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Lecture-02

Analysis and Design of

One-way Slab System

(Part-I)

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

www.drqaisarali.com

Topics Addressed

References

1

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Objectives

ACI Approximate method

2

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Flat Plate

Punching shear is a typical problem in flat plates.

Flat Slab

Drop Panel: Thick part of slab in the vicinity of columns

and column capital

3

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

One-way Joist

Joist construction consists of a monolithic combination of

regularly spaced ribs and a top slab arranged to span in

one direction or two orthogonal directions.

Two-way Joist

4

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis

Unlike beams and columns, slabs are two dimensional

members. Therefore their analysis except one-way slab

systems is relatively difficult.

Design

Once the analysis is done, the design is carried out in the

usual manner. So no problem in design, problem is only in

analysis of slabs.

Analysis Methods

Analysis using computer software (FEA)

SAFE, SAP 2000, ETABS etc.

Strip Method for one-way slabs

5

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

A slab when loaded in flexure may bend in one or both directions

One-Way Behavior Two-Way Behavior

One-Way Slab Systems

6

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

One-way Slabs

For purposes of analysis and design, a unit strip of one way

slab, cut out at right angles to the supporting beams, may be

considered as a rectangular beam of unit width, with a depth h

and a span la as shown.

bending in one direction is applicable only when:

Slab is supported on only two sides on stiff beams or walls,

larger to smaller side greater than 2.

in one direction.

7

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Basic Steps for Structural Design

Step No. 01: Sizes:-Sizes of all structural and non structural

elements are decided.

based on occupational characteristics and functionality (refer

Appendix C at the end of this lecture)

structural elements

the respective load effects following the code provisions.

Sizes: ACI table (7.3.1.1 & 9.3.1.1) give the minimum thickness for

one-way slabs and beams.

Table 7.3.1.1 & Table 9.3.1.1– Minimum Thickness of Non-Pre stressed Beams or One-

Way Slabs Unless Deflections are Computed

Minimum thickness, h

Simply One end Both ends

Cantilever

supported continuous continuous

Member

construction likely to be damaged by large deflections

Beams or ribbed one-way

slabs

l /16 l /18.5 l /21 l /8

Note: For fy other than 60,000 psi, the expressions in above table shall be

multiplied by (0.4 + fy/100,000).

8

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Sizes (Definition of Span Length, l) Slab

Wall Beam

ln ln

lc/c lc/c

1) l = ln ; for integral supports such as beams and columns with ln ≤ 10′

2) l = Minimum of [(ln +h) or c/c distance] ; for non-integral supports such as walls

with any distance & for integral supports (beams and columns) with ln > 10′

• l (span length) is used in calculating depth of members.

• ln (clear span) is used for determining moments using ACI coefficients.

• lc/c is (center to center distance) is used for analysis of simply supported beam.

Loads:

According to ACI 5.2 — Service loads shall be in

accordance with the general building code of which this

code forms a part, with such live load reductions as are

permitted in the general building code.

BCP SP-2007 is General Building Code of Pakistan and it

refers to ASCE 7-10 for minimum design loads for buildings

and other structures.

(U = 1.2D + 1.6L).

9

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Analysis:

Chapter 6 of the ACI addresses provisions for the analysis

of concrete members.

ACI approximate moments shall be permitted for analysis

of one-way slabs with certain restrictions, which are as

follows:

1.2n n n

members

10

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

wu

support support

n n n

Positive

1/14 1/16 1/11 Moment

xw 2

u n

Spandrel

support 1/24 1/10* 1/11 1/11 1/10* 0 Negative

Moment

Column *1/9 (2 spans) wun2

support

1/16 x

* 1/11(on both faces of other interior supports)

* 1/12 (for all spans with ln < 10 ft)

Note: (i) For simply supported members, M = wul2/8, where l = span length.

(ii) To calculate negative moments, ℓn shall be the average of the adjacent clear span lengths.

Design:

Capacity Demand

Nominal Strength

11

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design:

Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement (ACI 24.4.1):

Reinforcement is placed perpendicular to main steel to

control shrinkage and temperature cracking.

b = 12’’

h = thickness of slab

Design:

Maximum Spacing Requirement:

Main Reinforcement

Least of 3h or 18” (ACI 7.7.2.3)

Shrinkage Reinforcement

Least of 5h or 18” (ACI 7.7.6.2.1)

Same as shrinkage reinforcement requirement (ACI 24.4.1)

12

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design slab and beams of a 90′ × 60′ Hall. The height of Hall is

20′. Concrete compressive strength (fc′) = 3 ksi and steel yield

strength (fy) = 40 ksi. Take 3″ mud layer and 2″ tile layer above

slab. Take Live Load equal to 40 psf.

60′

18′′

90′

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 25

Structural Configurations

Assume structural configuration. Take time to reach to a

reasonable arrangement of beams, girders and columns. It

depends on experience. Several alternatives are possible.

13

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Structural Configurations

(Note that this is not the only option or the best option. Just

selected to make a one-way slab design case)

B B

Section A-A

A

Wall width = 18 in, given 18′′ 18′′ 18′′

Assume beam width = 18 in 9.25′ 8.5′

10′ 10′

Section B-B

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 28

14

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design End span Interior span

Step No 01: Sizes 9.25′ 8.5′

Table 7.3.1.1 – Minimum Thickness of One-Way Slabs Unless Deflections are Computed

Minimum thickness, h

Cantilever

supported continuous continuous

Members not supporting or attached to partitions or other

Member

construction likely to be damaged by large deflections

h = l/28 × (0.4+fy/100000) = 2.9″ (Minimum by ACI for interior span) [ l = ln = 8.5 ]

Take h = 6″

(l = ln ; for integral supports such as beams and columns with ln ≤ 10′ ; slide 16)

Slab Design

Step No 02: Loads

Material Thickness (in) g (kcf) Load = thickness × g (ksf)

15

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Step No 03: Analysis

Bending moment diagram for slab

Assume beam width = 18′′, clear lengths area shown in the figure:

Mu = coefficient × wu × ln2

Slab Design

Relative Stiffness of Slab and Beam-Slab Behavior

Slab

support for slab

Wall (true) support

16

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Beam Depth vs. Slab Deflection:

Slab moment variation with change in beam depth

0.58 kip-in/in

- (1/12) -1.29

Slab Design

Step No 04: Design

Calculate moment capacity provided by minimum reinforcement in slab:

This will work for both positive and negative steel as Asmin governs.

17

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Step No 04: Design

Main Reinforcement Spacing:

according to ACI 7.7.2.3 is minimum of:

3hf = 3 × 6 =18″

18″

Slab Design

Step No 04: Design

Shrinkage steel or temperature steel (Ast):

according to ACI 24.4.3.3 is minimum of:

18

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Placement of positive reinforcement:

Positive reinforcing bars are placed in the direction of flexure stresses

and placed at the bottom (above the clear cover) to maximize the “d”,

effective depth.

Placement of negative reinforcement:

Negative reinforcement bars are placed perpendicular to the direction of support

(beam in this case). At the support these rest on the reinforcement of the beam.

19

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Placement of negative reinforcement:

At the far end of bars, the chairs are provided to support the negative reinforcement. As

each bar will need a separate chair therefore to reduce the number of chairs supporting

bars are provided perpendicular to the direction of negative reinforcement.

Slab Design

Reinforcement at discontinuous support:

At the discontinuous end, the ACI code recommends to provide

reinforcement equal to 1/3 times the positive reinforcement provided at

the mid span.

Reinforcement at

discontinuous support

20

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Step No 05: Drafting

Main reinforcement = #3 @ 9″ c/c (positive & negative)

Beam Design

Step No 01: Sizes

Minimum thickness of beam (simply supported) = hmin = l/16

l = clear span (ln) + depth of member (beam) ≤ c/c distance between supports

Let depth of beam = 5′

ln + depth of beam = 60′ + 5′ = 65′

c/c distance between beam supports = 60 + 2 × (9/12) = 61.5′

Therefore l = 61.5′

Depth (h) = (61.5/16)×(0.4+fy/100000)×12= 36.9″ (Minimum by ACI 9.3.1.1).

Take h = 5′ = 60″

d = h – 3 = 57″

bw = 18″ (assumed)

21

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Beam Design

Step No 02: Loads

Load on beam will be equal to

A

factored self weight of beam web

10′

Load on beam from slab = 0. 214 ksf x 10

10 ′ 6 ′′

= 2.14 k/ft

54 ′′

Factored Self load of beam web =

18 ′′ (assumed)

=1.2 x (54 × 18/144) × 0.15 =1.215 k/ft

3.355 k/ft

Section A-A

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 43

Beam Design

Step No 03: Analysis

Vu = 87.23 kip

Mu = 19034 in-kip

22

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for flexure

Step (a): According to ACI 6.3.2.1, beff for T-beam is minimum of:

16hf + bw = 16 × 6 + 18 =114″

So beff = 114″

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for flexure

Re-calculate “a”:

After trials As = 9.38 in2 (Asmax = 20.83 in2 ;Asmin = 5.13 in2)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 46

23

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Skin Reinforcement : (ACI 9.7.2.3)

longitudinal skin reinforcement is required as per ACI 9.7.2.3.

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Skin

Reinforcement

Skin Reinforcement

is least of:

With this spacing, 3 bars on each face are required. And for # 8 bar, the

total area of skin reinforcement is:

24

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for Shear

● Vu = 87.23 kip

● sd = ΦAvfyd/(Vu – ΦVc)

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for Shear

permitted by ACI 9.7.6.2.2 and 10.6.2.2 shall be minimum of:

24″

25

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for Shear

support. Therefore no reinforcemnt is required in this zone, however,

we will provide #3, 2-legged vertical stirrups at 12 in. c/c

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for Shear

Other checks:

ΦVs = (ΦAvfyd)/smax

26

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Beam Design

Step No 04: Design

Design for Shear

Other checks:

Otherwise reduce spacing by one half.

ΦVs = (ΦAvfyd)/sd

Beam Design

Step No 05: Detailing

27

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

This was done to simplify analysis.

on columns and hence the structural analysis will be that of a

frame rather than simply supported beam.

beams supported on columns have been provided.

Frame Analysis

3D model of the hall showing beams supported on columns.

28

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Frame Analysis

A 2D frame can be detached from a 3D system in the

following manner:

W u = 3.355 k/ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 57

Frame Analysis

Various methods can be used for frame analysis. Using

moment distribution method, the following results can be

obtained:

Mu (+ve)

W u = 3.355 k/ft

Mu (-ve)

Analysis

Results

Mu (+ve) = 17627 in-kips

29

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Slab Design

Slab design will remain the same as in case of beams supported on

walls.

Main reinforcement = #3 @ 9″ c/c (positive & negative)

Beam Design

Beam flexure design will be as follows:

Mu (+ve) = 17627 in-kips

Use 6 #8 in 1st layer & 2 #8 + 4 #7 bars in 2nd layer)

Use 7 #8 bars (5 bars in 1st layer and 2 bars in 2nd layer)

30

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Pu = 103.17 k

Mu = 1407 in-k

Pu Mu

c

Column Design: Using ACI Design Aids gh

18′′

Size:

18 in. × 18 in.

18′′

Loads:

Pu = 103.17 kips

f′c = 3 ksi, fy = 60 ksi

Mu = 1407 in-kips

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 62

31

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Column Design

the column strength

interaction diagram gives the

following reinforcement ratio:

r = 0.01

Using 8 #6 bars

Column Design

Tie Bars:

Using 3/8″ Φ (#3) tie bars for 3/4″ Φ (#6) main bars (ACI 9.7.6.4.2),

32

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Column Design

Drafting

#3 Stirrup@9”

8,#6 bar

18′′

#3 Stirrup@9”

8,#6 bar

18′′

Footing Design

Isolated column footing; square or rectangular

33

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Footing Design

Data Given:

Column size = 18″ × 18″

fc′ =3 ksi

fy = 40 ksi

qa = 2.204 k/ft2

support)

due to service load)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE:416 Reinforced Concrete Design – II 67

G.L

Footing Design

Sizes: z

h

Assume h = 15 in.

B

davg = h – clear cover – one bar dia

34

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Footing Design

Sizes:

Effective bearing capacity, qe = qa – W

davg + c B = 7′

Areq = B x B = 49.86 ft2 => B = 7 ft. davg / 2 =

11/2 = 5.5′

Critical Perimeter, bo = 4 x (c + davg) c = 18″

davg + c

= 4 × (18 + 11) =116 in

B = 7′

Footing Design

Loads:

qu (bearing pressure for strength design of footing):

qu = factored load on column / Areq = 103.17 / (7 × 7) = 2.105 ksf

35

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Footing Design

Analysis:

Punching shear:

(davg/2+c+davg/2) 2

Vup = quB2 – qu(c + davg) 2 =(c+davg) 2

= 90.85 kip

davg/2

davg/2

B

B

Footing Design

Critical Section

Analysis:

Flexural Analysis: k

Mu = quBk2/2

k = (B – c)/2 = (7 x 12 –18)/2

= 33 in = 2.75´

= 55.72 ft-k

= 668.60 in-kip

36

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Footing Design

Design:

Design for Punching Shear:

= Φ4 f ′ bodavg

Footing Design

Design:

Design for Flexure:

Mu = 668.60 kip-in

a = 0.2davg = 0.2 × 11 = 2.2″

As = Mu/ {Φfy(davg – a/2)} = 668.60/ {0.9 × 40 × (11 – 2.2/2)} = 1.87

in2

a = Asfy/ (0.85fc′B) = 1.83 × 40/ (0.85 × 3 × 7 × 12) = 0.35″

After trials, As = 1.71 in2 (Asmin = 0.005Bdavg = 4.62 in2 so Asmin

governs)

Now, the spacing can be calculated as follows:

Next Slide

37

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Footing Design

Main

Reinforcement

Design:

Design for Flexure:

Using #8 bars: No. of bars = 4.62/0.79 ≈ 6 bars.

if they are placed 15 in. c/c (Max. spacing

should not exceed 3h or 18 in.)

7

Drafting

G.L

x x

3” Thick PCC

7’

5’

15”

7’ 7’

Section X-X

38

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Actual pictures of a hall of almost the same size in Peshawar

University:

Actual pictures of a hall of almost the same size in Peshawar

University:

39

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Pictures of Column

Case Studies

In the subsequent slides two case studies are carried out to

investigate the variation of moments in beams, moments and slab

thickness due to change in spacing between the beams.

40

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Spacing Between the Beams

Spacing Between the Beams (ft)

10 12 14 16 18 20

4.0 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2 8.0

Slab Thickness (in.)

(Using 6) (Using 6) (Using 6) (Using 7) (Using 8) (Using 8)

Max Moment in Slab (in-kip)

19.97 29.55 40.99 58.10 79.21 98.64

(1/11 coefficient)

Area of steel (in.2)

0.144 0.17 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.41

(for Grade 40 Steel)

c/c spacing of #3 main bars

9 7 5 4 4 3

(in)

Spacing Between the Beams

10

Slab Thickness (in.)

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

41

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Spacing Between the Beams

120

100

Max. Moment (in-kip)

80

60

40

20

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

Spacing Between the Beams (ft)

Between Beams

Variation of Beam Moments Vs Spacing Between Beams

Spacing Between the Beams (ft)

5 8 10 12 14

Note: Mu (+ve)

42

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Between Beams

25000

20000

Moment at Midspan (in-kip)

15000

10000

5000

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Spacing Between Beams (ft)

Conclusions

1. Slab thickness increases by increasing the spacing

between the beams.

between the beams.

between the beams.

43

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Summary

Main Reinforcement = Least of 3h or18”

Summary

44

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Appendix C

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

Appendix C

MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS

Go to slide no 14

45

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References

ACI 318-14

Darwin and Dolan.

The End

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