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•Tokugawa shogunate The last of the three shogunates of Japan.

•Ming empire Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan empire. Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of
the forbidden city and the voyages of Zheng He. Later years showed a slowdown of technological development and economic decline.
•Qing empire Empire in China established by Manchus who overthrew the Ming empire in 1644. Also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, and Tibet at various
points. Last Qing emperor was overthrown in 1911.
•Macartney mission The unsuccessful attempt by the British empire to establish diplomatic relationships with the Qing empire.
•Cossacks Peoples of the Russian empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Led the conquest of Siberia in the
16th and 17th centuries.
•Peter the great Russian tsar (1689-1725). Enthusiastically introduced western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from
Moscow to St. Petersburg.
•The War of Spanish Succession, the War of Australian Succession, French and Indian war, and the Seven Years War were major eighteenth-century wars
•John Locke argued people have the right to rebellion.
•One of Rousseau's most radical ideas was that government authority rested on the consent of the governed.
•The goals of monarchs such as Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia in supporting the Enlightenment was expansion of royal
authority over localism, religious institutions, and the nobility
•Women helped disseminate new political ideas by purchasing and discussing books of the era, contributing as writers and commentators, bringing together
thinkers in their homes or salons, and raising the argument for women's rights
•Enlightenment reformers sought to ban numerous folk traditions like harvest festivals or religious holidays because they were a reminder of daily drudgery
•Limiting settlement in Amerindian lands and imposing taxes were problems the British faced after defeating the French in 1763
•The Proclamation of 1763 was the British attempt to limit western expansion by colonists to land under their control
•Pontiac Amerindian chief drove out the British @ the end of the7 Years War
•The Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 were intended to keep colonists from taking Amerindian land by slowing settlement
•Common Sense, the pamphlet that stirred up anti-British sentiment on the eve of the American Revolution, was written by Thomas Paine
•The British had significant allies during the American Revolution, including the Mohawks led by Joseph Brant
•The Battle of Saratoga in 1777 was crucial because it brought the French into the war. •At Yorktown, the British general Cornwallis surrendered to General
•The system of social organization in France would have placed the clergy in the first estate
•The costs of the Seven Years War, the costs of the American Revolution, the costs of the War of Australian Succession, and Failure to collect taxes from the
nobility contributed to the financial crisis that triggered the French Revolution •The Tennis Court Oath was the declaration by the Third Estate that they would
not convene again without a constitution. •In response to economic depression, hunger, and high bread prices in 1789, a Parisian crowd attacked the Bastille.
•The Declaration of the Rights of Man was a contract between the king and the National Assembly outlining rights like freedom of expression of ideas, equality
before the law for all citizens, representative government, and freedom to own property •In September of 1792, rumors of counterrevolutionary plots caused
mobs to attack Paris prisons, killing half of the prisoners. •The end of the Reign of Terror came in 1794 when Robespierre was arrested and executed by
conservatives in the Convention.
•Napoleon's plans for European conquest were held in check by the naval supremacy of Britain
•Napoleon won the support of the peasantry and the middle class by rewriting French law to assert equality in law
•After his escape from Elba, Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo
•Saint Domingue was most important to France because it generated one-third of all French foreign trade.
•François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture was the leader of a slave revolt in Saint Domingue
•Support for the Haitian revolution was found in the gens de couleur, who were free men and women of color in Haiti
•The cottage system-going house to house and giving raw materials and picking up the finished product for textile industries.
•James Hargreaves' spinning jenny-invented the Cotton Spinning Jenny in 1768 which allowed people to generate yarn in larger quantities with less labor
•Richard Arkwright's water frame-This was a new spinning machine powered by water or horse; helped further increase yarn production
•Edmund Cartwright's power loom-invented in 1787; allowed the weaving of the cloth by water
•James Watt-A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently
•Henry Cort-(1780's) Inventor of the puddling system in which coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to produce an iron of high quality.
•George Stephenson's Rocket-This locomotive was used on the first public railway line, which opened in 1830, extending 32 miles from Liverpool to
Manchester. It sped along at 16mph •Tariffs-taxes on imports or exports •The Great Famine-The result of four years of crop failure in Ireland, a country
that had grown dependent of potatoes as a dietary staple
•The Poor Law of 1834-tried to fix the unemployment problem by making poor houses where they lived and worked; families were separated and children were
often recruited for factory work; based on the idea that poor people were lazy and morally lacking so they deserved that discipline
•The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union-Formed in 1834 as a national federation of trade unions, whose primary purposes was to coordinate a
general strike for the eight-hour working day. It broke up the summer of the same year it was formed because it didnt have enough support from the working
•Luddites-These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the
•The American system-The three-part plan developed by Henry Clay that stressed a strong banking system, protective tariffs, and a network of roads and
canals. Clay's plan was essential in developing a profitable home market. This home market enabled America to become a self-sufficient, isolated country,
•Tanzimat-'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the
military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678) •Crimean War-a war between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and
•Slavophile-Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant
values and institutions of the Slavic People.
•Treaty of Nanking-Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control
over some of its own borders, opened additional ports
•Taiping Rebellion-The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
•Hong Xiquan-leader of Taiping rebellion, was a schoolteacher who kept failing the public service exam, commits suicide when Nanjing captured
•Tsar Alexander II-He was a Russian Tsar who attempted reform ("Emancipator") but his appeasement (emancipation of serfs and the establishment of
Zemstvos) led to his assassination by the People's Will
•Mahmud II-Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of
Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents
•Victorian age-The reign of queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). Also used to describe late 19th century society, with its rigid moral standards and
sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle class and working class people.
•"Separate spheres"-19th century idea in western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have clearly differentiated roles in
society: women as wives, mothers, and house makers; and men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.
•Anarchists-Revolutionaries who wanted to abolish all private property and governments, usually by violence, and replace them with free associations of
groups. •Giuseppe Garibaldi-Italian nationalist and revolutionary who conquered Sicily and Naples and added them to a unified Italy in 1860.
•Otto Von Bismarck-Chancellor (prime minister) of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became the chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he
led Prussian to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German empire in 1871.
•Meiji restoration-The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on
the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
•Empress Dowager Cixi-Empress of China and mother of emperor Guangxi, she put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements and
resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. •Yamagata Aritomo-One of the leaders of the Meiji restoration.
•Battle of Omdurman-British victory over Mahdi in the Sudan in 1898. General Kitchener led a force of British and Egyptian troops armed with rapid-firing rifles
and machine guns .
•Afrikaners-South Africans of Dutch and French descent. "Great Trek" led to new colonies. They held political power and imposed a system of racial
segregation (apartheid)
•Henry Morton Stanley-Brit-American explorer in Africa. Found David Livingstone. Helped King Leopold II est. the Congo Free State
•King Leopold II-Belgium king encouraged exploration of Central Africa &Congo Free State AS PERSONAL COLONY NOT 4 BELGIUM
•Savorganan de Brazza-Franco-Italian explorer sent to claim part of equatorial Africa for France.
•Menelik-Emperor of Ethiopia that expanded its kingdom and defeated Italian invasion and kept the country free from imperial ambitions
•Guomindang-Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who
turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.
•Vladimir Lenin-Russian founder of the Bolsheviks&leader of the Russian Revolution&first head of the USSR (1870-1924).
•Balfour Declaration-British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI.
•Western Front-Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all
sides in the conflict. •Mao Zedong-Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1979). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt
the Communist Party and the Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China 91937-1945). After World War II, he led the Communists to victory over the
Guomindang. He ordered the Cultural Revolution in 1966.
•Long March-The 6,000 mile flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by
the Chinese army under the orders from Chiang Kai-shek. The four thousand survivors of the march formed the nucleus of a revived Communist movement
that defeated the Guomindang after World War II.
•Stalingrad-City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the German army in 1942-1943. This battle was the turning point in the war between Germany and
the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd.
•El Alamein-Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the Desert
Fox) in 1942-1943.
•Battle of Midway-U.S naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which Japan lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in
World War II.
•Helsinki Accords (1975)-Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
•Truman Doctrine-Foreign policy initiated by U.S. president Harry Truman in 1947. It offered military aid to help Turkey and Greece resist Soviet military
pressure and subversion.
•Warsaw Pact-The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
•Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997)-Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
•Dirty War-War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1983) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by
the military
•neo-liberalism-The term used in Latin America and other developing regions to describe free-market policies that include reducing tariff protection for local
industries •World Trade Organization (WTO)-An international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade.
•Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)-Nonprofit international organizations devoted to investigating human rights abuses and providing humanitarian relief.
Two NGOs won the Nobel Peace Prize in the 1990s: International Campaign to Ban Landmines (1997) and Doctors Without Borders (1999).