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Design of Abutment - Karnali

DATA

Superstructure
Span of Bridge 25 m
No. of Lanes 2
Load class IRC Class A
First train load 1108 kN
Second train load 0 kN
DL superstructure 153.00 kN/m
c/c spacing of bearing 2.5 m
Width of bearing area 0.8 m
Area of bearing 134900 mm2
Bearing thickness 48 mm
No. of bearing 3 nos.

Concrete for
Well Foundation M20
Abutment M25
Steel Fe500
Design of Abutment - Karnali

Fig. Cross Section and Plan of Abutment


Design of Abutment - Karnali

Geological and Hydrological Data


Bearing Capacity 800 kN/m2
Angle of internal friction 33 °
Wall friction (angle) 22 °

Ka 0.26
Kp 8.08
RL of Road Level 142.10
HFL 134.80
LWL 130.56
Scour Level 122.23

Abutment
Length of abutment 9.10 m
Total abutment height (H) 11.54 m
Backwall height (Hb) 2.10 m
Backwall thickness (Db) 0.30 m
Backfill height (He) 11.54 m
Abutment Cap width 2.00 m
Abutment Cap height 1.00 m
Stem height rectangular (Hw) 8.44 m
Stem height triangular (Hwt) 8.44 m
Stem width (Dts) 1.60 m
Bottom Stem width (Ds) 1.60 m

Ast Backwall 16 @ 150


Ast Distribution Backwall 12 @ 150
Ast Abutment Cap 16 @ 200
Ast Stem 28 @ 125
Asc Stem 25 @ 150

Well Foundation
Well Cap Diameter 8m
Well Cap thickness 2m
Length of Steining 22 m
Thickness of Steining 1.30 m
Top plug 1m
Bottom plug 2m

Ast Heel Slab 25 @ 120


Ast Toe Slab 28 @ 100
Ast Distribution 16 @ 150
Design of Abutment - Karnali

Design of Back Wall

Thickness of wall 300 mm


Effective depth 200 mm
H 22.49 kN
BM 19.84 kNm
Ast 464 mm2
Provide 16Φ @ 150 1340 mm2

Distribution Ast 180 mm2


Provide 12Φ @ 150 754 mm2

Design of Wing Wall

Surcharge of 1.2 m is taken for the design of Wing Wall as per IRC code recommendation. The length
of wall wall is fixed at 4 m (max. length as per IRC).

BM 205.74 kNm
SF 151.20 kN

d= 200 mm
Ast 4816 mm2
Area per m 1605 mm2
Min Ast @0.2% 800
Provide 20@ 180 1745 mm2
Min Ast @0.2% 240
Provide 12@ 150 754 mm2
Shear stress 0.19 N/mm2
Main reinforcement % 0.87 %
permissible t 0.40 N/mm2 >0.19 OK

4
Design of Abutment Cap

Length 9.1 m
Width 2m
Height (average) 1m

Min Ast @0.12% 600 mm2


Provide 16 dia @200 c/c (both sides) 1005 mm2

DL 637 kN per m
Superstructure DL 3825 kN
Superstructure LL 771 kN

Impact factor 0.1452

Load on each bearing 2298.23 kN

Allowable stress in concrete 5 N/mm2 (M20)


Min. area of bearing pad 459646 mm2
Width of bearing 700 mm
Min Length (x-x) reqd 657 mm
3. Design of Abutment Stem

Forces and Moments at the center of Stem base per m


Force Moment
SN Description Vertical Horizontal Lever arm My-y Mx-x
1 Backwall 15.12 0.00 0.00
2 Abutment Cap 48.00 0.00 0.00
3 Stem (rectangular) 324.10 0.00 0.00
4 Stem (triangular) 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 Superstructure DL 210.16 -0.55 -115.59
6 Superstructure LL 84.78 -0.55 -46.63
7 Earth pressure 118.74 293.89 -4.85 -1424.41
8 Surcharge 24.69 61.12 -4.85 -296.24
9 Longitudinal Forces
9a due to braking 12.18 -11.74 -142.94
9b due to creep, shrinkage 5.79 -8.44 -48.87

10 Earthquake coeff 0.09


due to creep, shrinkage 21.34 -8.44 -180.08
10a Stem 29.17 -4.22 -123.09 -123.09
10b Stem (triangular) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
10c Backwall 1.36 -10.84 -14.75 -14.75
10d Superstructure LL (x-x) 18.91 -5.14 -97.22 -97.22
10e only) 7.63 -9.64 -73.55

TOTAL (DL+LL) 825.59 372.97 -2074.68 0.00


TOTAL (DL+LL+EQx-x) 825.59 457.77 -2657.44 -235.06
TOTAL (DL+LL+EQy-y) 825.59 450.14 -2583.89 -235.06

Effective depth of stem 1.50 m

Ast and Asc


Min Ast 1920 mm2 (IS Code)
Ast ( 28 @ 125) 4926 mm2
Asc ( 25 @ 150) 3272 mm2
Distribution Ast @0.12% 960 mm2
Ast ( 16 @ 150) 1340 mm2

Case I: DL+LL
ex-x 2513 m

Calculate neutral axis, n

Equating the sum of internal forces to P: Bnc/2 + Ascp - Astt = P


Equating moment of all the forces about the tensile steel
Bnc(D-100-n/3)/2 + Ascp(D-200) = P(e+D/2-100)
,where p = (1.5m-1)c(n-100)/n
t = mc(D-100-n)/n
The two equations are satisfied when n and c have the following values
Then, n = 401 mm
c 8.27 N/mm2 < 8.3 OK

Hence, stresses in tensile and compression steel as as follows:


st 226.54 N/mm2 < 240 OK
sc 86.86 N/mm 2
< 205 OK

Max shear force 372.97 kN


Shear force @d 81.06 kN
Shear stress @d 0.05 N/mm2 < 0.23 OK

Case II: DL+LL+EQx-x


ex-x 3219 mm
n 380 mm
c 10.51 N/mm2 <1.5*8.3 OK
st 309.72 N/mm2 <1.5*240 OK
sc 108.40 N/mm2 <1.5*205 OK

Max shear force 450.14 kN


Shear force @d 117.57 kN
Shear stress @d 0.07 N/mm2 < 1.5*0.23 OK
1. Check Abutment Foundation Width

Forces and Moments per m length of Abutment at toe

CL of bearing to toe #NAME?


CL of bearing to heel #NAME?

Force Moment
SN Description Vertical Horizontal Lever arm Resisting Overturning Remarks
1 DL+LL 825.59 0.00 -2074.68 0.00
372.97
2 DL+LL+EQ 825.59 0.00 -2657.44 -235.06
457.77
DL+LL+EQ 825.59 0.00 -2583.89 -235.06
450.14
Foundation Slab

Backfill

Earthquake 0.09
Foundation Slab #NAME? #NAME?
TOTAL 2476.76 #NAME? -7316.01 0.00

FS against overturning
= #DIV/0! >2 #DIV/0!

FS against sliding = #NAME? >1.5 #NAME?

Eccentricity = Err:509 m Err:509 Err:509

Check against soil bearing pressure,


smax #NAME? kN/m2 < 800 #NAME?
smin #NAME? kN/m2 >0 #NAME?

2. Design of Foundation Slab


2.1 Toe Slab

Effective depth
Downward pressure #NAME? m
due upward
Net to slab pressure at #NAME? kN/m2
D upward pressure at
Net #NAME? kN/m2
B #NAME? kN/m2
#NAME?
Moment at B #NAME? kNm
#NAME?
Ast
Provide 20 @ 200 c/c, #NAME? mm2
Ast =
Distribution 1571 mm2
reinforcement
Provide 16 @ 200 mm Err:509 mm2
c/c (top section
Critical & bottom)
for 2010 mm2
shear = #NAME? m from face of toe slab
Net upward pressure #NAME? kN/m2
Shear Force #NAME? kN
Shear stress #NAME? N/mm2 < 0.22 #NAME?

2.2 Heel Slab


Downward pressure
due to slab
Net downward and backfill #NAME? kN/m2
pressure at
Net downward C #NAME? kN/m2
pressure at A #NAME? kN/m2
Moment at A #NAME? kNm
Ast
Provide 20 @ 200 c/c, #NAME? mm2
Ast = 1571 mm2

Shear Force Err:509 kN


Shear stress Err:509 N/mm2 < 0.22 Err:509

Check against Earthquake


Horizontal seismic
force #NAME?

Force Moment
SN Description Vertical Horizontal Lever arm Resisting Overturning
1 Stem 61.92 Err:509 Err:509
2 Backwall 0.00 Err:509 Err:509
3 Superstructure #NAME? Err:509 #NAME?
4 Principal
Backfill Loads (ref. #NAME? Err:509 #NAME?
5 Table 1) 2476.76 457.77 -7316.01 0.00
TOTAL 2476.76 #NAME? -7316.01 Err:509

FS against overturning
= Err:509 >1.5 Err:509

FS against sliding = #NAME? >1.25 #NAME?

Eccentricity = Err:509 m Err:509 Err:509

smax Err:509 kN/m2 <1.25*800 Err:509


smin Err:509 kN/m2 >0 Err:509
441301122.xlsx

WELL CAP

According to IRC steining thickness should be more than the following


t = kBD0.5

k= 0.030 m
B= 8.00 m
D= 24.00 m

Hence, t = 1.18 m

Provide Steining thickness = 1.30 m


Internal diameter = 5.40 m
Well Cap Thickness = 2.00 m

buoyancy @15% = 150.80 kN


X-section area, A 27.36 m2
Moment of Inertia, I = 159.32 m4
section modulus, Z = 39.83 m3

Forces and moments at the base of well cap (about CL of abutment)

Force
SN Description Vertical Horizontal Lever arm Moment
1a Case I 7512.85 3394.05 -18879.57
1b -2.00 -6788.10
2a Case II 7512.85 4165.69 -24182.71
2b -2.00 -8331.37
3 Well cap 2412.74
4 Backfill 1080.51 2674.36 4.85 12962.09
5 Surcharge 556.19 224.72 4.85 1089.16
6a Well cap (Seismic) 217.15 -1.00 -217.15
6b Backfill (Seismic) 97.25 -4.85 -471.33

Case I (DL+LL) 11562.30 6293.13 -4828.32


Case II (DL+LL+EQ) 11562.30 6607.52 -19151.31

Case I (DL+LL)
smax 543.77 kN/m2
smin 301.33 kN/m2

Case II (DL+LL+EQ)
smax 903.37 kN/m2
smin -58.27 kN/m2

10
441301122.xlsx

2.1 Design of Well Cap Slab

Case I (DL+LL)
Downward pressure due to slab 48.00 kN/m2
pressure at face of abutment 662.55 kN/m2
average pressure 603.16 kN/m2

cos(q1/2) = 0.20 (q1)/2 = 1.37


cos(q2/2) = 0.30 (q2)/2 = 1.27
cos(q3/2) = 0.68 (q3)/2 = 0.83

chord AD = 7.84 m
chord BC = 5.16 m
chord length @ d 5.90 m

area of outer segment, A1 = 18.78 m2


area of inner segment, A2 = 7.20 m2

centroid distance, Z1 = 2.14 m


centroid distance, Z2 = 1.59 m

M = qa[A1(Z1-Dw/2) - A2(Z2-Dw/2)] - qcA1(Z1-Dw/2)


Moment at B 11585.52 kNm
Ast reqd 43391 mm2
Ast reqd 5536 mm2/m
Min Ast @0.15% 3000 mm2/m
Provide 28 dia @ 100 c/c 6158 mm2

Distribution reinforcement 2400 mm2/m


Provide 16 dia @ 150 c/c 2681 mm2

Max. Shear Force 6083.66 kN


SF at d 2471.49 kN
Shear stress 0.17 N/mm2 < 0.22 OK

Heel Slab
pressure at face of abutment 471.04 kN/m2
average pressure 398.30 kN/m2

Moment at B 8423.80 kNm


Ast reqd 31550 mm2
Ast reqd 4025 mm2/m
Min Ast @0.15% 3000 mm2/m
Provide 25 dia @ 120 c/c 4091 mm2

Shear Force 188.76 kN


Shear stress 0.01 N/mm2 < 0.22 OK

11
441301122.xlsx

Case II (DL+LL+EQ)
Downward pressure due to slab 48.00 kN/m2
pressure at face of abutment 518.71 kN/m2
average pressure 711.04 kN/m2

cos(q1/2) = 0.20 (q1)/2 = 1.37


cos(q2/2) = 0.30 (q2)/2 = 1.27
cos(q3/2) = 0.68 (q3)/2 = 0.83

chord AD = 7.84 m
chord BC = 5.16 m
chord length @d 5.90 m

area of outer segment, A1 = 18.78 m2


area of inner segment, A2 = 7.20 m2

centroid distance, Z1 = 2.14 m


centroid distance, Z2 = 1.59 m

M = qa[A1(Z1-Dw/2) - A2(Z2-Dw/2)] - qcA1(Z1-Dw/2)


Moment at B 13682.21 kNm
Ast reqd 34163 mm2
Ast reqd 4358 mm2/m < 6157 OK

Max. Shear Force 7332.95 kN


SF at d 2979.01 kN
Shear stress 0.27 N/mm2 < 1.5*0.22 OK

Heel Slab
pressure at face of abutment 614.88 kN/m2
average pressure 326.38 kN/m2

Moment at B 11219.39 kNm


Ast reqd 42020 mm2
Ast reqd 5361 mm2/m < 4090 Another Trial

Shear Force 1021.62 kN


Shear stress 0.09 N/mm2 < 1.5*0.22 OK

12
441301122.xlsx

3. DESIGN OF STEINING

Length of Steining up to scour level= 6.33 m

Forces and moments at the scour level

Force
SN Description Vertical Horizontal Lever arm Moment
1a Case I (DL+LL) 11562.30 6293.13 -4828.32
1b Moment due to H 6.33 39854.38
2a Case II (DL+LL+EQ) 11562.30 6607.52 -19151.31
2b Moment due to H 6.33 41845.43
3 Steining above scour 4159.00 374.31 3.17 1185.25

Total (DL+LL) 15721.30 6293.13 35026.06


Total (DL+LL+EQ) 15721.30 6981.83 23879.37

Case I (DL+LL)
Point of zero shear, x = 6.39 m
Max. moment (at zero shear point) = 61845 kNm

e due to tilt (1 in 80) at top = 0.28 m (as per IRC)


e at scour level = 0.20 m
Moment due to tilt = 3078.82 kNm

Design well shift = 0.15 m (as per IRC)


moment due to shift = 2358.19 kNm

TOTAL Moment = 67282 kNm

buoyancy upto zero shear = 959.48 kN


weight of steining upto zero shear = 8357.09 kN
total vertical weight = 23118.91 kN

Pressure, smax 2.53 N/mm2 < 6.7 OK


smin -0.84 N/mm2 > -0.67 Another Trial

Case II (DL+LL+EQ)
point of zero shear, x = 6.73 m
Max. moment (at zero shear) = 55220 kNm

Max. Moment including tilt & shift = 60657 kNm

buoyancy upto zero shear = 985.17 kN


weight of steining upto zero shear = 8580.84 kN
total vertical weight = 19157.97 kN

Pressure, smax 2.22 N/mm2 < 1.5*6.7 OK


smin -0.82 N/mm2 > -1.5*0.67 OK

13
441301122.xlsx

Reinforcement of Steining
Vertical Ast (0.12% steining area) 32836 mm2
no. of 16 dia. bars = 163
total perimeter available = 42 m
spacing of bars required = 258 mm

Hoop Ast (0.04% steining vol) 260 mm2/m


spacing 10 dia. bars required = 435 mm
Min. spacing of hoop reinforcement
a) Steining thickness 1300 mm
b) 16×Vertical Ast dia 256 mm
c) 48×hoop Ast dia 480 mm
PROVIDE 16 dia.@250 c/c as vertical reinforcement and 10@250 as hoop reinforcement
(both sides - staggered)

LATERAL STABILITY OF WALL


Total weight of steining 14447.81 kN
Weight of water/sand upto scour = 6366.63 kN
Seismic load due to sand 573.00 kN
Lever arm for seismic load on sand 3.167 m
Moment due to seismic load on sand 1814.39 kNm
Weight of bottom plug (2 m) = 2412.74 kN
Weight of sand fill from scour level = 13739.57 kN

Total P at base = 48529.04 kN


Buoyancy on well = 11058.41 kN
Net downward force V = 37470.64 kN
Total horizontal force at scour level = 7554.83 kN

Moment at scour level = 25693.76 kNm


Moment at base level = 144055.23 kNm

14
441301122.xlsx

ELASTIC ANALYSIS (IRC Method)

Vertical force, V = 37470.64 kN


Horizontal force, H = 7554.83 kN
Moment, M = 144055.23 kNm

Grip length, D = 15.67 m


L= 7.20 m
Now, Iv = 2307.33 m4

I = Ib +mIv(1+2m'a) 2739.38 m4
m= 1.00
m' 0.36
a 0.16
m 0.58

r = 𝐷/2
𝐼/𝐼_𝑣= 9.30 m

H > M/r (1+mm') - mV -2889.57 < H = 7554.83 OK


H < M/r (1-mm') +mV 33868.03 > H = 7554.83 OK

m M/I < g' (Kp - Ka)


m M/I = 52.59
g' (Kp - Ka) = 78.20 > mM/I OK

P = M/r = 15489.23 kN
pt = (V - m'P)/A + MB/2I = 843.65 kN/m2 < 1.25×700 OK
ph = (V - m'P)/A - MB/2I = 422.95 kN/m > 02
OK

ULTIMATE RESISTANCE (IRC Method)

V/A < qv/2


qv = 1650.00 kN/m2
V/A = 745.45 kN/m2 OK

M < 0.7(Mb +Ms + Mf) =

D/B = 1.96
C = 0.33 (for circular well)

Mb = CVB.tanf = 64241.01 kNm f = 33


Ms = 0.1gD3(Kp-Ka)L = 216514.50 kNm
Mf = 0.1g(Kp-Ka)B2D2sind = 46017.61 kNm d = 22
Now, 0.7(Mb +Ms + Mf) = 228741.18 kNm

M= 180069.04 kNm < 228741.18 OK

15
441301122.xlsx

CHECK for Case I (DL+LL)


Vertical force, V = 37470.64 kN
Horizontal force, H = 6293.13 kN
Moment, M = 133620.49 kNm < 228741.18 OK

H > M/r (1+mm') - mV -4247.32 kN < 6293.13 OK


H < M/r (1-mm') +mV 32981.83 kN > 6293.13 OK

m M/I < g' (Kp - Ka)


m M/I = 48.78 < 78.20 OK

P = M/r = 14367.25
pt = (V - m'P)/A + MB/2I = 828.41 < 700
ph = (V - m'P)/A - MB/2I = 446.31 > 0

16
Design of Well Curb

N 1622.76 kN/m
d 7.35 m
q 60
m 22

T= 7242.49 kN
Ast 76237 mm2

Min Ast 72 kg/m3 IRC code


Min Ast 985 kg/m
Min Ast 125488 m3/m

Provide 4-16 dia hoops @140 c/c


Ast 132647 mm2-m/m

Hence, t = 1.78 m

Provide bottom plug of height 2.5 m (M15 concrete)


Provide top plug of height 1.0 m (M15 concrete)
NOTES: