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The Life and Works of Jose Rizal

Metacognitive Reading Report # 2

Name: Buenaseda, Janina Bianca V. Date: Aug. 26, 2019

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
      
BEFORE DO NOT
COMPLETING THIS PLEASE MAKE REVIEW PLAGIARIZE!
ASSESSMENT, RESPOND TO YOUR YOUR
ANSWER
PLEASE READ ALL FOLLOW THE THE HANDWRITING WORK PLAGIARISM IS
IN ESSAY
OF THE INSTRUCTIONS. REQUIREMENTS LEGIBLE. (if BEFORE A MAJOR
FORM.
INSTRUCTIONS OF THE TASK. handwritten SUBMITTING OFFENSE THAT
THOROUGHLY submission) IT. LEADS TO
AND CAREFULLY. EXPULSION.

1. Three (3) Things that I significantly learned from the readings


 I have learned that during the Spanish regime, the relationship of Philippines with
China used to be beneficial economically and socially. China exchanges goods with
Manila as part of the Manila galleon trade. This fact makes me think of the current
relationship of both countries in modern day. If at the time, China and Philippines can
interact while equally befitting from each other, why can’t the relations of both
countries today remain cordial? Perhaps learning more about the history relating to the
involvement of both countries could help us solve modern day disputes.
 Another thing that I have learned from the readings is the fact that there used to be
Chinese residents in our country during the Spanish colonization period. The Chinese
whom settled within the country were labeled as Mestizos which stands for Chinese-
indio, or half-castes. Based on what I have read, this minority group was allowed by
the Spanish government to remain in the country because it helped the economy grow.
In the nineteenth century, the Spaniards produced a taxation policy which mandated
heavier tax to those groups best able to pay. The Chinese were assumed to have a
superior earning potential; hence they were taxed more heavily. I find this learning
significant because it says a lot about the ancestry of most Filipinos to which many
have a percentage of Chinese lineage in their family (Tsinoys).
 Lastly, the learning which I give uttermost significance to is how religion was used as
a mere tool to control Mestizos, indios, sangley and etc. back in the day. Moreover,
marriage played a huge role in expanding the Catholicism within Chinese and indios.
Mestizo offspring reared by parents wed into catholic matrimony tend to identify
themselves with Philippines and Spain rather than China. Learning about this
convinced me more that not wanting to involve myself in any religion is okay and
acceptable because religious beliefs are only built for the purpose of maintaining social
solidarity.

2. Three (3) Things that are still unclear to me


 According to one of the readings, the population of Chinese residing in Manila was
wiped out in a massacre as the Chinese tried to revolt against the government.
Casualties from the said massacre were around 20,000. In a similar event, Chinese
residents were again massacred in the year 1639 due to rebellion. These events
resulted to the royal orders of 1606 and 1622 which calls to limit the Chinese
population to 6,000. The readings failed to make it clear as to why the Chinese still
decided to settle within the country despite these unpleasant events. What is it that
they find so special about our country at the time?
 Despite stumbling upon the terms indios and mestizos numerous times, it still
remains quite confusing to me how the Spanish, Chinese or Filipinos are labeled as
the said social classifications accordingly. What concrete criteria are considered to
best describe each of these terms? Are Chinese people automatically considered as
mestizos? Or do they have to reside within the country in order to be called as such?
 Another thing that was unclear to me is the fact that the Spanish government used
to be open to cultural pluralism at first, yet decided to expel all Chinese by the year
1696. Doesn’t this decision contradict their tradition of recognizing cultural
differences present within the system? What forced them to make this decision?

3. I used to think that….


Before reading the article, I used to think that there were only Spaniards and
Filipinos residing within the country during the Spanish regime. The readings made it clear
to me that Chinese settlers also populated the archipelago of Philippines during the time
that Spain colonized our country. This gives me the idea of why Binondo and some
provinces in the Philippines are inhabited with Chinese and Filipino-Chinese people most
commonly known as “Tsinoys”.

4. Three (3) questions that I want to ask about the readings


 What acts did the Chinese do when they tried to revolt against the Spanish
government? In what way did they try to wrestle against power?
 Would there be any difference at all if the Spaniards did not recognize the cultural
differences in its system? What would happen if the Spanish government did not
assign any particular social classification to its inhabitants?
 Is there a possibility for the Chinese to colonize our country if ever the Spanish
regime never occurred in Philippine history? What would that make of us?

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