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CHN NOTES

Compiled by: EDWIN N. ALJENTERA,MAN

Health (WHO) defines health as the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being , not merely
the absence of disease or infirmity.

 Health is a human right


 Ability to do something ,make decisions about seeking help and effectively cope with situations that
affect his health

MODELS OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS


1. CLINICAL MODEL – Absence of disease
 Narrowest interpretation of health
 Opposite of health disease or injury
2. ROLE PERFORMANCE MODEL
- Ability to fulfil societal roles
- Sickness is the inability to perform one’s work
3. ADAPTIVE MODEL- creative process
- Disease is the failure in adaptation and maladaption
4. EUDAEMOSTIC MODEL – actualization and realization of a persons potential while
ILLNESS – condition that prevents self-actualization
5. AGENT-HOST-ENVIRONMENT -/ ECOLOGICAL
-balance between AHE=Health
- not in balance = disease occurs
6. HEALTH-ILLNESS- CONTINUUM- ill and well
7. NIGHTINGALE- state of well-being and using every power the individual possesses to the fullest
extent

MODERN CONCEPT : optimum level of individuals, families and communities.

FACTORS AFFECTING HEALTH OLOF OF INDIVIDUALS, FAMILY GROUPS, COMMUNITIES


and POPULATION
1. POLITICAL – Power and authority to regulate the environment
Safety , oppression (poor and various classes, and people empowerment.
2. BEHAVIORAL- Certain habits like smoking and alcoholism, substance abuse , lack of exercise ,
lifestyle,health care ,and child rearing practices ,
Culture,ethnic heritage , habits , mores, customs
3. HEREDITY –genetic influence , genetic traits transmitted (desirable and undesirable) ,knowledge
of genetic risk (ANTICIPATE) , genetic endowment , defects, strengths , risk , familial, ethnicity,
race
4. HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM –primary care is partnership ,secondary, tertiary level of
health care
A-cceptable , A-accessible , A-ffordable , Sustainable ,Availability of care,
 Promotive, preventive, Curative , rehabilitative
5. ENVIRONMENTAL –the menace of air pollution ,food , water waste, urban or rural ,noise
radiation
 Most diseases are man made
 Poor sanitation
 Poor garbage collection
 Utilization of chemicals
 Cutting of trees
 Pesticides
 Industrial waste
6. SOCIO- ECONOMIC – Poverty , low income groups – greater proportionate number of illnesses
and health problems. However, middle and upper income group have also pressing health
problems ( drug abuse and lifestyle diseases).

PUBLIC HEALTH (CE Winslow)


The science and art of preventing disease , prolonging life, promoting health, and efficiency
through oragnized community effort, for the sanitation of the environment , control of communicable
diseases, the education of individuals in personal hygiene,the organization of medical and nursing
services for the early diagnois , and preventive treatment of disease , and the development of social
machinery to insure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health , so
organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen his birthright of health and longevity.

HANLON : Public health is dedicated to the common attainment of the highest level of physical ,
mental and social well-being and longevity consistent with available knowledge and resources at a
given time and place .
Goal : Most effective total development and life of the individual and his society.

COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING by WHO Expert Committee of Nursing


 A special field of nursing that combines the skills of nursing, public health and some
phases of social assistance and functions as part of the total public health and some
phases of social
 is a learned practice discipline with the ultimate goal of contributing , as individuals and in
collaboration with others , to the promotion of the clients optimum level of functioning
through teaching and delivery of care.

CHN is a unique blend of nursing and public health practice woven into human service that properly
developed and applied has a tremendous impact on human well being .
Where ; Homes, work place, school and clinics for family health care , priority programs of
the DOH.
FREEMAN (CHN)Rendered by CHN with the community, groups, families and individuals at home , in
health centers, in clinics in schoo;s, in places of where for the promotion of health , prevention of illness ,
care of the sick at home and rehabilitation
PHILOSOPHY OF CHN ACCORDING MARGARET SHETLAND
Based on the worth and dignity of man

BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING


1. The primary focus of CHN is on health promotion , CHN evaluates the health status of people
and groups and relating them to practice.
2. CHN is extended to benefit not only the individual but the whole family and community.
3. CHNurses are GENERALIST- through life’s continuum, full range of health problems ac 1nd
needs
4. The nature of CHN practice requires that the current knowledge derived from biological and social
sciences , ecology, clinical nursing, and community health organizations be utilized.
5. The dynamic process of assessing, planning implementing and intervening ,provide periodic
measurements of PROGRESS , evaluation and continuum of the cycle until the termination of
nursing is implicit in the practice of community health nursing.

GOAL OF CHN : The ultimate goal of CHN services is to raise the level of health of the citizenry .
 The goal is to help communities and families to cope with the discontinuities in
health and threats in such as way to maximize their potential for high level wellness

OBJECTIVES OF CHN:
1. The participate in the development of an over all plan for the community and its
implementation and evaluation.
2. To provide quality nursing services to the individuals, families, and communities utilizing as
basis , the standards set for community health nursing practice.
3. To coordinate nursing services with various members of the health team,community leaders
and significant others , government agencies in achieving the aims of public health services with in
the community.
4. To participate conduct researches relevant to community health and community health
nursing services and disseminate their results for improvement within the community
5. To provide CHN health with opportunities for continuing education and professional growth through
staff development.

LEVELS OF PREVENTION
1. PRIMARY PREVENTION
- Prevention or delay of the actual occurrence of a specific illness or disease
- Eg. Maintenance of diet , normal body weight, safe sex, cessation of smoking, amd limiting
alcohol intake
2. SECONDARY PREVENTION
- Early detection
- Case finding and screening , cancer screening and genetic counselling
3. TERTIARY PREVENTION
- Prevention of complications of a disease and rehabilitation of the individual
- Eg : support adaptation to risk
 PRIMORDIAL PREVENTION –focuses on preventing the emergence of risk factors
 SPECIFIC PREVENTION- removing or reducing the levels of the risk factors

Reference: Community Health Nursing bu DOH / Community Health Nursing by Maglaya//Community


Health Nursing by Capistrino