Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 91

BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

TOPIC 1: PRE COLONIAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES


Basic concepts:-
1. Human labour
2. Means of labour
3. Objects of labour
4. Relations of production
5. Mode of production

1. Human labour: - Is a purposeful activity directed at the production of


necessary product. Human labour includes personal factors in the production
process such as skills, experience, scientific and technological knowledge.
Labour is therefore the primary condition for human life because for man to
survive he must satisfy his wants.
2. Means of labour: - These are things people use in production that is the
tools of production. These tools include machines, hoes and more. Production
is aided by the instruments of labour.
3. Objects of labour – These are things that are subjected to man’s labour or
they are things upon which man’s labour is applied land being the most
common object.
4. Relation of production - is the process of production people act on nature
and the same time enter into relations with one another. The relations of
production are determined by the form of ownership of the means of
production and distribution of the products of labour. That is to say is the
absence or existence of classes and exploitation in the society.
5. Mode of production – This is the combination of productive forces and the
relations of production. The productive forces include human labour, means of
labour and objects of labour. The modes of production are communal, slavery
and feudal modes.

MODES OF PRODUCTION IN PRE –COLONIAL


AFRICA
The modes of production in pre –colonial Africa included:-
(a) Communal mode of production
(b) Slave mode of production
(c) Feudal mode of production

A. COMMUNIAL MODE OF PRODUCTION

Page 1 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

This is the oldest system of social relations and preside all the other modes of
production. It marked the rise of society from sheer animalism to human
society. The main activities were hunting and gathering.
OR
This is the earliest form mode of production in human history where evolution
of society started, people were powerless before the environment and depended
on whatever nature gave them for food; such as insects, roots and tools
involved were; stones, arrows etc
Examples of societies practicing communal mode:-
Maasai of East Africa
Fulani of West Africa
Khoikhoi of South Africa

FEATURES OF COMMUNAL MODE OF PRODUCTION


1. Collective ownership – There was collective ownership of major means of
production. E.g. Land was owned by the whole society. It led to absence of
exploitation because means of production were not owned by few people.
2. Low level of production forces –It was characterized by low level of
production forces because the tools were mode out of stones.
3. Absence of trading activities -absence of surplus lead to absence of trade
because whatever produced was consumed.
4. Low level of production – This was due to low level of tools of production,
that means non surplus and whatever produced was consumed.
5. No exploitation – There was no any exploitation because of collective
ownership.
NB: - This mode changed within time depending of discovery of iron tools which
increased production leading to surplus which transformed to exploitative
modes to exploitative modes.

B. SLAVE MODE OF PRODUCTION


This is the first exploitative mode of production. Here a person became an
absolute Property of another man. Slaves dominated by slave masters. It
should be noted that many African societies transformed directly from primitive
communalism to feudalism as a result slave mode was not well developed.
It was highly practiced in Egypt, Slaves built pyramids.

FEATURES OF SLAVE MODE OF PRODUCTION


1. Existence of two antagonistic classes.

Page 2 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

There was existence of two antagonistic classes, that is slaves and slave
masters. Slaves were producers of their own material requirement’s and
surplus products for their masters.
2. Private ownership. There was private ownership of the major means of
production, whereby means of production are slaves and are owned by slave
masters.
3. Existence of exploitation.
It was characterized by exploitation of man by man, because Slaves were the
ones who were involved in production and whatever they produced was
appropriated by the slave masters.
4. Relatively advanced tools.
The level of productive forces was still low but relatively advanced than under
communal mode of production. Production relatively advanced leading to
surplus.
5. Relatively high level of political institutions.
This is due to the use of better tools of production which increased production
which supported increase in population leading to formation of states or
Kingdoms.
NB: - The slave mode of production later declined due to conflicts between the
slaves and slave masters over exploitation of the slaves by slaves masters. The
decline of this mode, paved way for the rise of another mode known as feudal
mode of production.

WHY PRE-COLONIAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES DID NOT DEVELOP (ADVANCE)


SLAVE MODE OF PRODUCTION
The Following are the reasons showing clearly that the pre-colonial Africa did
not develop slave as mode of production:-
1. Slavery existed in few parts of Africa as an institution and not as a mode of
production these areas were;
· In Zanzibar; where by slavery existed after Sultan Seyyid Said shifted his
capital from Muscat-Oman to Zanzibar in 1840, so slaves were taken from
Central and East Africa to perform various activities or tasks in Zanzibar island
like domestic activities such as cooking, mopping, fetching water, keeping gates
(watch), taking care of elders and children and others offered labour in cloves
and coconut plantations.
· In Egypt; where by slaves were taken from western Sudan and forest areas to
perform various activities during Pharaoh’s regime (Period)(rule), these
activities were such as constructing canals, making calendar, building tombs,
performing various domestic activities.

Page 3 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

· Maghreb societies (Morocco,Tunisia and Algeria); slaves were taken from


various parts of Western Africa And Northern East Africa to perform various
activities in Maghreb societies, for example they were taken to offer their labour
in Agriculture like palm dates and domestic activities.
2. Slavery co-existed together with feudalism in many parts of Africa. In Africa
slave mode of production was not noted as the mode of production simply
because the only mode of production in those areas was feudalism for example
in Zanzibar the mode of production was feudalism however slavery also existed
there.
3. In Pre -colonial African societies there was no slave masters or class of slave
masters which showed clearly that the mode of production existed in pre -
colonial African societies was not slavery and rather it was feudalism.
4.The level of development of productive forces used during the transition from
primitive to feudalism showed that the slavery (Slave mode of production) did
not exist in Africa for example some societies which were in transition to
feudalism decided to use hoe to cultivate on the land which showed as the
mode of production existed was feudalism based on land ownership.

TRANSITION FROM SLAVERY TO FEUDAL MODE OF PRODUCTION


The Major factors for the decline of slavery and the emergence of feudal mode
of production were as follows:-
1. Improvement of productive forces during the slavery; changed the social and
technical relation of production and geared to the decline of slave mode of
production and the rise of feudalism.
2. Existence of class struggle in slavery. The series of slaves uprising against
the masters at the end of the day led to collapse of slave mode of production
and hence emergence of feudalism.
3. The Failure of the productive forces to correspond with social and technical
relational production (relation of production). According to Karl Marx (1818-
1883) pointed out that if productive forces and social and technical relation of
production in a certain mode of production are not going hand in hand with
the existing mode of production then such mode of production will collapse and
pave a way to another mode of production.
4. Slaves lacked interest in labour; they frequently destroyed the equipment of
production owned by slave masters hence slavery collapsed.
5. The cruel exploitation of slaves and ruthlessness and oppression done by the
save masters to slaves led the slaves to revolt against the slave masters hence
slaves became free from being controlled by the slave masters this led to the
collapse of slavery(slave mode of production).

Page 4 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

6. The Slave owners (slave maters) with vast number of slaves were not
interested in including the tools of production; they continued to use the old
productive forces which automatically led to the collapse of slave mode of
production.
7. The constant military campaigns led to the number of slaves to drop down
and the prices to get slaves increased this led slave masters to fail to continue
with this mode of production (slavery).

FEUDAL MODE OF PRODUCTION


This was the second exploitative mode of production based on private
ownership of land. It was common in Africa since 14th to 19th century.
Example of societies practiced feudalism:-
- Haya in Tanganyika
- Zulu in South Africa

FEATURES OF FEUDAL MODE OF PRODUCTION


1. Existence of two dominant classes; there were dominant classes that is the
feudal lords and peasants. The feudal lords / land lords controlled/owned land
and peasants were employed by them.
2. Private ownership.
It was characterized by private ownership as in the major means of production
were controlled by the feudal lords. Example: - Land and cattle were property of
the feudal lords. If peasants wanted to use the land, they had to pay.
3. Exploitation
It was characterized by exploitation of man by man because major means of
production were controlled by a few people who are the feudal / land lords.
Peasants were exploited through payment of rent.
4. Advanced tools of production.
The level of productive forces was advanced which led to high level of
production; this led to availability of surplus.

PRE – COLONIAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES


At the time of colonization, most of pre–colonial African societies were in the
communal mode of production but in transition to the feudal mode of
production. Some societies were in the feudal mode of production. The slave
mode of production was not well developed because most of the Africa societies
transformed from the communal mode directly to the feudal mode of
production.

Page 5 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

There were various characteristics of pre – colonial African societies


1. The family was the basic unit of production. This limited the division of
labour and it was a hindrance to the development of science and technology,
consequently agricultural production was always low in pre – colonial Africa.
2. The level of productive forces was very low because the tools used were made
of stones. The use of primitive tools led to low levels of production which in
turn contributed to the absence of surplus.
3. Land was the commonest object of labour; its distribution was on cultural
values and traditions. In clan organization land was distributed by the clan
head on customary laws.
4. There were some class societies in pre–colonial Africa. For example under
the slave mode of production; there was a class of slave masters and the slaves
and in feudal mode of production was characterized by a class of land lords/
feudal lords, and peasants.
5. The major economic activities were agriculture and pastoralism. Agriculture
was mainly carried out by feudal societies and it was common in the
interlacustrine region. Pastoralism was mainly practiced by societies that level
in the rift valley region for example the Maasai of East Africa.
6. The pre–colonial African societies were pre–capitalist because there are three
modes of production. I.e. communal, slavery and Feudal modes of production.
The capitalist mode of production was introduced during colonialism.
7. Production in pre–colonial Africa was mainly for consumption and not for
the market. Production for the market was introduced during colonialism
whereby Africans were producing raw materials for the export market.
NOTE: - It should be noted that the pre–colonial African societies were not at
the same level of development.

WHY SOME AFRICAN SOCIETIES WERE ABLE TO DEVELOP THE FEUDAL


MODE OF PRODUCTION/REASONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The Pre–colonial African societies were not static or unchanging they went
through various transformations that were influenced by the nature of the
environment, climate and soil fertility.
Some factors enabled some African societies to be able to transform from other
modes of production to the feudal mode of production.
There are various factors that contributed to the rise of feudalism in Africa:
1. Nature of the environment
Those areas in African that had fertile soils and received enough rainfall
throughout the year supported agriculture on a large scale thus leading to the
increase in production which facilitated the rise of feudalism.

Page 6 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

2. Advancement of science and technology


The development of science and technology which was due to the making and
using of iron tools led to drastic changes in agricultural production, this played
a crucial role in the rise of feudalism in Africa.
3. Increase in population
The increase in population was due to increase in food supplies and standard
of living. The increase in population resulted into shortage of land that
facilitated the rise of feudalism due to private ownership of land.
4. Existence of strong political institutions
The existence of strong political institutions for example states; played a big
role in the rise of feudalism in Africa, these political institutions led to private
ownership of land that led to the rise of feudalism.
5. Shortage of land
The shortage of land and its increase in value contributed to the development
of productive forces since the people were conditioned to use small plots of
land. Such factors threatened the existence of communal mode of production
consequently paved a way to the increase of feudalism.
6. Strong and well disciplined army
The Strong and well disciplined army led to the establishment of feudal
societies and feudal states because the army was used by their leaders to go
and conquer the areas of their neighbouring kingdoms hence increase the land
for their societies for example in Buganda, Kabaka used army to conquer
Bunyoro-Kitare under Kabalega also in South Africa were Shaka used army
with establish Zulu Kingdom by conquering small kingdoms.
7. Growth and control of trade
Trade was one among the reasons which led to emergence of some feudal
societies. Societies which engaged in trade acquired iron tools and guns and
these were used in agricultural production and expansion and consolidation of
feudal societies/states. For Example the Buganda kingdom which engaged in
trade got iron tools which helped them to get involved in permanent
agricultural production of crops such as Banana that ensured constant supply
of food and led to the establishment of permanent settlement.

INFLUENCE OF MFECANE IN THE FORMATION OF STATES DURING THE 19


TH CENTURY.

WHY SOME AFRICAN SOCIETIES WERE ABLE TO DEVELOP THE FEUDAL


MODE OF PRODUCTION/REASONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

Page 7 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The Pre–colonial African societies were not static or unchanging they went
through various transformations that were influenced by the nature of the
environment, climate and soil fertility.
Some factors enabled some African societies to be able to transform from other
modes of production to the feudal mode of production.
There are various factors that contributed to the rise of feudalism in Africa:
1. Nature of the environment
Those areas in African that had fertile soils and received enough rainfall
throughout the year supported agriculture on a large scale thus leading to the
increase in production which facilitated the rise of feudalism.
2. Advancement of science and technology
The development of science and technology which was due to the making and
using of iron tools led to drastic changes in agricultural production, this played
a crucial role in the rise of feudalism in Africa.
3. Increase in population
The increase in population was due to increase in food supplies and standard
of living. The increase in population resulted into shortage of land that
facilitated the rise of feudalism due to private ownership of land.
4. Existence of strong political institutions
The existence of strong political institutions for example states; played a big
role in the rise of feudalism in Africa, these political institutions led to private
ownership of land that led to the rise of feudalism.
5. Shortage of land
The shortage of land and its increase in value contributed to the development
of productive forces since the people were conditioned to use small plots of
land. Such factors threatened the existence of communal mode of production
consequently paved a way to the increase of feudalism.
6. Strong and well disciplined army
The Strong and well disciplined army led to the establishment of feudal
societies and feudal states because the army was used by their leaders to go
and conquer the areas of their neighbouring kingdoms hence increase the land
for their societies for example in Buganda, Kabaka used army to conquer
Bunyoro-Kitare under Kabalega also in South Africa were Shaka used army
with establish Zulu Kingdom by conquering small kingdoms.
7. Growth and control of trade
Trade was one among the reasons which led to emergence of some feudal
societies. Societies which engaged in trade acquired iron tools and guns and
these were used in agricultural production and expansion and consolidation of
feudal societies/states. For Example the Buganda kingdom which engaged in
trade got iron tools which helped them to get involved in permanent

Page 8 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

agricultural production of crops such as Banana that ensured constant supply


of food and led to the establishment of permanent settlement.

INFLUENCE OF MFECANE IN THE FORMATION OF STATES DURING THE 19


TH CENTURY.

THE MFECANE
Mfecane is aNgoni word used to refer to the wars and disturbances which
accompanied the rise of the Zulu state under Shaka from 1818. The Mfecane
can also be defined as the time of trouble in South Africa. It was a great
upheaval which affected areas as far as Western part of Tanzania. The Mfecane
dominated the first hold of the 19 th century in South Africa.

Causes of the Mfecane:-


1. Population pressure
Zulu land is part of the Eastern corridor of South Africa between the
Drakensburg Mountains and the Indian Ocean. Due to the favorable climate
and absence of diseases such as malaria, its population tended to increase
rapidly. As the population increased conflicts between those societies became
common and intensified leading to the Mfecane.
2. Land shortages
The people who occupied Zulu land were farmers, but the existing land was not
enough due to population pressure, therefore the search for more land caused
conflicts that later contributed to the outbreak of the Mfecane.
3. The coming of the Boers
During the Boer Trek, the Boers left Cape Town away from British control and
moved into the interior of South Africa, the penetration of the Boers into the
interior of South Africa intensified the pressure on land which led to conflicts
that caused the Mfecane.
4. The role of Shaka
The outbreak of the Mfecane can also be attributed to the role of Shaka. Shaka
pursued an aggressive and expansionist policy to expand his Kingdom, Zulu
state. He attacked many states in the attempt of expanding his state, this
action created conflicts that contributed to the outbreak of the Mfecane.
5. Control of profitable trade
The need to control trade along the Delgoa Bay is one of the factors responsible
for the outbreak of the Mfecane. Trade contacts with the coast were very
important because it was associated with acquisition of guns that can be used
for conquest and expansion.

Page 9 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Effects of the Mfecane in East and Central Africa


The Mfecane had a tremendous impact in East and Central Africa; some of the
effects had a far reaching impact to Africa.
1. Formation of states
The Mfecane led to state formation because the severity of these wars led to
formation of strong armies for protection, but these armies were later used for
conquest and expansion thus forming states. Examples of these states are the
Shangani states in Zimbabwe.
2. Spread of Ngoni speaking people
The most permanent results of the Mfecane were the spread of the Ngoni
speaking people. These people were called various names in different parts of
Africa. They were called the Ngoni in Tanzania, the matebele in Zimbabwe and
Kololo in Zambia.
3. Introduction of Military techniques
The Mfecane led to the introduction and spread of new military techniques
such as the cow horn style which involved surrounding the enemy.
4. Introduced of new weapons
The Mfecane led to the introduction of new weapons for example the short
stabbing spears called the Assegai; these weapons were introduced by the
Ngoni from Africa who came to East and central Africa.
5. Depopulation
The Mfecane led to depopulation because many people lost their lives due to
the frequent wars, the most affected region was veld where by many people lost
their lives.
6. Famine
The Mfecane led to widespread of famine in East and central Africa. The
frequent wars caused insecurity that disrupted agricultural production and
finally causing famine/hunger.
NOTE:-
The Mfecane was a great upheaval in the history of Southern Africa because it
had far reaching effects in the region.

THE ROLE OF THE MFECANE IN STATE FORMATION:-


The Mfecane refers to the wars and disturbances caused by Shaka and the rise
of the Zulu state in South Africa. The Mfecane is also referred to as the time of
trouble or turbulence in South Africa.

Page 10 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The origin of the Mfecane was Shaka’s expansionist policies that led to the
conquering states.
The Mfecane played a great role in state formation in Southern Africa.
1. Political transformation
The Mfecane led to political transformation in Southern Africa, the former age
group communities were transformed into strong centralized states. The
Mfecane also forced people to form strong armies to protect themselves from
Shaka; these armies were later used for conquest and expansion hence forming
states. Zulu is a good example of a state formed due to the Mfecane.
2. Military advancement
The Mfecane contributed to the introduction of new military weapons such as
the short stabbing spears and the cow horn style. These weapons were used for
conquest and expansion thus forming states.
3. Emergency of strong leadership
The Mfecane contributed to the rise of strong leadership; this was needed for
protection from the Mfecane. Strong leadership had a big role to play in state
formation because the leaders united the people to form states.
4. Migrations
The societies through which they passed were forced to form strong states to
protect themselves from the Mfecane. The movement of the Ngoni from South
Africa was not a peaceful process; it involves wars that necessitated unity
among the people.
NOTE: - The Mfecane was a great upheaval in history of Southern Africa; it
dominated the first half of the 19 th century in Southern Africa.

THE ROLE OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRADE IN THE FORMATION OF STATES


IN EAST AFRICA
The long distance trade in East Africa refers to the type of trade that took place
between the people of the interior of East Africa and the ones from the coast.
The main participants were the Yao, Kamba, Nyamwezi and Baganda from the
interior and the Arabs and Swahili traders from the coast. The main items
traded were guns, beads and glassware that came from the coast and slaves,
ivory, tortoise shells and copper from the interior of East Africa.
The main medium of exchange was batter trade system, which is exchange of
goods for goods.
The long distance trade provided a crucial role in the formation of states in
East Africa as follows.
1. Accumulation of wealth

Page 11 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Those African chiefs who monopolized trade in pre–colonial African


accumulated a lot of wealth that was used to build state in East Africa such as
Buganda and Bunyoro. Kings such as Mutesa of Buganda, Kabalega of
Bunyoro and NyunguyaMawe of Ukimbu accumulated a lot of wealth that was
used to build strong states.
2. Introduction of guns
The long distance trade led to the introduction of guns into the interior of East
Africa. These guns were used to strengthen armies that were used for conquest
and expansion. Most of the states in East Africa were established through
conquest and expansion.
3. Active participation in agriculture
The long distance trade encouraged people to participate actively in agriculture
to produce goods that can be exchanged during the trade. Active participation
in agriculture increased agricultural production which accommodated in high
population, this contributed to the formation of states. States such as
Buganda, Karagwe and Bunyoro were formed in those areas where agriculture
was active.
4. Emergency of strong leaders
The long distance contributed to the emergence of strong leaders such as
Mkwawa of the Hehe and Mutesa of Buganda. These leaders played a
fundamental role in the emergence of states in East Africa by uniting the
people
5. Migrations
The long distance trade encouraged migrations in East Africa. People moved
from one place to another to take part in exchange of goods. The migration of
people contributed to permanent settlement that had a role to play in state
formation.
6. Development of towns
The long distance trade contributed to the development of towns in East Africa,
these include Ujiji, Tabora and Bagamoyo. These areas acted as trading centers
therefore they attracted many people thus contributed to the state formation.
7. Growth of trade routes
The long distance trade contributed to the development of trade routes in East
Africa. These routes opened the interior of East Africa.

THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN FORMATION OF STATES DURING THE 19 TH


CENTURE
A Jihad is a holy war in Islam. Jihads were one of the most significant events
that dominated in West Africa during the 19 th century; they were mainly led
by Othman Dan Fodio. Jihads can be traced back as far as the 10 th century

Page 12 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

when young Fulani immigrates with Islamic knowledge in politics influenced


other people to start holy wars.
Jihads under the umbrella of Islam played a fundamental role in state
formation in West Africa, states such as Sokoto, Mandika and Tokoro were a
result of Jihads.
How, Jihads as an islamic war contributed to state formation in Pre–colonial
Africa
1. Unification
The Jihads acted as a unifying factor that brought people together under one
umbrella. Islam became the official ruling ideology of the state. The unity
provided by Islam was very crucial in state formation. The Islamic law ‘sheria’
proved the alternative model of government with which to compare and attack
their rulers. Conversion of nonbelievers was an essential duty of all Muslims.
2. Formation of strong armies
The Jihads were characterized with the establishment of strong armies; these
armies were later used for conquest and expansion thus forming states. This
was responsible for the formation for states such as Sokoto caliphate and
Hausa states.
3. Emergency of strong leaders
Jihad contributed to the rise of strong leadership; these leaders were seen as
Muslim reformers who managed to create strong leadership under their leaders
like futa Djallon in Guinea in 1725 and the Sokoto caliphate.
4. Control of trade routes
The Jihads led to the control of trade routes by the Jihad leaders. These trade
routes attracted many people. The wealth accumulated was used to build
strong states. Trade also accumulated guns that were used for conquest and
expansion thus forming strong states such as Sokoto caliphate.
5. Consolidation of Feudalism
Jihads contributed to the consolidation of Feudalism as a mode of production,
land was controlled by the Fulani, and the weapons accumulated were used to
build states in West Africa.

PRE–COLONIAL EDUCATION AND CULTURE


Culture refers to the total way of life; it includes education, science and
technology, political systems, and traditions. Education refers to the
transformation of norms, skills and knowledge from one generation to another.
Under normal circumstances, education must grow out of the nature of the
environment; therefore the most outstanding feature of pre–colonial education
was its relevance to Africa.

Page 13 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Education is one of the pivotal roles in any type of society for the preservation
of the uses of the members and maintenance of the social structure.
These are two types of education namely
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
1. Formal education:-
Formal education is that type of education that follows specific programs; there
is a defined syllabus and curriculum.
2. Informal education:-
This refers to that type of education whereby young people acquire knowledge
and skills by imitating the elders. It is based on one’s observations. Informal
education is characterized with the absence of a syllabus but it involved active
participation of the learners in games and plays.
It was progressive as it involved all the stages of the physical emotional and
mental development of the child.
It should be noted that there was formal education in pre–colonial Africa to a
limited extent. Literacy was concentrated along Nile, North Africa and Ethiopia.
This type of literacy was connected with religion, it was mainly found in
universities such as Al – Azhar in Egypt, Fez in Morocco and Timbuktu in Mali.

OBJECTIVES OF PRE-COLONIAL EDUCATION


(i) It produced a well rounded personality who could fit well in society in all
aspect of life.
(ii) It enabled the young to abide to the culture of the society such as good
moral and social conduct, loyalty and respect to all.
(iii)Pre-colonial education moulded the young people to accept, practice and
perpetuate the traditions and culture of the society.
(iv) Pre-colonial education prepare graduates to assume the duties and
responsibilities of adult, through at low social level, in accordance with their
age and merital status.
(v)Pre-colonial education also brought up children to value the wisdom of their
elders, a vital component pre-colonial oral culture, and much of what they
absorbed from their elders was instilled by role-learning.
(iv) Furthermore, pre-coloial education helped children to learn the history of
their ancestors and the oral traditions and customs of their community or
nation.

Features of pre–colonial education in Africa


Page 14 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

1. Informal
Pre–colonial education in Africa was mainly informal; the young acquired
knowledge by imitating the elders. In many African societies elders told stories
around the fire places in the evening. These stories and all the information that
the young received are what are called informal education.
2. Relevant to the society.
It was relevant to the society because it was born out of the environment of the
concerned society. It produced well rounded individuals who could fit in their
societies; it targeted self community and survival of the society. These was
nothing from the alien community because everything stormed from the
traditional and customs of the society in question.
3. It was progressive.
Pre–colonial education was progressive because it involved all stages of
physical, emotional and mental development of the child. The young people
were taught various specialist skills which followed a definite pattern starting
from the simple to the complex ones.
4. It put emphases on moral and social conduct. Pre–colonial education aimed
at instilling good morals and social conduct to the young people. African
societies had some accepted core valves and elders used to condemn strongly
any action or behavior that tended to undermine the promotion of the accepted
valves.
5. Encouraged
Encouraged specializations.
Pre–colonial African education encouraged specialization in certain fields. It
aimed at preparing the young members of the community for specific
responsibilities in future.
People trained in activities such as medicine, iron working basketry and
pottery.
6. Aimed at procreation
Pre–colonial education aimed at procreation of production. The existing
education system in the society shaped and stimulated production within the
society. All activities aimed at production as to sustain the society.
7. Lacked uniformity
Pre–colonial African education lacked uniformity. It varied from society to
society depending on the economic, social and environmental conditions of a
given society. Each society had its own customs and traditions depending on
the environment of that given society.

LIMITATIONS OF PRE–COLONIAL AFRICAN EDUCATION

Page 15 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

1. The programs of teaching were restricted to a certain period in the life of the
individual especially at the time of initiation. The education system did not
have specific program for older people.
2. It relied so much on memory and oral traditions; there was no way newly
acquired knowledge, skills could be recorded or preserved for the future.
Dependence on memorials led to loss of vital information that could be passed
on the young people.
3. Pre–colonial education did not have a specific and organic syllabus; each
society had its own education which was based on the culture of that society. It
should be noted that the environment determined the nature of occupations in
pre -colonial Africa; this also shaped the content of education given to that
particular society.
4. Pre–colonial Africa education was characterized by parochialism because it
was centered on a particular tribe and clan units. It readily responded to the
needs of that particular tribe or region in question therefore it did not address
the issues of the whole nation at large.
5. Pre–colonial African education lacked a social philosophical base that could
have introduced a sense of uniformity and conformity. There was absence of a
common language that could have united all the tribes thus ensuring skills are
not confined within one particular tribe.
6. Pre–colonial African education was too mythical, it relied on oral traditions;
whereby many of the stories given by the elders cannot be proved scientifically.
The elders had a tendency of being bias towards their tribe.
NOTE: - It should be note that despite its limitations. Pre–colonial African
education paved a crucial role in development of African societies.

CENTRAL AND DECENTRALIZED SOCIETIES IN PRE–COLONIAL AFRICA


In these societies the power is centralized to a single person and the system of
leadership was hereditaryin nature.
The examples of centralized societies are Toro, Buganda, Bunyoro of East
Africa, Asante, Dahomey, Benin, Oyo, Tokolo and Sokoto of West Africa.

Characteristics of centralized societies:-


1. They extended over larger areas for the reason that territories were annexed
and put under the governor who ruled on behalf of the King e.g. Zulu state and
Buganda Kingdom.
2. The Kings wielded political power that represented state authority. The
centralization of power ensured national unity among the members of the
society. As the King had supreme power, then he commanded wealth loyalty
from his subjects, respect and prestige.

Page 16 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

3. The throne (power) was hereditary in nature that Kings named their
successor from among their children or relatives. It was the custom of the King
to nominate his successor from amongst his children (family members) when
he was living, if he died without appointing him, the elders and other important
official have to take the responsibility of appointing the best child to take the
throne.
4. The internal stability of the Kingdom and defense from external aggression of
neighboring states forced these societies to set up stable military machinery.
This was aimed at maintaining the homogeneity of the Kingdom.
5. Despite the hierarchy in administration the Kings and their officials
exercised authoritarianism rule (Absolutism) towards the subjects or followers.
The council of elders whose role was to adult the king. They assisted him.
6. The King was vested with juridical authority. His courts arbitrated all
disputes and misunderstanding within the Kingdom as the King was the
highest court of appeal.
7. The King controlled the wealth of the Kingdom. He directed on how land
should be used by all members of the society, for example land for agricultural
activities and animal husbandry. He looted property and controlled foreign
trade, through these means Kingdom accumulated much wealth in his state
and he was expected to share generously with his subjects.
8. The expansionist policy of conquest and raids accumulated much wealth for
the Kingdom. The war captures were distributed to faithful servants and his
hard working soldiers to make the harder and become braver.

CASE STUDY
THE BUGANDA KINGDOM
The Buganda Kingdom was geographically on the shores of Lake Victoria; that
means it is found in the interlacutrine region. It grew to its apex by the mid of
the 19 th C. This was highly centralized monarchy and was one of the daughter
states that came into existence after the collapse of the vastly expanded
BunyoroKitara Kingdom.
By the second half of the 19 th C Buganda became one of the strongest and
largest Kingdoms in the interlacustrine region. They conquest and controlled
several Kingdoms. Buganda Kingdom was under the leadership of
KabakaMutesa.
Factors responsible for the rise of the Buganda
1. Centralization of power. The Kabaka governed the political organ and was
considered as overall ruler. All political power was concentrated in his hands.
He appointed all leaders on merit and dismissed all chiefs. His decision was
final and binding. There was a hierarchy in administration, whereby there were
a number of chiefs below the Kabaka. They helped to spread Kabaka’sauthority

Page 17 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

throughout the Kingdom. The Kabaka’s throne was hereditary but there was no
royal family / clan
2. Organized Administrative System. The Kabaka governed the Kingdom with
assistance of advisory council (Lukiiko). The council constituted the Prime
Minister (Katikiro), the treasure (Muhanika) and the Chief justice (Mugema) as
well as country chiefs; all these were Kabaka’s nominees. The legislative
council gave advice to the Kabaka and enacted laws.
3. Stable military machinery.
Kabaka established strong and well disciplined army for the sake of
maintaining political stability in the state and defend the kingdom from
external aggression. The Kabaka used army to maintain law and order, to pin
down the rivals powers and pursued expansionist policy.
4. Bureaucratic system of government.
The Bureaucratic system was employed in order to ensure effective
administration of the Kingdom; whereby the whole of Buganda was divided into
two countries (Gomborola), the sub–countries into parishes (Miluka) and finally
perishes into sub–parishes. At all level the chief were Kabaka’s appointees.
5. Kabaka’s marriage in each clan.
The Buganda Kingdom had approximately 52 clans, each with its own
leadership. These provided the basis for the political unity for the whole
administration of the Kingdom. For the sake of political harmony in the
Kingdom, Kabaka married almost from every important clan. Hence
intermarriages were a political weapon and created the possibility of getting
Kabaka from any clan.
6. Agriculture.
Good climate and fertile soil favored crop cultivation. Due to the availability of
goods, the population of the Kingdom began in tinkles and became flooded.
Also some of them engaged in livestock keeping (pastoralism).
7. Trade
The Buganda Kingdom developed trading contacts with he neighbors that were
under governance of Kabaka. Because the Buganda were excellent bark clothes
manufactures they participated in commercial activities by exchanging bark
clothes for items such as iron tools and with the Bunyoro and cow , cattle,
groundnuts and simsim with the iteso , langi and Ankelo.
NB: It is clear stated that the second half of 19 th C, Buganda was one of the
highly centralized Kingdom in the intercontinental region, Kingdom that had
sound organization in the field of politics economic and social set up.

DECENTRALIZED SOCIETIES (STATES)

Page 18 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

In decentralized societies, basic unit of political organization was a clan,


various clans constituted a tribe. These societies were clan head loyal clan
authority. The clan head was chosen from among the elders when they merited
the qualities of leadership such as his influence, wisdom and age, wealth.

Decentralized societies, had the following


characteristics or attributes:-
1. With equal rights to other members of the clan, the ruler had the
responsibility of leading the clan but his position was hereditary. He resigned
from power after the election of a new clan head, which took place whenever
the former clan head became unpopular and was too old to perform his
responsibilities.
2. There were no outstanding armies; the defense of the clan was carried out by
all able bodied people (men). This was due to the fact that these societies did
not involve in expansionistic policy and wars were scarce.
3. The clan elders works to solve internal conflicts but if they become difficult
they were transferred to the general Assembly, voting made the final decision
compared to the centralized societies in which the Kings made the ultimate
decision and was final court of appeal

TOPIC 2: AFRICA AND EUROPE IN THE 15TH CENTURY


i. There are divergent views that have been advanced by various historians
regarding the African continent when it came into contact with capitalist in
Europe. According to Eurocentric scholars, they claimed that before the advent
of colonial rule, African societies didn’t have any kind of development; however
African scholars argued that the continent had achieved a significant level of
development in economic, social and political aspects.
Development can be defined as the improvement in economic, social and
political aspects.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
i . Trade
There are strong evidences of trading activities in pre colonial Africa. There
were different types of trade i.e. local and long distance trade.
Local trade was the type of trade that was conducted within a given
community.
Long distance trade was the type of trade which took place between one region
and another. There was a long distance trade in east Africa which took place
between the interior and coastal people of east Africa.

Page 19 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The main participants were the kamba and nyamwezi from the interior and the
Arabs and Swahili traders from the coast.
ii . Agriculture
By the fifteen century agriculture had developed in Africa. There were various
types of agriculture in pre colonial Africa. These included permanent crop
cultivation and shifting cultivation.
Permanent crop cultivation took place in areas that received a lot of rainfall
and fertile land. Mixed farming took place in those areas whose soil lost its
fertility easily, thus forcing the farmers to shift from one piece of land to
another land looking for fertile land. Mixed farming was widely practiced in the
savanna region.
iii Manufacturing industries.
By the 15 th century Africa had developed a number of manufacturing
industries such as salt making and copper mining. Salt making took place at
Tagaza and Bilma in West Africa and uvinza in Tanganyika. Salt was not only
used as an ingredient but also for preserving perishables.
Copper mining activities found in Africa by the 15 th century. Copper was only
used for making ornaments. In central Africa, the Katanga region was famous
for mining and processing copper. Copper mining also took place along the
Gwai River in Zimbabwe
iv Maritime technology.
To a certain extent African societies had developed maritime technology, this
was around water bodies. The societies that had acquired this technology are
the Ganda and kerewe in east Africa; these were making canoes that facilitated
their movement along rivers and lakes.
v Iron technology.
By the 15 th century most parts of Africa had developed the art of making iron
and using iron. In Africa the knowledge of making iron and use of iron tools
developed at different times and at different places. The first places to use iron
were Ethiopians and Egyptians. At around 200BC Meroe & Axum became
important sector for the production of iron
POLITICAL SYSTEMS
During the 15 th century, there were various political organizations in pre
colonial Africa. This included the following
i Age set system.
This refers to the allocation of social functions according to sex and age groups.
This system was mainly practiced by pastoral societies such as the Maasai of
east Africa. The Maasai assigned social functions according to age groups.
Example; from age of 0 – 8 no social functions were given, from 8 – 18 years,
the boys were supposed to graze the animals.

Page 20 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

ii Clan organization.
This refers to control by clan head. This system mainly developed in the
savanna region. The main economic activities were mixed farming and shifting
cultivation. Mixed farming involved the cultivation of crops and animal keeping.
Shifting cultivation involved the movement from one place to another searching
for fertile land because the soil easily loses its fertility. Shifting cultivation
made land very important, therefore societies needed strong leadership that
would control and distribute land thus the rise of clan organization.
iii .State organization. The state is a large political unity with a heterogeneous
population having a centralized system with powers to collect tributes. Most of
the states in Africa were formed in the interlacustrine region which received
heavy rainfall throughout the year. This type of environment supported the
increase in production that led to increase in population thus contributing to
the formation of states such as Buganda and Karagwe in east Africa.
FACTOR FOR THE RISE OF STATE IN AFRICA
There was feudal centralized state where the power was in hand feudula lords
FACTOR FOR THE RISE OF STATE IN EUROPE
i. Changing of Trade organization, (to mechantalism) ii. Organization of security
iii. Encouragement of production within empires for market iv. Formation of
foreign policy (colonial policy) abroad so as to have primitive accumulation
through piracy, banditry and looting.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST WESTERN EUROPEAN POLITICAL SYSTEM WITH
AFRICAN ONES IN THE 15th CENTURY.
i/ Comparison • Both were ruled by kings or queen or chiefs - Example, Mani
Nzinga – Congo. • Function of the king were the same, In protection of citizens
and defense for security for • Both defend or encourage exploitation of serfs by
land lords. • Both encourage trade. Example: (a) In Africa, were engage in long
distance trade. (b) In Europe – merchantile trade.
ii/ Contrasts • Duration of the modal/ centralized state In Africa it was in pre-
mature but in Europe of was reached, its mature • Emergence of merchants
who challenged the rolling class while in Africa was not so • In Europe was
Broad rolling class (complex) but in Africa was very parochial. • In Europe
states Formation appeared after the turn of Roman empire for disintegration of
slavery (and of slavery in Europe in Africa was not produced as a mode of
production. • In Europe 15th , there was great changes in Feudalism, It was
highest peak and break down to give room to capitalism. • Enclosure system in
Europe while in Africa was not so • Highest level of education in Europe than
Africa.
i. Education
This refers to the transmission of skills, knowledge and norms from one
generation to the other. By the 15 th century Africa had its own education
system which was largely informal in character. The young people acquired
Page 21 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

knowledge by imitating the behavior of the elders. However it should be noted


that there was literacy in pre colonial Africa especially along the Nile River in
Egypt and Mali
ii. Religion
There is strong evidence that by the 15 th century Africa had its own religion.
Religious ceremonies were presided over by community elders, Example the
laibon of the Maasai and the clan heads of clan organization. These elders were
responsible for supervising religious ceremonies like organizing sacrifices.
SIGNIFICANCE OF TRADE IN THE SOCIETIES BETWEEN AFRICA AND
EUROPE
1. Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to specialization where by a
group of people emerged and specialized in different economic activities for
example in Africa they emerged a group of specialized in agriculture, fishing,
iron melting, pastoralism and trade as well as in Europe there was emerged of
groups of people who specialized in different economic activities such as
traders (merchant kings), people who specialized in farming etc.
2. Both trade found in Africa and Europe during the 15 th C led to the
development of science and technology in African and European societies. For
Example It led to the development of ship building and, marine technology and
compass bearing where by traders used advanced to travel in other parts of the
world to look for raw materials, market, cheap labour etc. while in Africa there
was development of different science and technologies which enabled traders to
travel from one areas to another. For Example In West Africa traders across
Trans-Saharan desert used camels from (West Africa) to (North Africa) used
horse as means of transport.
3. Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to emergence of state (state
formation). for example in Africa Ghana, Songhai, Mali, Oyo, Benin,
Mwanamutapa empire, Mirambo empire as well as in Europe there was
emergence of states especially in Britain and later on in France due to the
trade. In Addition to that, the trade found in both Africa and Europe led to
emergence of trading centers and growth of towns which later led to
urbanization in both Africa and Europe. Example in Dodoma, Walata, Gao,
Jere, but we also had some towns like Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Kilwa,
Pete, Lamu etc. as well as in Europe there ware towns due to trade such as
Liverpool, Yorkshire, Manchester, Venice, etc.
4. Both trades in Africa and Europe lead to emergence of goods and strong
leaders who later controlled the state for example in Africa Mansa Kankan
Musa (Mali), Askia Mohamed (Songhai), and Mwenemutapa (Mwenemutapa
Empire).
5. Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to emergence of strong army
which was well disciplined to protect state and its routes for example in Britain
there was emergence of navy army.

Page 22 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

6. Both trades found in Africa and Europe led to emergence of people who later
became rich because of being involving in the system of exchange in the
societies. For Example Kings and individual traders who involved were involved
in the trade became rich. For Example in Africa Mansa Musa, Askia,
SamouriToure, Mirambo, Mwenemutapa and In Europe Kings also became rich
because they got much profit from trade.
7. Both trades found in Africa and Europe led emergence of strong faith
because the trade lead to unity among the people in the society. For example
the Trans-Saharan trade in Africa led to emergence of Islamic faith West and
North Africa while in some East African societies there was emergence of
Christianity due long distance trade (LTD) as well as in Europe there were
emergence of Christianity due to trade conducted between European societies.
8. Trades especially in Europe during 15 th C lead to the growth of industries
where by different industries were built using the wealth accumulated from
trade. For Example Textile industries, Agricultural equipment industries.etc
9. Trade especially in Europe led to establishment of financial institutions like
banks such as Barclays, House Lord in Britain after the merchant Kings and
other. Traders had accumulated profit from the trade conducted between
European nations and other continents of the world.

IMPACTS OF TRADE (SYSTEM OF EXCHANGE) BETWEEN AFRICA AND


EUROPE DURING THE 15 TH CENTURY
1.The trade led to stagnation of African technology simply because Africans
who were skillful and knowledgeable were taken as slaves to offer their labour
in big plantations and mining established by European absentee owners in
America during the 15 th C.
2.The Trade also led to exploitation of African natural resources such as
minerals, raw materials etc was taken specifically for the development of
European nations.
3.The trade conducted between Africa and Europe during 15 th lead to
destruction of African culture and introduction of European culture in Africa
because it was during this contact African way of living, dressing style,
marriage, eating Etc were destroyed by Europeans as Africans began to imitate
what Europeans brought to African societies.
4. Trade contact between Africa and Europe during the 15 th C led to fall and
rise of some African states. African states which existed before the contact
between Africa and Europe during the 15 th C collapsed like western sudanic
states (Ghana, Songhai.etc.) while some other African states like Dahomey
emerged due to the fact that their leaders and prosperity of the state depended
on the triangular slave trade.
5. Trade lead to the collapse of African trade that existed before the 15 th C
hence led to underdevelopment of African continent and development of

Page 23 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

European nations simply because it was that trade that culminated the
situation for European development in all aspects (socially, economically and
politically) and African underdevelopment in all aspects.
6. The Contact between Africa and Europe during the 15 th C paved way for
African colonization simply because this trade is the one which led to the influx
of agents of colonialism such as trades, missionaries and explorers started
their colonial ambition in Africa to explore the potential areas such as
agricultural areas, mineral areas, lakes (water bodies) etc. hence colonialism.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE BY THE 15 TH
CENTURY
SIMILARITIES
1. Both Africa and Europe had developed in medicine technology to cure
various diseases whereby they use roots, herbs and drugs to cure some
diseases like malaria, cholera, etc.
2. Both societies had developed in iron technology where by some agricultural
tools and many things were made both in Africa and Europe; example in Africa
iron technology was found in Mwenemutapa Empire, Engaruka and in Britain,
France.etc.
3. Both in Africa and Europe societies engaged in cultivation of crops; for
example in Egypt there was a high development of farming activities especially
through irrigation system along the river Nile especially during the dry seasons,
In Zambezi basin there was agricultural development in which people practiced
intensive terracing farming and in Europe there was use of irrigation system
and use of scientific methods of farming during enclosure system
4. Both societies engaged in handcraft activities for example both societies
made things like pots, baskets, mats and other vessels for their own
development.
5.Both societies developed in navigation technology for example in Europe
there was ship building industries compass direction and compass bearing
where by European merchant were used to cut across big seas and ocean while
in Africa societies used canoes and dhows as the major means of water
transport; for example along Nile river, along the shore of Lake Victoria,
Tanganyika, Nyasa.etc. Canoes were used for fishing and ferrying people and
goods from one place to another.
6. Both societies (Africa and Europe) had developed in an architecture
engineering technology. For example in the ancient Mwenemutapa Empire
around Zimbabwe, Egypt and Sudan there were great architecture technology.
for example in Zimbabwe they built 30/20 feet high by using stones and in
Egypt at Giza plateau near Cairo the great pyramids consisted of two million of

Page 24 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

block of stones each weighing more than two tones like in Europe there were
big buildings found in big towns of Europe like Paris, London.etc.
7. Both societies made weapons for self defense, security and conquering weak
states; for example both societies made weapons like swords, arrows, axes,
spears, machetes, aves, shields and matchet guns.
DIFFERENCES
1.European societies were highly developed in animal breeding under enclosure
system while Africa had not developed animal breeding under enclosure
system.
2. Africans were highly advanced in animal husbandry than European societies
this might be even up to now.
3. European societies were in transition from domestic (Cottage industries) to
factory system (big manufacturing industries) than in Africa where there is no
any sign of transition to factory system.
4. European societies were advanced more in navigation technology than in
Africa. for example by the 15 th C European societies had ship building
technology, compass direction and compass bearing which helped European
merchant to cut across big oceans and seas to trade with other societies of the
world while Africans used canoes to paddle and dhows in order to navigate in
big rivers and along the shores of lakes and oceans.
5. Europeans were more advanced in gun making and bombs than Africans;
the gun smiths were better than those of Africa in 15 th C. This shows the
reason why the Europeans (particularly the Portuguese) managed to defeat
African societies easily along the coast of Indian Ocean and managed to
establish city states along East African coast.
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPEAN
FEUDAL MODES OF PRODUCTION

FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE RISE OF MERCANTILISM IN EUROPE


There are various factors that contributed to the rise of mercantilism in
Europe;
a) Improvement of science and technology.
This played a great role to the rise of mercantilism. Maritime technology made
it possible for the European countries to conduct trade overseas. The ships
enabled the transportation of large quantities of goods to various countries in
the world.
b) Development of internal trade.
The development of internal trade contributed significantly to the rise of
mercantilism because it introduced various items of trade. These goods were
exchanged with other goods during the Trans – Atlantic slave trade, the
Page 25 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Europeans provided Africans with clothes and spirit in return for goods such
as gold and silver.
c) Enclosure system.
The enclosure system involved passing laws by the parliament whereby wealthy
land owners bought land from the peasants. The small peasants and common
land in villages of Britain had to be grouped together and out under individual
capitalist’s farms. The enclosure system increased agricultural production that
facilitated trading activities.
d) Development of the banking system.
There were various banks that were established in Britain e.g. Barclays bank.
These banks contributed to the rise of mercantilism by providing loans and
grants to the merchants who wanted to trade overseas.
e) Rise of nation states.
The rise of nation states contributed to the rise of mercantilism in Europe.
European monarchies such as the Tudor monarchy played a great role in the
rise of mercantilism by giving security to the merchants which encouraged
them to engage in mercantile activities.
f)Geographical discoveries.
This was made by different scholars, contributed to the rise of mercantilism.
Christopher Columbus discovered America which was followed by the
establishment of capitalist enterprises such as farms and mining which
encouraged trading activities.
g) Rise of the Trans Atlantic slave trade.
The Trans Atlantic slave trade was an economic system that involved three
continents i.e. Africa, Europe and America. The trading system consolidated
mercantilism by making it possible for European countries to trade with Africa
and America. Africa provided slaves, America produced raw materials and
Europe provided manufactured goods.

THE ROLE OF THE TUDOR MONARCHY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF


MERCANTILISM IN ENGLAND
Before the industrial revolution, the dominant form of capital in Western
Europe was merchant capital, it was capital obtained from trade. Western
Europe came into contact with the rest of the world through trade; this system
of trade is known as mercantilism.
The development of mercantilism in England went through two faces namely;
a) First phase which took place from mid 15th C – mid 17 th C.
b) Second phase which took place from mid 17th C – mid 18 th C.

Page 26 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The first phase was associated with the Tudor monarchy was an English
dynasty that descended from King Henry VII to Elizabeth I.
The Tudor monarchy played a significant role in the rise of mercantilism in
England.
a) Acquisition of colonies.
The Tudor monarchy helped the merchants to acquire colonies. Colonies were
important in the whole system of mercantilism because they provided markets
and raw materials such as gold and silver which were needed by the
merchants.
b) Chartered trading companies.
The Tudor monarchy charted trading companies had given them exclusive
rights to trade all over the world. The most importance of these companies were
the royal Africa company charted in 1588 in order to organize slave trade and
east India company chartered in 1600 for trading with India and the far east
including china and Japan.
c) Set up navigation acts.
The Tudor monarchy set up navigational acts of the 17 th C which were
introduced to monopolize the rights to transport goods into and from the
colonies as well as the profits obtained from transportation between the mother
land and the colony.
d) Ensured constant supply of wool.
The Tudor monarchy assured the merchants constant supply of wool by
stopping the export of wool. Wool was important as a raw material in the textile
industries. The textile industries were very important during the early days of
the industrial revolution in Britain.
e) Promoted organization.
The Tudor monarchy provided organization of merchant groups for the
exploitation and settlement in the new world. By the 17 th C, many Britons
were investing overseas, these included members of parliament and merchants.
f) Security.
The Tudor monarchy assured the merchants protection on the high seas from
pirates. Mercantilism was characterized with primitive accumulation of capital;
one of the methods used to acquire capital was piracy, thus the assurance of
protection encouraged the merchants to engage in trade.
g) Provided loans.
The Tudor monarchy provided loans and grants to the merchants, the
provisions of loans and grants encouraged the merchants to engage in
mercantile activities thus leading to the development of mercantilism in
Britain.
h) Developed and consolidated maritime technology.

Page 27 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The Tudor monarchy contributed to the development of mercantilism in Britain


by developing and consolidating maritime technology. Maritime technology
made it possible for the merchants to trade overseas with Africa and America
thus the rise of mercantilism.
i) Discarded feudal elements.
The Tudor monarchy abandoned feudal elements and promoted capitalism,
this led to the emergency of the merchant class. The merchant class conducted
trade overseas which contributed to the rise of mercantilism.
Sources of primitive accumulation of capital during mercantilism
a) Long distance trade.
The capitalists obtained capital from the long distance trade that was
conducted among various continents such as Africa, America and Asia. This
was the Trans Atlantic slave trade. European countries acquired capital by
accumulating precious metals such as gold and silver which was based on
unequal exchange.
b) Crusades
These wars were fought between the Muslims and the Christians from the 11
th to 12 th centuries. The Christians claimed that these were holly wars which
aimed at the holly lands from the Arabs. It should be noted that the wars were
accompanied with massive looting which formed the basis of primitive
accumulation of capital.
c) Confiscation of church property.
The church in England controlled large estates of land but between 1535 and
1539 AD. King Henry VIII following the advice of his chief minister Thomas
Cromwell decided to confiscate church property. The land was grabbed and
sold to the capitalist; this capital was acquired by using primitive means.
d) Feudal wars.
The feudal wars were very common in Europe especially between 1337 and
1453 AD. There was the hundred year’s war between the French and the
British monarchies. These wars were characterized with plundering and looting
which help the European powers to accumulate capital that contributed to the
rise of capitalism.
e) Enclosure system.
This system involved evicting peasants and serfs from their land. The land was
sold to the capitalist who organized it into compact forms and enclosed it. The
enclosure system contributed to the improvement of the agriculture sector
which led to the rise of the industrial revolution, but the eviction of the
peasants and serfs was a primitive act.
f) Protectionist policies.

Page 28 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Mercantilism was associated with protectionism especially in England which


was the major power during the mercantile period. The Tudor monarchy
introduced navigational acts that denied other countries from trading freely
with England and her colonies. This aimed at protecting the British interests.

WHY BRITAIN SUCCEEDED IN MERCANTILE TRADE


Britain was the most successful nation in Europe in mercantile trade especially
during the second phase which took place between the 15 th and 18 th
centuries. Britain was also the first country to industrialize because it was very
active during mercantilism. There are many factors that aided Britain to
dominate mercantilism in Europe or the world.
a) Role of Tudor monarchy.
The Tudor monarchy played a great role in the development of mercantilism in
Britain and ensuring that the country became the most powerful during the
mercantile period. The monarchy acquired colonies that provided raw materials
and markets to the merchants and it also promoted political stability that
encouraged domestic production.
b) Development of maritime technology.
Maritime technology first developed on a larger scale in Britain then it spread
to other countries. Maritime technology facilitated inters–continental trade that
greatly contributed to the development of mercantilism in Britain. Ever since
the 14 th C Britain has been enjoying an extra advantage over navy supremacy
than other European nations and used this advantage to dominate mercantile
trade.
c) Increase in internal production.
There are various changes that took place in the agricultural and industrial
sectors in Britain. These changes boosted internal production that stimulated
trade with other countries. Britain traded with north and South America, Asia
and Africa thus she was able to dominate other countries in mercantile
activities.
d) Acquisition of colonies.
Britain had so many colonies in Africa, America and China. These colonies
guaranteed the merchants sources of raw material and markets thus leading to
the development of mercantilism in Britain.
e) Imposition of protective tariffs.
The establishment of navigation acts of the 17 th C provided moral and
material support to the merchants by protecting them from competition. By
this law, all goods exported to British colonies had to be carried by British
ships and all goods from British colonies were supposed to be shipped first to
Britain before exporting them to other countries. The navigation acts played a
crucial role in helping Britain to dominate mercantilism.

Page 29 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

f) Enclosure system.
Britain was the first country to implement the enclosure system in the 16 th
century. The enclosure system involved grouping all peasants and common
land in the villages in two compact forms, this land was subjected to
commercial production. The enclosure system led to increase in production
which contributed to the development of mercantilism.
g) Exploitation of other countries.
Britain was able to exploit heavily the weak nations, Portugal depended heavily
on the military support from Britain against her rivals such as Spain and in
return Britain got economic gains. These activities contributed to the
development of mercantilism in Britain.

THE TRANS ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE


This refers to the type of trade that involved three continents Africa, America
and Europe. In this trading system, Africa was the source of cheap labor which
was in the form slaves. America was the source of raw materials and Europe
was the source of manufactured goods, hence the triangle. The main
participants were Britain, France, Holland and Portugal.
Origin
There are various factors that contributed to the rise of the Trans Atlantic slave
trade
a) Discovery of the new world.
The discovery of the new world that is America by Christopher Columbus in
1492 contributed to the rise of Trans Atlantic slave trade. The Europeans
rushed to America and established plantations and mining centers which
demanded for labor, this necessitated the importation of Africans thus the
beginning of the Trans Atlantic slave trade.
b) Discovery of maritime technology.
The discovery of the art of making ships and compass direction played a
fundamental role in the rise of the Trans Atlantic slave trade, this technology
made it possible for Europeans to trade with various countries across the
Atlantic Ocean.
c) The inability of the indigenous people.
At first the Europeans were using Native Americans, red Indians to provide
cheap labor on the plantations and mining centers; but these later died in huge
numbers due to plague. This called for the importation of African slaves which
contributed to the rise of the Trans Atlantic slave trade.
d) The establishment of plantations.
After the discovery of the new world, many Europeans flocked to America;
these included the British, French, Portuguese and the Dutch. Many of these

Page 30 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

immigrants established plantations that caused more demand for slave labor.
The increased demand contributed to the development of Trans–Atlantic slave
trade.
e) Accessibility.
The accessibility between the new world and the West African coast facilitated
the rise of the Trans Atlantic slave trade. The distance from West Africa to the
new world is very narrow thus it made it possible for the transportation of
goods between the two regions.

EFFECTS OF THE TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE IN AFRICA


The Trans Atlantic slave trade was a disaster to Africa. It is one of the factors
which contributed to under development in Africa.
(a) Economic effects
i. Removal of African labor; The Trans Atlantic slave trade was associated with
the uprooting of many Africans who were taken to provide cheap labor on
European plantations in America. The ones who were taken were between the
ages of 15 and 35 who made up the productive force in Africa.
ii. Stagnation of African technology; The Trans Atlantic slave trade contributed
to the stagnation of African technology. It led to the flooding of European
manufactured goods which were exchanged for slaves. Due to these goods , the
Africans found it easier to sell their fellow Africans in exchange for
manufactured goods hence they neglected production which led to the
stagnation of African technology.
iii. Decline of African agricultural production; There was decline in agricultural
production due to the loss of labor. Those who were taken as slaves were the
ones who were very active in farms, thus their removal led to shortage of labor
consequently causing the decline in agricultural production.
iv. Decline of African traditional industries; It contributed to the decline of
African traditional industries due to the flooding of European manufactured
goods. Due to these goods Africans abandoned production and exchanged their
fellow Africans with the Europeans goods. The manufactured goods from
Europe also destroyed African traditional industries by killing the market for
African local goods.
v. Insecurity; The major item of trade during the Trans–Atlantic slave trade was
slaves. The slaves were acquired through release of ambushing and raiding
various villages, these activities contributed to insecurity which disrupted trade
and agriculture.
(b) Social effects
i. Depopulation; It led to depopulation because millions of Africans were
uprooted and exported to America as cheap labor. It is believed that during the
400 years of slave trade, around 100,000,000 Africans were taken as slaves.

Page 31 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

ii.Famine; The Trans Atlantic slave trade contributed to famine in Africa. The
trade was characterized with insecurity because of slave trading activities, the
insecurity made it difficult for people to engage in agricultural production.
iii. Erosion of African culture; The Trans Atlantic slave trade was associated
with an influx of foreigners especially Europeans. This led to a destruction of
African traditional values because Africans were coping European culture.
iv. Break down families; There was break down of families because various
members were taken as slaves.
(c) Political effects
i. Fall of states; The Trans Atlantic slave trade contributed to the collapse of
some states in West Africa, these included Oyo and Benin. These states
collapsed because of slave trading activities which led to famine and
depopulation consequently leading their decline.
CONTRIBUTION OF MERCANTILISM TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALISM
IN EUROPE
Mercantilism had great impact in the development of industrial revolution and
the eventual transformation of European countries into big powers. The
European countries accumulated capital for around 300 years. It should be
noted that mercantilism was a blessing to Europe, but a tragedy to Africa. The
contribution of mercantile trade to the developing of European industrial
capitalism included the following;
I. Accumulation capital.
The European countries acquired a lot of capital from mercantilism. The
countries were able to accumulate a lot of capital throughout the 300 years of
mercantilism through unequal exchange, the obtained precious metals such as
gold, silver and diamond which they used to finance the industrial revolution.
II. Source of cheap labour.
Mercantilism was associated with slave trade, during this period millions of
Africans were uprooted and exported to America, where they provided

TOPIC 3: THE PEOPLE OF AFRICAN ORIGIN IN THE NEW WORLD


The new world in this context refers to the United States of America and the
Caribbean islands were most of the people of African origin were found.

Page 32 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The people of African origin in the new world were a product of Trans Atlantic
slave trade, this trade led to the exportation of many Africans in the form of
slaves to America to provide cheap labor on plantations and mines.
The origin or genesis of the African people in the new world/slavery
(a) Mercantilism
This was an economic system which involved conducting trade overseas
searching for gold and silver. Mercantilism led to the rise of the Trans – Atlantic
slave trade which was a trading activity which involved Africa, Europe and
America. During this trade millions of Africans were shipped to America to
provide cheap labor on plantations.
(b) Booming capitalist agriculture.
During mercantilism European capitalists established different plantations of
coffee, sugarcane, cotton and tobacco which called for massive supply of cheap
labor, thus the supply of white labor was getting difficult compared to the
expanding needs of the plantations, therefore called for importation of slaves
from Africa.
(c) Industrial revolution in Europe.
Due to the industrial revolution, there was a need to expand home markets
thus the merchants and the ruling class in Europe were afraid of under
population; this prompted the campaign against the use of white labor. The
crisis called for massive importation of slaves from Africa to provide cheap
labor on plantations.
(d) Africans slaves were cheap.
It’s on record that money paid to a white labor for ten years could procure an
African slave for life. In addition a white worker was expected to acquire land at
the end of the contract while an African slave was prevented by law from
owning land. This condition necessitated the use of African labor thus the
existence of people of African origin in the new world.
(e) Discovery of maritime technology.
This acted as a pushing factor for Africans to be taken as slaves. Maritime
technology eased transportation and guided the merchants to locate Africa.
Thus be in possession to transport people of African origin to the new world.
(f) Inability of the indigenous people.
Initially the Europeans were using Native Americans and red Indians to provide
cheap labor on the plantations and mining centers but these later died in huge
numbers due to plague. This called for an importation of African slaves which
contributed to the existence of people of African origin in the new world.
(g) Discovery of the new world.
The discovery of the new world by Christopher Columbus in 1492 contributed
to the existence of people of African origin in the new world. The discovery led

Page 33 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

to the establishment of plantations and mining centers that demanded for


cheap labor which called for importation of African slaves.

PROBLEMS FACED BY THE PEOPLE OF AFRICAN ORIGIN IN THE NEW


WORLD
The people of African origin faced various problems which were caused by the
development of capitalism. The European maintained certain conditions to
ensure the survival of capitalism at the expense of the people of African origin.
These problems are classified into political, economical and social aspects.
POLITICAL PROBLEMS
· Denied the right to vote.
The people of African origin were denied the right to vote, various measures
were put that made difficult for the black people to vote. The qualifications to
vote included one should have attained a certain level of income and had a
grandfather who was eligible to vote.
· Denied equal representation.
People of African origin were denied equal representation in the government. To
make matters worse; they were even denied the right to run for political office
hence they had no representatives in the government.
· Denied the right to make decisions.
People of African origin were denied the right to make decisions in the new
world; they lost all their rights as human beings hence they could not even
make decisions regarding their own lives.

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
· Denied the right to own land.
People of African origin were denied the right to own land, they were forbidden
by law to own land or any other property. This rendered them to be only
domestic servants in the new world.
· Poor working conditions.
People of African origin were exposed to poor working conditions on the
plantations owned by the whites. They signed contracts with planters were they
agreed to offer labor on conditions similar to those of slavery. On the
plantations, people of African origin were more often punished by the planters
and were paid low wages and in some cases they were not paid at all.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS
· Racial discrimination

Page 34 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The people of African origin were subjected to racial discrimination in all


aspects of life. Laws were established which restricted people of African origin
to live in separate and inferior sections of hospitals, cemeteries and toilet
facilities.
· Education
The people of African origin faced different problems in education system.
There was segregation in the education system whereby black people were
denied admission in secondary schools, colleges and universities because of
their race.
· Denied the right to marry.
Black people were denied the right to marry and be married. The capitalist
believed that marriage would hinder the exploitation of African labor since it
would become expensive to maintain the black people and their families. Laws
were also established that prohibited relations between a black and a white
man.
Due to the problems; the people of African origin began to wage struggles for
equality, economic power and civil rights. The development of class
consciousness among the people of African origin was caused by numerous
factors that contributed to the rise of black American nationalism.

BLACK AMERICAN NATIONALISM


The origin of black American nationalism was the exploitation and oppression
to which the black people were subjected. This situation forced the black
people to identify themselves as the group apart.
Black American nationalism manifested itself in different forms such as back to
African movement, pan African movement and the civil rights movement.

OBJECTIVES OF A BACK TO AFRICA MOVEMENT


a) Liberate people of African origin.
The movement wanted the people of African origin to be free from exploitation
and oppression by shipping them back to Africa. The supporters of this
movement argued that the people of African origin cannot attain economic and
political freedom in the USA thus the solution was to go back to Africa.
b) Formation of a strong African state.
The movement aimed at forming the strong African state which would restore,
respect and freedom to the people of African origin, the supporters of the
movement claimed that the formation of a strong African state will lead to the
elevation of African race.
c) Empower the people of African origin.

Page 35 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The movement aimed at empowering the black people economically by


establishing economic ventures and creating employment for the millions of
people of African origin that were living in poverty.
d) Raising nationalism in Africa.
The people of African origin (back to Africa movement) aimed at raising
nationalism in Africa. It wanted to unite all the black people in both the new
world and Africa to fight against oppression, exploitation and colonialism.
e) Regain fundamental rights.
The movement also aimed at bringing unity and solidarity among the people of
African origin. The black people had been denied the right to education, right to
freedom of expression and the right to marry and own property.
f) Cultivate a sense of unity.
The movement also aimed at bringing unity and solidarity among the people of
African origin. Unity was an important ingredient in the struggle to regain the
fundamental rights of the people of African origin.
Achievements of the back to Africa movement
a) Formation of the Universal Negros Improvement Association (UNIA).
The UNIA aimed at calling all people of African origin to establish universal
nationhood. The association wanted to emancipate people of African origin
from exploitation and oppression.
b) Launched a shipping agency.
The back to Africa movement undertook intensive back to Africa campaign and
launched a shipping agency called “black star shipping line” which shifted the
emancipated slaves back to Africa for example Liberia and sierra Leone.
c) Plan to form a strong African state.
The movement advocated for the need to form a strong African state which
would give the people of African origin the freedom from exploitation and
oppression, this centered on the formation of African unity which laid the
foundation of the organization of African unity.
d) Formation of the African republic.
The back to Africa movement established the African republic whereby it
opened large scale capitalist programs such as hotels and restaurants. These
investments provided employment opportunities to the black people who had
been denied employment.
e) Removal of inferiority complex of the Africans.
The movement promoted awareness and consciousness among the African race
and removed the inferior complex which most Africans had. Through various
publications and civil rallies many people of African origin got sensitized and

Page 36 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

begun to identify their position and their role to play in the dominant white
society.
f) Unity
The back to Africa movement promoted black solidarity among the black people
in the new world and in Africa. Unity was very crucial to the people of African
origin were to gain their fundamental right.
Hindrances to the back to Africa movement
There were so many hindrances that faced the back to Africa movement, these
included the following
1. Disunity
There were some people of African origin who preferred to remain in America
because they were not so certain to which part of Africa the movement
intended to take them. This complicated the interests of the movement.
2. A campaign of terror
A campaign of terror was unleashed against the members of the universal
Negro improvement association all over the state. Many of the members were
thrown out of their jobs and the key organizers were killed. This was a serious
setback to the cause of the movement.
3. Role of Britain and the USA.
Countries such as Britain and the USA worked very hard to frustrate Marcus
Garvey, one of the leaders of the back to Africa movement. In 1923 the
government of Liberia invited the members of universal Negros improvement
association to set up an African base in Liberia but these two countries
threatened to attack Liberia indeed when a team of technical experts arrived in
Liberia in 1824, they were arrested and deported to the USA.
4. Opposition from white American capitalists.
The UNIA was operating in the United States along capitalist lines hence it
created stiff competition with the white American capitalists who were
determined to assure its failure.
5. Deportation of Marcus Garvey.
The government of USA contributed to the failure of the back to Africa by
arresting Marcus Garvey and sentenced him to five years imprisonment, he
was later pardoned but deported to Jamaica in 1927 hence ending all hopes of
reviving the movement hence ending all hopes of reviving the movement.
6. Mass illiteracy.
The mass illiteracy of the people of African origin was the biggest challenge that
faced the back to Africa movement, almost 90% of the black people were
illiterate. Thus they were vulnerable to exploitation. Illiteracy made the people
of African origin an aware about their political, social and economic rights.

Page 37 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

PANAFRICANISM OR THE PAN AFRICAN MOVEMENT/black solidarity


Pan Africanism refers to the desire for African unity that tries to cultivate the
spirit of brotherhood among the black people in the new world.
Pan Africanism originated in America and the Caribbean islands in the early 20
th century. The movement was formed by the black people initially to stop slave
trade.
Pan Africanism was founded by Bladen and later on it was actuated William
Sylvester who convened the first pan Africanist conference, these were few
representatives from Africa but the majority came from America.
Aims of pan Africanism
· The movement also aimed at bringing unity and solidarity among the people
of African origin. Unity was an important ingredient in the struggle to regain
the fundamental rights of the black people.
· The movement aimed at fighting against colonialism in Africa and ensures
that Africans are given their self rule. The Africans were subjected to colonial
rule for a long period where they were exposed to all sorts of exploitation and
oppression.
· Rise consciousness of the black people towards elimination of their inferiority
complex which would restore respect and freedom to black people. The
supporters of the movement claimed that the formation of a strong state will
lead to the elevation of the African race.
· The movement wanted to liberate Africans from slave trade and slavery. Under
slavery the people of African origin were subjected to all evils. They were denied
the right to education, right to freedom of expression, right to marry and the
right to own property.
· The movement also wanted to regain the fundamental rights of the people of
African origin. They were denied right to education, right to freedom of
expression, right to marry and own property.
· Raise consciousness of the black people towards formation of the united
states of Africa which would have restore respects and freedom to the black
people. The supporters of the movement claimed that the formation of a strong
African state will lead the elevation of the African race.
· The movement aimed at empowering the black people economically by
establishing economic ventures and creating employment for the millions of
people of African origin that were living in poverty.

CONTRIBUTION OF PANAFRICANISM TO THE RISE OF AFRICAN


NATIONALISM

Page 38 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

· The pan Africanist movement united all Africans from all works of life to
oppose colonialism. The common desire for independence was a unifying factor
that terminated tribal interest, by uniting all Africans it became easy to oppose
colonial rule.
· The movement provided a forum or a platform where Africans could discuss
the grievance caused by colonialism in all the congresses of the movement, the
people of African origin discussed about implementing the spirit of oneness
among all the black people all over the world.
· The movement awakened the interests of the Africans to fight for
independence. During the conferences of the pan African movement, members
discussed a wide range of issues such as racial discrimination, unfair taxation
policies and land alienation which they were facing under colonial rule.
· The pan African movement played a big role in the rise of African nationalism
because it stressed that; the fight for political independence by the Africans
was a necessary step towards complete economic and social emancipation.
· The pan African congress chose total liberation in their struggle for
independence from Manchester; the activities of the movement were shifted to
Africa following the independence of Ghana in 1957. The capital city of Ghana,
Accra became the head quarters of pan Africanism where Kwame Nkrumah
spear headed the independence of many African countries.
· The movement represented the African continent in the international
conferences especially in the United Nations wanted to ensure that all
countries attain independence through the peaceful means.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PAN-AFRICANISM


The development of pan Africanism took place through summoning or holding
various conferences in various countries of Europe. These conferences aimed at
uniting people of African origin all over the world.
These conferences included the following;
· The pan African congress that took place in London in 1900.
This was the first conference which took place in London. The meeting was
summoned by Henry Sylvester Williams from the West Indies. It was at this
conference that Doctor Du Bois was introduced and he came to dominate the
movement for almost half of the century. The objects of the congress included
the following;
Ø To provide a forum for people of African origin to protest against European
exploitation and oppression.
Ø To bring all people of African origin into closer relationship, this was so
crucial in the struggle for their fundamental rights.
Ø To appeal to the people to end the colonization and exploitation of the African
people.
Page 39 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

This conference was able to lay the foundation for future solidarity of all people
of African origin and it planted the spirit of oneness of Africa all over the world.
· The Paris conference of 1919.
This was the second pan African movement which was held in Paris. This
conference was chaired by Du Bois. This conference took place at a time when
the Paris Peace Conference is taking place. This was the conference which was
signed after the First World War. In this conference the following points were
made
Ø The members recommended that an international law should be formed to
protect the Africans.
Ø The Africans should be guaranteed the right to education.
Ø The conference also supported the abolition of slave trade and capital
punishment.
· The London conference of 1921.
This was the third conference that was held in three sessions, that is in
London, Brussels and Paris. The conference emphasized the need to form
political parties and the need for international harmony. In 1944, the students’
crew and politicians, led by George Pardmore, Wallace Jackson and Jomo
Kenyatta formed a pan African federation.
· The fourth pan African congress.
The fourth congress was held in London and Lisbon in 1923. The members in
this congress maintained that the Africans should have a right to self
government.
· The fifth pan African congress.
This congress took place in New York in 1927; this was the last pan African
congress which was directly linked to Dr. Bois and George Pardmore. There
were conflicts which emerged between Marcus Garvey and Dr Bois. Marcus
Garvey one of the founders of back to Africa movement wanted to deport all
people of African origin back to Africa while Dr. Du Bois preferred to fight from
exile.
· The sixth pan African congress.
The pan African federation convened a radical congress in 1945 in Manchester.
This was a Manchester conference of 1945. This conference was inspired by
President Woodrow Wilson of the United States who declared the principle of
self determination.
This was the conference that demanded complete independence for the
Africans. After the conference the intellectuals went back to Africa to mobilize
the people for independence instead of remaining in Europe.
The conference was attended by a number of nationalist leaders from Africa
such as Jomo Kenyatta, Kwame Nkrumah, NnandiAzikiwe, Peter Abrahams

Page 40 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

and Wallace Jackson. The members at this conference adopted the following
resolutions
Ø The members demanded complete independence from colonial rule, they
argued that “We demand black African autonomy independence, so far and no
further than it is possible in this one world for groups of people to rule
themselves”.
Ø They also demanded universal suffrage and condemned colonialism
NOTE: The African nationalists such as kwame Nkrumah, kamuzu Banda and
NnandiAzikiwe studied in the United States of America thus they had been
enlightened about them to take an active role in the pan African movement.

THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTS IN THE USA


The civil rights movements was an ideological and political movement of people
of African origin in America that demanded for total democracy which allow the
citizens of America both black and white to participate fully in the economic,
political and social affairs of the country.
The movement was advocating for equal rights and fair treatments to all people
irrespective of their races. The main architects of this movement were Martin
Luther King and Malcolm X.
The objectives of the civil rights movements
· To end all kinds of discrimination.
The main objective of the movement was to end all kinds of discrimination and
segregation of people of African origin in America. The people of African origin
had been subjected to political, social and economic forms of discrimination
and segregation.
· Create an ideal American society.
Create an ideal American society by enforcing the implementation of the
American constitution to grant people of African origin the same human rights
as accorded to the white people.
· Equal employment opportunities.
To enforce the government to grant equal employment opportunities to people
of African origin were denied employment especially on federal projects and
departments.
· Right to vote.
To enforce the government to grant people of African origin the right to vote
and to be voted for. This was one of the major objectives of the civil rights
movement because the people of African origin had been segregated from
affairs of their country.
· Developing unity and solidarity.

Page 41 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The movement aimed at developing unity and solidarity of all the people of
African origin in America. The movement wanted to sensitize people of African
origin to identify their position in the society and their vision and direction.
· Basic needs
The movement also wanted to ensure that the people of African origin are given
their basic needs. They summarized their demands in the final point, “we need
land, bread, housing and education” the blank panther party suggested that if
businesses and the government did not provide for full employment, the
community should take over the means of production.
· Stamp out slavery.
The movement wanted to stamp out slavery and improve the working
conditions of people of African origin. After the civil war, slavery was abolished
but people of African origin were still working in conditions that were not
different from those of slavery.
Achievements of the civil rights movements
The civil rights movement registered great success in fighting for the rights of
black people in the United States of America. It marked a turning point in the
economic, political and social well being of the black people.
· The people of African origin or black people were given the right to vote and to
be voted for political positions in the United States. For example they should be
governors of the state, mayors of cities, congress representatives, ambassadors
and military commanders and presidents.
· The USA government recognized that positive actions were needed to improve
the opportunities of the black people in the United States. The government
decided that public and private institutions that employed black people should
be considered in terms of tax concession.
· The black people are also entitled to welfare benefits as much as the whites.
These benefits included unemployment benefits, housing subsidies and state
scholarships.

TOPIC 4: FROM COLONIALISM TO THE FIRST WORLD


WAR (1880S-1914) COLONIAL RIVALRY IN AFRICA
The development of capitalism in Europe led to the development of the
industrial revolution which started in Britain in 1750 and by the end of the18
th century Britain was the only industrialized nation in the world. However in
the 19 th century, other European countries such as France, Belgium,
Germany and Italy also industrialized.

Page 42 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The industrialization of almost all European countries meant that there was no
area to expand within European hence there was the need to find colonies.
From 1870 monopoly capitalism demanded for the following:-
(a) Markets
(b) Raw materials
(c) Cheap labor
(d) Investment areas
(e) Areas to resettle surplus labor force.
Therefore the demands made capitalism to change to its monopolistic stage
called imperialism. Colonialism was therefore linked with the development of
capitalism in Europe, in the sense that it was undertaken to meet the demands
of capitalism.
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICA
The scramble for Africa refers to the way European powers struggled among
themselves to acquire colonies in Africa while the partition of Africa refers to
the different steps taken by the European powers to divide Africa into
territories and fixing colonial boundaries.
The major European powers that were involved in this exercise were Britain,
Germany, France, Portugal and Belgium.
By 1880’s it was only Africa which was not colonized therefore it became the
centre of imperialist attention which was driven by the development of
capitalism.
FACTORS THAT DETERMINED THE CONFIGURATION OR THE PATTERN OF
THE SCRAMBLE FOR AND PARTITION OF AFRICA
During the scramble and partition of Africa; there were some areas that
witnessed serious conflicts among the imperialist powers for example the
Congo Niger basin. There were various factors that determined the pattern of
the scramble for and partition of Africa.
(a) Accessibility into the interior of Africa.
The imperialist powers scrambled for those areas that offered means of
transport into the interior of Africa. These powers were interested in the
interior because they wanted raw materials and markets where they can sell
their manufactured goods. This explains why the Congo River was competed
from the Belgium, France, and Portugal and the Niger River were competed for
by France, Britain and Germany.
(b) Strategic factors.
This is one of the factors that determined the pattern of the scramble and the
partition of Africa. Britain controlled Egypt because of the Suez Canal which
was used to transport raw materials and manufactured goods into and outside
Africa.

Page 43 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Britain also controlled Uganda because it wanted to protect the source of river
Nile which is found in Uganda.
(c) Agricultural potentialities.
The imperial powers struggled for areas that had fertile soils that could support
the growth of cash crops. Various powers struggled for the Congo and Niger
rivers because the areas around the rivers were very fertile and therefore
suitable for cash crop production.
(d) Mineral potentialities.
The imperials powers struggled for areas that had minerals in large quantities.
Colonies such as Zimbabwe was very vital because it had large amounts of gold
and diamond. Many imperialist powers were also interested in the Congo (DRC)
because of the existence of large quantities of copper.
(e) Population
Population was one of the major factors that determined the nature of the
scramble and partition of Africa. The colonial powers struggled for those areas
with high population because they ensured constant supply of cheap labor and
ready markets for the European manufactured goods.
ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE OF AFRICA
The partition of Africa marked the end of Africa’s political independence and
the beginning of subjection to foreign rule. In the event of establishing colonial
rule, the European powers used different methods depending on nature and
attitude of the nature population. Sometimes the methods depended on the
prevailing circumstances on the ground such as geographical location of the
colony.
The tactics that were used to establish colonial rule include the following:-
(a) Treaty signing
(b) Use of military force
(c) Alliances
(d) Gun butt diplomacy
(e) Mercenary technique
(f) Berlin conference
(a) Treaty signing.
This was one of the most common techniques that were used to establish
colonial rule in Africa. The European powers urged African leaders to sign
treaties with the European claiming to give protection against their local and
foreign enemies. Karl Peters signed treaties African chiefs in Tanganyika which
put Tanganyika under German control.
Moffat an Anglican Missionary encouraged Lobengula.
(b) Use of Military force.

Page 44 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Sometimes direct military confrontation was used to establish colonial rule in


Africa. The military was used in areas that resisted the establishment of
colonial rule. The British used military force against the Nandi in Kenya and
the Germans used force against the Hehe and Abushiri in Tanganyika.
The colonial powers used force because they were determined to establish their
rule in Africa so as to exploit African resources.
(c) Alliances.
This method was used in areas were two societies were in conflict, that is
situation of enmity. The colonial powers allied with one society against the
other one and then controlled all of them together. In Tanganyika the German
sided with Sango and Bena against Hehe and in central Africa, the British
allied with chief Lewanika of lozi Kingdom against lobengula of the Ndebele
people in Zimbabwe.
This led to the defect of Lobengula and the final colonization of Zimbabwe by
the British
(d) Gun butt diplomacy.
This was the tactique where the colonial powers had threatened to use force
but they did not actually use force. This method aimed at forcing African into
submission. This method was used by British against King Jaja of Opobo in
West Africa.
(e) Mercenary Technique.
In this policy, colonial powers used Africans to establish their rule in Africa.
Here they used people who had no blood ties with the people who are being
invaded for example the Germans used the Rugaruga in Tanganyika.
(f) Berlin Conference.
This was one of the methods used to establish colonial rule in Africa. This
conference legalized the scramble for and partition of Africa. It laid down the
principles that were to be followed when controlling Africa. One of the
principles was effective occupation of African territories.
THE COLONIAL STATE
The colonial state refers to the extension of the metropolitan state in the
colony. The colonial state was established immediately after scramble for and
partition of Africa. It was followed by the establishment of the colonial
economy.
The colonial state was an instrument of the colonialists and not the African
masses. It was responsible for the exploitation and oppression of the colonies.
Objectives of the colonial state:-
(a) The colonial state was supposed to provide a link between the colonies and
the metropolitan state. It had to ensure that the demands of the capitalists are
satisfied such as the acquisition of raw materials and markets.

Page 45 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

(b) The colonial state was supposed to enforce laws and orders in the colony.
These laws were supposed to ensure that the interests of the capitalists are
protected.Laws concerning land alienation and taxation were meant to ensure
the exploitation of African resources.
(c) The colonial state was supposed to suppress or control African resistance
against colonial. The suppression of African resistance aimed at ensuring that
there is a good atmosphere for the exploitation of African resources. This
explains why resistances such as Majimaji in Tanganyika and Nandi in Kenya
had to be defeated at any cost.
(d) The colonial state was supposed to construct physical infrastructure such
as roads and railways. These establishments could not be established by
individual capitalists thus it was the duty of the colonial state to establish
them. The roads and railways facilitated the colonial economy by transporting
raw materials and manufactured goods.
(e) The colonial state was supposed to supervise colonial production in the
colonies. The Africans in the colonies were supposed to produce cash crops and
minerals that were needed in the metropolitan capitalist countries. Primarily
the colonial economy was supposed to respond to the demands of the
metropolitan economies.
(f) The colonial state was supposed to provide security and protection to the
white settlers. The colonial state established the judiciary, prisons and the
police. The colonial state was imposed on the Africans thus it received state
was imposed on the Africans thus it received resistance from the Africans, thus
the colonial state had to ensure the safety of the Africans.

SIGNIFICANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE COLONIAL ECONOMY


Significance of agriculture in colonial economy within African colonies may be
seen from the advantages which colonialists got after the establishment of
agriculture and to less extent Africans also benefited.
1. Agriculture led colonialists to get raw materials such as (cotton, tea, sisal,
Pyrethrum, cocoa.etc)that were needed in their capitalists industries for more
development.
2. Expansion of market for European manufactured goods such as Agricultural
tools.
3. It destroyed African technology in order to avoid competition with African
technology.
4. Facilitated exploitation of African resources for the benefit of European
capitalist, resources being both human and natural resources.
5.Agriculture boosted the development of industries in Europe because
industries operated nicely because of enough availability of raw materials.

Page 46 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

6. Agriculture led to the construction of social services infrastructure like


schools which prepared African elites such Mwl. Julius KambarageNyerere,
Jomo Kenyatta and hospitals.Other physical infrastructures like roads and
railways were contracted for transporting raw material from productive areas to
the coast to full fill the interests of capitalists.
HOW THE COLONIAL STATE WAS VIOLENT
The main objective of the colonial state was to establish the colonial economy
that would respond to the demands of the metropolitan economies, in
establishing such an economy. The colonialists used extreme violence and that
is why many scholars such as Frants Fanon asserted that, the colonial state
was the most violent.
The colonial state used various measures to ensure that the needs of
capitalism are met; these measures show that the colonial state was violent.
(a) Colonial conquest.
The colonial state used the military during the establishment of colonial rule.
Those African societies that put up stiff resistance against the colonialists, the
colonial state responded by using force e.g. Force was used by the British
against the Nandi in Kenya and by the Germans against the Hehe in
Tanganyika.
(b) Exploitation, which included
· Introduction of taxes.
The colonial state introduced taxes such as the pole and hut taxes as ways of
getting revenue to run the colonies. The collection of these taxes was done in a
very brutal manner. Those Africans who failed to pay taxes were usually
flogged and some were even killed, these actions show the violent nature of the
colonial state.
· Acquisition of cheap labour.
The colonial state used violent means to acquire labour. It introduced various
labor laws in Africa to ensure constant supply of labor on economic
enterprises; these labor laws include the Kipande system in Kenya and the
pass laws in South Africa and Zimbabwe. When the Africans failed to provide
labor, punishment was meted out.
· The colonial policy of land alienation was associated with use of violence.
Land alienation was supposed to create room for cash crop production and
mining activities. The police used to force people away from their land so that it
can be used for colonial production.
(c) Suppression of African resistance against the colonial economy.
The colonial state used force to crash Africans, who resisted the establishment
of colonial economy. The colonial state used the military against the Nama-
Herero resistance in Namibia and the Majimaji in Tanganyika.

Page 47 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

(d) Destruction of African traditional industries.


The colonial state destroyed African traditional industries to ensure that Africa
remains a producer of raw materials and a market for European manufactured
goods. The destruction of these industries involved the use of force. E.g. in
Belgian Congo the colonial state decided it was illegal for Africans to engage in
handcraft industries, those who are caught will have their hands chopped off.
(e) Distribution of colonial social services.
The distribution of colonial social services such as education and health
involved the use of violence (psychological). These services were made available
only in those areas where the production of raw materials took place. E.g. in
Tanganyika there was mainly offered in Arusha ,Morogoro etc. Those areas that
had nothing to offer to the colonialists were danced education.
NOTE:-
Given the above scenario; one rightly assets that the colonial state was the
most violent or ruthless because it used the element of force to satisfy the
interests of the capitalists in the metropolitan countries.
FACTORS WHICH DETERMINED THE INTRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT
SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE IN THE COLONIES.
(i) Dense population made it difficult for and alienation to be practiced. Settler
and plantation agriculture was impossible to develop, thus peasant agriculture
was reinforced.
(ii) Centralized and strong kingdoms were preferred for indirect rule and a
peasants economy rather than settle and plantation system were introduced.
These kingdoms proved to be on the establishment of settler agriculture. In this
regard, peasant agriculture was introduced. The notable examples are Buganda
and Northern Nigeria.
(iii) Different governors preferred peasant agriculture. For example, Governor
Harry John stone of Uganda and Governors Horrace, Byatt and Sir Donald
Cameroon of Tanganyika preferred peasant agriculture.
(iv) Territorial and nationality problems. Before 1919, Tanganyika was ruled by
Germans, but after the First World War, it was ruled by the British.
Disagreements appeared regarding various issues of administration and the
creation of a settler colony. Thus peasant agriculture dominated in many parts
of Tanganyika.
(v) There was always a labour supply problem when the economy favored. only
one crop.
(vi) Nature of the crops. Certain crops such as cotton, coffee and cocoa needed
great care and could not be mixed easily with other systems of agriculture.
(vii) Climate condition. Some area were thought to be unfit for the European
settlement as far as climate condition was concerned. The notable examples
are Nigeria and Uganda. In these areas, peasant agriculture was encouraged.

Page 48 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

(viii) In case for mandate territories after the world War II, colonies would be
granted independence. Therefore, no settle could be invited because they were
preparing for majority rule. The notable examples are Tanganyika and
Cameroon.
(ix) soil fertility favour plantation agriculture to cultivate different crops. Hence
plantation agriculture encouraged fore example: Morogoro in Tanganyika.

TOPIC 5: COLONIAL ECONOMY AND SOCIAL SERVICES


AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR
By the end of the 19 th century European powers had already suppressed
African resistance and extended their rule almost throughout the entire
continent, the countries that were subjected to colonial rule by this time were
Ethiopia and Liberia.
Colonial economies were established in Africa over a span of years. During that
period African self sufficient economic were transformed and made inferior. The
colonialists reorganize the traditional African societies to meet their selfish
interests.
The colonial economy refers to the production and consumption patterns that
existed in Africa during the colonial period. The colonial economy was imposed
on the Africans.
Specific objectives
i. Analyse agricultural policies and strategies undertaken to improve.
Agricultural production in the colonies during and after the second world war.
ii. Analyse the various development schemes undertaken in the colonies
iii. Explain the objectives of introducing progressive or master farmers
iv. Discuss the reasons for introducing cooperatives and marketing boards.
Objectives of the colonial economy
There are various economic reasons that made the colonial powers to establish
the colonial economy in Africa. These are the following:-
1. Need for markets
- By the late 19th century, the industries in Europe were producing more
industrial goods than Europeans could consume, Industrialists encourage their
government to undertake colonization in Africa in order to protect markets for
their Industrial goods. - There was over production in Europe where their
goods were unmarketable, hence they decide to come Africa to find market for
their goods products. The colonial powers were looking for areas where they
can sell their manufacture goods.
2. Need for raw material - They were looking for cheap raw material such as
cotton, minerals. They took material in Africa to European Industries -Colonial

Page 49 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

power were established processing Industries in Africa so that they can process
material before they took to their countries. Example cotton and sisal. - In 19th
century experienced the Industrial revolution, so they nee industrial
production like mode of production, which include human resources , capital
resources and natural resources - European Industrial were dependent on raw
materials from Asia, America and Africa - They Need raw materials to feed their
industries in Europe, Example: cotton,
They were looking for cheap raw material because in Europe they had been
exhausted and the remaining ones were quiet expensive.
3. Need for investment.
-They need to get Investment areas, They had large capital which made them to
unable to sell their product: -There was high population in Europe and
shortage of land, rich people were control land where poor become landless.
They were looking for areas where they can invest their excess capital; they
could not invest in Europe because the markets were saturated.
4. Need for cheap labour.
They need cheap labour, Industrial revolution in Europe introduced new
machine which replaced human labour after abolition of slave trade
The colonial powers were searching for cheap labour. Labor was expensive in
Europe because the workers were demanding for high wages.
These motives clearly show that the colonial powers established the colonial
economy not to serve the Africans, but to satisfy their own selfish interests.
Characteristics of the colonial economy:-
1. Export-Import oriented.
The colonial economies were export oriented because they were based on the
export of raw materials both mineral and agricultural and importation of
manufactured goods from Europe.
2. Monoculture economies
The colonial economies were specialized in the production of the major
commodity for example Mauritius specialized in the production of sugar,
Ghana, Zambia and Zaire in Cocoa now the Democratic Republic of the Congo
specialized in the production of copper.
3. Manufacturing sector was small and weak.
The manufacturing sector was small and weak because the colonial powers
discouraged the establishment of heavy manufacturing industries in Africa.
Africa had to remain a producer of raw materials and a market for European
manufactured goods. The few industries that were established were semi–
processing industries that aimed at reducing the weight of raw materials to
facilitate their exportation of Europe.
4. Production was based on coercion.

Page 50 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The colonial economy was imposed on the Africans and they were forced to
produce for the export market rather than their own consumption
consequently there was no time to produce food which led to frequent famine in
Africa.
5. Exploitation
· Land alienation.
Land alienation involved taking land from the Africans so as to create room for
cash crop production and mining activities. The land that was taken was the
land which was fertile and had minerals in large quantity land alienation was
common in settle colonies such as Zimbabwe and Kenya.
· Taxation.
The colonial economy was characterized with the introduction of taxes such as
the poll and hut taxes. Taxes were introduced as an indirect way of getting
labor. To get money to pay the taxes, the African had to sell their labor thus the
colonialist got both cheap labor and cash crops.
METHODS USED BY THE COLONIAL POWERS TO ESTABLISH THE
COLONIAL ECONOMY IN AFRICA
The colonial economy was established through recreation, destruction and
preservation.
A. Creation:-It was a method established by European to Introduce new
element that were not existed in the native areas.
Under creation new elements were introduced by the colonial powers on the
traditional African economy. These elements include the following:-1. Land
alienation, By occupying method and dividing land. Example: North Tanzania,
high land were created as production area while south and central Tanzania
were created as labour reserve.
Land alienation involved the grabbing of land from the Africans as a way of
getting areas where the growing of cash crops and mining activities could take
place. It was the fertile land and land with minerals in large quantities that was
taken by the colonialists. Land alienation was common in settle colonies such
as Kenya and Zimbabwe.
2. Taxation.
The colonial powers introduced taxation as an indirect way of getting cheap
labor. To pay taxes the Africans had to sell their labor on the colonial farms, in
this way the colonialists acquired both cheap labor and cash crops that were
needed as raw materials in Europe. Example: hat tax ,matiti tax and head tax.
3. Forced cash crop production.
The colonial powers forced Africans to produce cash crops such as coffee,
cotton and sisal which were needed as raw materials. The Africans produced
cash crops at the expense of food crops; this explains the widespread
occurrence of famine in colonial Africa.
Page 51 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

4. Introduction of the monetary system.


The colonialists introduced money as a medium of exchange; to get money the
Africans had to sell their labor on the farms thus the colonialists obtained both
the cheap labor and cash crops which were the needs of the colonial economy.
-Exchange of goods or service by using coins or paper money.
5. Destruction- Greate forced labour, labour were completed to work in the
collonial farmers, Forced labour was required to reduce costs that were needed
in public services. Africa chiefs were forced to produce labour at low cost.
The colonial powers destroyed Africans traditional industries, by this policy all
industries were to remain in Europe and Africa was to be a source of markets
for European manufactured goods and a producer of raw materials. The
traditional industries were destroyed in two main ways i.e. force and
competition.
1. Force
Here different laws were passed by the colonial government that threatened the
African from engaging in industrial activities for example in the Congo one
would have his arms chopped off if he engaged in industrial activities.
2. Competition
Here the colonial powers imported high quality products from Europe in order
to destroy the markets for the local products. They Introduced processing
Industries
C. Preservation
The colonialists preserved some elements of the pre–colonial African
economies.
1.The basic tool of production remained to be the hand hoe except that this one
was imported. There were no improvements in the tools of productive force.
2. The pre – capitalist relations of production were preserved for example the
feudal relations of production, but these served the interests of the colonialists.
3. The basic unit of production remained to be the family; this limited the
division of labor and also hindered the development of science and technology.
COLONIAL ECONOMY
The colonial economy refers to all production and consumption activities found
in Africa during the colonial period. The Second World War which took place
between 1939 and 1945 had a significant impact on the capitalist powers and
they spent huge sums of money financing the war, it is estimated the loss of
Second World War was $ 13,849,000,000.
The destruction of the capitalist economies forced the European powers to
introduce various changes in the colonial economy.
Conolonial economy was anchored on five important sectors namely:-

Page 52 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

(i) AGRICULTURE
(ii) MINING
(iii) PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
(iv) COMMERCE
(v) TRANSPORT
1. AGRICULTURE:
The main aim of colonial agricultural policy was to promote the production of
cash crops for export, to feed the industrial of the metro Politician states,
integrate the Africans into capitalist system through growing cash crops in
which they wail sell, stimulate capital investment and maximization of pro by
buying African crops at low prices and paying to wages.
Three types of Agriculture were established namely settle economy, plantation
economy, and peasant economy
1. PEASANT AGRICULTURE ECONOMY
This involved the small –scale production of cash crops by individuals for
purpose of coming cash and providing food for survival colonial rule.
The peasant and cash crop forms of agriculture were area transferring part of
subsistence farming to the cash sector but the create part of the pre-colonial
system of product social control unchanged.
In Ghana, Ivory Coast and western Nigeria, the British colonial administration
wanted the peasant to devote much of their time and energy to the cultivation
of cocoa and coffee.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEASANT AGRICULTURE:
(i) It was based on land units which were very small bed of the big are as being
directly populated
(ii) There were individual ownership of land
(iii) There were intercropping in order to maintain various and cash crops at
the same time
(iv) Elementary tools such as hoes and arrows were used as instruments of
labour.
(v) There was hardly any use of scientific methods of farming.
FACTORS THAT FAVORED PEASANT AGRICULTURE:
(i) Dense population made it difficult for land alienation to be used. Hence,
settler and plantation agriculture impossible
(ii) Centralized Kingdom proved to be tough on the establishment settler
agriculture
(iii) There was always a labour supply problem when the economy favored only
one crop.

Page 53 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

(iv) Peasant agriculture was cheaper in the production of materials and settlers
needed big capital, land, modern equipment
SETTLER ECONOMY:
This involved production by foreigners. These foreigners usual presented the
interests of the metropole (i.e. their main interest were mining and agriculture
in the colonized countries).
The promotion of agricultural production was to go hand in hand with white
settlements in Africa, especially in those areas that were fertile.
Settlers settled in big numbers in central Africa (Malaysia, Zambia, Zimbabwe),
South Africa, parts of French equatorial Africa, French West Africa, and in East
Africa (Kenya).
FEATURES OF SETTLER ECONOMY:
(i) Land alienation with differently issue land ordinaries, in 1900 the land
occupation ordinance was enacted in Zambia.
The ordinance required that Europeans who had been allocated land must
occupy and use that land or otherwise they would pay taxes for leaving such
land redundant.
In Kenya in 1597, the land regulation office set as vacant land for European
settlements, in 1902, the owner land ordinance allowed the commissioner to
sell or give crown land to the Europeans, and large scale land alienation in
Kikuyu began.
(ii) Forced labour: The French, German land Portuguese follow a similar policy
of forced labour and unpaid labour.
Forced labour was required to reduce costs that were needed in public services.
In Zimbabwe in 1897, the Nature egulation Act was passed, forcing African
chiefs to produced labourers at law coast.
(iii) Taxation: the hut tax was introduced in Malawi in early 1890 in Zimbabwe
in 1898, and in Zambia in 1900. In Kenya the Hut Tax was introduced in 1980,
and poll tax in 1910.
The intention of the tax was to cover administrative expansion ways by which
Africans would be forced to work in European farms and mines in order to
raise money to pay their taxes.
(iv)Migrant labour were transported from far away places to work in settler
plantations.
(v) The development of infrastructures to serve the settlers.
1. PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
i) Was a very distinctive from of cultivation in which specialized commercial
crops were grown.

Page 54 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

ii) It employed large of number of unskilled lobourers who more brought to


supervise and work. On the other hand, plantation agriculture extended
monoculture during colonialism.
iii) In West Africa, French settlers owned Senegal groundnuts and cocoa farms.
German settlers owned Dohomey palm oil and the fire stone Rubber Company
of the U S A opened its plantation in Liberia in 1926. The other plantation in
Tog were owned by the German and other in Ghana and Nigeria were owned by
the British.
iv) In east Africa, Kenyan tea, pyrethrum and effect were owner by British
seltters. Sisal plantation in Tanga and Morogoro are owned by Germans and
sugarcane plantation in Uganda were owned by the Indians (mujidival).
v) In Zimbabwe, Malawi and Zambia, plantations were by the British while in
Mozambique and Angola plantations were owned by the Portuguese.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
i. They were larger estates covering over 100 acres each
ii. Production was mainly for export and market oriented
iii. The government ensure a constant supply of cheap laborer, they needed
intensive labour
iv. Plantation were scientifically-managed and involved the use of machine and
fertilizer for qualitative and quantitativesout put to meet the demands of the
metropole.
v. Larger land was needed for commercial agriculture. This was led to land
alienation
2. MINING
i) Mining was very important and one the pillars of the colonial economy, it
accelerated the exploitation of Africa
ii) In West Africa there were coal mines at Enugu,tin mines in jos plateau in
Northern Nigeria and gold mines in Ghana, Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone
and Silver in sierra leone
iii) In central Africa, there was gold and coal in southern Rhodesia, copper, tin,
zinc and lead in the Belgian congo, copper and leadin Zambia and diamond
and oil in Angola
iv) In East Africa, there was diamond in mwadui ,gold in Geita and Musoma
(Tanganyika) and copper in kilembe (Uganda)
3. TRADING COMPANIES.
i) Under colonial rule, there emerged many companies that claimed to import
and export goods into and out from African colonies, some were huge
companies some were petty companies and some were fake companies but all
of them come to exploit African resources.

Page 55 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

ii) Among these were very big companies including.


- Companies franchise Afriques occidental (C.T.A.O)
- Socrete commercial Quest African (S.C.Q.A)
- The United African Company (U.A.C)
- Ronrho
iii) In East Africa
- Smith maokenzie (ascothah Company of maennon)
- Ralli Brothers
- Leslie and Anderson
- Broke Bond
iv) These companies were responsible for expatriating great amounts of wealth
from Africa
v) Many of these companies started during the slave, They engaged in the
following works:
- They bought raw material cheaply in Africa and exported
- They insured the property of the seltters.
- They imported manufacture goods.
- They invested in mines and plantations.
A) CHANGES IN COLONIAL AGRICULTURE
Colonial agriculture was the main sector of the colonial economy so as to
produce cash crops that were needed as raw materials by the capitalists
industries. Emphasis was laid on the production of cash crops and not food
crops.
The changes in colonial agriculture included the following:-
(i) Establishment of progressive master farmers.
The colonial state introduced progressive farmers under peasant agriculture;
these farmers are given modern farming tools, loans and could hire labor. The
main goal of the colonial state was to increase the production of cash crops.
(ii) Introduction of agricultural development schemes and plans.
This is where there was introduction of scientific methods of agriculture; these
included terracing schemes in the hilly areas to avoid soil erosion, restocking
so as to increase animal husbandry and modernization and a forestation to
keep soil fertility and prevent soil erosion.
(iii) Introduction of agricultural experiments in the colonies.
The goal of the agricultural experiments was to introduce new cash crops for
example there was introduction of groundnuts to solve the problem of edible oil
in Europe, palm oil was introduced in Kongwa, Nachingwea and Urambo.

Page 56 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

(iv) Setup of settlement schemes.


This is where the colonial state was shifting farmers to fertile places so as to
avoid more room for cash crop production. All the fertile land in pre–colonial
Africa was supposed to be subjected to cash crop production.
(v) Development of state farms.
The colonial state introduced state farms so as to reduce its dependence on
subsidies from the metro-pole. These farms were supposed to generate revenue
that was needed to run the colonial administration. State farms were very
common in French colonies in West Africa.
THE FAILURE OF COLONIAL AGRICULTURAL REFORMS
Some of the reforms that were carried out by the colonial state failed to meet
their expected goals, they failed due to various reasons:-
(i) Existence of poor soils.
Some of the land chosen for those agricultural reforms was not suitable for
cash crop production thus leading to low yields. Yet the colonialists wanted to
maximize agricultural output.
(ii) Poor administration.
Most of these agricultural projects were run by ex-soldiers who did not have
the expertise to fully manage them. The absence of skilled personnel
contributed greatly to the failure of the projects.
(iii) Opposition from the natives.
The establishment of agricultural reforms faced resistance from the natives;
these schemes were viewed by the natives as ways of exploiting them. Various
riots and strikes were staged against the schemes thus contributing to their
failure.
(iv) Poor planning.
Most of the schemes collapse because of poor planning. The groundnuts
scheme in Tanganyika collapsed because little time was taken to assess the
suitability of the land chosen.
(v) Inadequate funds.
Most of the project wanted large sums of money which were not available
especially after the Second World War. Inadequate funds hindered the
successful implementation of the agricultural projects.
INTRODUCTION OF MASTER FARMING SYSTEM (PROGRESSIVE FARMING
SYSTEM)
Master farming system was done by making African peasants to become
involved in intensive production of raw materials.
OBJECTIVES UNDER MASTER FARMING SYSTEM

Page 57 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

1. Selection of few African peasants to be developed by giving them assistance


like technical assistance in the processes involved in agricultural production.
2. Provision of labor, capital and fertilizers to African farmers in order to
produce raw materials, the reason behind was to attract others to engage in
production of raw materials.
3. Encourage more Africans to grow cash crops because African peasants were
given low prices and the cost of production was low.
4. Creation of model farmers in order to influence others to grow more cash
crops,
5. Introduction of agricultural schools and agricultural production of raw
materials. For example Ukiriguru in Mwanza, Amboni-Tanga, Uyole in Mbeya,
Lindi.etc. All these aimed at getting agricultural extension officers who could
provide advice to African farmers on how to grow cash crops.
6. Introduction and expansion of cooperative farmers (union). For example
KNCU (Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union), Nyanza.etc in order to advice
more farmers to produce raw materials and to fix the prices of African
agricultural crops.
7. Destocking schemes were adopted in African colonies in order to make
Africans to concentrate on production of raw materials only and not on cattle
keeping. For example in Sukuma land and Mburu land (Maasai).
8. Production policy was adopted by colonialists in African colonies where by
Africans were invited to live in more productive areas and concentrate in
production of raw materials. For example in sukuma land, more farmers were
forced and invited to live in Geita which allowed production of more cotton.
OBJECTIVES OF THE CHANGES IN COLONIAL AGRICULTURE
1. It was aimed at getting agricultural extension offices that could help African
to produce raw materials for the benefits of Europeans.
2. It aimed to provide agricultural education to African peasants hence more
agricultural schools and colleges were built in several African areas. Therefore
the colonial education helped the colonialist to get Africans who were able to
mobilize their fellow Africans and provide agricultural expert advice to Africans
in order to increase production of raw materials.
3. It aimed at increasing production of raw materials through giving Africans
agricultural knowledge on better ways of practicing agriculture.
4.It aimed at conducting researches which necessitated the production of
various agricultural raw materials and testing agricultural crops. Example the
agricultural research helped the colonialists to know where some crops were in
the right location for planting a particular type of crop example; Sisal in Tanga,
Cotton in Sudan and Palm oil in Nigeria.
5. It aimed to get African labor that could help the colonialist to produce more
cash crops needed in the capitalist industries for their own development.

Page 58 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

6. It aimed to get more and large land from Africans for agricultural
production.
7. It aimed to get areas for investment, More areas in African colonies were
needed for European investment due to the fact that the capital accumulated
from agricultural production was to be invested in other economic sectors such
as financial institutions, industries, trade and commerce.etc.
EFFECTS OF THE AGRICULTURAL REFORMS IN AFRICA
The implementation of the agricultu

EFFECTS OF THE AGRICULTURAL REFORMS IN AFRICA


The implementation of the agricultural schemes in Africa had a great impact.
1. The schemes contributed the introduction of classes among the farmers.
Under peasant agricultural there was creation of a group of farmers known as
progressive or masters farmers who were given loans by the colonial state and
could hire labor and on the other hand there were peasants who were not given
any of these privileges by the colonial state.
2. The schemes contributed to class consciousness among the peasants. The
peasants produced various products which they sold to the colonial state, but
the colonial state bought them at very low prices. The exploitation to which the
peasants were subjected contributed to the rise of class consciousness.
3. There were various riots and strikes by the natives in the various colonies.
The low prices at which the colonial states were buying the products
contributed to the outbreak of various riots and strikes.
4. The schemes have contributed to making the agricultural sector to be the
backbone of the economy in Africa. It should be noted that the colonial state
did not make attempts to mechanize agriculture; this is why the agricultural
sector is still backward.
5. The schemes contributed to increase in the volume of exports to the
metropolitan countries which enabled them to reconstruct their economies that
had been devastated by the Second World War.
6. The schemes contributed to environmental degradation which was due to
over utilization of land. The colonialist wanted to receive their economies that
had been destroyed by Second World War thus they had to utilize African land
to the maximum which depleted the resources.
7. There was increase in industrialization on the form of processing industries
which aimed at reducing the weight of raw materials to keep freight charges
low. These industries solidified the linkage between the colonies and the
colonial powers because the processed products had to be taken and the
finishing industries were located at Europe.

Page 59 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

8. The schemes contributed to the emergence of a commercial group, these


were the middlemen such as the Indians in East Africa and Lebanese in West
Africa. These middlemen brought products from the peasants at low prices and
sold them to the colonial state at high prices.
B. THE COLONIAL INDUSTRIAL SECTOR
The industrial sector was the smallest of all the sectors of the colonial
economy. It should be noted that before the First World War. These were the
only processing industries that aimed of reducing the weight of raw materials
to keep the Freight charges low. The examples of these industries were the
cotton and coffee ginneries.
After the Second World War the capitalist powers established import
substitution industries, there were industries that produced goods which were
formerly imported from Europe.
Import substitution industries.
There were industries that were formed by the capitalist powers to produce
goods that will replace the ones imported from Europe. The main goal of these
industries was to produce consumer goods mainly for the white settlers and
few Africans, African civil servants; these goods included soap, cigarettes, and
tooth paste.
Features of import substitution industries:-
(a) Light industries.
- All the import substitution industries were light industries. They avoided the
establishment of heavy manufacturing industries so as to ensure that they
create competition with goods coming from Europe.
(b) Production of consumer goods.
The import substitute industries were based on the production of consumer
goods such as biscuits, soap and cigarettes. These industries were producing
goods for the bourgeoisie (capitalist) and a few African petty bourgeoisie's. The
industries were not producing goods for the African masses.
(c) Labor intensive.
The industries were using labor intensive technology. They used more labor
than machines. The colonialists were relevant to import advanced technology,
because their goal was to exploit African resources.
(d) Uneven distribution.
The industries were unevenly distributed; they were mainly located in urban
centers where most of the white settlers were found. The industries were
producing goods for the white settlers.
(e) Owned by foreigners.
These industries aimed at exploiting African resources to the maximum so as
to generate more profits for the capitalists.

Page 60 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

CHANGES IN COLONIAL LABOR POLICIES.


Colonial labor refers to African labor force used by colonialists in their colonial
economic sectors like in Agriculture, mining, trade and commerce, industrial
sector etc. During the colonial period i.e. soon after the second world war
(1939-1945). The colonialists emphasized on large quantity of raw materials
and export commodities in the colonies so as to help the colonialists in
economic recovery program in their metropolitan countries. In order to attain
these demands, the colonialists were forced to adapt new labor policies in the
colonies hence the post war period experienced effective mobilization and
utilization of African labor .The following techniques and mechanisms were
used.
1. Rehabilitation and creation of infrastructure system in the colonies. There
was introduction of railway harbor and parts were constructed and
rehabilitation in African colonies from the coastal areas to the interior where
African laborers and producers of raw materials were found or lived.
2. Improvement of working condition in plantation and mining areas. This was
done by the colonialists in order to motivate African laborers to move in mining
and plantation areas to offer their labor power. This ensured a constant supply
of migrant labor. For example, there was improvement of wage labor, provision
of social services, shortening working hours.
3. Consolidation of labor recruiting agencies in the colonies, this was done in
order to ensure a constant supply of labor in the colonies for agricultural
production of raw materials, mining production and construction of
infrastructure system like roads, ports and harbor.etc. For example we had
WENELA in central Africa which recruited African labor from southern
Rhodesia to South Africa in order to ensure labor power.
4. Assignment of special duties, quotas and other working conditions in
different colonies. For Example peasants were assigned different duties, quotas
per season in order to make African peasants fully involved in colonial
production of raw materials and add more volumes of raw materials needed in
hungry industries in Europe like in cotton growing region each family in those
areas was required to cultivate at least 3 acres of cotton per season.
5. Local rulers were required to recruit a specific number of laborers in their
areas of control per annum. This mechanism enabled the colonizer to utilize
full African labor for advantage of European colonialist in their plantation and
mines and other economic sectors.
6. Introduction of taxation; where the colonialists introduced different taxes in
African colonies in order to force Africans to offer their labor power in
European plantation, mines and other economic sector e.g. different taxes as it
was in Kenya; there was Matiti, head, property, taxes etc. forced Africans to
offer their labor power in settler economy.
7. Enactment of different labor laws by colonialists in different African colonies
the colonialists enacted different labour laws which forced Africans to get

Page 61 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

involved in production of raw materials needed by the colonialist in their


countries for their development.
8. Land alienation where by Africans were alienated from their fertile land and
pushed to unproductive areas in order to make Africans to continue offering
their labor power in plantations, mining etc.
CHANGES IN COLONIAL TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION (COLONIAL
INFRASTRUCTURE)
Colonial transport and communication refers to all transport and
communication established by colonialists in African continent during colonial
period in order to meet their interests (demand). These infrastructures include
colonial railway, ports, airports and harbors and telecommunication networks.
Therefore after the second world war the colonial infrastructure change in
order to get and increase their demands in colonies and in metropolitan
countries.
Changes which were made
1.Introduction and expansion of roads; where different roads in African
colonies. Example the feeder roads were introduced, introduction of tarmac
roads which were expanded to the interior of African countries to collect raw
materials and transport laborers from labor reserve areas to the working
stations., Introduction of rehabilitation of roads which was introduced even
before the second world war.
2. Introduction and expansion of ports and harbor in African colonies where by
new ports and harbors were introduced and others were rehabilitated in order
to meet colonialists demand in African colonies.
3. Introduction and expansion of railways in order to meet European demands.
After the Second World War the colonialists made some changes in railway
where by new railways were introduced and others were rehabilitated for the
aim of transporting laborers, raw materials and colonial administrative officers
and coercive apparatus.
4.Expansion of telecommunication networks in African colonies purposely for
providing information on how to produce raw materials and layout
administrative matters within African colonies.
5. Introduction of airports in colonies so as to facilitate movement of people
such as transportation for administrators and information from metropolitan
countries to African colonies.
OBJECTIVES (AIM) OF THE CHANGES OF COLONIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
1.To transport raw materials from production areas to the harbours where they
are later shipped to metropolitan countries to feed European industries. In
addition some raw materials were transported from the interior where they
were produced to the main roads by using feeder roads where they are
transported to the ports for being shipped to metropolitan countries.

Page 62 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

2. To Transport colonial officers and administrators between urban areas to


supervise production of raw materials.
3. To transport colonial African laborers especially the migrant laborers who
were working under contracts from labor reserve areas to productive areas to
offer cheap labor in plantations and mines.
4. To transport and import coercive apparatus forces such as police and army
to seize resistance in productive areas when resistance occurs so that
production is not interfered. Resistances such as MAUMAU resistance in
Kenya.
5.To transport manufactured goods after being imported in African colonies;
these imported manufactured commodities were transported to the market
areas for example they transported to the productive areas (interior) where
most Africans lived hence goods like clothes, food, agricultural tools were
distributed to the European settlers. European administrators and to African
laborers by using colonial infrastructure.
6. These colonial infrastructures aimed to facilitate communication from one
area to another area either of the same colony or different colony in order to
make easy ruling of the colonies.

TOPIC 6: INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FORCES AND THE


RISE OF NATIONALISM AND THE STRUGGLE FOR
INDEPENDENCE
NATIONALISM IN AFRICA Was a desire of African people to terminate all
foreign rule, Basically nationalism is the politically will of the people of Africa in
apposition of foreign domination but in favor of Africa rule.
NATIONALISM
Nationalism is the feeling of national consciousness by the people that they are
members of a nation state and desire freedom from colonial rule.
Nationalism in the African context refers to a desire of African people to
terminate all foreign rules and live under a government of their own choice so
as to preserve their political, economic and social interest.
The hostility against colonial rule was due to the fact it was hindrance in the
struggle for the creation of nation state, hence nationalism was identified with
struggle for independence.
National consciousness was a gradual process i.e. was not over right
phenomena.
Phases of Nationalism conciorine

Page 63 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

1. Before 1945 -The process of decolonization or national liberation was


fundamental in Africa. It allowed African state to regain their independence
which they had lost for more half century
Nationalism before 1945 was elitist i.e. it was not directly related to a political
goal. It was intended to seize political power. The main aim of the Africans at
this stage was to have reforms in colonialism such as end of land alienation,
taxation and forced labor.
2. After 1945 -The rise of Africa nationalism data back to the period of colonial
conquest and the imposition of colonial rule on one hand and primary African
resistance against colonial rule on the other hand . But later the intensification
of exploitation stimulated the nationalistic struggle.
Nationalism was seriously nationalistic. It aimed at over throwing alien
rule.The African were not interest in just changes, but complete independence.
IMPACT OF PEACE SETTLEMENT (Versailles Treaty 1919) AFTER THE FIRST
WORLD WEAR.
The end of WWI was followed by peace settlement reached by serves of peace
treaties. The important one was Versailles Treaty. this was made in Paris
France, Held from January to June 1919 it was signed on 28th June 1919. -
Leading statement in Versailles were presided of USA Woodraw Wilson, George
Clemenceau the prime minister of France, Lloyd George the prime minister of
Britain and of Vittorio or land the prime minister of I tally.The leading rote was
played by president Wilson of USA.
TERMS OF THE VERSAILLES PEACE TREATY
In the term of this treaty, German was highly humiliated as follows.
i/ She lost all her overseas possessions. example Tanganyika, Togo Rwanda,
Burundi and Namibia.
ii/ Her provinces had taken during the Frances Prussian war, were given to
France and return all France flags take by her during the Franco Prussian war
(1870)
iii/ She was forced to disarm herself. Also German universal military service
were broken. - Her arm were reduced 100,000 soldiers with no generals .
-Its navy was reduced to six light battle ships and few smallest craft. The air
force were burned.
iv/ German to pay separations to be paid to to France, Britain and Belgium,
they were fixed at 6.6 million
v/ Her federation with Austria -Hungary was broken.
vi/German lose concessions and trading rights in China, Egypt and Elsewhere.
vii She was derived to the right of joining the league of Nations, the term aimed
at weakening Germany, politically, economical and military.
WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY

Page 64 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

-It lacked enforcement mechanism, decision remained in theory but impractical


-As harshness to German appeared to peace. The Germany never accepted the
treat and finally it led to the rise of Nazism.
- The decisions made did not satisfy some of the victorious power ie Italy did
not satisfied by the territorial division at the treaty this rise of Fascism.
- The decision ignored the role of USSR as an influential power in Eastern
Europe. Example :The Balkans remained a trouble area.
-The peace treaty was not a solution simply because it created more problems
then it solve.It was too humillitative to German. German was to revenge by all
means, when rifler come to power, he decided to turn down all the terms and
began arming against the Versailles, a situation which contributed to the
outbreak of the second world war of 1939-1945.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF AFRICAN NATIONALISM
Pan African Conferences
i.The First pan-African conferences was consequently convened in England in
1900 under the leadership of Sylvester Williams, a barrister from Trinidad.
- Among other things, the conference discussed human rights violations
against Africans in south Africa and racial discrimination against people of
Africa origin in the world.
ii. The second pan-African conference look place offer the first world war in
1919. It attracted 50 participants with twelve of them coming from the Africa
continent.
There were various factors that contributed to the rise of nationalism; these
factors were categorized into internal and external factors.
(A) INTERNAL FACTORS
These were those that stimulated hostility from within Africa. The main factor
was colonialism which is divided into two sub–factors.
(i) Exploitation
· Land alienation.
Land alienation involved grabbing of land from the natives by the white
settlers. Land was taken so that the colonialists get areas where cash crops
production and mining activities can take place to produce the required raw
materials. Land alienation was common in settler colonies such as Zimbabwe.
· Taxation
The colonialists introduced various taxes as an indirect way of getting cheap
labor. The taxes which were introduced included poll and hut taxes, but these
taxes were collected with a lot brutality. Some people were flogged and even
failed to pay taxes
· Forced labor.

Page 65 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The colonialists introduced labor laws that completed or forced the Africans to
provide cheap and sometimes free on European economic enterprises. Laws
such as Kipande system in Kenya competed all able bodies to provide cheap
labor on white settlers’ farms, failure to provide labor punishment was given.
(ii) Payment of low prices to peasants’ products.
-Peasant were exploited, these group increase cooperation among themselves
and boy cotts, strike and other movements threatened colonialism and
establish the great challenge that led to the freedom and way to form political
parties which were the main venue for forming government. -These
cooperatives were, Kilimanjaro Native planter Association KNC) The Bataka
Association -Uganda and The Bukoba Cooperative Union.
The peasants produced products which they sold to the colonial government,
but they received low prices for their products yet the white settlers were given
higher producer, prices. This prompted them to fight for independence.
(iii) Dictatorial nature of the colonial government.
The colonial powers established their governments in African by using the
barrel of the gun. The Africans hated the oppressive resistance such as the
army, police and prison. To make matters worse, Africans were not allowed to
be in any higher position in colonial government.
(iv) Role of colonial Education:-
-Colonial education resulted into emergence of education group elite -These
group had a great hope and constitutions, after their education, their hope was
to get while color job like good employment was difficult, low wages and
segregation in work was common -These educated Africans started to mobilize
their fellow Africa to stand up for for the independence -These educated
Africans formed the political parties to demand Independence constitutional
with other organized gorilla fighting.
Colonial Education produces elites who played a crucial role in the rise of
African nationalism. People like Nyerere in Tanganyika, Nkurumah in Ghana
and Banda in Malawi organized Africans to form political parties that
contributed to the rise of African Nationalism.
(v) Formation of independent churches.
These were churches that were formed by the Africans as a reaction to which
they were facing in the European churches. These churches addressed not only
religious issues, but also political and economic grievances. The examples of
these churches are the African National church in Tanganyika contributed to
the rise of Nationalism by exposing the evils committed by colonialism.
(vi) The role of trade unions.
The trade unions were formed by workers as a reaction to their exploitation
and oppression under colonialism. The trade union had numerous demands
e.g. increased wages and better conditions. The examples of Trade union

Page 66 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

included Tanganyika Territory Civil services Association in Tanganyika,


Nyakato Agricultural Institution.
The trade unions contributed greatly to the rise of African nationalism by
putting pressure on the colonial power to implement changes in colonialism.
(vii) Italian and Ethiopian conflict.
The Italian–Ethiopian conflict contributed to the development of African
nationalism. They fought from 1935 to 1941 between the Italians under
Mussolini and Hailee Selassie respectively, though the Ethiopians were
defeated but their determined resistance to protect their independence
encouraged Africans to fight for their independence.
(viii) The role of returned soldiers,
- The ex soldiers from WWI and WWII contributed to the rise of nationalism.
These promises were promised employment and good life and return. -The
promises were not Fulfilled from there, these soldiers started to question the
colonial government. -These soldiers came with new ideas and technique for
fighting one of the ideas used that "white man can be defeated" Example:
DedanKimath during Maumau was in kenya 1952, the soldiers were
abandoned false idea, that white man can not be defeated". the experience in
the war seen white man dying and other running away.
This gave them hope that it was possible to fight the white man as
SamoraMasheli once said "in sawing the seen evolution ..............and whenever
a peacefully means fail, violence is inevitable. -This was also applied by Frantz
Fanon when advised Africans to use violence as means of maintain
Independence and history.
(ix)Independent of Ghana,
-Some few analysis that, Ghana contributed a lot towards the independence
African countries in different way. -After attained her Independence during
1957, this independence stimulated and encourage other African countries to
struggle for nationalism, the country also take as case study and centre for
training liberation armies and from the thought obtained in Ghana It was easy
for other country to speed up the nationalism movement.
(B) EXTERNAL FACTORS.
The rise of African nationalism was also influenced by global situation, there
were forces operating from outside Africa which played a big role in the rise of
African nationalism.
(i) The role of the United Nations (UN). The end of WWII was led to the
formation of the international organization like united Nations which was
against all forms of exploitation and colonialism in different part of the world,
this organs was played the great role in the independence struggle in different
parts of Africa because this body helped different colony to regain back their
independence and demise colonialism in different parts of Africa because it was
the distructive and distance for the development in Africa.
Page 67 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

- A part from that UNO has ordered some colonial powers to prepare the
territory to the independent. Example British was given Tanganyika and
ordered to prepare the territory until it become capable to be Independent.
The United Nations Organization was formed in 1945 with the main objective of
maintaining peace in the world. The UN formed the Trusteeship council which
had to make sure that all colonies regain their independence by using peaceful
means. Tanganyika is one of the countries that benefited from the United
Nations because it was trusteeship territory.
(ii) The Pan Africanism movement.
This movement was formed in the United States of America by the Black people
in Diaspora. The main goal of the movement was to fight for the abolition of
slave trade and slavery, but after the abolition of slave trade it turned into a
liberation movement whereby it advocated for nationalism. The movement
argued that, “Africa was Africans” After the independence of Ghana in 1957,
that Pan Africanism movement shifted its headquarters to Accra where it spear
headed the independence of many African countries.
(iii) The rise of the United States of America.
The end of WWII, market the new power coming up USA, took the part of
Britain USA had no colonies in Africa and From there it needed areas for
getting raw materials, markets and areas for investment to get their colonies
she had to encourage the so called "open door policy". She encourage other
European countries to grant independence for their colonies.
-Much more USA adapted capitalism Ideology to ensure such Ideology spread
through the world, she decided to support nationalism/decolonization
movement as the best way to make expansionism and spread the idea of the
capitalism
(iv) The role of the USSR, The WWII ended with the rise of socialist, USSR was
making a step towards Industrial development hence demanded areas for the
economic motives like areas for raw material, market and capital investment.
This need made USSR to support decolonization process.
(v) China revolution, The revolution of China 1949 unfitness the rising of the
plotetarial and peasant forming a government of socialist since socialism was
against colonialism it supported decolonization process in different parts of the
world.
After the Second World War the USA emerged as the leading economic and
political power. The reasons were; World War Two was not fought in America,
hence it did not experience destruction of industries and infrastructure.
During the war the, USA was the supplier of war requirement in Europe hence
it gained a lot of profits. The USA introduced the open door policy through
which the USA needed raw materials, markets and areas for investments from
overseas.
GHANA NATIONALISM
Page 68 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Ghana was one of the African countries that attained independence by the use
of peaceful methods or constitutional method. Ghana was initially called Gold
coast.
In 1946 the British colonial government introduced what was called the Burns
constitution. Although this constitution provided for an African majority in the
legislative council, it had two main weaknesses.
1. The legislative council was merely advisory and it did not have deliberative
vote, the decisions were made by the British officials.
2. Its representatives were very limited because out of the eighteen, thirteen
were chiefs who were selected by their fellow chiefs who were supporters of the
colonial system.
The Burns aroused frustration among the Africans in Ghana especially elites.
As a result they formed a nationalist movement known as the United Gold
Coast Convention (UGCC) in 1947 under the leadership of SB Danquah,
Kwame Nkrumah was the secretary. The UGCC organize numerous attacks to
the colonial government, this forced it make another constitution known as the
“coussey constitution”. This constitution proved for more elected members in
the legislative council. In addition eight out of eleven cabinet posts were to be
held by Africans.
The new constitution seemed to have pleased some of the members of the
UGCC, but the radical ones e.g. Kwame Nkurumah broke away from the UGCC
and formed another nationalist movement known as the Convention People
Party (CPP) in 1947.
The CAP had two powerful slogans known as, “Seek first the political Kingdom
and all things will be added unto it” and “self government now”. The CPP was
advocating for complete independence and not changes in colonialism. There
was a political movement known as the National Liberation Movements (NLM)
that was formed to challenge CPP.
Reasons for a successful independence struggle in Ghana
There are various factors that account for a successful independence struggle
in Ghana. It is one of the first African countries to attain independence. Ghana
attained its independence in 1957.
1. Absence of tribalism.
There was absence of tribalism in Ghana whereby the political party,
Convention Peoples Party was not associated with any major tribe in Ghana.
The absence of tribalism made it possible for the nationalists to get enough
support that was needed to present a common front against the colonial
government.
2. Strong leadership.
Strong leadership is one of the factors that enabled Ghana to acquire her
independence earlier than many African countries, Kwame Nkurumah was a

Page 69 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

strong leader who was able to unite all Africans in Ghana and fight for one
common cause that is independence.
3. Clear policies
The Convention Peoples Party that fought for Ghana’s independence had clear
policies and elaborates programs. The party advocated for better prices for
peasants products high wages to African workers and getting rid of colonial
rule. This impressive idea managed to get support of the people in the struggle
for independence.
4. Common language.
The use of English as a common language helped greatly to the independence
struggle in Ghana. This language was known to almost all the people in Ghana
hence they became aware about the objectives of the Ghanaian nationalists
and gave them the much needed support against the colonial government.
5. Absence of many white settlers.
There was absence of many white settlers in Ghana; the British had
established a peasant economy thus they did not invest heavily. The absence of
many white settlers made it easy for the British to grant independence to
Ghana.
6. Good transport system.
Ghana had relatively a good transport system which was helped by the small
nature of the country. The transport system made it possible for the
nationalists to move around the country campaigning to overthrow the colonial
regime.
7. Popularity of CPP.
The CPP was very popular in Ghana; the party had great support from the
cocoa growers and the peasants and there were the ones who made up the
biggest party of the population. The party became so popular that in the 1951
elections, it won 33 seats against the three of UGCC. Following this result a
government and in 1952, he became the Gold coasts first prime minister. On
March of 6 th 1957, the Gold coast became independent taking the name of the
ancient Ghana Empire, In July 1960; Ghana became a republic with Kwame
Nkurumah as the first president.
8. External forces
External forces such as the United Nations Organization rise of USSR and the
USA contributed greatly to the independence of Ghana. The UN put pressure
on Britain to grant independence to Ghana. The USSR pledged to assets all
African countries in their struggle for independence.
Role of Ghana to African Nationalism
The independence of Ghana in 1957 marked a turning point in Africa, it played
a great role in ensuring the rest of the continent is liberated from colonial rule
and this cause was led by Kwame Nkurumah.
Page 70 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

1. Inspiration
The independence of Ghana in 1957 inspired many African countries to fight
for their independence as well. Kwame Nkurumah acted as a limelight to other
African states that were still under colonialism to fight for their independence.
This is one of the reasons that encouraged Africans to use armed struggle so as
to attain independence.
2. Material support.
Ghana under Kwame Nkurumah provided financial support to most of the
nationalist movements in Africa that were fighting for independence. The
financial and moral support given by Nkurumah inspired many African
countries to fight against colonial rule.
3. Headquarters of the pan African movement.
Following the independence of Ghana in 1957, Accra the capital city of Ghana
became the headquarters of the pan African movement. The Pan African
movement played a significant role in the independence of Ghana. In 1958 all
independent states such as Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia, Morocco, Tunisia and
Ghana met in Accra where they laid strategies on how to help other African
countries to attain independence.
4. Encouraged African unity.
Kwame Nkurumah contributed to the independent of many African countries
by encouraging unity in the continent. He convened a meeting for all African
trade unions in 1959 with the aim to unite all African states into a
confederation. African unity was a crucial factor if African was to succeed
against colonial rule.
5. Put pressure on France.
Kwame Nkurumah exerted a lot of pressure on France to grant independence
to Algeria. In 1959 to 1960 a team of delegates from Africa, Britain and
America went to monitor the situation in Algeria. It was Nkurumah who took
initiative of such a visit. Ghana also pressurized France to end her dominated
in West Africa.
6. The role of radio Ghana.
Radio Ghana played a great role in the struggle for independence. It became
the mouth piece of African nationalist movements to air out their feelings
towards colonial government exploitation and oppression. Broad casting on the
radio led to massive support for the nationalist both in and outside Africa.
7. Ghana became the model.
Ghana under Nkurumah became the model for all African countries to
emulate. Nkurumah once said that if he could, he would have delayed the
independence of Ghana until a time when other Africa countries are
independent. The position of Ghana encouraged many African countries to
struggle for independence.

Page 71 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

ARMED STRUGGLE IN ZIMBABWE


African struggle for independence in Zimbabwe was complicated because of the
dominance of white settlers.
After World war Two, there was an influx of white settlers into Zimbabwe that
led to massive expropriation of African land.
In 1951, Africans formed the all African confederation convention party that
aimed at opposing the formation of the federation of three central African
colonies i.e. Zimbabwe, Zambia and Nyasaland (Malawi).
When the Federal constitution was imposed in 1953, the African convention fell
apart.
The White settlers consolidated their independence in 1970 when the country
was proclaimed a republic, white settlers had sealed all hopes of a peaceful
transition to independence when Ian Smith unilaterally declared independence
in 1965 (unilateral Declaration of independence).
A new nationalist party called the African National council (ANC) was formed.
The aim of the ANC was to oppose the British / Rhodesia agreement and
ensure that independence was granted to the African majority.
Nationalist political movements experienced a setback in organizations. Despite
these measures the Africans were not discouraged.
In, 1960, they formed a new political party called Zimbabwe African peoples
Party (ZAPU), this part was led by Joshua Nkomo.
ZAPU was banned in 1962 and its leaders were detained, but it continued to
operate underground.
A split in ZAPU leadership in 1963 led to the formation of Zimbabwe African
National Union (ZANU) led by NdabaningiSethote.
The disintegration of the federation following the independence of Zambia and
Malawi, forced the Rhodesia. Front (political party of the white settlers) to press
Britain to grant independence to Zimbabwe under minority rule. Britain
tactfully approved the request and on 11 th November 1965 Ian Smith
unilaterally declared Southern Rhodesia independent, since then African
nationalist movements were engaged in a prolonged gorilla war until majority
rule was declaredin 1980.
1. Banning of nationalists movements.
The British colonial government was not ready to grant independence to
Zimbabwe, it banned or suppressed many nationalist movements in Zimbabwe
making the struggle for independence long and complicated. This position
compelled the African nationalists to resort to the use of armed struggle to
attain independence.
2. Tribalism.

Page 72 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Tribalism hindered the struggle for independence in Zimbabwe. Most of the


Nationalist movements were divided along tribal lines; the dominant tribes were
the Shona and Ndebele. Due to tribalism the Africa nationalists could not put a
common front against the colonialists, thus the only alternative left was to use
armed struggle to attain independence.
3. Richness of Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe is so r

. Richness of Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe is so rich in terms of minerals such as gold and diamond and it has
enough fertile soil that can support the growth of cash crops that were needed
in the metropolitan countries. The richness of the colony made it difficult for
the colonial government to grant it independence, this made the Africans to use
armed struggle.
4. Establishment of a settler economy.
The white settlers had established a settler economy in Zimbabwe where they
had invested so much in plantation farms and mining activities. The massive
investments made the colonial government reluctant to grant the Africans
independence because it would tantamount to scarifying all the wealth in
Zimbabwe. This position made the Africans to use armed struggle.
5. Declaration of independence by Ian Smith.
The white settlers in Zimbabwe requested Britain to grant Zimbabwe
independence but under minority rule i.e. controlled by the white settles.
Britain approved the request and in 1965 Ian Smith unilaterally declared
Zimbabwe independent, but under minority rule. This action prompted the
Africans to engage in an armed struggle to attain their independence.
6. Harshness of the colonial government.
The colonial government was very harsh in Zimbabwe; nationalist leaders were
imprisoned and the government pursued policies such as forced labor whereby
to implement this; travel passes were introduced to try and limit the movement
of the people.
7. Disunity.
The political parties in Zimbabwe were not united thus it became very difficult
for them to present a common front against the colonial government. There
were sharp differences between the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)
and Zimbabwe African People’s Party (ZAPU). These differences left African
nationalist like Mugabe with no choice but to use armed struggle.
8. Support of the imperialist power.
The Zimbabwe minority regime was supported by the imperialist’s powers in
order to defend their interests. This was seen when powers like the USA,

Page 73 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

France and Germany failed to observe the United Nations sanctions code
against Ian Smith minority regime.
NB: These factors compelled the African nationalist leaders to use armed
struggle, majority rule in Zimbabwe was achieved in 1980.
ARMED STRUGGLE IN PORTUGUESE COLONIES (ANGOLA AND
MOZAMBIQUE)
The early political movements in Angola developed mainly along ethnic lines.
The initial political parties expressed cultural activities like praising African
culture.
In December 1956, the movement for peoples liberation of Angola (MPLA)
advocated for equal rights of the all the colonized people irrespective of their
color, creed or tribe.
In 1962, the Front for National liberation of Angola (FNLA) was formed. By this
time, there were two major liberation movements i.e. the MPLA and FNLA.
Later the FNLA split thus creating another liberation movement called union
for Total independence of Angola (UNITA), under the leadership pf Jonas
Savimbi. UNITA declared that it would stand for full independence of Angola.
A positive element in the struggle for independence occurred in 1974 at a
meeting in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo where the MPLA and
the FNLA adopted a common front in their struggle for independence.
The three major movements, MPLA, FNLA and UNITA met in January 1974 at a
meeting in Mombasa, Kenya under the leadership of Present Jomo Kenyatta. At
this meeting the three major movements agreed to end all types of constitutes
and propaganda which hampered unity and cooperation.
The MPLA, the largest and the strongest movement took the reins of the state
in spite of the civil wars. The situation worsened when Fascist South Africa
invaded Angola in support of UNITA and FNLA.
However, of June 1976 the MPLA’s forces and the MP assumed full control of
Angola.
MOZAMBIQUE
In Mozambique the nationalist movements championing the grievances of both
the workers and peasants emerged in the 1960. Due to the suppression of
nationalist movements within Mozambique, nationalist movements were
organized from outside by Mozambicans in exile.
These movements included the following.
1. National Democratic union of Mozambique formed in Southern Rhodesia in
1960.
2. Mozambique African National Union formed in Kenya in 1961.
3. African union of independent Mozambique formed in Nyasaland in 1961.

Page 74 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

By the end of 1961, all the three nationalist movements had shifted their
headquarters to Dar es Salaam. In 1962 they merged or joined to form front for
the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO).
FRELIMO concentrated on training cadres, party organization and mobilization
of world support. Actual armed struggle began in Mozambique in 1964 and the
final victory of FRELIMO and the people of Mozambique came in 1975 and
SamoraMachel became the President.
Reasons for armed struggle in Angola and Mozambique:-
(A) Banning of nationalist movements.
Portugal banned all nationalist movements in these colonies because she was
not ready to grant independence. The nationalist movements in Mozambique
were operating from outside, this complicated the struggle for independence
thus the Africans had to resort to the use of armed struggle.
(B) The perception of portages.
Portugal like France always argued that she had no colonies in Africa, but
overseas provinces that were part of Portugal. Portugal claimed that these
territories had no rights for independence. This position forced the Africans to
use armed struggle to acquire independence.
(C) Portugal was poor.
Portugal was a very poor therefore she depended heavily on her colonies for
wealth, due to this predicament Portugal could not grant independence to
Angola and Mozambique , forcing the Africans to use armed struggle.
(D) Richness of the colonies.
A colony such as Angola was so rich in terms of raw material particularly all
thus the Portuguese were not ready to grant it independence, hence the only
solution left was to use armed struggle.
(E) Portugal was a fascist state
Portugal was a fascist state i.e. was a country that did not believed in
democracy to make matters worse, she believed in the everlasting civilizing
mission in Africa hence she could not grant independence to Angola and
Mozambique when the civilizing mission was incomplete. This altitude
compelled the Africans to use armed struggle to regain their independence.
(F) Many Portuguese were illiterate.
Many Portuguese were illiterate thus ignorant about the outside world
especially of the new form of imperialism. Portugal believed that granting
independence to her colonies meant the end of exploitation; hence it became
reluctant to grant independence to its colonies.
None the less, Angola and Mozambique were able to acquire independence after
a prolonged armed struggle.

Page 75 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

CONTRIBUTION OF PAN AFRICANISM TO THE RISE OF AFRICAN


NATIONALISM
Pan African Conferences .
(i) The first Pan African Conference was consequently convened in England
1900 under the leadership of Sylvester Williams, a barrister from Trinidad. -
Among the other things, the conference discussed human rights violations
against African in South Africa and racial discrimination against people of
Africa origin in the World.
(ii)The second Pan African Conference took place after the first world war in
1919. It attracted 50 participant, with twelve of them coming from African
continent.
1.The Pan Africanist movement united all Africans from all walks of life to
oppose colonialism. The common desire for independence was a unifying factor
that terminated tribal interests. By uniting all Africans it became easy to
oppose colonial rule.
2. The Government provided a platform or a platform where Africans could
discuss the grievances caused by colonialism. In all the congresses of the
movement, the people of African origin discussed about implementing the spirit
of oneness among all the black people all over the world.
3. The Movement awakened the interests of the Africans to fight for
independence. During the conferences of the Pan African movement, members
discussed a wide range of issues such as racial discrimination, unfair taxation
policies and land alienation which they were facing under colonial rule.
4. The Pan African movement played a big role in the rise of African
nationalism because it stressed that the fight for political independence by the
Africans was a necessary step towards complete economic and social
emancipation.
5.The Pan African congress chose total liberation in their struggle for
independence from Manchester. The activities of the movement were shifted to
Africa following the independence of Ghana in 1957. The Capital city of Ghana,
Accra became the headquarters of Pan Africanism where Kwame Nkurumah
spear headed the independence of many African countries.
6.The movement represented the African continent in the international
conferences especially in the United Nations Organization (UNO). The United
Nations Organization wanted to ensure that all the countries attain
independence throughthe peaceful means.

THE SECOND WORLD WAR


After World War I the world powers worked very hard to stop the occurrence of
another great war. In 1920s several peace treaties were signed in an effort to
strengthen relations among the European powers. It was however very difficult

Page 76 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

to create such relations because many European powers were dissatisfied with
the conditions they found themselves in, so in the 1930, there was general
aggression which worsened the relations between the powers thus culminating
into the Second World War.
Causes of the Second World War
i. The Versailles peace treaty.
The terms of the treaty blamed German for being responsible for the outbreak
of World War II. The allied powers occupied most of German territories and
forced her to disarm. The war reparations made German to become bankrupt
leading to inflation and wide spread of unemployment. The German blamed the
Versailles treaty for their troubles and Hitler wanted to reverse this situation by
adopting an aggressive foreign policy.
ii. Hitler’s ambition to restore German dominance in Europe contributed to the
outbreak of World War II. He made it clear that German cannot become a world
power without affecting another war. He demanded rearmament of German and
set out to assert German authority over smaller and weaker states which
destabilized European peace.
iii.The rise of dictatorship. Dictatorship developed during the 1920 and 1930
which destroyed democratic rights. In Italy Mussolini founded the fascist party
in 1919; he seized all political powers of the country and transformed the
country into a totalitarian state. The national socialist party or the Nazi party
came to power in 1933 in German with;
a. Introduction of the cold war. The cold war was an ideological and economic
struggle between two opposing blocs i.e. USA and her allies on one hand and
the Soviet Union and her allies on the other hand. The cold war was
accompanied by an arm race between USA and USSR
b.Formation of the United Nations. The UN was formed in 1945 to promote
peace, security and international cooperation. It was founded on a broader
basis than the League of Nations, whereby membership is open to all nations
irrespective of their political and ideological belief.
c. Introduction of the marshal plan. The marshal plan was a package of loans
given to European countries to reconstruct their economies after the Second
World War with the introduction of the marshal plan, the USA found herself
getting more involved in European affairs.
d. Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). This was a
military alliance of the USA and most states of Western Europe formed in 1949.
The organization committed to USA to defend Western Europe and in return
those countries would support the USA. This scheme threatened to destroy the
communist Russia.

Page 77 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

e. Formation of the war saw Pact. The Soviet Union response to NATO was the
formation of the war saw pact in 1955 which brought all the soviet satellites
into a military union. From the 1950’s Europe remained a divide continent and
a major theater of the cold war
f. Formation of NAM. The Non Alignment Movement was a kind neutralism i.e.
a policy of not aligning with any power block; it is therefore a free and
independent policy whereby international issues are decided on merit.
g. Loss of live. The World War II led to huge loses of lives because very many
people, both soldiers and civilian were killed during the war.
h.Massive unemployment. The war created massive unemployment. This was
due to the return of the demobilized soldiers and prisoners of war who
increased the demand of jobs.
i. Change in the balance of power. The second world war changed the balance
of power in the world, it destroyed the economies of power such as France and
Britain and contributed to the emergence of the united states of America and
the union of soviet socialist republics as the world powers.
Effects of the second world war in Africa
a.Intensified exploitation. There was intensification of colonial exploitation of
African resources so as to reconstruct their economies. There was
establishment of development schemes geared towards maximization of capital.
The examples of these schemes included Kongwa and Urambo in Tanganyika.
b.Increased state intervention. There was increased colonial state intervention
in the production of raw materials and marketing of primary exports. Under
peasant agriculture, there was creation of master farmers who were given loans
and credits so as to boost the production of raw materials.
c. Establishment of more processing industries. There was establishment of
more processing industries to reduce the weight of raw materials so as to keep
freight charges low to facilitate their exportation to Europe. The examples of
those processing industries are cotton grinner in Mozambique.
d. Intensification of African nationalism. There was intensification of African
nationalism because of returning African soldiers who came back with new
ideas like the Europeans are not invincible; they can be defeated in a prolonged
struggle. This belief encouraged the Africans to fight for their independence.
e. Introduction of American neo–colonialism. Due to the second world war, the
USA emerged as the leading capitalist power, but it had no colonies hence she
introduced the open door policy whereby she put pressure on the European
countries to grant independence to African countries. The introduction of the
open door policy later led to the introduction of American neo–colonialism in
Africa.
f. Loss of lives. The Second World War led to heavy losses of lives because
many of the people who were taken to fight never returned back because they
were killed on the battle fields.
Page 78 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

g. Collapse of the Italian imperialism. The Second World War contributed to the
collapse of Italian imperialism in Africa. The defeat of the central powers where
Italy was an active member forced her to lose her colonies of Libya and Eritrea.
h. There was change in the mandatory status of former German colonies such
as Tanganyika, Namibia, Rwanda and Burundi had become mandate states
under the League of Nations organization, they became trusteeship territories.
The role of the second world war in the rise of African nationalism
The Second World War played a great role in the rise of African nationalism by
doing the following
a. Formation of UNO.
The UNO was formed in 1945 with the main objective of maintaining peace in
the world. The UN formed the trusteeship council which had to make sure all
colonies gain their independence by using peaceful means. Tanganyika is one
of the countries that benefited from UN because it was a trusteeship territory.
b. Rise of the USA.
After the World War II, USA emerged as a leading economic and political power.
USA introduced the open door policy though which USA needed raw materials,
markets and areas for investment from overseas hence her support for
decolonization became paramount so as to have access to these needs in the
colonies. USA put decolonization as a condition for European economic
reconstruction which was the

TOPIC 7:POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN


TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
Independence refers to the total liberation of man from poverty, ignorance,
disease, exploitation and oppression.
Such liberation can be achieved if African political systems can enable their
people to plan their economic development and attain prosperity.
Since independence; African government have attempted various ways of
bringing about real independence by improving communication system and
expanding education, yet the whole it has proved very difficult for most of
African countries to achieve real independence, partly due to colonial legacy.
COLONIAL LEGACY
This refers to the long lasting effects which African states inherited from
colonialism at independence. Thereare many effects but the outstanding ones
are the following;
I. Effects on the African economies

Page 79 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Ø Export oriented economies.


African countries are still exporting raw materials (cash crops and minerals)
and importing manufactured goods from the developed countries. African
countries produced what they did not consume and consumed what they did
not produce. This is a typical feature of distorted economy.
Ø Monoculture economies.
Colonial African countries specialized in the production of one majority
commodity. Cocoa in Ghana, copper in Zambia and sisal in Tanzania. The
danger of this is that market prices may fluctuate any time causing a
disadvantage to the producer country.
Ø Subsistence peasant agriculture.
Since independence, there have been so fundamental attempts made to
mechanize agricultural sector. The production in agricultural sector has
qualitative and quantitative low because the main tool of production was the
hand hoe.
Ø Poor transport system.
Post colonial state inherited a poor transport system, most of the roads and
railways are still concentrated in production areas, with this type of transport
system, and it was very difficult to attain real development.
Ø Small and weak industrial sector.
During the colonial period, the capitalist powers destroyed the African
traditional industries so as to make sure that Africa is remaining the market
for European manufactured goods and the producer of raw materials. The
colonial powers only established import substitution industry and semi
processing plant. Africa today has consumer producer industries with these
industries; it is very hard to achieve real development.
II. Cultural effects
African culture has been despised; it has been substituted by western values,
production and consumption patterns, music and dance. As a measure to
control the deterioration of African culture in Tanganyika, there was
establishment of ministry of education and culture in 1962 so as to revive and
initiate all that was useless in the colonial pattern.
III. Distortion of political systems of African states
Ø Tribalism
The colonialists encouraged ethnicism and tribalism; they did so in order to
discourage tribal unities or affinities which could emanate into potential
threats to the colonial state. This exercise was in accordance with the colonial
policy of divide and rule.
Ø Class and class structure.

Page 80 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

In post colonial Africa, classes have mostly or often being associated with racial
grouping were the elites, middle class and the working class stand on racial
lines for example the elites and the middle class have continued to dominate
commerce while the African majority became peasants and members of the
working class.
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
There were various changes in the political field that took place in Tanzania
after independence. For example: constitutional changes and the introduction
of multi – party politics.
The constitution of Tanzania
The constitution is the system of laws and principles that a state or an
organization is governed by.
The constitution of a country is a supreme law of a state, it’s more important
than any other law in the country.
The constitution of Tanzania was ratified in 1977. Before the current
constitution, Tanzania has had three constitutions i.e.; The Independence
Constitution (1961), The Republican Constitution of (1962) and the interim
constitution of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
THE INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION (1961 – 1962)
After the attainment of independence, Tanganyika adopted the first
constitution that was based on the west minister model with exclusion of the
bill of rights. This constitution defined the governor general as the
representative of the queen was the head of state.
The executive was led by the first minister who was chosen from the majority
party.
THE REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION (1962 – 1964)
In 1962, the parliament which comprised of only TANU members formed an
assembly and drastically revised the 1961 constitution, most important was
the establishment of a strong presidential system. The new president was now
given the former roles of the governor general and those of the first minister. He
was also given the power to choose a vice president and ministers.
The president also had power to dismiss the parliament under certain
conditions.
INTERIM CONSTITUTION (1962 –1977)
In 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form Tanzania. The constitution of
the new born country was based on Tanganyika’s 1962 republican constitution
which was modified according to the agreements between TANU and the Afro
Shiraz party. These agreements had been ratified under the name, “Articles of
Union” and became part of the new constitution as “Acts of Union”.

Page 81 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The most notable feature of the acts of union was the establishment of the
double government structure that is also part of Tanzanians current
constitution. This structure included one government for the union and one
independent government for Zanzibar. The Zanzibar’s government included its
own parliament and president. The president of Zanzibar also served as vice
president of the union.
PERMANENT CONSTITUTION (1977 –To date)
After the formation of CCM in 1977, the permanent constitution was approved.
This constitution essentially confronts the main principles of the republican
and interim constitution that is strong presidential double government
structure and a single party.
Since 1977, several amendments have been made to the original constitution;
many of these are related to the relationship between the united government
and the Zanzibar government.
Significance of constitutional changes to the political development of Tanzania
There were various effects of the constitution changes to the political
development in Tanzania
1) Liberation from partial independence.
The 1962 constitutional change liberated Tanzania from partial political
independence.
The country was still under the control of the Queen of England who was
represented by the governor general in the country. The 1962 constitution saw
the establishment of a constituent assembly that introduced the post of a
president who was a Tanzanian.
2) Introduction of ujamaa.
The 1967 change, introduced a political ideology of Ujamaa (African Socialism)
and self reliance. This provided a political guideline in which the countries
development would be attained.
Ujamaa was one of the two important principles of Arusha Declaration. It
aimed at creating a truly socialist state where the society was classless.
Ujamaa emphasized absence of exploitation of man by man. The principle
aimed at putting the major means of production under the control of peasants
and workers.
3) Introduction of one party system.
The banning of multiparty politics was significant in creating a solidified and
united state so that it could be possible to achieve development. Multiparty
politics was seen as recipe for disunity and could invite foreign interaction in
the country.
4) Reintroduction of multi party.

Page 82 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

The 1962 reintroduction of multiparty politics brought openness of the


government and created freedom of press, speech and accountability of
different actors in the political system of Tanzania.
It would be noted that one of the reasons for the re introduction of multiparty
was the pressure from the donor community.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
Since independence Tanzania has tried different ways to achieve development,
but in the whole, the country is still finding it very difficult to achieve real
growth and development. The following are the challenges of Tanzania's
economic development
A. Inadequate capital.
The absence of adequate capital is one of the crucial factors that have hindered
development in the region. African countries rely on loans given by the
developed countries, but these loans have conditions attached and came in
small trickles thus not able to support development in Africa.
B. Poor transport system.
Existence of poor transport systems which were mainly concentrated in
productive areas led Tanzania to fail to achieve the goals of multiparty.
C. Illiteracy
High levels of illiteracy are one of the factors that have contributed significantly
to under development of Tanzania. The colonial education system provided
education to a few people along racial and religious lines thus leaving the
majority of the people illiterate. Low levels of literacy leads to limited number of
skilled people in Tanzania which does not promote development.
D. Corruption/ embezzlement of the government funds.
Corruption is one of the major factors that have hindered real development in
Tanzania. Government officials especially the presidents have misused public
funds. Many governments in Africa, Tanzania inclusively have run bankrupt
because of corruption and mismanagement.
E. Introduction of socialist ideology.
At the time of independence, Tanzania chooses socialism and self reliance. The
government introduced codes that were similar or common in the socialist
world including one party system and common ownership of property. This
practice cut off Tanzania from the western world and the situation was
worsening by the collapse of Soviet Union.
F. Border conflicts.
Ever since independence, there have been several conflicts, these conflicts rose
from the non important issues. But they have consumed a lot of money and
resources. The examples of the border wars are those between Tanzania and
Uganda (1978 – 1979) and Tanzania and Malawi (1972).

Page 83 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

G. Massive unemployment.
Massive unemployment is a situation thrown in the countries attempt to realize
economic development. Many students who complete universities and colleges
do not get employment due to few job opportunities to make matters worse;
most of those who find higher education are job seekers and not job creators.
Massive unemployment forces people to live the country hence brain drain.
H. Health
The health system in the country is still inadequate to sustain or guarantee all
health ends. The doctors, hospitals, dispensaries and health centers are not
enough especially in rural and some urban areas. Poor health services forces
people to search for services outside the country which are usually expensive
thus depleting the meager resources.
I. Neocolonialism
Neo colonialism is one of the major problems that hinder development in the
country. Tanzania depends on loans and grants from the developed countries
but these facilities have strings attached which are always to the advantage of
the developed countries.
THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
In 1970’s and 1980’s independence many African states faced economic crisis
whereby they failed to provide basic necessities to their people.
During this time, foreign debt and drought were the main factors that hindered
economic development. Tanzania was also hit by the economic crisis of 1970’s.
There were various factors that contributed to this crisis in Tanzania as
follows;
a. Long drought season.
There was a prolonged drought in Tanzania especially between 1981 and 1984.
This droughthit the agricultural sector which was the main sector of the
economy. There was a sharp fall in agricultural production which affected the
revenue earnings of the country since it depended on the export of agricultural
products.
b. The oil crisis of 1976.
The oil crisis of 1976 was the major factor that contributed to the economic
crisis in Tanzania. There was an increase in oil prices which increased the
costs of production hence depleting the limited resources of the country. The
resources spent on purchasing oil could have been used to finance other
sectors of the economy.
c. The war against Idd Amin.
The war against Idd Amin is one of the factors that played a great role in
causing the economic crisis in Tanzania. There was a full scale war in 1978
between Tanzania and Uganda, where by Tanzania spent a lot of resources
Page 84 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

financing the war in which resources would have been used to finance the
economy. After the war the economy of Tanzania had been shattered.
d. The collapse of east African community in 1977.
The collapse of East African community in 1977 worsens the economic crisis in
Tanzania. The special treatment given to goods from Tanzania in the form of
loan, taxes was now removed. There was absence of secure market for
Tanzanian goods; all these factors had a role to play in causing the economic
crisis in the country.
e. Nationalization of parastatal bodies.
The introduction of the Arusha declaration forced the government to
nationalize parastatal bodies. Various enterprises were put under government
control which in most cases failed to effectively administer the enterprises
hence leading to their collapse.
f. Misuse of public office.
The misuse of public office was one of the factors that have hindered
development in Tanzania. Government officials have misused public funds
hence the intended budget does not reach the required sectors of the economy.
STEPS TAKEN BY TANGANYIKA TO SOLVE THE ECONOMIC CRISIS
There were various steps taken by the government since independence to solve
the problems of economic crisis which had a far reaching impact on the
masses. The majority of the population in this country is still living below the
international poverty line, which is surviving on less than 1 USA dollar.
The measures to solve the economic crisis were divided into two phases
A 1961 – 1966.(FIRST PHASE)
Under this phase, the government aimed at improving agriculture,
communication and education based on economist model that included equal
opportunity for all. These measures included the following;
i Socialism and self reliance.
This is where the government took measures to reduce the salaries of
government employees from the president down to normal levels. No civil
servants, members of parliament or TANU office holders were supposed to
engage in private business. This move aimed controlling corruption among
politicians.
ii Targeted rural development.
The government diverted resources from urban areas to rural development.
This aimed at improving agriculture sector. The government grouped the
population into Ujamaa villages in which the people will work together on
communal land so that development can benefit the whole community and not
a few individuals.
iii Administrative and education curriculum.

Page 85 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

There were changes in education in order to change from the colonial type to
type of education which emphasized socialist ideology. The new values of
cooperative basis were encouraged, it was recognized that development plans
must be financed by local resources and not to depend on foreign assistance.
iv Nationalization of land.
The government decided to nationalize land from the colonialists and distribute
it to the people for economic development. This was one of the resolutions of
the Arusha declaration where it passed that all major means of production
should be in the hands of the local people. This is what led to the
nationalization of all foreign banks and other private commercial and
manufacturing companies.
v Removal of head tax.(SECOND PHASE)
The head tax was so unpopular among the majority of people in rural areas; it
increased rather than reduce poverty in the villages. The head tax was
inherited from colonialism.
B 1967 – 1980’s
· Man power training.
The government took deliberate measures to improve the labour resources
through training in and outside the country. A skilled labour force was very
crucial to realize economic development in the country.
· Development of infrastructure.
The government also took various measures to improve the transport system. A
country would be conducive for investment if it has a good transport system.
The government in collaboration with Zambia built the TAZARA railway and
Kilimanjaro international airport in the 1970s, these measures also aimed at
attracting foreign investment which would help to achieve development.
· Expansion of agriculture.
The agricultural sector is the main sector of economy thus the government took
deliberate measures to improve agriculture. It introduced slogans like
“siasanakilimo” in 1972 to train farmer’s better methods of farming.
· Establishment of parastatal bodies.
The government also established parastatal bodies, such as Tanzania Railway
Corporation. National Insurance Corporation and Tanzania electricity supply
company (TANESCO) to offer services to the people.
COLONIAL EDUCATION AND EFFECTS IN TANZANIA UP TO 1961.
Colonial education was the kind of education that was provided by the colonial
government in African continent; Tanzania being among them during the
colonial period. This education was formal where by students were supposed to
sit in class to access education with a written curriculum. However the
curriculum was prepared in Europe 19 th C-20 th C.

Page 86 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

Basically colonial education was provided by two agencies which were churches
through introduction of missionary schools and colonial government its self
through the establishment of government schools.
OBJECTIVES OF COLONIAL EDUCATION
1. Aimed at providing a staff of Africans with adequate capabilities of managing
clerical and minor functions in colonial states; where by those who went to
secondary schools were expected to civil servants and those who had primary
education were expected to be good farmers with skills in crop cultivation and
animal husbandry.
2. Colonial education aimed at perpetuating religious values.
3. Aimed at perpetuating western civilization/culture.
4. It was not designed to prepare young people for service of their own country
instead it was motivated by a desire to inculcate the values of their societies.
5. Aimed at supervision of colonial economy like agricultural production so as
to make Africa a market for European manufactured goods introduced in the
colonies.
6. It aimed at import of the official ideology of the colonizers like learners were
supposed to be obedient, well disciplined and time conscious so as to fulfill the
objectives of the colonizers.
7. It aimed at deafricanization of African people because learners of the colonial
education were supposed to follow western values and abandon African values.
8. It aimed at spreading Christianity religion in African colonies. Africans who
belonged to other religions such as Islamic religion were supposed to follow
Christianity in order to be admitted in seminaries and government schools.
IMPACTS OF COLONIAL EDUCATION
1. Colonial education produced nationalists who led to African independence
example; Kamuzu Banda (Malawi), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Abdul Nassor
(Egypt), etc. All those were the products of colonial education.

2. Introduced skills to students and pupils where learners of colonial education


learnt many things and acquired skills for a short time because education
provided by the colonialists had a defined curriculum. For example skills like
reading and writing which could be used for communication worldwide.
3. Colonial education acted as a base for manpower preparation where by
many Africans went to schools during colonial education had positions in the
governments.
4. Colonial education resulted to killing of African culture (dissociation of
Africans who got colonial education), colonial education alienated educated
Africans for their own culture. For example educated Africans discouraged and
disrespected anything indigenous and instead they praised European culture.

Page 87 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

5. Led to regional imbalance where by regions with economic resources had


more schools than those with less resources for example Kigoma region in
Tanzania received less priority in education than cash production areas like
Mbeya, Kagera, Kilimanjaro, Tanga etc.
6. Led to discrimination in African continent where by education was provided
basing on sex, religion, race and class. For example Colonial education based
on race where by Asians, whites and black each had their own separate
schools, for example colonial Tanganyika Mkwawa High School currently
college of education of University of Dar es salaam saved only the whites,
likewise colonial education led to gender inequality where by colonial schools
had few girls compare to boys for example in Tanganyika in 1956 there were
only 204 girls in secondary schools out of 4409 students in secondary schools.
7. Resulted to provision of education basing on colonial environment. The
African students were taught lessons about European environment and in
negative and a little about Africa for example students in geography class were
taught about seasons of climate in Europe which were summer, winter,spring
and Autumn while those seasons were very strange to African students who are
used only to rainy and dry seasons.
EDUCATION POLICY CHANGES IN TANZANIA (1962 – 1967)
After independence, there were several changes in the education policy. The
aim of these changes was to make education the engine of economic
development. The changes included the following;
a) The government made education a right to all Tanzanians irrespectively of
one’s race or level of income. Colonial education had discriminated the Africans
in the provision of education whereby preference was given to Europeans and
Asians.
b) There was an increase of primary and secondary school enrollment following
the government’s campaign and emphasis on education. Enrollment in colonial
education was restricted, the colonialists simply wanted a few Africans who
would assist the colonial administrators.
c) There were changes regarding the content of colonial education. There was
introduction of various disciplines and not only the agricultural sector. This
was a crucial step in producing educated people with different skills; this move
was taken to support development in the country.
d)The government established the university college of Dar es salaam as the
state university. The establishment of the university was to acquire highly
educated Tanzanians who will play a leading role in developing the country.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR SELF RELIANCE
The following were noted by Nyerere in the education system by 1967
(weakness in colonial education)
i Formal education is basically elitist in nature catering to the needs and
interest of a small population who manage to enter formal schooling. In
Page 88 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

practice the thought of education is training for skills so as to earn high


salaries in the modern sector of our economy.
ii The education system divorces its participants from the society for which
they are supposed to be trained.
iii The system breeds the notion that education is synonymous with formal
schooling and people are judged and employed on the basis of their ability to
pass examinations and acquire paper qualifications.
iv The system does not involve its students in productive work such a situation
deprives society of their much needed contribution to the increase in national
economic output and also breeds among the students contempt for manual
work.
In summary, education for self reliance proposed the following changes in the
education system in Tanzania. (Views of education for self reliance)
1 It should be oriented to rural life. The education system should not divorce
people from their society they live in. it should be relevant to the society.
2 Teachers and students should all engage in productive activities; the
students should participate in the planning and decision making process of
organizing these activities.
3 Productive work should become an integral part of the school curriculum and
provide meaningful learning experience through the integration of theory and
practice.
4 Examinations should be downgraded. Passing examinations should not be
the main goal of the education system, education should prepare its products
how to survive i.e. it should be education for life.
5 Children should begin school at seven years so that they would be old
enough and sufficiently mature to engage in self reliant and productive work
when they leave school.
6 Primary education must be complete in itself rather than merely serving as a
means to higher education after school. People should be in position to creates
jobs and be self reliant.
7 Students should become self confident and cooperative and develop critical
and inquiring minds. The education system had to produce people who can
express themselves and are able to work with other.
Achievements of the education for self reliance in Tanzania
It cannot be denied that Nyerere’s education for self reliance registered some
achievements in Tanzania. Some of the notable achievements are listed here
below.
a) Education was made a right of all Tanzanians.

Page 89 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

This was done irrespectively of one’s race and level of income. There was
introduction of free education from primary level to the university thus making
it possible for all Tanzanians to have access to education.
b) Increased literacy rate.
The policy of education for self reliance played a great role in increasing the
literacy rate in the country. Tanzania’s adult literacy rate was among the
highest in Africa, it was about 85%. This was due to the deliberate policy of
Nyerere to introduce adult education.
c) Introduction of unity.
Education for self reliance was very instrumental in the introduction of unity in
the country. It was characterized by absence of discrimination and the
students who were admitted in secondary schools were posted to different
areas in the country besides their home areas, this policy promoted unity in
the country.
d) Regional balance.
The policy led to regional balance in the country. Colonial education was
characterized with regional imbalance where education was mainly offered in
production areas thus neglecting other areas which had nothing to offer to the
colonialists. Education for self reliance ensured that all regions have access to
education.
e) Use of Swahili.
Education for self reliance was characterized with the introduction of Swahili
as the media of instruction. This language is now the national language of the
country and it is very instrumental in reducing aspects of tribalism thus
ensuring unity.
f) Diversification of the education curriculum.
There was diversification of content in the education system from being mainly
agricultural to different disciplines. This was crucial step in producing
educated people with different specialties; this move was taken to support
development in the country.
g) Increased enrollment in both primary and secondary schools.
There was an increase of primary and secondary school enrollment following
the government’s campaign and emphasis on education. Enrollment in colonial
education was restricted; the colonialists simply wanted few Africans who
would assist the colonial administrators.
NOTE: It should be pointed out that, the attempt to build a socialist and self
reliant society through political, economic, social and educational actions has
largely failed. Since 1986 in particular, the united republic of Tanzania was
been steadily moving to the right. The country is now much more integrated
into the capitalist world system than it was at the time of independence.

Page 90 of 91
BLESS JALILENI A LEVEL HISTORY 1 NOTES YOUR FUTURE LIES ON YOUR HAND

However one cannot deny the achievements registered by the policy of self
reliance.

Page 91 of 91