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Influence of Parameters and Wear Analysis of Aluminium-

Bronze (CuAl8Fe3) by Taguchi Method

A Project Based Laboratory Report

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the award of degree

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
(Mechanical Engineering)
Submitted
By

ID NUMBER NAME

170070095 K.Kedareswar

170070096 K.Avinash

170070098 K.B.L.N.Srinivas

170070099 K.Ganesh

Under the guidance of


Dr.T.Anup Kumar
(PROFESSOR)

KLEF
Green Fields, VADDESWARAM – 522 502
Guntur District, A.P., INDIA
2019 – 20
KL UNIVERSITY
Green fields, VADDESWARAM

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE PROJECT BASED LABORATORY REPORT


ENTITLED “Influence of Parameters and Wear Analysis of Aluminum-Bronze
(CuAl8Fe3) by Taguchi Method”
SUBMITTED BY: KEDHARESWAR, K.AVINASH, K.B.L.N.SRINIVAS,
K.GANESH.
REG.NO:- 170070095,170070096,170070098,170070099 IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF PROJECT BASED LAB IN NUMERICAL COMPUTATION FOR
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (17ME2206) FOR II/IV BACHELOR OF
TECHNOLOGY IS A BONAFIDE RECORD OF THE WORK CARRIED OUT UNDER
MY GUIDANCE AND SUPERVISION AT KL UNIVERSITY DURING THE ACADEMIC
YEAR 2019-20.

Date: Signature of Project guide

External Examiner Signature HOD-ME Signature


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere thanks to our project supervisor Dr.T.Anup Kumar for


his/her novel association of ideas, encouragement, appreciation and intellectual
zeal which motivated us to venture this project successfully.

I express the sincere gratitude to our Mechanical Head of the Department Dr. A.
Srinath for his administration towards our academic growth.

It is great pleasure for me to express my gratitude to our honorable President Sri.


Koneru Satyanarayana, for giving the opportunity and platform with facilities
in accomplishing the project-based laboratory report.

NAMES: -

170070095 K.KEDARESWAR
170070096 K.AVINASH
170070098 K.B.L.N.SRINIVAS
170070099 K.GANESH
Influence of Parameters and Wear Analysis of Aluminum-Bronze
(CuAl8Fe3) by Taguchi Method

Abstract:

In this paper we are going to know the tribiological activity of aluminum


CuAl8Fe3 has been explored using the pin-on-discmachine Appling various loads
under dry sliding wear conditions for this analysis we have to consider the
aluminum peace of the dimensions 11.4mm in diameter 103mm in length in this
paper the wear rate has been evaluated at the loads (1, 2 and 3) at disc speed of
(500, 700 and 900 rpm) at different time intervals. In this the taguchi method is
used to find the powerfulness of parameters and optimization of influence of ware
rare factors like speed load and time on dry sliding wear. The result of this process
will be proving that the applied load will be the major parameter among the all
controllable factors that cause the weight loss of aluminum and bronze whereas
the sliding speed has the minimum effect and thus the best combinations of the
testing parameters can be determined. A good agreement is found between the
forecasted and actual weight loss

The applications of this will be the most influenced parameter involved in


tribiological speed are speed, load, time and indirectly the sliding velocity are
considered throughout the theoretical investigation

Keywords:

Aluminium Bronze, Pin-on-Disc, Taguchi Methods, Wear Rate, tribiological


Introduction:

In this Aluminum Bronze (CuAl8Fe3) has been received substantial attention due
in piping systems, structural components, machine parts, corrosion resistant
vessels, sea water piping, condenser tubes, tube sheets, welded pipe, seamless
tubing and pipe, chutes for abrasive grains, heat exchanger tubes, mining shoves,
tanks, conider head plates. The Annual of the National Academy of Sciences, the
U.S. Mint assayer aluminum –bronze alloy for the production of coins. Modern
methods and alloy improvements, provide aluminum–bronze ingots/coins with
no tarnish problems1. Mr. Pierre Henri Gaston Durville of France has a patent
(us1007548A) involving the making of aluminium bronze alloy via the addition
of the proper amounts of manganese for reducing the aluminium oxides occurring
during the making of alloy.

He recommended the addition of 0.5% to 5% of manganese to the aluminium –


copper alloy2. The material has excellent corrosion resistance in most of the
environments and good hot-working properties. The most commonly used
wrought forms are plate, sheet and rod.3-5 Wear is the topmost encountered
trouble leading to frequent replacement of components, especially abrasion3,6.
Abrasive wear occurs when hard particles get through physically a softer surface
and uproot material in the form of elongated chips.

The aim of the study was to investigate the dry sliding wear of stir cast Aluminum
Bronze (CuAl8Fe3) using pin on disc machine.7 It is framed for process
optimization and disclosure of optimal alignment of the parameters for given
response. The experiment is planned in this a way to estimate simultaneously two
or more factors which possess their ability to affect the resultant average or
variability of particular product or operational characterisitcs.8 Keywords:
Aluminum-Bronze, Orthogonal Array, Pin-on-Disc, Taguchi Methods and Wear
Rate

Influence of Parameters and Wear Analysis of Aluminum-Bronze (CuAl8Fe3) by


Taguchi Method
Pin on disc setup:

The work piece material employed in this study was Aluminum Bronze.
Chemical composition of Aluminum Bronze .On account of the literature, it was
concluded that the most important influencing parameters (load, speed, time)
which has more influence on the wear rate of the aluminium bronze alloy.

A wide range of experiments were conducted by changing one of the process


parameters and keeping the other parameters constant. The approximate range of
applied load, sliding speed, time was explored by inspecting the wear produced
in the work piece. The operating range of the identified parameters selected under
the present study is indicated in Table.

Symbol Wear parameter units level-1 level-2 level-3

A Load Kg 1 2 3
B Speed rpm 500 700 900
C Time min 3 6 9
D d1 d2 d3
L9 orthogonal table:

In this paper the L9 orthogonal method table is used to find the sos and mean
values according to the taguchi method.

(table 2)experimental observational values


SR.NO Load(A) B C D Output *10^(-6)
1 1 1 1 1 2.7922
2 1 2 2 2 2.493
3 1 3 3 3 2.068
4 2 1 2 3 6.98
5 2 2 3 1 4.986
6 2 3 1 2 10.08
7 3 1 3 2 8.376
8 3 2 1 3 14.958
9 4 3 2 1 12.7048
mean=7.2708

TAGUCHI METHOD:
Taguchi method is more engineering oriented for quality improvement and cost
reduction and time
The Taguchi’s robust design utilizes a statistical tool known as the orthogonal
array for studying a large number of design variables through a small number of
experiments.
CALCULATION AND PROCEDURE OF TAGUCHI METHOD
AS FOLLOWS:

1. The parameters the notations were taken from the experiment observation
tables:
Like notations ,units, levels(1 ,2 ,3)

Symbol Wear parameter units level-1 level-2 level-3

A Load Kg 1 2 3
B Speed rpm 500 700 900
C Time min 3 6 9
D d1 d2 d3

NT = 1+F(D.O.F)
=1+3(3-1)
NT = 7
As L7 array do not exist the minimum array is L9 so let NT = 9
9=1+f(3-1)
9=1+2F
F=4

2. The l9 orthogonal table needed to be taken in order to find the means


(1 2 3) of the parameters:

SR.NO Load(A) B C D Output *10^(-6)


1 1 1 1 1 2.7922
2 1 2 2 2 2.493
3 1 3 3 3 2.068
4 2 1 2 3 6.98
5 2 2 3 1 4.986
6 2 3 1 2 10.08
7 3 1 3 2 8.376
8 3 2 1 3 14.958
9 4 3 2 1 12.7048
mean=7.2708
3. MEAN VALUES OF FROM THE ABOVE TABLE PARAMETERS:

Symbol Wear parameter units level-1 level-2 level-3

A Load Kg 1 2 3
B Speed rpm 500 700 900
C Time min 3 6 9
D d1 d2 d3

4. THE SYSTEM OF SQUARES ARE CALCULATED:

(SOS)A=3{[∅ MEAN A1-∅ MEAN)^2+(∅MEAN A2-∅MEAN)^2+(∅MEAN A3-∅ MEAN)^2]}


=137.1719*(10-12)
(SOS)B=3{[∅ MEAN B1-∅MEAN)^2+(∅ MEAN B2-∅ MEAN)^2+(∅MEAN B3-∅ MEAN)^2]}
= 0.3108
(SOS)C= 3{[∅ MEAN C1-∅ MEAN)^2+(∅ MEAN C2-∅ MEAN)^2+(∅MEAN C3-∅ MEAN)^2]}
=0.2745
(SOS)T=SOS(A+B+C) = 13.746

5. % PERCENTAGE OF CONTRIBUTION (SOS) = X/(SOS)T*100

%A=82.7343%
%B=4.6361%
%C=11.1568%
%D=1.4762
TOTOAL PERCENTAGE=%A+%B+%C+%D
=82.7343+4.6361+11.1568+1.7462
=100%

6. DERIVATION OF MEAN RESPONSE BECAUSE OF VARIABLE D:

∆∅𝐷1 = ∅𝐷1 − ∅𝑀𝐸𝐴𝑁


=6.8276-7.2708
=-0.4432(minimum)
∆∅𝐷2 = ∅𝐷2 − ∅𝑀𝐸𝐴𝑁
=6.983-7.2708
=-0.2878
∆∅𝐷3 = ∅𝐷3 − ∅𝑀𝐸𝐴𝑁
=8.002-7.2708
=0.7312(maximum)
Relative error:

RE= [∅𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻 𝐷-∅ 𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻 𝑂𝑈𝑇 𝐷 ÷ ∅ 𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻 𝐷] × 100%

1.RE=(2.793-3.2355/2.793) x 100 = -15.87%


2.RE=-11.534%
3.RE=35.35%
4 RE= 10.475%
5.RE=-8.889%
6.RE=-2.854%
7.RE=-3.406%
8.RE=4.888%
9.RE=-3.4957%

7. MAXIMUM RESPONSE:

MAXIMUM VALUES=(A1+B2+C3+D1)-3*∅MEAN
=15.76346*10^-6
MINIMUM RESPONSE=(A1+B2+C3)-3*∅ MEAN
=-1.3411*10^-6

COMPARING ∅ 𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻 𝐷 𝐴𝑁𝐷 𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻𝑂𝑈𝑇 𝐷


S.NO ∅ 𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻 𝐷 ∅ 𝑊𝐼𝑇𝐻𝑂𝑈𝑇 𝐷
1 2.793 3.2355
2 2.4934 2.1810
3 2.06816 1.3369
4 6.98026 6.2490
5 4.9861 5.42936
6 10.08022 10.3680
7 8.3786 8.664
8 14.95822 14.227
9 12.704 13.1481

CALCULATION WITH AND WITHOUT D:

WITH D
A1+B1+C1+D1-3(1.48)

WITHOUT D
A1+B1+C1-2(1.48)
LOWER BOUND
(L.B)=
∅(𝑾𝑰𝑻𝑯 𝑶𝑼𝑻 𝑫) + 𝑴𝑰𝑵(∆∅𝑫𝟏, ∆∅𝑫𝟐, ∆∅𝑫𝟑)

UPPER BOUND
(U.P)=
∅(𝑾𝑰𝑻𝑯 𝑶𝑼𝑻 𝑫) + 𝑴𝑨𝑿(∆∅𝑫𝟏, ∆∅𝑫𝟐, ∆∅𝑫𝟑)

EXAMPLE CALCULATION
TEST 1:

LOWER BOUND=2.7923*10^-6
UPPER BOUND=3.9667*10^-6

Results and Graphs:

Test run vs relative error


40

30

20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

-10

-20
TEST RUN VS OUTPUT RESPONSE
16

14

12

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

UPPER BOUND AND LOWER BOUND


16

14

12

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Conclusions:

Effect of parameters on wear rate measures based on the S/N ratio and ANOVA analysis factors at level
A1 (load 1 kg), b1(sliding speed, 500 rpm), and C3(time, 9 min) gives minimum wear rate. Factor B
(sliding speed) is having least remarkable effect on wear. The contribution of each parameter (applied
load, then time, and then sliding speed) is show in the recorded values.

In this paper, the effect of the process parameters and optimized combination was studied by using
Taguchi method. From ANOVA, load is more significant than time. Whereas time is more significant
than sliding velocity. Besides, sliding velocity is less significant for all performance characteristics
considered.

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