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Power Stations / Tecnología energética

Section 1: Introduction to the power stations

energética Section 1: Introduction to the power stations Professor: Juan Pablo Núñez Bootello mail:

Professor: Juan Pablo Núñez Bootello mail: jpnunez@uloyola.es

Introduction to power stations

PRIMARY ENERGY:

found in nature + not subjected to any conversion process (renewable or non‐renewable)

Heat (Cogeneration)

The electric energy system:

≥ 220 kV ≤ 132 kV (12.5 kV) 3 KWh demand KWh offer 4 2
≥ 220 kV
≤ 132 kV
(12.5 kV)
3
KWh demand
KWh offer
4
2 ELECTRICITY
Generator
Step‐up transformer
5 ,6,7
6
6 ‐ 30 kV
220 and 380 V

Electricity cannot be efficiently stored. The system guarantees that:

i)

generation covers the power demand instantaneously

ii)

line v and grid f are within an acceptable range

iii)

continuity of electricity supply is assured

iv)

waveform quality is assured

v)

least‐cost plants serve electricity demand

Ley del Sector Eléctrico 24/2013 Transmission agent & System operator: REE Electrical market manager: OMEL

2

1

Introduction to power stations

Rankine Cycle

Ciclo Brayton
Ciclo Brayton
Wout Q H Q H Wout Q C Win Win Bomba Q C Carnot Cycle
Wout
Q H
Q H
Wout
Q C
Win
Win
Bomba
Q C
Carnot Cycle
Q H
isotermo
W
W
W
Q
Q
Q
T
S
Q
T
S
out
in
H
C
H
C
C
H
C
H
Win
Wout
isentrópico
isentrópico
Q
T 
Q
T
H
Q
 
1
C
H
C
H
 
T
T
 
H
H
T C

W 1
T
Q H
H
isotermo
Q C

3

Introduction to power stations

Key numbers:

Thermal Power Plants

Steam (coal)

Gas

Combined Cycle

Nuclear

Combustion efficiency (%) – fuel to fluid

90%

90%

90%

70%

T(ºC), p (bar) hot reservoir

550ºC, 160 bar

1100ºC, 15 bar

1100ºC, 15 bar

285ºC,66bar

T(ºC), p (bar) cold reservoir

50ºC, 0.1 bar

600ºC, 1 bar

50ºC, 0.1 bar

50ºC, 0.1 bar

Cycle efficiency (%) – hot to cold reservoir

42%

35%

53%

33%

Turbine mechanical efficiency (bearing losses) (%)

95%

95%

95%

95%

Generator efficiency (%)

95%

95%

95%

95%

Net efficiency PRIMARY ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY (%)

34%

28%

43%

21%

Hydraulic Power Plants

Pelton

Francis

Kaplan

H losses in the piping (%)

95%

95%

95%

Hydraulic efficiency (%)

90%

95%

94%

Turbine mechanical efficiency (bearing losses) (%)

95%

95%

95%

Generator efficiency (%)

95%

95%

95%

Net efficiency PRIMARY ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY (%)

77%

81%

81%

Introduction to power stations

1. History: From the first power station to modern power plants

1880s: Historical context ‐ War of the currents (Tesla & Edison): Pearl Street station

The modern thermal power plant

History of the Spanish electric energy system

2. Terminology associated with the power plants and the electrical system reliability

3. Power stations

Main characteristics per type of central

Static and dynamic characteristics

Cost structures

Classification depending on their capacity to adapt to demand variations

Plants management to minimize the cost of the system

4. The primary energy sources. A reference for the cost of the electricity 5. The
4.
The primary energy sources. A reference for the cost of the electricity
5.
The Spanish electric energy system today:
 Power and energy mix
 Transmission and distribution grids
 Daily power load curves and monotonic load curves
6.
The wholesale market (mercado mayorista) and the role of the system operator

Introduction to power stations

Exercise 1: Primary energy sources

Download the BP Statistical Review of World Energy:

Pdf report:

https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business‐sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy‐economics/statistical‐review/bp‐stats‐

review‐2019‐full‐report.pdf

Excel data:

https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business‐sites/en/global/corporate/xlsx/energy‐economics/statistical‐review/bp‐stats‐

review‐2019‐all‐data.xlsx

1. Graph the evolution of the global energy consumption by energy source (in TWh) and by geographical region in the last 20 years

2. Graph the evolution of global electricity generation (in TWh) by region in the last 20 years

3. Graph the evolution of renewable energy consumption (in TWh) by renewable source and by geographical region in the last 20 years

4. Estimate the Levelized Cost Of Electricity LCOE in c€/kWhe of a Combined Cycle having a net efficiency (primary energy to electricity) of 52% that uses natural gas with a lower heating value of 47 GJ/tn and supposing that it emits 2.7 kg of CO2 per natural gas kg and that the cost of the CO2 emissions is 5 $/Tn CO2. The capital cost to build up the facility is 4 c$/kWhe and the $/€ exchange rate is 1.1

Introduction to power stations

1 ‐ Evolution of the global energy consumption by energy source (in TWh) and by geographical region in the last 20 years

i ‐ GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION has increased almost 50% (up to 14 billion toe) mainly due to the Asia Pacific region (China). Natural gas, oil, coal 86% / hydroelectric energy 7% / nuclear 4% / renewable 4%

In 2018 global primary energy grew by 2.9% (driven by China, US and India) and CO2 emissions grew by 2.0% (equivalent to the emissions associated with increasing the number of passenger cars on the planet by a third)

the number of passenger cars on the p lanet by a third) ii ‐ GLOBAL ELECTRICITY
the number of passenger cars on the p lanet by a third) ii ‐ GLOBAL ELECTRICITY

ii ‐ GLOBAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION has increased linearly at a rate of 80% up to 26614 TWh due to Asia Pacific and the Middle East (China >200%)

Notes:

3.6

GJ/MWht

3.41

MMBTU/MWht

0.0860

toe/MWht

3.6 GJ/MWht 3.41 MMBTU/MWht 0.0860 toe/MWht CIS = Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation,

CIS = Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

Fuentes: BP Statistical Review of World Energy – 2019

7

Introduction to power stations

75% 25%
75%
25%
Introduction to power stations 75% 25% 8
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,
RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe,

RENEWABLES (EXCEPT HYDRO) have grown exponentially 14x up to 2480 TWh (driven mainly by Europe, North America and Asia): wind represents 1270 TWh, geothermal energy, biomass and waste 625 TWh, and solar 584 TWh.

Fuentes: BP Statistical Review of World Energy – 2019

9

Introduction to power stations

2 ‐ Natural Gas and the Combined Cycle are a reference for the price of electricity

Combined Cycle are a reference for the p rice of electricity 2018: • Both global consumption

2018:

Cycle are a reference for the p rice of electricity 2018: • Both global consumption and
Cycle are a reference for the p rice of electricity 2018: • Both global consumption and

Both global consumption and production increasing by over 5%.

PROVEN RESERVES: 197 trillion m3 (Middle East the largest) vs GLOBAL PRODUCTION: 3867 trillion m3 (USA the largest). EVOLUTION OF THE LAST 20 YEARS:

RESERVES: increasing similarly to production projecting a constant rate of reserves of 55 years

NATURAL GAS PRICE: evolved from a range of 2‐4 $ / Mbtu in 1996 to a range of 3.1 – 10 today:

Japan 10 $ / Mbtu – Europe 6,6 $ / Mbtu – US 3.1 $ / Mbtu

Fuentes: BP Statistical Review of World Energy – 2019

10

Introduction to power stations

BoP*

Sales = Σ Yearly incomes must cover Capital Cots and interest expenses + Operating costs
Sales = Σ Yearly incomes
must cover Capital Cots and interest expenses + Operating costs + Profits
Yearly incomes =
LCOE x yearly production
Year 0
1
2
N
(construction)
Capital costs Fixed operating costs Variable operating costs (fuel) Incomes – operating costs
Capital costs
Fixed operating costs
Variable operating costs (fuel)
Incomes – operating costs
Power conversion NG price NG price CO2 Price CO2 CO2+GN Price efficiency CO2 tn/MWhe $/MMBTUt
Power conversion
NG price
NG price
CO2 Price
CO2
CO2+GN Price
efficiency
CO2 tn/MWhe
$/MMBTUt
$/MWhe
$/Tn
$/MWhe
($/MWhe)
(MWhe/MWht)
3,1
20,3
22,3
x
=
0.52
6,6
43,3
5
0.40
2
45,3
10
65,6
67,6
x 6,6
PCI: 47 GJ/tn GN / 3.6 = 13 MWht/tn GN
1.92
MWht/MWhe
0.077
tn GN / MWht x 1,92 MWht/Mwhe = 0.147 tn GN / MWhe
1.92
x 3.41 = 6.6 MMBTUt/MWhe
0.147
tn GN / MWhe x 2.7 tn CO2 / tn GN = 0,40 tn CO2/MWhe
Size MW
Total Capital and Fixed Cost
($/MWhe)
Source: Comparative costs of California
Central Station Electricity Generation (2009)
Conventional CC
500
40
Data:
Solution: A new CC is between 62 ‐ 108 $ / MWhe (56 to 98 € / MWh
with an exchange rate of 1.1 $ / €) for a plant efficiency of 52%
depending on the cost of NG and for a cost of CO2 emissions of $ 5 / tn
2.7 kg de CO2 / kg fuel
PCI = 47 GJ/tn
Conversions:
3.6
GJ/MWht
3.41
MMBTU/MWht
0.0860
toe/MWht

Introduction to power stations

3 ‐ For discussion: oil market profits…

power stations 3 ‐ For discussion: oil market profits… Oil market: 90 Mbarrils/day x 100 M$/Mbarril
power stations 3 ‐ For discussion: oil market profits… Oil market: 90 Mbarrils/day x 100 M$/Mbarril

Oil market: 90 Mbarrils/day x 100 M$/Mbarril = 9,000 M$/day

Fuentes: BP Statistical Review of World Energy – 2019

12

Introduction to power stations

Recommended reading for an analysis similar to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy but for Spain …

Foro Nuclear: energía 2019

https://www.foronuclear.org/images/stories/recursos/publicaciones/2019/Energia_2019.pdf

Introduction to power stations

1. History: From the first power station to modern power plants

1880s: Historical context ‐ War of the currents (Tesla & Edison): Pearl Street station

The modern thermal power plant

History of the Spanish electric energy system

2. Terminology associated with the power plants and the electrical system reliability

3. Power stations

Main characteristics per type of central

Static and dynamic characteristics

Cost structures

Classification depending on their capacity to adapt to demand variations

Plants management to minimize the cost of the system

4. The primary energy sources. A reference for the cost of the electricity 5. The
4.
The primary energy sources. A reference for the cost of the electricity
5.
The Spanish electric energy system today:
 Power and energy mix
 Transmission and distribution grids
 Daily power load curves and monotonic load curves
6.
The wholesale market (mercado mayorista) and the role of the system operator

Introduction to power stations

Power and Energy balance in Spain (Dic 2018)

Type

MW

%

GWh

%

equivalent h

Hydro

20.378

20%

36.116

14%

1.772

Nuclear

7.117

7%

53.198

20%

7.474

Coal

10.030

10%

37.274

14%

3.716

Fuel/gas

2.490

2%

6.683

3%

2.684

CC

26.284

25%

30.044

12%

1.143

Wind

23.507

23%

49.570

19%

2.109

Solar PV

4.714

5%

7.759

3%

1.646

Solar thermal

2.304

2%

4.424

2%

1.920

Other renewables

865

1%

3.557

1%

4.110

Cogeneration

5.741

6%

29.016

11%

5.054

Waste

652

1%

3.309

1%

5.072

Generation

104.094

100%

260.974

100%

2.507

Generation 104.094 100% 260.974 100% 2.507 15

15

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

Introduction to power stations

1 – Hydro Generation

20,3 GW 6 cuencas  Reservas hidroeléctricas: Las reservas de un embalse, en un momento
20,3 GW
6 cuencas
 Reservas hidroeléctricas: Las reservas de un embalse, en un
momento dado, es la cantidad de energía eléctrica que se
produciría en su propia central y en todas las centrales situadas
aguas abajo, con el vaciado completo de su reserva útil de agua
en dicho momento, en el supuesto de que este vaciado se realice
sin aportaciones naturales.
 Embalses de régimen anual: son aquellos en los que, supuesto el
embalse a su capacidad máxima, el vaciado del mismo se
realizaría en un período inferior a un año.
 Embalses de régimen hiperanual: son aquellos en los que el
tiempo de vaciado es superior al año.
en los que el tiempo de vaciado es superior al año. Total energy production (31.12.2018): 36.1
en los que el tiempo de vaciado es superior al año. Total energy production (31.12.2018): 36.1
Total energy production (31.12.2018): 36.1 TWh/año
Total energy production (31.12.2018): 36.1 TWh/año

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https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

Introduction to power stations

2 – CC generación

Nominal Power: 275 ‐ 859 MW TOTAL: 24.562 GW

Annual energy: 26.403 TWh/year

Equivalent hours: 1.075 h (100% nominal power)

Coupled hours (grid connected): 1.920 h (49,8% nominal power)

Available hours: 8.143h (93% of the 8.760 hours of the year). The remaining 7% goes to:

Failure / accident / incident unavailability: 3,7%

Maintenance unavailability: 3,2%

26.403

GWh / (24.562 MW x 100%) = 1.075 h

26.403

GWh / (24.562 MW x 56%) = 1.920 h

26.403

GWh / (24.562 MW x 13,2%) = 8.143 h = 93% x 8760

1.075 / 8.143 = 13,2%

Coeficientes utilización (%) Indisponibilidad (%) Potencia Producción Horas En horas de Disponibilidad Grupos MW
Coeficientes utilización (%)
Indisponibilidad (%)
Potencia Producción
Horas
En horas de
Disponibilidad
Grupos
MW
GWh
func. isponible (1) acoplamiento (2)
Prevista
No prevista
%
Aceca 3
Aceca 4
Algeciras 3 CC
Amorebieta
Arcos 1
Arcos 2
Arcos 3
Arrúbal 1
Arrúbal 2
Bahia Bizcaya
Besós 3
Besós 4
Besós 5
Campo de Gibraltar 1
Campo de Gibraltar 2
Cartagena 1
Cartagena 2
Cartagena 3
Castejón 1
Castejón 2
Castejón 3
Castellón 3
Castellón 4
Castelnou
Colón 4
El Fangal 1
El Fangal 2
El Fangal 3
Escatrón 3
Escatrón Peaker
Escombreras 6
Málaga 1 CC
Palos 1
Palos 2
Palos 3
Plana del Vent 1
Plana del Vent 2
Puentes García Rodriguez 5
Puerto de Barcelona 1
Puerto de Barcelona 2
Sabón 3
Sagunto 1
Sagunto 2
Sagunto 3
San Roque 1
San Roque 2
Santurce 4
Soto de la Ribera 4
Soto de la Ribera 5
Tarragona (3)
Tarragona Power
386
172
1.101
5,4
40,4
6,3
0,4
93,3
373
1.230
4.860
40,2
67,9
2,7
3,6
93,7
821
562
2.215
8,3
30,9
3,8
2,5
93,7
786
562
2.067
8,2
34,6
0,1
0,2
99,7
389
270
936
9,0
74,2
7,9
3,7
88,4
373
151
533
5,0
75,8
6,1
1,5
92,3
823
1.182
3.249
19,2
44,2
13,2
1,2
85,6
395
597
1.975
17,5
76,6
0,0
1,1
98,9
390
500
1.602
14,7
79,9
0,0
0,6
99,4
785
787
2.787
12,1
36,0
0,0
5,5
94,5
412
1.279
5.535
36,9
56,1
2,7
1,2
96,1
400
2.290
7.636
67,4
75,0
1,3
1,6
97,1
859
823
2.537
14,9
37,8
2,7
23,8
73,5
393
-1
20
-
-
2,1
0,0
97,9
388
-4
0
-
-
3,4
0,5
96,1
418
1.001
3.186
27,8
75,1
0,0
1,7
98,3
418
489
1.563
13,6
74,9
1,3
0,4
98,3
413
693
2.169
22,4
77,4
14,3
0,0
85,6
425
213
915
5,9
54,9
2,2
0,3
97,6
379
-6
0
-
-
1,2
1,7
97,1
418
442
1.827
12,1
57,8
0,0
0,1
99,9
782
95
394
1,4
31,0
1,8
1,6
96,6
839
1.408
4.965
20,1
33,8
3,7
0,9
95,4
791
50
197
0,7
31,9
0,0
3,2
96,8
391
109
498
3,2
55,8
1,8
0,0
98,2
403
249
913
7,5
67,8
5,3
0,7
94,1
401
-1
0
-
-
0,0
0,0
100,0
395
6
64
0,2
25,5
0,0
0,0
100,0
804
-5
0
-
-
1,8
0,0
98,2
275
15
397
0,6
13,8
1,1
0,0
98,9
816
494
1.623
7,8
37,4
9,1
2,0
88,9
416
2.185
6.946
61,0
75,7
0,0
1,6
98,4
387
0
22
-
-2,9
3,4
0,0
96,6
389
230
761
7,0
77,6
3,3
0,0
96,6
391
-4
0
-
-
2,5
0,0
97,5
420
19
101
0,6
45,6
8,9
3,5
87,6
414
312
1.005
9,5
75,0
0,0
9,0
91,0
856
735
1.919
10,1
44,8
2,7
0,3
97,0
435
1.486
4.798
49,1
71,2
6,0
14,5
79,4
431
699
2.528
21,2
64,1
11,0
1,6
87,5
391
75
284
2,5
67,6
12,0
0,2
87,8
410
806
2.627
23,3
74,9
0,0
3,6
96,4
412
1.194
3.957
33,4
73,2
0,0
0,8
99,2
411
615
2.100
18,8
71,3
0,0
9,0
91,0
390
1.325
5.214
40,0
65,2
0,0
3,0
97,0
402
259
1.445
8,2
44,6
7,1
2,6
90,2
396
-2
31
-
-
3,2
14,2
82,6
426
578
2.510
15,5
54,1
0,0
0,1
99,9
428
8
79
0,2
24,6
1,2
0,0
98,8
0
-3
0
-
-
0,0
100,0
0,0
417
231
1.336
6,3
41,5
0,0
0,1
99,9
Total
24.562
26.403
1.920
13,2
56,0
3,2
3,7
93,0

(1) Es el cociente entre la producción real y la producción disponible o máxima producción que podría alcanzar la central funcionando a la potencia nominal durante las horas en la que está disponible.

 
 
 

(2) Es el cociente entre la producción real y la producción total que hubiese podido alcanzar la central funcionando a potencia nominal en el conjunto de horas en las que ha estado acoplada (produciendo).

alcanzar la central funcionando a potencia nominal en el conjunto de horas en las que ha
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.

(3) Baja en agosto 2018.

( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
( 3 ) Baja en agosto 2018.
 

17

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

Introduction to power stations

3 – Nuclear generation

     

Coeficientes utilización (%)

Indisponibilidad (%)

 

Potencia Producción

Horas

 

En horas de

Disponibilidad

Grupos

MW

GWh

func.

s/Disponible (1)

acoplamiento (2)

Prevista

No prevista

%

Almaraz I

1.011

7.834

7.938

97,6

97,6

9,3

0,1

90,6

Almaraz II

1.006

7.850

7.968

97,9

98,0

9,0

0,0

91,0

Ascó I

996

7.573

7.718

99,3

98,5

9,6

3,0

87,5

Ascó II

992

8.490

8.583

100,0

99,7

0,0

2,3

97,7

Cofrentes

1.064

8.799

8.430

98,7

98,1

0,0

4,3

95,7

Trillo I

1.003

7.714

7.840

98,0

98,1

10,5

0,0

89,5

Vandellós II

1.045

4.937

4.952

95,5

95,4

0,0

43,5

56,5

Total

7.117

53.198

7.623

98,3
98,3
98,1
98,1

5,4

7,8

86,8

(1) Es el cociente entre la producción real y la producción disponible o máxima producción que podría alcanzar la central funcionando a la potencia nominal durante las horas en la que está disponible.

(2) Es el cociente entre la producción real y la producción total que hubiese podido alcanzar la central funcionando a potencia nominal en el conjunto de horas en las que ha estado acoplada (produciendo).

de horas en las que ha estado acoplada (produciendo) .  Nominal Power: 1 GW 

Nominal Power: 1 GW TOTAL: 7.117

Annual energy: 53.198 TWh/year

Equivalent hours: 7.474 h (100% nominal power)

Coupled hours (grid connected): 7.623 h (98,1% nominal power)

Available hours: 7.603h (86,8% of the 8.760 hours of the year). The remaining 13,2% goes to:

Failure / accident / incident unavailability: 7,8%

Maintenance unavailability: 5,4%

18

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Introduction to power stations

4 – Coal generation

Introduction to power stations 4 – Coal generation Coeficientes utilización (%) Indisponibilidad (%) Potencia
Coeficientes utilización (%) Indisponibilidad (%) Potencia Producción Horas En horas de Disponibilidad Grupos MW
Coeficientes utilización (%)
Indisponibilidad (%)
Potencia Producción Horas
En horas de
Disponibilidad
Grupos
MW
GWh
func. s/Disponible (1) acoplamiento (2) Prevista No prevista
%
Aboño 1
Aboño 2
Anllares
Compostilla 3
Compostilla 4
Compostilla 5
Guardo 1
Guardo 2
La Robla 1
La Robla 2
Lada 4
Litoral de Almería 1
Litoral de Almería 2
Los Barrios
Meirama
Narcea 2
Narcea 3
Puentenuevo 3
Puentes 1
Puentes 2
Puentes 3
Puentes 4
Soto de la Ribera 3
Teruel 1
Teruel 2
Teruel 3
342
1.660
6.344
57,3
76,6
1,4
1,8
96,8
562
3.306
7.609
77,6
77,3
8,2
5,2
86,5
347
233
1.027
8,4
65,5
0,0
8,7
91,3
323
887
3.380
32,6
81,1
0,0
3,9
96,1
341
212
974
7,7
63,9
0,0
7,6
92,4
341
725
2.768
24,7
76,9
0,0
1,5
98,5
143
-3
0
-
-
0,0
0,0
100,0
342
415
1.420
14,5
85,4
0,0
4,5
95,5
264
-10
0
-
-
0,0
0,0
100,0
355
819
2.892
31,9
79,7
10,0
7,6
82,4
348
1.205
4.234
43,6
81,8
4,1
5,3
90,6
558
3.612
7.748
76,3
83,6
0,5
2,5
97,0
562
3.341
7.227
70,6
82,2
0,2
3,7
96,1
570
3.009
7.581
69,3
69,6
3,3
9,7
87,0
557
2.351
5.181
52,2
81,4
0,0
7,8
92,2
154
0
0
-
-
0,0
0,0
100,0
347
332
1.268
12,0
75,4
3,8
5,5
90,6
300
908
4.073
56,1
74,3
3,0
35,4
61,6
351
2.125
7.204
69,5
84,0
0,0
0,5
99,5
351
1.951
6.980
65,0
79,6
0,0
2,4
97,6
350
1.975
6.556
65,4
86,0
0,0
1,5
98,5
351
1.905
6.397
67,0
84,9
7,0
0,5
92,5
346
982
3.923
32,7
72,3
0,0
0,9
99,1
352
1.088
4.938
40,1
62,6
4,1
8,0
87,9
352
996
4.535
36,7
62,4
4,4
7,7
87,9
351
857
3.830
34,2
63,7
9,9
8,9
81,3
Total
9.562
34.882
4.703
45,3
77,6
2,4
5,6
92,0
(1) Es el cociente entre la producción real y la producción disponible o máxima producción que podría alcanzar la central
funcionando a la potencia nominal durante las horas en la que está disponible.
(2) Es el cociente entre la producción real y la producción total que hubiese podido alcanzar la central funcionando a potencia
nominal en el conjunto de horas en las que ha estado acoplada (produciendo).

Nominal Power: 143 to 570 MW TOTAL: 9.562 GW

Annual energy: 34.882 TWh/año

Equivalent hours: 3.648 h (100% nominal power)

Coupled hours (grid connected): 4.703 h (77.6% nominal power)

Available hours: 8.059 (92% of the 8.760 hours of the year (equivalent hours divided by 45,3%). The remaining 8% goes to:

Failure / accident / incident unavailability: 5,6%

Maintenance unavailability: 2,4%

19

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

Introduction to power stations

5 – Renewables generation

Evolución de la potencia instalada renovable peninsular (MW)

de la potencia insta lada renovable peninsular (MW)  In the last years the installed power

In the last years the installed power has remained constant

There exist fluctuations in the generated energy especially in hydro energy

REE ‐ Centro de control de energías renovables (Cecre):

every 12 seconds it receives information in real time from the renewable generation centers. All the data is analyzed to check how much renewable energy can be integrated at any time in the electrical system without affecting the continuity of the electricity supply .

Evolución de la producción de energía renovable peninsular (GWh)

de la producción de energía renovable peninsular (GWh ) Last year more than 40% of the

Last year more than 40% of the annual electricity demand was covered by renewable generation, reaching, in some cases, hourly coverage values over 80%

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

20

Introduction to power stations

6 – Monotonic Load Curve (2017)

to power stations 6 – Monotonic Load Curve (2017) Teamwork 1 will update for 2018 

Teamwork 1 will update for 2018

Max power cosumed: 42 GW (for an installed power of 104 GW)

Total energy consumed: 261 TWh

Mean power consumed: 29 GW.

Load factor: 70% (= 29 GW /42 GW)

The installed power is a factor 2.5 higher than the max power cosumed (104 GW / 42 GW)

Introduction to power stations

Peak daily power load curve (18 Jan 17)

Teamwork 1 will update for 2018

load curve (18 Jan 17) Teamwork 1 will update for 2018 Descomposición de la máxima demanda
Descomposición de la máxima demanda eléctrica horaria (18 enero 17)
Descomposición de la máxima demanda eléctrica horaria (18 enero 17)
• • •

IRE = Indice Red Eléctrica:

presenta tres grupos de datos de consumo eléctrico:

consumidores medios/grandes

actividades industriales

actividades de servicios

22

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

Introduction to power stations

The Spanish transmission system

to power stations The Spanish transmission system

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

23

Introduction to power stations

http://www.ree.es/es/actividades/gestor‐de‐la‐red‐y‐transportista/mapas‐de‐la‐red
http://www.ree.es/es/actividades/gestor‐de‐la‐red‐y‐transportista/mapas‐de‐la‐red

24

Introduction to power stations

Transmission System: consists of lines, transformers, protections and other elements with voltage equal to or greater than 220 kV, and those other installations that, with voltage lower than 220 kV, fulfill transmission functions (in the islands the transport is carried out at lower voltages> 66 kV) and the international interconnection facilities and insular and extra‐peninsular systems

Law 17/2007: defines REE as the HOLDER (TITULAR) OF THE ENTIRE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK.

As GRID MANAGER, REE must plan improvements and present investment plans that has to fulfil technical and economic criteria. The new network developments are approved on a multi‐year basis in the document "Planning of the electricity and gas sectors ‐ Development of transport networks" of the Ministry of Industry.

of transport networks" of the Ministry of Industry.

https://www.ree.es/es/actividades/gestor‐de‐la‐red‐y‐transportista

25

Introduction to power stations

Generation technologies efficiencies (with and without transmission)

Eficiencia transporte

88%

Eficiencia transporte cogeneracion

93%

Conversion 1 tep = 11.63 MWh

11.63

Conversion 1 GJ = 0.2778 MWh

0.2778

FACTORES DE CONVERSIÓN DE CONSUMO O PRODUCCIÓN A ENERGÍA PRIMARIA (cuadro 10.1 parte electricidad)

   

Energía primaria (MWh(t) / tep(t))

 

Consumo final (MWh(e) / tep(e))

En bornas de central (b.c.)

En punto de consumo (BT)

   

Eficiencia

   

Eficiencia central + transporte

   

MWh(e)

tep(e)

central

MWh(t)

tep(t)

MWh(t)

tep(t)

Hidroeléctrica

1

0.086

100%

1

0.086

88%

1.14

0.10

Eólica

1

0.086

100%

1

0.086

88%

1.14

0.10

Fotovoltaica

1

0.086

100%
100%

1

0.086

88%

1.14

0.10

Ciclo Combinado

1

0.086

52%

1.93

0.17

46%

2.19

0.19

Hulla+antracita

1

0.086

40%

2.52

0.22

35%

2.86

0.25

Hulla importada

1

0.086

40%

2.52

0.22

35%

2.86

0.25

Centrales de fuelóleo

1

0.086

40%

2.52

0.22

35%

2.86

0.25

Lignito Pardo

1

0.086

37%

2.68

0.23

33%

3.05

0.26

Lignito negro

1

0.086

37%

2.68

0.23

33%

3.05

0.26

Gas siderúrgico

1

0.086

35%

2.86

0.25

31%

3.25

0.28

Nuclear

1

0.086

33%

3.03

0.26

29%

3.44

0.30

Biogás

1

0.086

27%

3.7

0.32

24%

4.20

0.36

RSU (FORSU 24.88% (*)

1

0.086

25%

4.02

0.35

22%

4.57

0.39

Solar termoeléctrica

1

0.086

22%

4.56

0.39

19%

5.18

0.45

Biomasa eléctrica

1

0.086

20%

4.88

0.42

18%

5.55

0.48

Cogeneración MCI

1

0.086

60%

1.67

0.14

56%

1.80

0.15

Cogeneración TG

1

0.086

62%

1.61

0.14

58%

1.73

0.15

Cogeneración TV

1

0.086

58%

1.72

0.15

54%

1.85

0.16

Cogeneración CC

1

0.086

65%

1.54

0.13

60%

1.66

0.14

Fuente: https://www.foronuclear.org/images/stories/recursos/publicaciones/2019/Energia_2019.pdf ‐ pag 305

Introduction to power stations

The Spanish distribution system

Distribution grid: Lines with voltage < 220 kV that are not considered part of the transmission grid + elements (communications, protections, control, etc.) needed to carry out the activity in an appropriate manner according to the regulation specifications.

The distribution activity is regulated, and distributing companies have an obligation to supply in the area where they have been granted a territorial license. Accordingly, any consumer located in this area is entitled to be connected to the network and receive the supply under the quality conditions legally established for such purpose.

Distributors: companies that distribute the electrical energy + improve, maintain and operate the distribution facilities

+ improve, maintain and operate the distribution facilities MAP OF THE DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION ZONES Distribution

MAP OF THE DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION ZONES

Distribution

Mill. Supply Energy (%) points

 

Endesa

11,3

39%

Iberdrola10,6 24%

10,6

24%

Gas Natural Fenosa4,2 14%

4,2

14%

HC Energía0,8 7%

0,8

7%

E.ON España0,6 2%

0,6

2%

 

Total

27,7

100%

Introduction to power stations

The Spanish electricity retailing system (comercialización)

RETAILERS:

1. Purchase energy in the wholesale market through bilateral or forward contracts in medium or long term horizons) to sell to its clients at fixed prices

2. Use transmission and distribution networks by contracting and paying access rates / peajes de acceso (defined by the administration)

3. Sell electricity to their consumers FORMS OF SUPPLY:

Free acquisition in the (non regulated) wholesale market / mercado libre trough bilateral contracting with a CONVENTIONAL RETAILER

Voluntary Price for Small Consumers (VPSC) / Precio Voluntario para el Pequeño Consumidor (PVPC) ‐ Among all retailers only the REFERENCE RETAILERS / COMERCIALIZADORES DE REFERENCIA can supply energy to consumers having the PVPC

Retailers Reference retailers SUPPLIED ENERGY AND SUPPLY POINTS DEPENDING ON THE MARKET TYPE.
Retailers
Reference retailers
SUPPLIED ENERGY AND SUPPLY POINTS
DEPENDING ON THE MARKET TYPE.

Introduction to power stations

The price of electricity supply (VPSC vs free market) Four parts:

1. COST OF ENERGY: reflects the energy adquisition cost taking into account:

The hourly price in the wholesale market

The price for complementary or ancillary services (activities that are necessary to support the electrical transmission so that the power system operation is secure and reliable)

The retribution of the market operator and REE

2. ACCESS RATES: cover the costs of transmission and distribution grids according to the consumers characteristics

3. COMMERCIAL COSTS / MARGIN

4. TAXES: VAT and specific electricity tax

(*) (§) (*) PVPC: el coste de producción de energía eléctrica se determina con base
(*)
(§)
(*) PVPC: el coste de producción de energía eléctrica se
determina con base en el precio horario del mercado
diario durante el período de facturación
(§) Mercado libre:, los precios y periodicidad de revisión
de los mismos son los establecidos en las condiciones
económicas o particulares de cada contrato

Introduction to power stations

DOMESTIC Reference supply: the VPSC

APPLIES TO CONSUMERS CONNECTED IN LOW VOLTAGE WITH CONTRACTED POWER UP TO 10 KW:

Unique prices for the whole country + should be the maximum prices that may be charged by retailers assuming the reference supply obligations

REFERENCE RETAILERS:

Iberdrola Comercialización de Último Recurso, S.A.U. (elec. y gas)

Endesa Energía XXI, S.L.U. (electricidad y gas)

E.ON Comercializadora de Último Recurso, S.L. (electricidad)

Gas Natural S.U.R., SDG, S.A. (electricidad y gas)

EDP Comercializadora de Último Recurso (electricidad y gas)

Madrileña Suministro de Gas SUR, S.L. (gas)

Introduction to power stations

The Social Rate (Bono Social)

DISCOUNT ESTABLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT ON THE VPSC TARIFF, aimed at protecting households classed as VULNERABLE:

Customers with total annual income is less than or equivalent to:

o

If you are not part of a family unit or there are no underage children in it: 1.5 times the IPREM* (Multiplier for the Public Income Index).

o

If there is a minor in the family unit: 2 times the IPREM*.

o

If there are two underage children in the family unit: 2.5 times the IPREM*

Pensioners (or if there is a family unit, all the members of the same) receiving the minimum pension (through retirement or permanent disability).

Official large families: all without exception

BENEFIT A 25% DISCOUNT ON THE ELECTRICITY BILLS (WITH A LIMIT IN KWHE)

Introduction to power stations

The electricity bill (PVPC)

Datos del contratante
Datos del contratante
1 2
1
2

32

Introduction to power stations

1 – BILLING OF THE ACCESS RATE / FACTURACION DE LOS PEAJES DE ACCESO

RATES ARE DEFINED BY THE INDUSTRY MINISTERY and REVIEWED ANNUALLY: There exist a POWER TERM (TP) and an ENERGY TERM (TE) to consider:

the power that the consumer has contracted (the networks must be designed to guarantee the power supply that the consumers have contracted)

the consumption (variable term, based on the energy that has circulated trough the grid).

NORMATIVA DE REFERENCIA:

Precios de los términos del peaje de acceso publicados en Orden TEC/1366/2018

PVPC calculado según Real Decreto RD 216/2014

Margen de comercialización fijo publicado en RD 469/2016. Orden ETU 1948/2016

Descuento del bono social regulado en RD 897/2017 y RDL 15/2018.

Precio del alquiler de los equipos de medida y control en Orden IET 1491/2013 de 3 de agosto

Real Decreto‐ley 15/2018 para la transición energética y protección de los consumidores.

Access rate table

• Real Decreto‐ley 15/2018 para la transición energética y protección de los consumidores. Access rate table

Introduction to power stations

Access rate: Energy cost: 0,05759 €/kWh
Access rate:
Energy cost:
0,05759 €/kWh

34

2 – BILLING TERM OF THE ACTIVE ENERGY: see LUMIOS and ESIOS (REE)
2 – BILLING TERM OF THE ACTIVE ENERGY:
see LUMIOS and ESIOS (REE)
TERM OF THE ACTIVE ENERGY: see LUMIOS and ESIOS (REE) https://www.esios.ree.es/es/lumios

https://www.esios.ree.es/es/lumios

https://www.esios.ree.es/es/pvpc

Introduction to power stations

ANCILLARY SERVICES / SERVICIOS DE AJUSTE: include load regulation, spinning reserve, non‐spinning reserve, replacement reserve and voltage support.

CAPACITY PAYMENTS / PAGOS POR CAPACIDAD: Regulated payment to finance the medium and long‐term power capacity service offered by the generation facilities to the electricity system. They are paid to the thermal power plants (coal and combines cycles) so that they are available in case of need

INTERRUPTIBILITY SERVICE / SERVICIO DE INTERRUMPIBILIDAD: is a demand management tool to provide a rapid and efficient response to the electric system needs according to technical criteria (system security) and economic criteria (reducing system costs). This service is activated in response to a power reduction order issued by Red Eléctrica to large consumers that are providers of this service, and that are mainly large‐scale industry.

Introduction to power stations

The bill orders of magnitude: Consumption: Contracted power: Billing period: 1 MWh 5 kW 1
The bill orders of magnitude:
Consumption:
Contracted power:
Billing period:
1 MWh
5 kW
1 month = 60 days = 0.16 year
ENERGY CONSUMPTION BILLING:
Energy cost:
Access rate:
50 €/MWh (*)
50 €/MWh
 50 €
 50 €
CONTRACTED POWER BILLING:
Access rate:
Commercial Costs / Margin:
38 €/kW year (x 60 / 365) = 6 €/kW  30 €
4 €/kW year (x 60 / 365) = 0,6 €/Kw  3 €
ELECTRICITY TAX:
5%
METERING EQUIPMENT RENTAL:
0,018€/day
VAT:
21%
 133 € x 0,05 = 7 €
 1 €
 141 € x 0,21 = 30 €
‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐
TOTAL:
 170 €

2 – The mean billing breakdown

(*) Compare with exercise 1

Energy: 30%

Access: 50%

Taxes: 20%

36

Introduction to power stations

1. History: From the first power station to modern power plants

1880s: Historical context ‐ War of the currents (Tesla & Edison): Pearl Street station

The modern thermal power plant

History of the Spanish electric energy system

2. Terminology associated with the power plants and the electrical system reliability

3. Power stations

Main characteristics per type of central

Static and dynamic characteristics

Cost structures

Classification depending on their capacity to adapt to demand variations

Plants management to minimize the cost of the system

4. The primary energy sources. A reference for the cost of the electricity 5. The
4.
The primary energy sources. A reference for the cost of the electricity
5.
The Spanish electric energy system today:
 Power and energy mix
 Transmission and distribution grids
 Daily power load curves and monotonic load curves
6.
The wholesale market (mercado mayorista) and the role of the system operator

Introduction to power stations

Transmission Distribution Grid Access contract Grid (payment Access for grid contract use) Retailer
Transmission
Distribution
Grid
Access
contract
Grid
(payment
Access
for grid
contract
use)
Retailer
Consumption
Generation
Bilateral
contract
Electricity
suply
contract
Reference
Reference
retailer
retailer
Monetary flux
Electricity flux

Fundamentals of the IBERIAN electricity market operation

Generating companies submit generating offers to the pool, while loads submit consumption bids.

Bilateral contracting (future market)

consumption bids. Bilateral contracting (future market) Daily and intraday markets System players: OMIP/OMIE and

Daily and intraday markets

System players:

OMIP/OMIE and REE

Introduction to power stations

OMIE (Spain): Manages the daily and intraday market

The daily market involves the purchase and sale of electricity for the next day.

The purpose of the intraday market is to cater (abastecer) for the supply and demand of energy deviations that may occur in the following hours, after the Viable Daily Schedule has been set

OMIP (Portugal): Manages the bilateral contracts market

Mother companies:

Market Managers:

http://www.omip.pt http://www.omie.es (long horizon market) (daily and intraday)
http://www.omip.pt
http://www.omie.es
(long horizon market)
(daily and intraday)

Introduction to power stations

REE: Red Eléctrica de España

1. TRANSMISSION AGENT (TITULAR DE TODA LA RED DE TRANSPORTE): develops, expands and maintains the transmission grid

2. SYSTEM OPERATOR: guarantees that generation permanently covers the power demand issuing instructions to each of the resources (generators, transmission facilities or market participants in the region) to start up, shut down, raise or lower generation:

Secondary control: fix a reference power setting signal to the different generators from the Electric Control Center based on economic criteria

Tertiary control: Reserve deployment and restoration (despliega y reajusta las reservas) to handle current and future contingencies

Introduction to power stations

The Wholesale Market: sequence of markets in which generation and demand exchange energy for different periods of time

and demand exchange energy for different periods of time • RESTRICTIONS MARKET / MERCADO DE RESTRICCIONES:

RESTRICTIONS MARKET / MERCADO DE RESTRICCIONES: after the daily market output the system operator simulates which transmission line or generator loss would have the largest adverse impacts identifying the technical restrictions to be solved.

COMPLEMENTARY SERVICES MARKET / MERCADO DE SSCC: the power system must have power plants producing electricity, plants in reserve and plants on line that provide services to keep system voltages and frequency in balance

Introduction to power stations

The daily and intra‐daily markets (OMEL)

1. The day before buyers and sellers exchange energy offers for each of the hours of the next day 24 products

2. With the offers, OMEL builds up the supply and demand curves for each hour of the next day

3. The price of the market for each of the 24 hours results at the intersection of the supply and demand curves (the sale and purchase offers are converted into firm sales / purchase commitments).

of the supply and demand curves (the sale and purchase offers are converted into firm sales

Introduction to power stations

The supply curves (per hour)

All the available capacity has to be offered (market rules)

Supply is a stepped curve. Each step corresponds to offers of plants belonging to the same technology.

Offers reflect the generators OPPORTUNITY COSTS (valor de la mejor alternativa no realizada):

NUCLEAR and RUN ON THE RIVER HYDRO power plants can´t stop producing low cost of opportunity.

HYDRO WITH DAMM POWER PLANTS have high cost of opportunity (they can reserve the dammed water to

produce when the market price is high) unless the reservoirs are full and they have to evacuate water.

dammed water to produce when the market price is high) unless the reservoirs are full and

Introduction to power stations

It aggregates:

The demand curves (per hour)

1. LARGE INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS (metallurgical, ceramic, etc) or RAIL TRANSPORT

2. MEDIUM SIZE CONSUMERS (INDUSTRIAL and SERVICES)

3. SMALL CONSUMERS connected to low voltage networks (homes and small businesses)

Many retailers usually bid at the MAXIMUM PRICE ALLOWED (180 € / MWh) to ensure their consumers demand will be covered (does not mean that they will pay that price for electricity)

Some industrial consumers or hydro pumped storage power plants ‐ consume electricity only if price is less than or equal to a certain value. In the demand curve, these consumers (directly or through their retailer) represent the part of the sloped curve

In the demand curve, these consumers (directly or through t heir retailer) represent the part of

44

Introduction to power stations

The intersection of the supply and demand curves

Explore the site OMIE:

http://www.omie.es/files/flash/ResultadosMercado.swf

Es posible mirar horas 1 a 24
Es posible mirar horas 1 a 24
curves Explore the site OMIE : http://www.omie.es/files/flash/ResultadosMercado.swf Es posible mirar horas 1 a 24 45

Introduction to power stations

The Ancilliary, Capacity and Interruptibility services markets

1. ANCILLARY SERVICES / SERVICIOS DE AJUSTE: include technical restrictions, load regulation, spinning & non‐spinning reserve, replacement reserve and voltage support.

reserve, replacement reserve and voltage suppor t . 2. CAPACITY PAYMENTS / PAGOS POR CAPACIDAD: Regulated

2. CAPACITY PAYMENTS / PAGOS POR CAPACIDAD: Regulated payment to finance the medium and long‐term power capacity service offered by the generation facilities to the electricity system. They are paid to the thermal power plants (coal and combines cycles) so that they are available in case of need

3. INTERRUPTIBILITY SERVICE / SERVICIO DE INTERRUMPIBILIDAD: is a demand management tool to provide a rapid and efficient response to the electric system needs according to technical criteria (system security) and economic criteria (reducing system costs). This service is activated in response to a power reduction order issued by Red Eléctrica to large consumers that are providers of this service, and that are mainly large‐scale industry.

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

46

Introduction to power stations

Breakdown of the final energy price in 2018

Precio (€/MWh) (1)

 

Ene

Feb

Mar

Abr

May

Jun

Jul

Ago

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dic

Total

Mercado diario

 

51,78

55,77

41,75

43,55

55,41

58,86

62,32

65,00

71,78

66,10

62,94

62,63

58,12

Mercado intradiario (subastas y continuo)

-0,01

-0,01

-0,01

-0,02

-0,01

-0,04

-0,02

-0,05

-0,01

-0,04

-0,04

-0,05

-0,03

Servicios de ajuste del sistema

1,96

1,57

4,20

3,79

2,87

2,11

1,83

2,99

2,27

1,93

1,18

1,29

2,35

 

Restricciones técnicas PDBF Restricciones técnicas en tiempo real Restricciones intradiario Reserva de potencia adicional a subir Banda de regulación secundaria Incumplimiento de energía de balance Coste desvíos Saldo desvíos Control del factor de potencia Saldo PO 14.6 Fallo Nominación UPG

1,08

0,87

2,91

2,68

2,11

1,50

1,25

1,75

1,10

0,94

0,67

0,77

1,47

0,05

0,05

0,17

0,11

0,11

0,05

0,06

0,04

0,02

0,04

0,02

0,06

0,07

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,02

0,06

0,20

0,27

0,13

0,08

0,09

0,72

0,64

0,31

0,08

0,11

0,23

0,70

0,48

0,89

0,68

0,52

0,49

0,45

0,47

0,49

0,63

0,41

0,34

0,55

-0,04

-0,02

-0,03

-0,03

-0,03

-0,02

-0,03

-0,02

-0,03

-0,03

-0,03

-0,04

-0,03

0,30

0,19

0,24

0,22

0,10

0,10

0,09

0,12

0,10

0,17

0,12

0,17

0,16

-0,11

-0,03

-0,09

-0,07

-0,06

-0,04

-0,03

-0,04

-0,03

-0,05

-0,02

-0,05

-0,05

-0,07

-0,06

-0,08

-0,07

-0,06

-0,05

-0,06

-0,04

-0,04

-0,06

-0,06

-0,06

-0,06

0,03

0,03

-0,01

0,00

0,05

0,00

0,01

-0,01

0,02

-0,02

-0,01

-0,01

0,01

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

0,00

Pagos por capacidad

 

3,20

3,18

2,56

2,42

2,35

2,80

3,26

2,18

2,41

2,36

2,50

3,02

2,69

Servicio de interrumpibilidad

1,35

1,43

1,38

1,53

1,47

1,12

1,03

1,03

1,10

1,12

1,09

1,08

1,23

Precio final 2018

 

58,28

61,94

49,88

51,27

62,09

64,85

68,42

71,15

77,55

71,47

67,67

67,97

64,36

Precio final 2017

 

81,62

61,23

51,65

52,14

54,25

56,93

55,93

54,69

56,28

64,83

66,81

67,32

60,55

https://www.ree.es/es/datos/publicaciones/informe‐anual‐sistema/informe‐del‐sistema‐electrico‐espanol‐2018

47

Introduction to power stations

Exercise 2

Two 20 MW power plants A and B have the following per hour operating costs as a function of power:

Plant A: C A = 150 + 20∙p + 0.75∙p 2 (€/h) with p in MW

Plant B: C B = 100 + 30∙p + 0.5∙p 2 (€/h) with p in MW Determine the optimum power distribution to minimize the cost if the load is 30 MW.

IMPORTANT: 1. MARGINAL COST OF PRODUCTION (€/MWh) OF A POWER PLANT for a given load
IMPORTANT:
1. MARGINAL COST OF PRODUCTION (€/MWh) OF A POWER PLANT for a given load level
(MW): cost of each additional unit of energy generated (MWh). It can be obtained as dC/dp.
2. THE MARGINAL COSTS ARE HIGHER FOR FOSSIL FUEL BASED POWER PLANTS (owing to fuel
and CO2 emission costs)
3. THE COST OF ENERGY IN A SYSTEM IS MINIMIZED WHEN UNITS ARE GENERATING SO THAT
THEIR MARGINAL COSTS ARE THE SAME

Introduction to power stations

Central A

Central B

Central A+B

   

Total A+B

   

(MW)

(MW)

(MW)

Costs A (€/h)Costs B (€/h)

(€/h)

MC A

MC B

1

29

30

170,75

1390,50

1561,25

21,50

59,00

2

28

30

193,00

1332,00

1525,00

23,00

58,00

3

27

30

216,75

1274,50

1491,25

24,50

57,00

4

26