available , its subject

a matter:

= U.S. Equal Emp. Opportunity Comm'n, Opinion Letter on Apptica-

o bility of Age Discrimination in Employment Act to Appointed State

Court ludges (Apr. Z, t98fl, os reprinted in EEOC Compl. Man.
(BNA) at N:roor n.z.

I .a U.5. Dep't of Labor, Wage & Hour Div., Opinion Letter (Sept. r4,

o Administrative Adiudications and Arbitrations 14.3

o Citations to xdministrutivc cases ancl :trbitrations shoultl conform kr rule 10,

exccpt rs folkrws:

14.3.1 Names o
(a) Administrative adiudications. Cite by the reported name of the first-
listed private party (abbreviated according to
iect-matter title. Omit ail procedural phrases:
rule 10.2) or by the offrcial sub-
) Trojan Transp., lnc., 249 N.L.R.B. 642 Q98o).

Not: In the Matterof Trojan Transp., lnc.,z49 N.L.R.B. 6t+z(tg8o).

Not: /n re Trojan Transp.,lnc., 249 N.L.R.B. 5qz 6g8o).
Subiect-matter titles may sometimes indicate the nature and stage of an adjudi-
catory proceeding. It is permissible to shorten such titles, and, if the nature and
stage of the proceeding are not clear from the context, such information may be
included in a parenthetical phrase at the end of the citation. The parenthetical
phrase may consist of terms such as "notice,' "initiation,' "prelim. neg.," or I
"determinationior may be more elaborate.

> Bottled Green Olives from Spain, 5o Fed. Reg.28,237 (Dep't of

Commerce luty u, 1985) (final admin. review).
l{ot: Bottled Green Olives from Spain, Final Results of Admin. Review
of Countervailing Duty Order, 5o Fed. Reg. 28,237 (Dep't of
Commerce July rr, 1985).

(b) Arbitrations. Cite as court cases if adversary patties are named and as I
administrative adjudications
indicated parenthetically:

if they are not. The arbitrator's name should be
Kroger Co. v. Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 539, 74Lab. Arb.
Rep. (BNA) 785,787 (r98o) (Doering, Arb.).
Charles P. Ortmeyer, z3 Indus. Arb. z7z (tg8o) (Stern, Arb.).

L4.3.2 Which Source(s) to Cite

(a) Official reporters. Cite the offlcial reporter of the agency if the opinion o
appears therein:

F Tennessee Intrastate Rates & Charges, 286 l.C.C. qtQgSz).

For the official reporters of many federal agencies, see

G) Ofncial
table T1.2.
releases and slip opinions. If the opinion does not appear in I
an official reporter, cite the offrcial release or slip opinion, Provide the full date,
any helpflrl publication number, and the number of the case or investigation:

lron Construction Castings from Brazil, Canada, India, and the
People's Repubtic of China, USITC Pub. t72o,lnv. No. 7or-TA-249
Iune 1985).
If the opinion will later be published in an official bound volume, provide the
volume number and the initial page number, if available; if the initial page num- o
ber is not available, retain the case number:

) Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 259 N.L.R.B. No. r97 (Apr. 24, r98Q.

t Whenever possible, append a parallel citation to an unofficial reporte! service,
or othcr source, in that order of preference:

t l Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 269 N.L.R.B. No. r97, 1983-1984 NLRB

Dec. (CCH) fl:6,48 (Apr.24,r98fi.

o Once the ofticial reporter is issued, howevcr, cite only to that reporter:

il Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 269 N.L.R.B. tt73 $98Q.

t (c) Services and electronic databases. Vhere an agency decision is only

available from a service or on the agency's website, cite according to rule 19

o (for services) or rule 18.2 (for Internet sources).

W, Carr,ltggo-t992 Transfer Binderl Comm. Fut.

L. Rep. (CCH) fl

(Oct. z, t99o).

ff' MatchNet PLC v. Gordon, Case No. AF-ooro6o (eResotution Dec. 4,

zoor), http://www.disputes.org/decisions/ro6o.htm.

Many agencies havc adopted unique citation formats for opinions not listed in

oflicial reporters. Consult table T1.2 for agency-specilic citation formats. For a
list of services and service abbreviations. see table T15.

o Issuing Agency
If the name of the issuing agcncy is not apparent from the namc of the source,

o includc the name of the agency abbreviirted according to

parenthetical containing the date:
rule l5.l(d) in the

I h" Gen. Dynamics Corp., 5o Fed. Reg. 45,949 (U.S. Dep't of Labor Nov.

o Commercial Electronic Databases

Iflhen citing to administrntive materials contained in a commercial electronic

o database , give the name of the databasc and any identifying cocles or numbers
that uniquely identify the material. If thc name of thc database is not clear from

I thc database identifier, include it parenthctically at the end of the citation:

*" FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. S 444t (zooo), WL 16 CFR

I *
5 444.1.
Reichhold Chems., Inc., 9r F.T.C. zq6 bgl8), 1978 WL zo6o94.

o F' 39 Op.Att'y Gen. q8q Ggqo), r94o US AG LEXIS 16.

w, Rev. Rul. 86-7t,t986-r C.B. roz, 1986 IRB LEXIS r89.

a Short Forms for Regulations 14.5

o (a) Main text. In law revicw tcxt, use the forms listcd in the "Text" column of
the table below to refer to regulations. Provide a citation (in fi.rll or short form
according to rule 14.5(c)) in an accompanying footnote whcn appropriatc.

o (b) Footnote text. Similarly, when rcferring to regulations in law review foot-

note text. use the forms listcd in the "Text" column of the table below. Provide
a citation (in firll or short form according to rule 14.5(c)) in an accompanying
citation clause or sentence when appropriate. t
(c) Citations. In law review citations, use any of the forms listed in the "Short
citation'column of the table below that cleady identifies the regulation if the I
regulation is aheady cited (in fi,rll or short form) in either the same footnote
or in a manner such that it can be readily found (including "td.") in one of the
preceding five footnotes or the same general texual discussion. Otherwise, use t
the'Full citation" form.

Fu[[ citation Short citation

Code of Federal
FTC Credit Practices 16 C.F.R. 5 t+++.t 16 C.F.R. 5 qqq.t
Rule, r5 C.F.R. or 9 444.t I
g 444t (zot4)
Register lmportation lmportation lmportation o
of Fruits and
Vegetables, 5o
Fed. Reg. 50,379,
of Fruits and
of Fruits and
5o Fed. Reg. at
5o,38r (Sept.
29, 1995) (to be
codified at 7 C.F.R.
pt. 3oo)

(d) Electronic sources. See de L6.8.


o 'l'his rule governs the citation of books, trcatises, reports, white papers, diction-
aries, encyckrpedias, and all othcr nonperiodic matcrials.

o (litation of
a particular pagc within thc sixth edition of Francis Olrcy's Organic

o author's full name

Fnlncrs A. Cnnrv, Onennrc CHemtsrnY

title of book page

cited editor(s) name(s)

(Kent A. Peterson et a[.

o eds., 6th
ed. 2005).

t for
abbreviation edition
"editors" cited
year of publication

I Main Elements:
Arrthor .

Editor or trlnslator
... rule15.1

a Title , . .

Page, secti<ln, or parugmph


rules 3.2 and J.J

(if onll' part of a work is cited) . . .

ldition . ......rule15.4

Ihte. . . ..... rule15.4

o Author
'l'he lirst time a work is citcd, always givc the author's full namc ls it appcars

I on the publication, including any designation such as "Jn." or "lll" (inserting a

comma beforc the designation only if thc author docs). f)o not include a dcsig-
nation such as"Dr."or"Prof." even if it appears on the title pagc. Ilse large and

o small capitals:

r,' HARoLD W. Fusotl,ln., Trrltruc lr Arr: A Lecnl Gutoe ro rHE ExER-

I clsE oF Fner SpeecH 57-58 (rOO).

When citing l single volume

of a multivolume work, givc only tl-rc mthor(s) of

o the volumc cited.

Includc the volumc number, if anl', at thc bcginning of the

I 4 CHnnrrs Alnn WntcHr & ARTHUR R. Mtrrrn, Feornnl Pnncrrcr

AND PRoCEDURE S 1006 (zd ed. ryW).

(a) Two authors. List the authors'names in the ordcr in which they appear on

o thc title page, separated by an ampersand:

- A. Lro LEvttt & MeyEn KnnnaeR. NEw PRovtsloNS lN THE KETUBAH:A

o LEcnl Oprr.rror'r 3-4 G95).

If the title pagc establishes an alternativc relationship between thc two authors,

o c.g.,"wlTH"or"AS TOLD TO;'use this phrasc to scpar.lte the authors'names:

r" Ennvm "MAGrc" Jour.rsor't wrrH WTLLTAM Novnr, Mv Ltrr 39 119%).

(b) More than two authors. Either
"ET AL."
use the first author's name followed by
or list all of the authors'names. The fust method is appropriate where I
saving space is desired, including short form citations. The second method is
appropriate when listing all of the authors'names is particulady relevant. When
listing all of the authors'names, separate the names with commas, except the
fnal name,which should be set off with an ampersand (and without a comma).
) A. Leo LevrH er AL., DtspurE Resolurroru DevrcEs tN A DEMocRATtc o
Socrerv ll Gg95).
14 CnnnlEs AlnH Wnre xr, AnrHuR R. MTLLER & EDwARD H. Cooprn, I
FEDERAL Pnncrrce AND PRocEDURES363T (3d ed. t998).
RrcHnno H. FALLoN, JR. ET AL., Hnnt nHo Wecnsten's rHe Feoenet I
Counrs AND rHE Feoenal Sysrem 33o (6th ed. zoog).
Rrcxano H. FALLoN, Jn., JoHr.r F. MatHrHe , DANTEL J. MELTZER &
Dnvro L. Srnprno, Hnnr nuo Wecnslen's rHE FEDERAL Counrs nHo
rHe FeoEnnl Sysrem 33o (6th ed. zoog).

(c) Institutional authors. Citations to works by institutional authors begin

with the author's complete name. Abbreviate according to rule 15.1(d):
) Crrv or New HavEH, Recvcle Now Nrw HAVEN (1991).
When an individual author is credited on behalf of an institution, use the indi-
vidual's name and then the institution's name. Only include subdivisions of the
institution if particularly relevant:
) JuorrH A. LHAMoN, Ner'l Ass'H FoR LAw Pucemenr, A Fern SHnre:
Lnwrul AND EFFECIvE lNrERVtEwtNG Qg8). I
S. ElrzaeerH GrasoH, FEo. Juorcrnl CrR., CAsE Sruores oF MASS t
Tonr LrmrrEo FuHo Cuss Acrroru Serrleuerurs & Bnurnuprcv
ReoncerrzerroNS 39-45 (zooo).
Not: S. ElrzeeerH GrasoH, FEo. Juorcral Crn., WonrrHe Gnoup oH
Mnss Tonrs, ClsE Sruoles oF MAss Tonr Lrrulreo FuHo Cuss
AcrroH SErnEmetrs & Bnnrnuprcy REoRGANtzAloNs 39-45

When no individual author is credited, use the smallest subdivision that pre- a
pared the work and then the overall body of which that subdivision is a part:

) Srnrrsrrclr-Arunlysrs Crn., Srnre Cnrme Comm'H, Cnrme nr I

GEone rr 4r (r98o).

(d) Abbreviations. Abbreviate the name of an institutional author only if the t

result will be completely unambiguous.When abbreviating, use the abbrevia-
tions found in tables T6 and TlO. "United States" should be abbreviated to
"U.S.'Omit'lnc.,""Ltd.," and similar terms if the name also contains a word
such as "Ass'n,""Bros.,""Co.," or "Corp.," clearly indicating that the institution
is a business firm: o
Cor,rsurvren DEpury Pnocnnm, U.S. CoHsumeR PRoD.
Comm'n, CHTLDRETTT's SlEepwren I bgl).
Nnr'l MuH. Lencue, A Mooel ELecrrot Sysrenn I bgl).
C Editor or Translator 15.2

a (a) Basic format. Always give the full name of an editor and/or translator
acconling torule 15.1, followcd by "ed. i'or "trans.;'in that order if both apply,
in the parenthetical containing information about the cdition, publisher,

date (see rule 15.4). A comma should separate the designation of an editor
and/or translator from other publication information:

e F MTcHEL Foucnulr, Dtsctpt-true AND PuNtsH

trans., Vintage Books zd ed. ryg) Ggll).
3o-3r (Alan Sheridan

o + ErHrcsor ColtsutvtproN: THE Gooo Ltre, Jusrtce, AND GLoBAL

SrEwnnosHtp rr8-r9 (David A. Crocker & Toby Linden eds., r99B).

3' AIDS AND rHE Lnw (Harlon L. Dalton et al. eds., 1987).

F, KARL Mnnx & FREDERTCH Eucers. Tne Couuut'ttsr MANlFEsro

t 0oseph Katz ed., SamueI Moore trans., Washington Square Press

tg6+) G8q8).
(b) Institutional editors. Folbw rule 15.1(c), substituting thc name of the
o institution for thc namc of the individual editor. Abbreviate the institutionll edi-
tor's name according to rule 15.1(d):

o :. THE RoLE oF MEorATroN rr'r DtvoncE

Dispute Resotution Proiect ed., r98Z).
PnocErottcs 33 Ut. Law Sch.

o E THE BLUEBooT: A Utttrontu Svsrrtu oF CtrATtoN (Columbia Law

Review Ass'n et al. eds., zoth ed. zor5).

t (c) No named parties. If a work has no named author, editor, or translator,

then the work may be designated by the publisher of thc cdition
Abbreviate thc publisher's name according to rule 15.1(d).
lrule 15.4,l.

o Title 15.3

o Cite the full main title as it appcars on the title page, but capitalize according to
rule 8 (unless the titlc is not in English, in which case follow rule 2O.2.2(b)).

I Give a subtitle only if it is particularly rclevant. Do not abbrcviate words or omit

articlcs in thc title. Use large and small capitals:

I ri{, CAprrAt Frows ttt rHr APEC Recton (Mohsin S. Khan & Carmen M.
Reinhart eds., r995).
fl l6.to (:d
o iiil' 6 JAMES Wrvr.
ed. rggg).
Moone rt nL., Moone's FEDERAL Pnncrtce

a When citing a singlc volume of a multivolume work, give the m:rin title of the
volume cited. If the title of a work ends with a numeral, or if distinguishing
between thc title and page number could othcrwise be confusing, thc page

o numbe r should be set off by a comma and the word "at" (sce rule 3.2(a)):

*. J.A.S. GnErvrLLe, THe MnJon lrurrnnnttorunL TREAT|ES, 1914-1'973,

I aI n4-t5 Q974).

15.4 Edition, Fublisher, and Date I
(a) Editions. Always cite the latest edition of a wor* that supports the point
under discussion, unless an eadier edition would be particularly relevant or a

(i) Single edition. When citing a work that has been published in only one edi-
tion, indicate the year ofpublication in parentheses. In general, cite by the date
of the edition rather than the date of a particular printing:

) DeeoneH L. RnooE, Jusrrce AND GENDER S6 GgSg). c

> AIDS AND rHE Law (Harlon L. Dalton et a[. eds., 1987).
If a printing differs in a respect relevant to the purposes of the citation,however,
give the printing designation and the date ofprinting instead:

F (5th prtg.1980)

If the title of the work incorporates the date of the work, do not omit the date
of publication,even if it is the same date:

) HultaeH Rre srs Wnrcn, Wonlo REponr 2004: Humaru Rre xrs nHo
Annnro Corurlrcr U8 (zoo4).
(ii) Multiple editions by the same publisher. When citing a work that has
been published by the same publisher in more than one edition, indicate the t
edition and the year the edition was published. Follow the pubtsher,s termi-
nology when designating an edition (see table Tl4 for a list of publishing
FlenalHc JAMES, JR. er nl., Crvrr Pnoceoune g 2.3 (4th ed.g9z).
1 Wrr-lrnnn MEnoe FlercHER ET AL., FLETCHER CyctopEorn or rnr
LAW oF PRtvArE Conponnrrols 5 Z.o5 fuerm. ed., rev. vol. 1999).
Lannv Brncen, MnHer Mrsrny, Pnul Rossr, MrcHnel CoLToN &
Aonn Jeo, Up Youn Scone: TxE Unoencnouno Guroe ro rHE SAT
34 (t999-zooo ed. rgg8). a
) Anrsrorrr, Nrcomectenu Erxlcs bk. lV, at r5-r5 (G.p. Goold ed., H.
Rackham trans., Harvard Univ. Press rev. ed.ryl+) (c. 384 B.C.E.). o
(iii) Editions not by the original publisher. $fhen citing a work tlat
been published by someone other than the original publisher, indicate the edi-
tor andlor translator if any (rule 15.2), the publisher, the edition cited if not the
first, and the date of publication of the edition cited (in that order). Abbreviate
the publisher's name according to de 15.1(d). Unless the work is one that is I
regularly updated or revised, add a second parenthetical indicating the date of
publication of the original edition:

) Cnnnlrs DrcKrHs, BLEAK HousE 49-55 (Norman page ed., penguin

Books rgZr) (r8Sl).

JonH C.H. Wu, THr Golorl Ace or Zen zt4-t5 (lmage Books 1996)
SrttnoHe DE BEAUVoIR, THe SEcoHo Sex, at xvi-xvii (H.M. parshley
ed. & trans., Bantam Books 196r) (1949).
t h THE CHrcAGo MANUAL oF SrYLE fl 8.r9r (15th ed. 2oo3).
(b) Photoduplicated reprints. Cite photoduplicated reprints to the original,

o indicating in parentheses the existence of a rcprint and the datc of the reprint,
folkrwed by the publication date of thc original in separate parentheses:

o u Pnur W. Gnres, Htsronv oF PuBLtc Lnruo Lnw Developuent

(photo. reprint 1979) (1968).

I (c) Pre-llOO works. Cite works published befbre 1900 to a scholarly modern
rule 15.4(a):
cdition, according to

o F JoHN LocrE, Two TnEnrtsrs oF GoVERNMENT 87-39 (Peter Lastett

ed., Cambridge Univ. Press rgBB) (16go).

t If thcre is no modern cdition, cite the first cdition whcnevcr possible . When
citing a prc-1900 edition, indicate the place of publication and thc publishcq

o separatec[ by a comma:

;' 1 Jnmes Ftrz,nmes SrepHeru, A HtsronY oF rHE CRlMtNar Lnw

(London, MacMitlan & Co. 1883).

o $6-j7

If the place or date of publication is not available, use thc abbreviation "n
p. " for
"no place" or "n.d." for "no date."

o (d) Supplements. Citc pocket parts and bound supplements according to rule

t 3.1(c):
:, 4 SvDNEy C. ScHwrtrzen &.losEPH RnscH, Cvct-opEDlA oF TRIAL
Pnncrtce 5 Bqi (zd ed. Supp. 1984).

o ': 5 SAMUELWtlltsroru & RtcHcno A. Lono, A TnEnrtsr oN

Coxrnncts 5 rr:8 (4th ed. 1993 & Supp. 1999).

o Shorter Works in Collection 15.5

o (lite essays and articles in collections according to rule 15'5.1.Citc collcctions

of othcr materials, such as letters, speechcs, manuscripts, diaries, debates, news-
papef afticles, tracts, etc., according to rile 15.5.2.

o Works in Collection Generally 15.5.1

o (a) Works by various authors. Tcr cite an individual shorte r work within a vol-
ume of collectcd works by various authors, list the author's firll name according

o kr rule 15.1 in ordinary roman typc followed by the title of the shorter work
in italics, the word "in" in italics, the volume nttmber, if any (rule 3.1(a)), md

a the name of the volume as a whole in largc and small capitals. Always note the
page on which the shorter work begins as well as any pages on which specific
material appears (rule 3.2(a)). Editors, translators, edition, publisher, and date

a should be noted parenthetically according to rules 15.2 ancl 15'4:

,i'. Andrew G. Ferguson, Continuing Seizure: Fourth Amendment

o Seizure in Section ry83 Malicious Prosecution Cases, in r5 Nar'l

Lawvens Gutt-o, Ctvtt- RtcHrs LtrtcarloN AND Artonlev Fees
Arruunl HnNoeoor 54-r (Steven Saltzman ed.,r99).

) Kay Deaux & Brenda Major, A Social-Psychological Model
Gender, rn THeonrrrcnl Pensprcttves oH Snxuru DtrreneHce 89,
89 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., r99o).
(b) Vorks by the sarne author. If all the shorter works within a volume are
by the same author, use the same form as above, but print the author's name in
large and small capitals and place the volume number, if any, before the author's O
name (rule 3.1(a)):
) Orrven Weloeu HolwrEs, Law in Science and Science in Law, in
Couecreo Lecnl Pnpens 2!o,2to Ggzo).
) AonrrHHe Rtcn,Transcendental Etude, rn Txe Fncr or n Doon-
rnnne 264, z6l-68 GgSa). o
15.5.2 Collected Documents o
(a) Documents originally published. Use the "reprinted rn' form (rule
1.6(aXii)) to cite collected materials that were previously published. As far
as possible, provide a complete citation for the original work followed by
" reprinted in" and the citation of the volume containing the reprint:
) Mnneurs DE CoNDoRCET, Essnv oN rHE AppLrcATroN oF MArH-
EMArlcs ro rHe THeony or DecrsroH-MerrHc (1785), reprinted in
CoHooncer: Selrcrro WRrrNGs B, 48-49 (Keith M. Baker ed.,
O) Documents originally unpublished. Cite letters, speeches, manuscripts,
diaries, and other similar works that have never been published except in collec-
tion as you would any other shorter work in collection (rule 15.5.1), but print
the name or description of the document in ordinary roman type following
rule 17. The
date of the particular document or otler identifing information,
if available, may be included in a parenthetical following the document title:

Letter from Virginia Woolf to Vita Sackvitle-West (Dec. zz,t9z5),
i n 3 I nt LETTERS oF Vr RGr N rA W ooLF, t923-t928, 223, zz4 (Niget

Nicolson & Joanne Trautmann eds., rst Am. ed. ry28) Ggl).

) John Adams, Argument and Report, in z Lzeat Pnpens or JoHr,r

Aorrvrs z85,3zz-35 (1. Kinvin Wroth & Hiller B. Zobel eds., 1965). o
15,6 Prefaces, Forewords, Introductions, and Epilogues o
Cite a preface, foreword, introduction, or epilogue by someone other than the
author as follows:

L. Maria Child,
Lrre or n SuvE
lntroduction to HnnnlEr A. JAcoBs, lHcroerurs
GrRL 3, 3-4 (1. Maria Child & Jean F. Yellin eds.,
rH rHe
Harvard Univ. Press rg8Z) (186r).

Henry M. Hart & Herbert Wechsler, Preface to the First Edition of

Paul M. Bnron Er al., Hnnr eHo Wecnslen's rHE FEDERAL Counrs t
AND THE FeoEnnr- Svsrrm, at xxvii, xxx (3d ed. rg88).

Cite to similar material by the author of the work without special designation: o
) JoHH HARr ELy, DEruocnncv nHo Drsrnusr, at vii (r98o).
o Serial Number 15.7

'o (a) Series issued by the author. When citing a publication that is one of
scries issued by the author (other than U.N. documents (rule 21.7)), include
the serial number as part of the title. Thc serial number indicator may be abbrc-

o viated according to table T16:

& BuREAU or lrrelltcerucE & RESEARCH, U.S. Dep'r or Srnre, Pua.

o No.8732, Wonlo SrnrtcrH or rHr Comruuntsr Pnntv Oncnrutzn-

rrorus 65 (1973).

WoMEN's Bunenu, U.S. Drp'r or Lneon, LearLEl No. 55, A

Wonrrruc Woneru's Guloe ro Hrn Joe RrcHrs 4 (r9z8).

(b) Series issued by one other than the author. To cite a publication that

o is one of a series issucd by someone other than the author, indicate the serics
and numbcr parenthcticall)', abbreviating instittltional entities according to rule

o r5.1(d):
o Anne C. Vladeck, Counseling o Plaintiff During Litigation, in

o EtvtpLovturnr Lrttcntton 1990, at 77,8o-Bz (PLl Litig. & Admin.

Practice, Course Handbook 5er. No. 386, r99o).

o Special Citation Forms

(a) Frequently cited works. A fcw frequently cited works require spccial

o citation forms:
v Noscitur o sociis, Bnuenrtrur's Lnw DtcrtoNARY (ld ed. rg6g)'

o ;.
Good-Faith Bargaining, BLAcK's Lnw Dtcrtonnnv (9th ed. zoog).

88 C.J.S. TrialS ryz

o '. t7 Au. Jun. 2o Contracts 5lq Gg6q).

o (b) Star edition. In a very fcw well-known works, the pagc of the original cdi-
tion (star page) is indicated, ttsually by an asterisk (*), in either the margin or the
text of all rccent editions. In such cases the date and editi<ln may be omitted and

o the citation may be made to the star page , unless the matcrial cited was insertcd
by the editor of the cited edition. There is no spacc between the asterisk and

the page number:
Ir 2 Wl LLIAM Blncrsro ru r, Cotu nn Erurnnt e s * r5z, * t55-56.

o (c) Other named works.

(i) The Federalist. When citinganentire Federalist papr-r,includc the author's

o name parcnthetically and do not indicate a specilic edition:

' Tue Feoennltsr No. z3 (Alexander Hamitton).

o (iroup togcther papcrs written by the same author:

F. THE FEDERALTsT Nos. 23, 78 (Alexander Hamilton), Nos. ro, 5r

o 0ames Madison).

When citing particular material within a papeq howeveq list the usual publica-

o tion information for the edition cited:

) THe FeoEnnlrsr No. 5, at 53 fohn Jay) (Ctinton Rossiter ed., 196r).
(ii) Manual for Complex Litigation. Citarions to the Manual for Complex
Iitigation prepared by the
) Manunl FoR CoMeLEX
Federal Judicial Center are as follows:

Lrrrcnrron (Txrno) S :f.z (rSSS).

) Manunl ron Complex Lrrrcnrrot g z.ro (5th ed. r98z).
However, when citing an edition not prepared by the Federal Judicial Center,
identi!' the source and publication date of the edition cited:
) Meruunl ron Complex LrrrearroH g 4.52 Q98z) (supplement to
Cxnnles Auru WnrcHr & ARTHUR R. Mlr_lrn, FeoEnnl PnncrrcE lr.ro
Pnocrou ne (tg5g-rg8S)). o
(iii) The Bible. Cite the Bible

) zKingsnty
as follows:
The version may be indicated parenthetically if relevant:

I Mark 9:zr (King James).

(iv) Shakespeare, A Shakespearean play may be cited

as follows: o
Wrlunm SHnrespenne, Tne SecoHo PART oF Knc Heruny rHe Srxrx
act 2, sc. 2.

To cite particular lines, a specific edition should be indicated according to rule

(v) The Bluebook. Tbe Bluebook is cited follows:


) THe BlueeooK: A UNtFoRM Sysrem or Crrnrrotl R. rS.8(c)(v), at rS5

(Cotumbia Law Review Ass'n et a[. eds., zoth ed. zor5).

) TxE BluegooK: A UNtFoRM Sysrem oF CtrAloN 293 tbl.T.ro

(Columbia Law Review Ass'n et a[. eds., r5th ed. 9th prtg. t999).
L5.9 Electronic Media and Online Sources o
(a) Commercial electronic databases. \When citing secondary materials to
a database,provide a complete citation to the document according to de L5 o
as well citation to the database. Ifthe database assigns a unique identifier
as a
or code to the document, include that identifier or code to assist the reader in
locating the document cited.
When a source is available both in print and in a commercial electronic data-
base, a citation to the database may be supplied:
) Aeeey G. HnrnsroH, Leave nto Dtsngtrry CoonorrunttoH Hnruo-
eoor fl uo (zoo9), Westlaw LDCHBK. o
) z5 Arvr. JuR. 2D Elections g roo, Westlaw (database updated May
zot4). o
(b) Internet and online sources. Because books found online may differ
in format from the print version, the two sources should not be treated inter- o
changeably unless the online source is an exact copy of the original as dictated
o by rule 1E.2.1(a). If a book or report is only available online, citc to it directly
in accorclance with rule 18.2.2:

o ffi" U.S. Dep'r oF.lusrcE, Lrcnl AurronrlEs SuppoRTrNG rHE Acrtvt-

DENr 25 (zoo5), http://ftr.fi ndlaw.com/news.fi ndtaw.com/hdocs/

o docs/nsa/doinsarrgo6.pdf Ihereinafter NSA WH tre Peern].

n, D cttounnv.cotvt, http: / /dictiona ry. reference.com/
M" La m po o


browse/tampoon (tast visited Feb. 8, zor5).

(c) Ebooks. Print versions of b<xrks are authoritativc; ebooks should be citcd

o only if they arc the sole media through which thc book is available. Ilccausc
books published as ebooks may differ in format from thc print version, the two

o sources should not be treated interchangeably. To inclicatc that an ebook is

bcing cited, place an "ebook" parcntheticrl after the date:
* Mnrttc
ANNE UmLAruo & Brnrn HARTZELL, Ptcesso: THr oF CuBtsM
1912-!914, z5 Qot4) (ebook).
If an ebo<lk uscs location numbers rather than page numbers, use "loc." to indi-

o cate where thc cited material can be fbund:

.:' RoNALD Corlrns & Dnvto Sroven, WHet MottEv Spenrs loc. z99z

o (zor4) (ebook) ("[T]he Buckley wall between contributions and

expenditures. . . has been breached.").

o Short Citation Forms L5.10

o Once a book, report, or other nonperiodic material has bcen cited in {ull in a
law review footnote , a short form cmpkrying either "id. " or " supro" m y lle uscd
to refer to the work in subsequent citations. Never use"lnfro"to refer to thcse

o materials. In general, fblbw rule 4 for short citation fbrms; howcveq use rule
15.10.1 when referring to a shorter work in collection or the collection as a

o whole .

Short Forms for Works in Collection 15. rO.1

o within a volumc of collccted shorter

To citc an cssay, article, or documcnt fbr-rnd
works when the shorter work has already becn cited in full, yotr may trse "id"'

o to reftrr to the shorter work if it was cited as the immcdiatcly prcceding luthor-
ity within the same footnote or as the solc authority within thc immediately

pre ceding footnotc. l)o not use "id. " to rcfer to thc collection as a wholc whcn
citing another shortcr work within the collection.

llse form to refer to the collection as a whole. Thc "supro" form

o ^"supra"
firr the entire volume should include the title of the collecti<ln (rather than
an author) rcgardless of whether the collectcd picces have a single author or

o multiplc authors.
tJse a "supro" form to refcr to thc shorter work if it was not cited as thc imme-

o diately preceding ailhority in the samc footnote or as the sole authority in the
immediately preceding footnotc. The "supra" form for the individual work
should include the last name of the tuthor or authors, or, if none, thc titlc of

o thc shorter work:

) 1
Fem r n rsm/Posrtnooenru tsrvr (Linda J. Nicholson ed., t99o); see
also Tnours ScxelltHe, A PRocEss or RestoeHttnt SeenecartoH: o
Nete HgonHooo TtPPtNG, reprinted in Ecot'tolttc FouHonrtoHs or
Pnoprnrv Lnw 3o7, 3o8 (Bruce A. Ackerman ed., t97). o
Letter from Virginia Wootf to Vita Sackville-West (Dec. zz,t9z5),


in 3Tnt Lrrrens or Vtne tHtn Woolr, t9z3-t928, at 224 (N.

Nicolson & Joanne Trautmann eds., rst Am. ed. r9Z8); cf Judith
Butler, Gender Trouble, Femi n ist Theory, and Psychoanalytic
Discourse, rn FsmtNtstvt/PosrMoDERNtsM,supra note 1, at 324,
324-25iAndreas Huyssen, Mopping the Postmodern, in Femtrtstvt/
PosrnooenrursM, supra note 1, at 44,234-35. Butler does not
think 'woman" can be adequately defined, Butler, supra, at 325, o
but Woolf s observations are especia[[y compelling, Letter from
Virginia Woolf to Vita Sackville-West, supro. o
different perspective is presented in Ayn Rand, Ihe
r A whotly
Cashing-ln: The Student "Rebellion," in THe New L*t t3, zo-24
Q97 t). B ut se e H uyssen, su p ra note 2, aI 23 4-35 (q uestion i n g
whether postmodern transformation has generated genuinely new
forms). o
> E.g., ScHeurr,rc, supra note 1, at 31o.

I s ld.; see also THr FEoenattsr No. 81, at 393 (Alexander

Hamitton) fierrence Balt ed., zoo3). But see Avru RnHo, Ihe
Comprachicos (arguing that the educational establishment teaches
ideas that destroy children's minds), tn TxE NEw LEFI, suprd note
3, at
See Rand, supra note 3, at 99; Rand, supra note 5, at 2o1. o
> 7

4 RTCHARD R. PowELL, Powrll
(Patrickl. Rohan ed., rggs).
oru Renl Pnopenrv fl Sr{ll, at
) 8 z id.1l zo3, at 2o-L7i see also THr Feoenaltsr No. 5, supra note
5, at V 0ohn Jay). o
For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for
the source. A URI need not be repeated after a full citation. t

Citation of particular pages within a law review article with parcnthctical infor-
mation about what appears on those pages:
abbrevlatlon oaoe on wnlcn
no. ofjournal
author's full name title of article iournal volume ariicle begins
Charles A. Reich, The New Property, 73 Yntt L.). 733,

o tt 737-38 (1964) (discussing the importance of government largess).


span of specific date of parenthetical describing content of pages cited
pa9es crreo

Citation of an entirc magazine article :

o author's full
name title of

Robert J. Samuelson, A Slow Fix for the Banks, Newsweer,

article name of magazine

o Feb.18,7997,
at 55.

cover date separates date first page of article
of issue from page no.

o Citation of a signcd newspaper article:

author's full name

o Seth Mydans, Los Angeles Police Chief Removed for 6o Doys in

lnquiry on Beoting, N.Y. Ttmrs, Apr. 5, 1991, at A1.

o abbreviation of newspaper date of

from page
page on whrch
article appears

o Basic Citation Forms 16.r

o Article in
pasinalf igulal
Elizabeth F. Emens, lntegroting nrroiioaition,
156 U. PA. L. REV. 839,894 (zoo8).

o Article in
Beniamin Wittes, Without Precedent, ArLANrlc
MonrHr-v, Sept. 2oo5, ar39,4c,.

o paginated iournal or

*.*rpuf. Scott Martelle ,lD Low Keeps Nuns, Students from

o "r,i.t.
Online newspapcr
Polls,L.A. Trues, MaY 7, zoo8, at At4.
Pamela Mendets, A Cose of Spom and Free

o articlc Speech at tntel, N.Y. Ttues, Dec. lr, ryg8,http:ll

ch lgeln lcyber I

o Signed stndent-written Bradford R. Clark,

law review note
Note,Judicial Review of
Congressionol Section Five Action: The Fallacy of

o Reverse lncorporation, 84 Corun. L. Rrv. 1969,

ry86 (tg8a).

Unsigned student-
written comm€nt
Case Comment, Fairness Standards for SEC Ap-
proval of Mergers: Collins v. SEC, 9o Hnnv. L. Rrv.
4n Ge76).
Sharon Dolovich, Book Note, Leaving the Law o
book review Behind, zo Hnnv. WomeHb L.J. 313, 329 999) fte-
viewing Pnrnrcrn J. WrLLrnnlts, THe Roosren's Ecc:
Oru rHr PERSISTENcE or PnrJuorce (ISSS)).
Non-student-written Jane
book review
E. Stroms eth, U n d erstan di n g Co n stitutional
War Powers Todoy: Why Methodology Matters, o
106 YALE L.J. 8+S (1996) (reviewing Lours FtsHER,
PnesrorHrrnl WnR powER GSSS)).
Symposium Symposium, The Presidency and Congress:
Constitutionally Seporoted and Shared Powers, 68
Wnsn. U. L.Q. +8S, 64o-5t GSSo). o
Specially designated John M. Golden, Commentary, "Patent Trolls"
article in consecutively and Patent Remedies, 35 Trx. L. Rev. zttt, ztt3
paginatedjournal (zoo).
distributed newsletter
Douglas Gary Lichtman, Patent Holdouts in the
Stan d a rd -S etti n g P ro cess, Aceo. Aovrso nv Co u rrr -
ctt Bur-r-. (Progress & Freedom Found., D.C.), May
zoo6, aI 4.
Follow de 16.4 or de 16.5 to cite articles, essays, cofirmentaries, and all
other materials contained within periodicals. Where the periodical is organized
by volume, and page numbers continue throughout the volume, it is a consecu-
tively paginated periodical and should be cited according to rule l6.4.Where
the periodical is paginated separately for each issue and the first page of every o
issue is l, it is a nonconsecutively paginated periodical and should be cited
according to de 16.5.

Cite newspapers according to 16,6.

Special citation forms for non-student-written book reviews, student-written law

review materials, symposia, colloquia, surveys, commentaries and other special
designations, multipart articles, annotations, proceedings, regular publications
by institutes, ABA Section Reports, and noncommercially distributed periodicals O
such as newsletters are given in rule 16.7.

Cite sources in elecffonic media and online sources using de L6.8.

Follow de 16.9 for short citation forms.
Capitalize the titles of works cited according to de E(a). a
The name of the periodical should appear in large and small capitals whether
it is a journal, m gqzru;rc, or newspapef, and should be abbreviated according o
to tables T13 (periodical abbreviations) and T10 (geographic abbreviations).

For purposes of this rule, the date of the publication is the cover date of the

t Author
For signed matcrials appcaring in pcriodicals (including sttldcnt-written materi-

o lls), fbllow rule 15.1, but print in ordinart'roman type . 'l'htts:

i, Kim Lane Scheppele, Foreword: Telling Stories,8T Mlcn. L. Rrv.

o tr
2o73, zoSz (t9B).
Robert P. Inman & MichaetA. Fitts, Political lnstitutions and Fiscal

o Policy: Evidence from the U.S. Historical Record,6 J.L. Econ. &
Onc. 79, 79-82 1199c.).

o i PauI Butler et al., Rcce, Low ond Justice: The Rehnquist Court and
the American Dilemma,45 Am. U. L. Rev. 567, 569 $996.

I Georgette C. Poindexter, LizabethAnn Rogovoy & Susan Wachter,

Selling Municipol Property Tax Receivables: Economics, Privatiza-
tion, ond Public Policy in an Era of Urbon Distress,30 CoNN. L. REV.

o 157 G997).

R. Gregory Cochran, Comment, ls the Shrink's Role Shrinking? The

o Ambiguity of Federal Rule of Criminol Procedure n.z Concerning

Government Psychiatric Testimony in Negativing Cases, 47 U. P a.
L. Rev. r4o3 (1999).

O Peter Carlson, Tales Out of Law School; Repeat After Us: lt's
Nothing Like '1.A. Laui,'WnsH. Posr, Juty z, t989, (Magazine), at

t wr3.

o Title
Citc the full pcriodical title as it appears on the title pagc, but capitalize accortl-

o ing to rule 8 (unless thc title is not in English, as dcscribcd in rule 20.2.2(b)).
Do not abbrevirte worcls or omit articlcs in the title . Use italics:

o Edward B. Rock, The Logic and (Uncertain) Significance of Institu'
tional Shareholder Activism, Tg Gto. L.). r+d,S Oggt).
Cecilia Lacev O'Connell, Comment, The Role of the Obiector and

o the Current Circuit Court Confusion Regording Federal Rule of Civil

Procedure 4.r Should Non-Nomed Shoreholders Be Permitted

o To Appeol Adverse Judgements?, 48 CArH. U. L. Rrv. 939,98-46


t Whcn the title contains a rcfbrence to material that woulcl be italicizccl whcn
appearing in the main text according to rule 2.2(a), such material should
appear in ordinary roman typc:

o '', Nathaniel A. Vitan, Book Note, Grounded Paratroopers: On Collins

ond Skover's The Death of Discourse, 13 J.L. & Pot' zo7, zto

o '
Seth F. Kreimer, Does Pro'Choice Mean Pro-Kevorkian? An Essay on

o Roe, Casey, and the Right to Die, 44Arvr. U. L. Rev. Bo3, 8rz (t99).

16.4 Consecutively Paginated Journals o
Cite works found within periodicals that are consecutively paginated through-
out an entire volume by author, title of work, volume number, periodical name,
first page of the work, page or pages on which specific material appears (rule
3.2(a)), and year enclosed in parentheses at the end of the citation. Consult
tables T1O and T13 to abbreviate the names of periodicals: o
David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?,27
Hnnv. C.R.-C.1. L. REv. 465,5oo (tggz). o
Richard A. Epstein, The Supreme Court, ry87 Term-Foreword:
Unconstitutionol Conditions, State Power, and the Limits
Consent,102 HARv. L. Rev.4, qqOg88).
F Kenneth W. Tsang et al.,/ Cluster of Cases of Severe Acute Respi-
ratory Syndrome in Hong Kong,348 NEw Eruc. J. Meo. 977, :,977 o
Pauline M. lppotito & Alan D. Mathios, New Food Labeling Regula- o
tions and the FIow of Nutrition lnformation to Consumers, tz J.
Pue. PoL'y & MARKETNG r88 (rgg:).
Some iournals maintain separate but consecutive pagination with different page
numbering systems. Cite these iournals as indicated above, but include the spe-
cial numbering:
) Kenneth R. Feinberg, Mediation-A Preferred Method of Dispute
Resolution, 16 Pepp. L. Rev. 55, Sr4 n.r9 (rg8g). t
Some journals publish special annual issues that do not conform to their consec-
utive pagination system. Cite these as indicated above, but indicate the special O
issue designation parenthetically and use the numbering from the special issue:

) John Ferejohn & Charles Shipan, Congressional lnfluence on

Bureoucrocy,5 J.L. EcoH. & Onc. (Specrnl lssue) t Gggo).
}' George A. Akertof, Procrastination and Obedience, 8r Awr. EcoH.
Rev. (Pnpens & PRoc.) t Gggi.
Ifthe periodicalhas no volume number but is nonetheless consecutively
paginated throughout each volume, use the year of publication as the volume
number and omit the parenthetical reference to the year:

) Thomas R. McCoy & Barry Friedman, Conditional Spending: Feder-

alism's Troian Horse, 1988 Sue. Cr. Rev. 85, roo.
Stephen D. Sugarman, Using Private Schools to Promote Public
Values,t99tU. Cnr. Leenl F. r7r.
16.5 Nonconsecutively Paginated Journals and Magazines
Works appearing in periodicals that arc separately paginated within each issue o
should be cited by author, title of work, periodical name, date of issue as it
appears on the cover,the word'at"(rule j,2(a)),firstpage of work,and,if appli
cable, page or pages on which specific material appears. If there is no author
o listed, begin the citation with the title of the piece. Consult tables T10 and T13
to abbreviate the namcs ofperiodicals:

o F, Barbara Ward, Progress for a Small Plonet, HARV. Bus. Rev., Sept.-
Oct. 1979, at 89, 9o.

o *, Barbara Ehrenreich, lranscam: The Real Meaning of Oliver North,

Ms., May g87,atz4,z4.

o # Joan B. Kelly, Mediated and Adversariol Divorce: Respondents'

Perceptions of Their Processes and Outcomes, Meotnroru Q.,
Summer ry89,at7t.

o w Domages for o Deadly Cloud: The Bhopal Tragedy Will Cost Union
Carbide $qZo Million,Ttme, Feb. 27, t989, at 53.

o If no date of issue is available, provide the issue number in its placc, and indicate
the volume numberbefcrrethe title of the periodicalperrule 16.4;alsoinclude

I thc ycar and month of copyright, if available:

& Charles E. Mueller, The American Who Wants to Give Away His

a Country but Doesn't Know That's What He's Voting for,34 Anrt-
rnusr L. & EcoN. REv., no. r,2oo8,atr,7.

o Newspapers
(a) In general. Matcrials appearing in newspapers arc generally cited in the

O same manncr as those found in nonconsccutivell' paginated periodicals (rule

16.5) with three exceptions: (i) whcn appropriate, designatc the work as an

o "Editoriatl"'Opinion" or "Letter to the Editor," in ordinary roman rypc, after

thc author's name but beforc thc title , or at thc beginning of the citation if thcrc
is no author; (ii) aftcr the dirte, givc the designation of the section in which the

o piccc is found in a parenthetical if necessary to idcntily the pagc unambigu-

ously;and (iii) givc only the first p:rgc of thc piece and do not indic:rte the loca-
tion of specilic materill. Substitute "Letter to the Editor" or another designa-

o tion for the titlc whcn no scparate title is provided. Citations to signed articles
should inclucle the author's full name (rule 16.2);citations to unsigned pieces

o should begin with the title of the piccc:

*" Ari L. Goldman. O'Connor Worns Politicians Risk Excommunicotion

o over Abortion, N.Y. TTMES, lune r5, r99o, at Ar.

':; Cop Shoots Tire, Halts Stolen Car, S.F. CHnon., Oct. ro, 7975, at 43.

I :' Jane Gross, Silent Right: Lawyer Defends Principles from Her Joil
Cell, Cur. Tnre., Mar. 3, lggr, S 6, at 6.

o ,r" Nancy Reagan, Editoriat, /usf Soy "Whoa,"

t996, at M4.
Wrll Sr. J., lan.23,

o 'r. Wittiam

TrwrEs, Dec.
Ctinton, Opinion,AIDS ls Not a Deoth Sentence,N.Y.
t,2oo2,5 4, at 9.
Editorial, Pricing Drugs,Wrsu. Posr, Feb. r7, zoo4, at ArB.

O ,r Michaet Harwood, The Ordeal: Life as a Medicol Resident, N.Y.

Ttrues, June 3,7984,5 6 (Magazine), at 38.
(b) Place of publication. Include the place of publication in ordinary roman
tlpe in parentheses following the name of the newspaper if not clear from the o

) Trial Judge Will Not Give Enquiry Evidence, TtMEs (London), June r3, I
Lggo, at3.

) Nancy Johnson, Letter to the Editor, Cnnon. Hte Hrn Eouc. (D.C.),
Oct. 8, 2oo4, at A55.

(c) Consecutively paginated newspapers. Cite an article in a newspaper

paginated consecutively by volume according to rule 16.4:
I New York County Lowyers Association: Edwin M. Otterbourg to
Represent the Association in House of Delegotes of American Bar
Association, rz4 N.Y. L.l. rzzr (rSSo).
(d) Wire services. Articles derived from wire services should be cited to a
print newspaper in which they are published (rule 16.6(a)), a commercial
electronic database (rule 16.6(e)), or a webpage (rule 16.6(f)). Include the
name of the wire service (in large and small caps) only if the citation is to the
wire service itself:

) Richard Carelli,ludges' Financial Reports Hit Web, AssoctarEo

Pness, June 22,2ooo, zooo WL 4358974.
Kevin Drawbaugh, Obama, Edwards Hit Lobbyists on Private Equity
Iax, Reurrns, Oct. 9, zoo7, http://www.reuters.com/articte/
politicsN ews/ id US N o94z zr 9o2oo7 roo9. I
) Record Labels Sue LimeWire for Enobling Music File-Sharing,
FOXN rws.co m, Au g. 6, zoo7, http | | www.foxnews.com /
story I o,2933,2o7 z87,oo.html.
(e) Commercial electronic databases. News reports published in electronic
databases may be cited according to de
I lustice Minister Calls for Solving lnternational Legol Conflicts,
JnpnH EcoH. NewswrnE Plus, Apr. 22, tg9!, at r, DIALOG, Fite
No. 6rz.
lnfoUSA Tells Shareholders to lgnore Hedge Fund, Reurens , May 4, I
zoo6, Factiva, Doc. No. LBAoooozoo5 o5o 4e25 4ootvp.
(f) Internet and online newspapers. Online newspapers may be used in o
place of print newspapers. Cite to the online source directly in accordance with
rule 18.2.2. Pagination can be included if available but is not necessary. If the I
time of posting is available, include it in the parentheses in accordance with
de 18.2.2.

) John M. Broder, Geography ls Dividing Democrats over Energy,N.Y.

Trmrs, Jan. 27, zoo9, at At.
becomes: John M. Broder, Geography Is Dividing Democrats o
ov e r E n e rg y, N.Y. Tr rvr Es tJan. 27, 2OO9), http: | | www. nyti mes.
com I zoog I ot I z7 | science I ea rth / z Z coa l. h tm l. t
o Special Citation Forms 16.7

a Student-Written Law Review Materials

(a) Signed, student-written materials. Signed and titled notes, comments,

o pfoiccts, etc. are cited in the same manner as any other signed article in a law
revicw (rule 16.4), with the author's full name in ordinary roman type at the

t bcginning of the citation (rule 16.2), exccpt that the designatkrn of the piccc
should appear beforc the title of the work (rule 16.3) to indicate that it is
student-written.Citc student-written book reviews according to rule 16.7.1(c).

o A student work is considcred signed if a student is credited with writing or con-

tributing to the piece anlqrhere within the issue in which the work appears-

o on the lirst pagc of thc piece, at the end of the piece, or in the table of contents.
If a student work is signed only with initials, it is considcred unsigned:
u, Etlen London, Comment, A Critique of the Strict Liability Standard

o for Determining Child Support in Cases of Mole Victims of Sexual

Assault ond Statutory Rape, t5z U. Pn. L. Rev. ry57, t959-63

t (zooa).

rr. B. George Baltman, Jr., Note, Amended Rule 6.t: Another Move

t .'
Towords Mandatory Pro Bono? ls That What We Wqnt?,7 Gro. J.
Le cnr ErHrcs tt39, tt6z n.g5 Q99Q.
Barry l. Pershkow, Recent Development, Maryland v.Craig: AChild

o Witness Need Not View the Defendant During Testimony in Child

Abuse Cases,65 TuL. L. REV. 935, 938,94t1t99r).

o Signed, student-writtcn commentary that is shorter, that falls under a desig-

nation such as "Reccnt (,ase," "Recent Statute," "Recent Dccision," "Case Note ,"

o "Recent Development," or'Abstract," and that carries no title or merely a digcst-

like heading should bc cited by author folbwed by thc dcsignation of the piccc
as provided in thc periodical, both in orclinary roman typc.lVhcn appearing in

I the title, a case or strtute citation should bc fbrmatted according to the typeface
conventions in rule 16.3. Thus:

o l.
Catherine Hauber, Note,30 U. Kau. L. Rrv.6u
Salty Anne Moore, Recent Case, H.L. v. Matheson,

rct S. Ct. tt64

o (t99t),5o U. Ctu. L. Rrv. 867, 868 (t98r).

Not: Sally Anne Moore, Recent Case, Constitutional Law-Right of

I P riv ocy
- Ab o rti o n - Fam i ly Law - Pare n t o n d Ch i ld - Sta n di n g - As
Applied to Immature, Unemancipoted and Dependent Minors, a
State Stotute Requiring a Physicion To Notify a Pregnant Minor's

o Parents Prior to the Performing of an Abortion ls Constitutional-

H.L. v. Matheson, rct S. Ct. tt64 ?g9i, So U. Cru. L. Rev. 867, 858

o (b) Unsigned, student-written materials. Cite unsigned notes, comments, and

shorter commentary by the designation given by the periodical, such as "Note,"

O "Comment," "Case Comment," "Project," "Recent Case," "Case Note," ctc.,

in ordinary roman type, followed by the titlc of the piece , if an1', in italics:

o ilh Note,A Bad Man ls Hard to Find,rzT Hnnv. L. Rev. z5zr (zo14).
) Case Comment, Evidentiory Use of a Criminal Defendant's Reoding
Habits and Political Conversotions: United States v. Giese, 93
Hnnv. L. Rev.4r9, 425-27
) RecentCase, z4VnHo. L. Rrv. t48,t5t-52(tglo).
) Recent Case, American Civil Liberties Union of lllinois v. Alvarez,
679 F.3d 583 Oth Cir. zotz),t26 Hanv. L. REv. u6z (zotl). I
When there is no separable designation, italicize the entire title:

) Developments in the Law-The Law of Cyberspace,tt2 Hanv. L. I

Rw. t577, t6z4 n.95 bSgil.
b The Supreme Court, ry98 Term - Leading Cases, n3 Hnnv. L. REv.
368,378 n.6o (tggg).
(c) Student-written book reviews. If a review is written and signed by
student,include the author's name and the designation"Book Note"(regardless
a o
of the journal's designation) to indicate that it is student-written, followed by
the title, if any. Add a parenthetical indicating the work under review if relevant o
to the purpose of the citation and not clear from the surrounding discussion:
) Wiltiam Dubinsky, Book Note, go MrcH. L. Rev. r5rz (1992)
(reviewing DrNrel A. FeneEn & PHtLtp P. Fnrcrev, Law nHo PueLrc
CrorcE GSSI)).
Nathaniel A. Vitan, Book Note, lrons vs. Rehnquist: A Critical
Review ofPeter lrons'Brennan vs. Rehnquisl,12l.L. & Pou r4r
Ggg). o
An unsigned, student-written book review should be cited in the same manner
as other unsigned student works, with a parentheticd citing the work under o
review ifrelevant:

) Book Note, letUs ReasonTogether, uz Hnnv. L. Rev. gS8 (rggg)

(reviewing PrEnne ScHue, Tnr ExcHnHrMENr oF RensoH GSSS)).

16.7.2 Non-Student-Written Book Reviews

Give the frrll name of the reviewer according to rule l6.2,alrtd the title of
the reyiew in italics. Include a second parenthetical after the date parentheti- o
cal indicating, if relevant to the pulpose of the citation and if not clear from
the surrounding discussion, the author, title, and publication date of the book
reviewed.If it is unnecessary to identify the book under review, simply include
the words'book review" in the second parenthetical:

) Colin S. Diver, Second Governance and Sound Law,89 MrcH. L.

Rev. 1436 (r99r) (reviewing CHnrsroenEn F. Eolsv, Jn., Aorvrrr.r-
tsrRATtvE Lnw: RerxtrurtNG JuDtctAL Conrnol or Bunreucnncv I
Bruce Ackerman, Robert Bork's Grond lnquisition, gg Yrr-e L.l.
t422-25 (rggo) (book review).
t4t9, o
Ifa non-student-writt€n review is untitled, cite it by the designation "Book
Review"; it is unnecessary to include a second parenthetical unless there is a
need to identify the book under review:
o " Howard C. Westwood, Book Review, 45 U. CHt. L.Rev.255 Q97).

t Symposia, Colloquia, and Surveys

When citing a symposium, colloquium, or colloquy as a unit, do not give any

t author, but include "Symposium;'"Colloquium," or "Colloquy" in roman typc

bcfore the title unle ss made cle ar by the title. Cite the first page of the lirst piece:

State,roT Hnnv. Rrv. tr79

a- Symposium, Chonging Images of the L.
't* The Brennan Center Symposium on Constitutional Law,87 Cnrtr. L.

o Rrv. ro59 (1999).

If an article is part of a survey of the law of onc iurisdiction, thc title of the

I article should incorporate the title of the survey as follows:

lp Atain A. Levasseur, Sales, The Work of the Louisiana Appellote

o Courts for the ry77-t978 Term, 39 Ln. L. REv. 7o5 Og7).

Cite an individual article within a symposium, colloquium, colkrquy, or survcy

o in the same manner as any other article :

F Eric A. Posner, Law, Economics, and lnefficient Norms, t44 U. Pn. L.

t F
Rev. $97 $996).
Kevin R. Vodak, Comment, A Plainly Obvious Need for New-

I Foshioned Municipal Liability: The Deliberote lndifference Stan-

dord and Board of County Commissioners of Bryan County v.
Brown,48 DrPnur- L. Rev. Z8S (rggg).

I Commentaries and Other Special Designations 16.7.4

a When citing a "Commentaryj"'Tribute,""ln Memoriam," or other special arti-

cle designation, the designation should appear in roman type after the author's

I name but before the title. If the author is unnamed or if the iournal's editors
are listed as the authors, the designation should appear at the beginning of thc
citation. "Commentary" should not bc confused with "Comment," a term fre-

o quently used to describe student-written pieccs (rule 16.7. l,).

+ Alvin C. Warren, Jr., Commentary, Finoncial Controct lnnovation and

I s
lncome Tax Policy,lo7 HARV. L. Rev. 46o (1993).
Sandra Day O'Connor, Dedication, Lending Light to Countless

I Lamps: A Tribute to Judge Norma Levy Shopiro,152 U. PA. L. Rev. r


I F Marguerite A. Driessen, Response, Not for the Sake of Punish-

ment Alone: Comments on Viewing the Criminal Sanction Through
Latter-day Saint Thought, zoo3 BYU L. Rev. 94r.

o Multipart Articles 16.7.5

o To cite an entire articlc that appears in more than one part,identiry the numbers
of the parts in parentheses aftcr the article's main titlc and give the volume

t number, first page, and publication ycar for each part:

) Harlan F. Stone, The Equitoble Rights and Liabilities of Strangers to
a Contract (pts. r & z), r8 Cor-um. L. Rev. z9r (r9r8), r9 Colum. L. I
Rev. r77 (r9r9).

If all of the parts appear in one volume, use the shortened form:

) L.L. Fulter, Legal Fictions (pts.

r-l), z5 lr-r-. L. Rev. 353, 5l3,,877
To cite only some parts of a multipart article, indicate which part or parts ar€
cited and give only the volume numbe(s), page number(s), and publication
year(s) of the part(s) cited:
F L.L. Futter, Legal Fictions (pt. z),25lr-r-. L. Rev. 5t3,5t4993). o
16.7.6 Annotations
Cite discussions in selective case reporters (srrch as American law Reports and
Lawyer's Reports Annotated) by the author's full name, followed by the desig-
nation"Annotation"in ordinary roman type and the title of the work in italics: o
) Ctaudia Catalano, Annotation, Unlawful Access lJnder Stored
Communications Act, t8 U.S.C.A. g zTot et seq., r A.L.R. Fed. 3d o
Art. r (zor5).

16.7.7 Proceedings, Regular Publications by Institutes,

and ABA Section Reports
Cite as periodicals, abbreviating according to tables TlO andTl3:
) Herbert F. Goodrich, 4 nnual Report of Adviser on Professional Rela-
tions, 16 A.L.l. Pnoc. +8 (tglg).
) George Vranesh, Water Planning for Municipalities, z4 Rocrv
Mrru. L. Insr. 865 GSZB).
If the volumes are unnumbered, use either the number of the institute (or pro-
ceedings) or the year of publication as a volume number; in the latter case omit o
the parenthetical reference to the year:

P David J. Beck, Crude Oil lssues, 30 lNsr. oN OtL & Gns L. & Tnx'ru
r I
) Jutius L. Sackman, Landmark Cases on Landmark Law, t979
oN PLAN. ZoHrtlc & Eturnet,tr Dottnrru z4r.
lnst. I
) Wiltiam J. Curtin, Reverse Discrimination and Affirmative Action:
Practical Considerations for the Utilties lndustry, 1978 A.B.A. Sec.
Pue. UrrL. L. REp. 26.

Ifthe publication is organized by paragraph or section numbers, use those num-

bers in citations:

) Max Gutierrez,lr., Estote Planning forthe lJnmarried Cohabitant,

13 lrusr. ou Esr. Pur.r. fl t6oo (t979).
I To cite part of an article identificd by paragraph or section number, cite both
the Iirst paragraph or section number ofthe article and the paragrlph or scction

numbe r(s) where the relevant material appears. Add a page citation if necessary
for ftlrther identification (see rule 3.3):

I 9 Watter F.O'Connor, Toxotion of Foreign lnvestors,33 lNsr. oN FED.

Tu'ru $ zz.ot, 5 22.04, at zz-to (t98o).

o Newsletters and Other Noncommercially

Distributed Periodicals

o Materials appearing in newsletters and other similar periodicals not commer-

cially distributcd should be citcd in the same manner as nonconsecutively pagi

o nated iournals and magazines (rule 16.5), except that a parenthctical shotlld
follow the titlc of the publication indicating the issuing group or organization
and its location. Abbreviate the name of the periodical according to tables T10

o and T13 and abbreviate the name of the issuing institution according to rule

t ? lndictment of Pregnant Woman for Drug Use Dismissed, REPRoD.

Rrs. Uponre (ACLU/Reprod. Freedom Project, NewYork, N.Y.), Oct.

26, t99o, at 5.
'€' Recent Grants, FCD Uponrg (Found. for Child Dev., New York, N.Y.),
Dec. r99o, at r, Z.

a Electronic Media and Online Sources L6.8

o (a) Commercial electronic databases. When citing periodical materials to

a datlbase, provide a complete citation to thc document according to rule 16

I and a citation to the database. If the database assigns a unique identilier or code
to each document within the database, include that identifier or code to assist
the rcader in locating the document cited.

I Some sources are available in two forms, electronic and papcr. To facilitate
, it is permissible to include a direct citation to a commer-
access to the source

o cial electronic database:

F T.R. Fehrenbach,TV's Alomo Tale Fairly Accurate, Snu Anroruto

a b'.
Expnrss-NEws, Mar. q, ry96, at At, t996WL 2824823.
Justice Minister Calls for Solving International Legol Conflicts,

I Jnpnru Ecor.r. Npwswtnr Prus, Apr. 22,7997, at r, D|ALOG, Fite

No. 6rz.

t (b) Internet and online sources. Where a print version is accessible , citlttion
shoulcl be made to the print source.Where, however, the print source is diflicult
or inpossible to obtain or the governing authority has designated the electronic

o source as the oflicial version, citation should be madc to the electronic sourcc
with consideration of rule 18's principles on authentication. If a periodical
sourcc is only lvailable online, cite to it directly in accordance with rule 18.2.2,

L6.9 Short Citation Forms I
Once a work in a periodical has been cited in fi.rll,use"id." ot"supra"to refer to
it in subsequent citations.
(a) Id. lf the work cited is the same as the immediately preceding authority
within the same footnote or as the sole authority within the immediately pre-
ceding footnote, use'id." and indicate any difference in page number: I

Lynn Hirschberg, The Misfit, Vnrrry Flrn, Apr.

See id.; Recent Case,z4VeHo. L. Rev.

r48, t48Q97o).
) 3 See generally Abram S. Benenson etal., Reporting the Results
of Human lmmunodeficiency Virus Testing, z6z IAMA3$5 O98g) O
(stating that actual laboratory results are often obscured by incor-
rect information).
+ ld. at3437.

) s See, e.9., Bruce Ackerman, Robert Bork's Grand lnquisition, gg

Ynrr L.J. t4t9 Q99o) (book review). Compare rd. (arguing against
constitutionaI transformation by iudicial appointment) , with Book
Note, Monual Labor, Chicago Style, rct Hnnv. L. Rev. r3z3 (t988)

(arguing against stytistic transformation by self-appointment).

Supra, Include the author's last name before "supra"; when there is no I
author, use the title of the piece, or, if listed before or instead of a title, the desig-
nation of the piece . However, if the first citation to the work gives a hereinafter
form (rule 4.2(b)), use the hereinafter form in place of the author's name, the
title, or the designation. Give the footnote in which the firll citation appears
unless the full citation is in the same footnote, in which case"supro" may be
used without a footnote reference. In lus]filg a"supra" form, always indicate the
page or pages cited except when citing the work in its entirety:

) 6
Ackerman , supro note 5, att42'i see also New york County
Lawyers Association: Edwin M. Otterbourg To Represent the Asso-
ciation in House of Delegates of American Bor Association, tz4N.y. I
L.l.tzzt (r95o) [hereinafler Otterbourg To Represenf] (describing
internal politics) Note, Ihe Deoth ofa Lawyer,56 Colunn. L. Rrv.
6o6,5ot Ggs6).
) 7 Recent Case,supra note 2, at t5o. Butsee Randy E. Barnett,A
t Th e o ry o f Co nt ra ct, S6 Co lu rvr. L. Rev. 259, z7 5 Q9B6)
Co n se n
(noting circularity of reliance theory ofcontract); Jennifer Roback,
Southern Labor Law in the lim Crow Era: Exploitotive or Competi-
tive?,5t U. Cxr. L. Rev. n6r, n64-65 (1984) (describing the impor-
tance of interaction between a competitive market and a racially
biased government). I
) 8 Cf,David Margotick,4t fh e Bar: Elitist yale Breaks precedent and
lnvites a Symbol of Populism to Preside at a Legal Rite, N.Y. Tlmrs, I
Apr. rz, t99r,at 816 (describingthe reaction to students'decision
to invite Judge Wapner to preside over a mock-trial competition
at Yate). See generally Roback, supro note 7, at fl63(outlining

I four basic types of tegislation that aided enforcement of the labor-
market cartel under Jim Crow laws).

) See Book Note, supra nole 5, for a cogent analysis ofthe more

significant flaws in the competing theory.

a b 10 Otterbourg to Represent, supra note 6; see o/so Note, supro note

6 (discussing problems that arise upon the death of a lawyer). But
see Cop ShootsTire, Halts Stolen Cor, S.F. CHnon., Oct. ro, r975,at

O 43 (discussing the tegal ramifications of the officer's action).

For materials available only online, use the normal short form appropriate for

o the source. A URL need not be rcoeated after a short citation.

l7.l Basic Citation Forms
Jennifer Arlen, Public Versus Private Enforcement of

manuscript Securities Fraud n-t9 [une zz, zooT) (unpubtished
manuscript) (on fite with the Columbia Law Review).
student work
Alexander J. Blenkinsopp, Honesty vs. Expedience: The
Deficient Jurisprudence of Punishment and the Legal I
Labeling Game (Nov. r, zoo5) (unpubtished A.B. thesis,
Harvard University) (on fite with the Harvard University
Library system).
Letter, Memorandum from President Franklin Roosevelt to
memorandum, Attorney Gen. Robert H. Jackson 0uly r, rglg) (on file I
or press release with the Harvard Law School Library).

E-mail E-mail from Makau Mutua, Chairman, Kenya Human o

correspondence Rights Comm'n, to author (Dec. 28, zoo5, r5:r8 EST)
(on fite with author).
Eduardo Pehatver, Land Virtues, 94 ConHeu L. Rev.
(forthcoming May zoog).
Vorking paper Dan Black et al., Demographics
of the Goy and
Lesbian Population in the United States: Evidence
from Available Systemic Date Sources 9 (Ctr. for Poticy
Research, Working Paper No. tz,t999).
17.2 Unpublished Materials
In general, cite unpublished materials not scheduled for publication by author;
title or description; page or pages, if applicable; the most precise writing date
available; and, if possible, information as to where the work can be located. Use
ordinary roman type. Refer to de 10.8.1 when citing pending and unreported
cases and
de L2.6 when citing statutes too recent to appear in any published
If unpublished materials are subsequently collected and published, cite o
according to rule 15.5.2(b).
L7.2.1 Manuscripts
Cite unpublished (or not formally published) manuscripts not scheduled for I
publication in ordinary roman type, beginning with the author's ftrll name (rule
16.2). The title of the work as ir appears on the ritle page should follow, capi-
talized according to de 8(a) (unless the title is not in English, in which case
follow rule 20.2.2(b)).Provide a subtitle only if it is particulady relevant. Do
not abbreviate words or omit articles in the title. The fi.rll date of the manuscript
should be enclosed in parentheses after the title of the work or the pincite.
Append parentheticals indicating that rhe work is unpublished and describing
where it can be found:

o h Anatoliy Bizhko, Capitatism and Democracy zS (Feb. zg,zooo)
(unpublished manuscript) (on fite with author).

I Also use this format for studcnt-written comments and notes written under fac-
ulty supervision for a law iournal, but not selccted for publication, with the
second parcnthetical indicating the type ofwork:

a tu Victoria E. Anderson, Company Outing: How Consensuat Retation-

ship Agreements Adversely Affect Homosexual Employees rz (Mar.

o t5, zoo4) (unpubtished comment) (on fite with the University of

Pennsylvania JournaI of Labor and Employment Law).

o Dissertations and Theses 17.2.2

o Cite unpublished student-written materials, such as dissertations and thcses, in

the same manner as other unpublished manuscripts (rule 17.2.1), but add a
parenthetical after the date to indicate the t).pe of work and the institution that

o awarded the degree:

tu Barbara G. Ryder, Incremental Data Flow Analysis Based on a

o Unified Modet of Elimination Algorithms (Aug. r5, r98z) (unpub-

lished Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers University) (on file with author).

t *' Ambrogino Guisti, The Green Press: Mass Media and the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Movement ry45-1975 Gug.8, zooz) (unpublished B.A.

t thesis, University of Washington) (on fite with the Suzzatlo and

Allen Libraries, University of Washington).

I Letters, Memoranda, and Press Releases

lvhen citing unpublished letters, memoranda, and press telcases, identilv the

t nature of the document and give the writer and addressee (if any) by name, titlc,
and institutional afliliation. Abbreviate title and institutional afliliation accord-
ing ro tables T6 and T10:

o r*' Letter from Michael Qin, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review, to Alex-
andra Zabierek, Exec. Editor, Harvard Law Review (Oct. r, zor4) (on

o fite with the Harvard Law Schoot Library).

r'" Memorandum from the Ad Hoc Comm. on Women & Clerkships to

o the Faculty of Yale Law Sch. r4 (Feb. u, r99r) (on fite with author).
$" Press Release, Screen Actors Guild, Screen Actors Guitd Haits

a Passage of California Privacy Law (Sept. 3o, r99B) (on fite with

t TO cite a letter written to the author of the work in which the letter is bcing
cited. omit the addressee's name and use "to author":