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UNIT 1 LESSON 2 – Types of Communication


Communication is generally defined as the exchange of
LESSON 1 – The Nature of Language thoughts, ideas, concepts, and views between or among two or
more people.
Together with the creation of human life is the creation of
a wonderful and dynamic capacity – language. Context is the circumstance or environment in which
communication takes place.
Animals are said to be able to communicate with each
other. Whale sing, wolves howl, dogs bark, and birds chirp. The Such circumstances may include the following:
sounds these creatures produce often reflect to the state of the a. physical or actual setting
emotions. b. the value positions of a speaker/listener
c. the relevance or appropriateness of a message conveyed
It may be true that animals communicate, but only human
beings are truly capable of producing language. Communication may then be classified according to:
(1) mode
 LANGUAGE (2) context
- Linguists agree that a language can only be called (3) purpose and style
a language if it has a system of rules (also known
as grammar), a sound system (phonology), and TYPES OF COMMUNICATION ACCORDING TO MODE
a vocabulary (lexicon).
- When people use language, they can understand  Effective communication calls for the blending of these
each other because they belong to the same two types. One cannot be separated from the other.
speech community and they share the same set of
rules in the language system.  A person can only be effective in communicating if they
know how to properly punctuate what they say with
 LANGUAGE ACQUISITION proper gestures and facial expressions.
- It is a process when people acquire the language
used by those in the community while they are  In order for a person to show interest to another person
growing up. (when they first met) he/she acknowledge each other
- The language acquired while growing up are presence through amiable, congenial disposition, and a
known as MOTHER TONGUES, which may also smiling face (non-verbal code) rather than speaking.
be referred to as FIRST LANGUAGES.
- People discover later on that other languages are (2) VISUAL COMMUNICATION
need for various reason and these other
languages may be referred to as SECOND  A type of communication that uses visual to convey
LANGUAGES. information and/or messages. Some examples are sign,
- LANGUAGE LEARNING is a process when people symbols, imagery, maps, graphs, charts, diagrams,
learn other languages by studying formally in pictograms, photos, drawing or illustrations, and even
school or informally on their own. various form of electronic communication.

 LANGUAGE CONTACT - Some examples of electronic communication

- It is when two person speaks different languages symbols or images are the emojis, emoticons, and
and then eventually, the two will be able to animation among others to convey the writer’s or
communicate as they slowly learn each other’s clarify the intent of the message sender. These are
languages. achieved through digital mode or text.
- As they try to communicate, they produce a new
languages form that is understandable to the both  It occupies an important place in any work environment.
of them. The result of such contact is called For instance, during presentations, instructors,
LANGUAGE CHANGE. managers, doctors, lawyers, legislator, and the like use
visuals to transfer data into digestible information. They
Language is indeed a complex human capacity.
will have greater success in catching the attention of the  If the objective is to achieve something at the end of the
audience. conversation, it becomes transactional. (more formal
 What makes visual communication even more and profound)
advantageous is that it makes use of technology that  Interpersonal talks are meant for maintaining social
provides apps (applications), videos, and images that rely relationship, while transactional talks aim to accomplish
less on the printed word making presentations more or resolve something at the end of the conversation.
 Speakers/presenters should be mindful of the content of EXTENDED COMMUNICATION
their presentation since wrong and irrelevant
information may lead to miscommunication or  It involves the use of electronic media.
communication breakdown.  Before when it only called for the use of television and
 Likewise, they should pay attention to graphic elements, radio but now, the description of it may be expanded as
such as position, color, size, shape, and orientation as all it includes tele, audio, or phone conferencing; video-
these play an important role in the presentation of slides. conferencing; Sky calls; and other technological
 Audience size should be considered as well when means.
preparing slide presentations or other forms of visual.
 It focuses on the role that communication plays in
Context – in communication it is referred to as a composite of organizational contexts.
people interacting with each other.  Organizations compromise individuals who work for the
(1) Intrapersonal  For an organization to be successful, a system of
(2) Interpersonal communication should be put in place.
(3) Extended  There are two types or organizational structure:
(4) Organizational
(5) Intercultural (1) Formal Structure
- It allows communication to take place via
INTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION designated channels of message flow between
positions in the organization.
 It means talking to oneself. - It may use four approaches:
 From the Latin prefix intra means within or inside.
 Some label it as self or inner talk, inner monologue, or a) Downward communication
inner dialogue. - The type that flows from upper
 Psychologists call it with other names such as self- to lower position, i.e., president
verbalization or self-statement. to a manager to an ordinary staff.
 “I can do it.” – One magic statement - The flow of communication is
top-down or from a superior to a
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION subordinate, usually asking
certain individuals to perform a
 As opposed to intra, the Latin prefix inter means certain task.
between, among, and together.
 An interactive exchange takes places as interpersonal b) Upward communication
communication. - It is bottom-up in which
 A transaction does not necessarily take place since it can subordinates send
only be a simple interaction such as greetings, getting to communication to their
know a person, or ordinary conversations that happen superiors/bosses bearing their
between or among the interactants. This may occur in views and feedbacks on
dyads or small group, also known as group organizational policies, issues
communication. related to their jobs.
 A communication situation is interpersonal if it is
mean to establish or deepen one’s relationship with c) Horizontal communication
others. (less seriousness and formality) - It is a lateral in approach as it
takes place among people
belonging to the same level but variates, such as thrice, batchmates, CR (comfort room),
coming from different solons, barangay captain, and high blood.
departments or units to
through proper coordination. STYLE

d) Crosswise communication  The focus is on the communication setting and the mode
- It is diagonal in nature as of delivery.
employees from different units
or departments working at FORMAL COMMUNICATION
various level communicate with
each other.  It employs formal language delivered orally or in written
(2) Informal Structure  Lectures, public talks/speeches, research and project
-It comes from unofficial channels of message proposals, reports, and business letters, among others are
flow. all considered formal situation and writings.
-Also known as “grapevine”, messages coming  To inform, to entertain, and to persuade are the main
from different levels of organization are objectives of this type of communication.
-The baseless gossips and rumors spread and it INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
is impossible to identify the one who started it.
 Certainly does not employ formal language.
 Each organization has its own culture referred to as  It involves personal and ordinary conversations with
“organizational culture”. friends, family members, or acquaintances about
 Organization developed its own core values, vision, and anything under the sun.
mission statements, goals, and objectives.  The mode may be oral as in face-to-face, ordinary or
 Organizational culture is of utmost significance since everyday talks and phone calls, or written as in the case
it will dictate the kind of behavior that employees should of e-mail messages, personal notes, letters, or text
possess as well as the extent of commitment expected message.
from them by the organization.  The purpose is simply to socialize and enhance
 “Company cultures are like country culture. Never try to relationship.
change one. Try instead, to work, with what you’ve got.”,
a quote from Peter Drucker, underscores the view that
indeed, culture is within the control of the entrepreneur
or company owner. LESSON 3 – Communication Process, Principles, and Ethics

A model is often abstract. It is a representation of a real

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNCIATION world phenomenon applied to different forms.

 It is communication between or among people having Four Conceptual Models for Human Communication
different linguistic, religious, ethnic, social, and (1) Aristotle’s model
professional backgrounds. (2) Laswell’s model
 Even gender difference affects communication. (3) Shannon-Weaver’s model
 Individuals having different orientations communicate (4) David Berlo’s model
and interpret messages differently. This particularly
happens with non-verbal communication. ARISTOTLE’S COMMUNICATION MODEL
 Australians consider eye contact as important in
assessing the sincerity of a person while in Indians Classical rhetoric dates back to ancient Greece during the
looking straight into the eyes is inappropriate. time of Plato, Aristotle, and the Greek Sophists who were great
 Indians interpret waving hands from side to side as no or rhetoricians.
go away while it means hello among Westerners.
 In the Philippines, a local variety of English called Effective public speaking was an important consideration
Philippine English has been developed which has in the study of communication. They were good at arguments and
introduced lexical innovation, not found or used in other debates and speech was characterized by repartee.
According to Aristotle, there are three variables in the Originally, it was conceptualized for the functioning of the
communication process: speaker, speech, and audience. radio and television serving as a model for technical
communication and, later on, adopted in the field of
Speaker communication.
 Note that the speaker variable here is very important.
Without the speaker, there will be no speech to be The following components: noise, reception, destination
produced. and feedback, have been identified. Other terms such as
information source for the sender, transmitter for the encoder,
 The speaker adjusts his/her speech depending on the decoder (reception), and receiver (destination) were introduced.
profile of the audience.


 Some of the consideration on the audience demographics
are age, sex, background, culture, race, religion, gender, David Berlo’s model conceptualized in 1960 is probably
social and economic status, and political orientation or the most well-known among the communication models.
inclination, among others.
Initially, Berlo’s model was called SMCR which stands for
 Even beliefs, views, and attitudes also play an important sender of the message, sent through a channel or medium to a
role when talking about audience consideration. receiver. However, it was modified later on to include noise, hence
the acronym SMCRN.

LASWELL’S COMMUNICATION MODEL Four Major Variables involved in Communication Process

In 1948, Harold Dwight Laswell described 1. Source – being originator of the message acts as the encoder.
communication as being focused on the following Ws:
 Encoder
 Who (communicator) - it should practice communication skills such as
 Says What (Message) listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
 In Which channel (Medium) - His/her attitude towards the audience or the
 To Whom (Receiver) subject as well as his/her knowledge about the
 With What effect (Effect) topic on hand likewise counts along with social
system that he/she is in which includes values,
The whole process begins with the communicator (who) beliefs, and practices and culture.
sending out a message (what) using a medium (in which channel)
for a receiver (to whom) experiencing an effect (with what effect) 2. Message – it includes the following:
a) Content
The process may be analyzed through the content sent, b) Elements - such as language (verbal code) used and
the medium used, as well as the effect on the recipient of the gestures (non-verbal code) employed
message. c) Treatment or the manner - by which the message is
While this model is similar to Aristotle’s model in the d) Structure – which refers to the arrangement of parts or
sense that both are linear and have the same components, flow of the message
Laswell’s also differs in that there are five variables involved, with
addition of two: medium and effect. 3. Channel – it refers to the different senses: seeing, hearing,
smelling, tasting, and touching.

SHANNONS-WEAVER COMMUNICATION MODEL 4. Receiver – it is the one who decodes the message.

Claude Elwood Shannon and Warren Weaver’s model of

communication was introduced in 1949, a year after Laswell’s, for Note: The components of this last variable are similar to those of
Bell Laboratories. the first since for communication to be effective, both source
and the receiver should have good communication skills.

For oral and written communication, you should apply the


1. Know your purpose in communicating.

2. Know your audience.
3. Know your topic.
4. Adjust your speech or writing to the context of the situation.
5. Work on the feedback given you.


1. Be clear with your purpose.

2. Be complete with the message you deliver.
3. Be concise.
4. Be natural with your delivery.
5. Be specific and timely with your feedback.


1. Be clear.
2. Be concise.
3. Be concrete.
4. Be correct
5. Be coherent.
6. Be complete.
7. Be courteous.


1. Establish an effective value system that will pave the way for
the development of your integrity as a person. BERLO’S COMMUNICATION MODEL
2. Provide complete and accurate information.
3. Disclose vital information adequately and appropriately.


UNIT 3 5. It was a good thing for many suppliers, jobseekers and

Lesson 1 – Communication and Globalization  The company was purchasing 247 million of
kilograms of unroasted coffee from 29

 “Globalization” and “global” are terms often encounter  Through its stores and purchasers, it provides
today. jobs and income for hundreds of thousands of
 These terms are associated with realities outside the people all over the world.
territories of nation-states.
6. In 2012, a disaster struck, Starbucks made headlines after
a Reuters investigation showed that the chain hadn't paid
 Reuters – is an international news organization. much tax to the UK government, despite having almost a
 International Monetary Fund –is an international thousand coffee shops in the country and earning millions
organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. of pounds in profit there.
 Paris Agreement on Climate Change – is signed 2016,
an agreement within the United Nations Framework 7. As a multinational company, Starbucks was able to use
complex accounting rules that enabled it to have profit
Convention on Climate change, dealing with greenhouse-
earned in one country taxed in another. Because the latter
gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation and finance.
country had a lower tax rate, Starbucks benefited.
 Oxfam – founded in 1942, a confederation of 20
Ultimately, the British public missed out, as the
independent charitable organizations focusing on the government was raising less tax to spend on improving
alleviation of global poverty. their well-being.

WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION ANYWAY? How did globalization happen?

By Alex Gray (World Economic Forum,2017) 8. We might think of globalization as a relatively new
phenomenon, but it's been around for centuries.
How Globalization Works
1. In simple term, globalization is the process by which 9. One example is the Silk Road, when trade spread rapidly
people and goods move easily across borders. between China and Europe via an overland route.
 Principally, it’s an economic concept – the Merchants carried goods for trade back and forth,
integration of markets, trade and investments trading silk as well as gems and spices and, of course,
with few barriers to slow the flow of products and coffee.
services between nations.
 In fact, the habit of drinking coffee in a social
 There is also a cultural element, as ideas and
setting originates from a Turkish custom, an
traditions are traded and assimilated.
example of how globalization can spread culture
across borders.
2. Globalization has brought many benefits to many but not
to everyone.
What drives it?

10. Globalization has speeded up enormously over the last

Storm in a Coffee Cup half-century, thanks to great leaps in technology.
3. To help explain the economic side of globalization, let’s
take a look at the well-known coffee chain Starbucks. 11. The internet has revolutionized connectivity and
communication, and helped people share their ideas
4. In 1971, the first Starbucks outlet opened its door in the much more widely, just as the invention of the printing
city of Seattle. press did in the 15th century. The advent of email made
communication faster than ever.
 Today it has 15,000 stores in 50 countries.
 These days you can find a Starbucks anywhere, 12. The invention of enormous container ships helped too.
whether Australia, Cambodia, Chile or Dubai. In fact, improvements in transport generally - faster
ships, trains and airplanes - have allowed us to move
 It is what you might call a truly globalized
around the globe much more easily.
What's good about it? Lesson 2 - Local and Global Communication in Multicultural
13. Globalization has led to many millions of people being

According to science, each person is genetically unique.

14. A company like Starbucks buys coffee from farmers in
Rwanda, it is providing a livelihood and a benefit to the Except for identical twins, each person has a unique genetic
composition. This uniqueness becomes even more heightened
community as a whole. A multinational company's
presence overseas contributes to those local economies because of individual experiences. Humans are formed by
because the company will invest in local resources, forces other than genetics.
products and services. Socially responsible corporations  Family background, religious affiliations,
may even invest in medical and educational facilities. educational achievements, socio-cultural
forces, economic conditions, emotional states,
15. Globalization has not only allowed nations to trade with and other factors shape human identities.
each other, but also to cooperate with each other as never Because of this, no two people can ever be
before. Take the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, exactly the same.
for instance, where 195 countries all agreed to work
towards reducing their carbon emissions for the This situation-the diversity of people and cultures-
greater global good. impacts communication. People interacting with those coming
from unfamiliar cultures may have difficulties in
communication. Most people tend to conclude that
What's bad about it? miscommunication results from a speaker's lack of
16. While some areas have flourished, others have proficiency in a language. What is not realized is the fact that
floundered as jobs and commerce move elsewhere. Steel even with excellent language skills, people may still experience
companies in the UK, for example, once thrived, miscommunication.
providing work for hundreds of thousands of people. But
when China began producing cheaper steel, steel plants
in the UK closed down and thousands of jobs were lost.  Take for granted – Underestimate the value of a person.
 Cultural biases – Tend to believe what they wanted to.
 Domestic workforce – Work for private households.
17. Every step forward in technology brings with it new  Cultural overtones – Normal/right or strange/wrong.
dangers. Computers have vastly improved our lives, but  Durable bond – Strong and lasts a long time.
cyber criminals steal millions of pounds a year. Global  Grossly disloyal – Do not support your very own.
wealth has skyrocketed, but so has global warming.


18. While many have been lifted out of poverty, not
everybody has benefited. Many argue that globalization By Carol Kinsey Goman (2011)
operates mostly in the interests of the richest
countries, with most of the world's collective profits
flowing back to them and into the pockets of those who 1. Communicating across cultures is challenging. Each
already own the most. culture has set rules that its members take for granted.
Few of us are aware of our own cultural biases because
cultural imprinting is begun at a very early age. And
19. Although globalization is helping to create more wealth while some of a culture's knowledge, rules, beliefs,
in developing countries, it is not helping to close the gap values, phobias, and anxieties are taught explicitly,
between the world's poorest and richest nations. most of the information is absorbed subconsciously.
Leading charity Oxfam says that when corporations such
as Starbucks can legally avoid paying tax, the global 2. The challenge for multinational communication has
inequality crisis worsens. never been greater. Worldwide business organizations
have discovered that intercultural communication is a
subject of importance--not just because of increased
20. Basically, done wisely in the words of the IMF globalization, but also because their domestic workforce
(International Monetary Fund) globalization could lead is growing more and more diverse, ethnically and
to "unparalleled peace and prosperity." Done poorly, culturally.
"to disaster."
3. We are all individuals, and no two people belonging to
the same culture are guaranteed to respond in exactly
the same way. However, generalizations are valid to the AFFECTIVE VS. NEUTRAL
extent that they provide clues on what you will most likely
encounter when dealing with members of a particular 10. In international business practices, reason and emotion
both play a role. Which of these dominates depends upon
whether we are affective (readily showing emotions) or
emotionally neutral in our approach.
o Members of neutral cultures do not telegraph
their feelings, but keep them carefully controlled
4. All international communication is influenced by cultural and subdued.
differences. Even the choice of communication medium o In cultures with high affect, people show their
can have cultural overtones. The determining factor feelings plainly by laughing, smiling, grimacing,
may not be the degree of industrialization, but rather scowling, and sometimes crying, shouting, or
whether the country falls into a high-context or low- walking out of the room.
context culture.
11. This doesn't mean that people in neutral cultures are cold
5. High-context cultures (Mediterranean, Slav, Central or unfeeling, but in the course of normal business
European, Latin American, African, Arab, Asian, activities, neutral cultures are more careful to monitor the
American- Indian) leave much of the message amount of emotion they display.
unspecified, to be understood through context, o Emotional reactions were found to be least
nonverbal cues, and between-the-lines interpretation acceptable in Japan, Indonesia, the U.K.,
of what is actually said. By contrast, low-context cultures Norway, and the Netherlands and most
(most Germanic and English-speaking countries) accepted in Italy, France, the U.S., and
expect messages to be explicit and specific. Singapore.

12. Reason and emotion are part of all human

communication. When expressing ourselves, we look to
others for confirmation of our ideas and feelings.
6. Some cultures think of time sequentially, as a linear  If our approach is highly emotional, we are
commodity to “spend," "save," or "waste.” seeking a direct emotional response: "I feel the
 Other cultures view time synchronically, as a same way.
constant flow to be experienced in the moment,  If our approach is highly neutral, we want an
and as a force that cannot be contained or indirect response: "I agree with your thoughts
controlled. on this."

7. In sequential cultures (like North American, English, 13. It's easy for people from neutral cultures to sympathize
German, Swedish, and Dutch), business people give full with the Dutch manager and his frustration over trying
attention to one agenda item after another. to reason with “that excitable Italian.”
 After all, an idea either works or it doesn't work,
8. In synchronic cultures (including South America, and the way to test the validity of an idea is
southern Europe and Asia) the flow of time is viewed as through trial and observation. That just makes
a sort of circle, with the past, present, and future all sense doesn't it? Well, not necessarily to the
interrelated. This viewpoint influences how Italian who felt the issue was deeply personal and
organizations in those cultures approach deadlines, who viewed any “rational argument" as totally
strategic thinking, investments, developing talent irrelevant!
from within, and the concept of long-term planning.
14. When it comes to communication, what's proper and
9. Orientation to the past, present, and future is another correct in one culture may be ineffective or even
aspect of time in which cultures differ. offensive in another.
 Americans believe that the individual can  In reality, no culture is right or wrong, better or
influence the future by personal effort, but worse-just different.
since there are too many variables in the distant  In today's global business community, there is no
future, we favor a short-term view. single best approach to communicating with
Synchronistic cultures' context is to understand one another.
the present and prepare for the future. Any  The key to cross-cultural success is to develop
important relationship is a durable bond that an understanding of, and a deep respect for,
goes back and forward in time, and it is often the differences.
viewed as grossly disloyal not to favor friends
and relatives in business dealings.