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State

1. Cause and effect

When there is a collective desire among the people to establish an orderly environment that will ensure
their utmost welfare, the formation of state becomes necessary. In effect, State through the government
will create laws with corresponding punishments to avert threat, intimidation and chaos.

2. Classification

Different types of state are recognized around the world throughout the centuries, however there are
only two types of state as to the head of the state: Monarchy or those in which power was concentrated
in an individual king who is unelected and; Republic whereby an elected person represents the interest of
the people.

3. Comparison and Contrast

State is often used synonymously with nation; however two connotes different meaning. The latter is an
ethnic concept more strictly synonymous with “people” while State is a political concept which is more
closely associated with “government”.

4. Etymology

The word state and its cognates in some other European languages ultimately derive from the Latin
word status, meaning "condition, circumstances" which predates the political sense.
5. Examples
Vatican City is the smallest state by land area with 44 hectares which was recognized using four criteria—
a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and a capacity to enter into relations with
other States.
6. Description

Max Weber describes State as a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that
maintains a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

7. Method of Operation or Process

The state through its main agency, government, is divided into three branches of government: the
legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative with the presence of Congress crafts the law to which is
executed by the President or the Executive branch of government and Judicial whereby the Supreme
Court and lower courts interpret and settle controversies relating to laws and the Constitution.

8. Negation-State

A state is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of
territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and
enjoying freedom from external control. It should not be confused as an ethnic concept as this may be
subject to external control.
Election

1. Cause and effect

The essence of democracy implies the “the government by the people” whereby their interests are
carried out in the government. For this reason, election was created as the main feature of democracy
insofar as this can be the opportunity to the citizens to directly express their will and interests to the
central authority.

2. Classification

There are three basic types of election: primary, general and local. Primary Elections are held by the
political parties to select each party’s nominee for the general election, whereas the General Elections are
held to determine which political party, independent, or write-in candidate will occupy each office that is
up for election and lastly, Local Elections are held in local governments such as mayors and councilors.

3. Comparison and Contrast

In a democratic country, suffrage and elections are equally important. Suffrage is the right and obligation
to vote certain national and local officers of the government; while Elections is the medium where this
right is expressed by which the people choose their officials for definite and fixed periods and to whom
they entrust as their representative.

4. Etymology

Election is borrowed from Anglo-Norman eleccioun, from Latin ēlectiōn-, stem of ēlectiō (“choice,
selection”), from ēligō (“I pluck out, I choose”).

5. Examples

Elections in the Philippines are characterized by lots of positions and candidates. During the 2010
election around 50 million voters chose a president and 18,000 national and local officials to which the
former’s position was obtained by Noynoy Aquino.

6. Description

An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to


hold public office.

7. Method of Operation or Process

In the election process of Philippines, the voters have to shade the oval that was indicated before the
candidate's name, and a voting machine manufactured by Smartmatic automatically counts each ballot as
it is fed into it. The results are then printed as the election return and sent electronically to the city or
municipal Board of Canvassers. The city or municipal Board of Canvassers canvasses the votes from all
polling precincts within their jurisdiction and prepares two documents: a Statement of Votes (SOV) in
which all votes from all candidates in all positions per precinct is listed; and a Certificate of Canvass (COC),
a document showing the vote totals of all candidates within the Board of Canvassers' jurisdiction. The
national Board of Canvassers then canvasses all COCs and declares the winners for national positions.

8. Negation
Election deals with the contest of Presidential and Vice President offices, Congress and other local
government positions. It does not cover the Cabinet Secretaries as these are merely appointed by the
President and is subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments.

Treaty

1. Cause and effect

With the fear of another outbreak of war and to provide harmonious agreement and relationships with
the other states, Treaty was then created and adopted by numerous actors in the international arena
today.

2. Classification

There are two types of treaties: Bilateral treaties are agreements made by two countries; and Multilateral
treaties are agreements made by three or more countries.

3. Comparison and Contrast

A treaty has been mistaken as convention by a large populace. It should be noted that treaty comes into
force as an attempt to end conflict or disagreement between a few countries whereas a convention is an
attempt by many countries to discuss global issues and reach and agreement to be followed by
signatories.

4. Etymology

The Latin root of treaty is tractare, which means “handle.” When two nations sign a treaty, they decide to
handle things according to rules defined in their agreement.

5. Examples

There are many well-known treaties. For example, the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 between Great
Britain on one side and America and its allies on the other. It is a peace agreement that ended the
Revolutionary War.

6. Description

When a war ends, often two countries will sign a treaty, which is a contract where both sides agree to
behave a certain way. This is supposed to refrain from acts which might defeat the object.

7. Method of Operation or Process

In modern international practice, the process of concluding a treaty usually runs through different stages,
beginning with negotiations, to the adoption of the text, signing and ratification by the parties, and
leading up to the entry into force in accordance with the requirements set out in the treaty. Arts 9 to 17
VCLT refer to this process by describing some of its stages and setting up rules for them.

8. Negation

A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or
exchange of letters, among other terms. Although binding between the involved nation states, it is not at
all times held in this manner if it comes with the use of force, threat and intimidation.

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