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# Instructor: PAYAM ZARBAKHSH , Room No: EE , Office Tel:

Course Webpage:

Lab Assistant:

## Grading: Midterm Exam: % 30

Final Examination : % 40
HW & Quizzes : % 15
Lab Work : % 10

## Prerequisite: Circuit Theory I

NG Policy: NG grade will be given to students who do not attend more than 50% of the course
lecture hours, miss the exams and fail.

Makeup Exams: Makeup exams will NOT be granted to students with less than 50% attendance.
Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Chapter 9
Sinusoids and Phasors
Chapter Objectives:

##  Understand the concepts of sinusoids and phasors.

 Apply phasors to circuit elements.

##  Apply what is learnt to phase-shifters and AC

bridges.
Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Alternating (AC) Waveforms
 The term alternating indicates only that the waveform alternates between two prescribed levels
in a set time sequence.
 Instantaneous value: The magnitude of a waveform at any instant of time; denoted by the
lowercase letters (v1, v2).
 Peak amplitude: The maximum value of the waveform as measured from its average (or mean)
value, denoted by the uppercase letters Vm.
 Period (T): The time interval between successive repetitions of a periodic waveform.
 Cycle: The portion of a waveform contained in one period of time.
 Frequency: (Hertz) the number of cycles that occur in 1 s f 1
T
 The sinusoidal waveform is the only alternating waveform whose shape is
unaffected by the response characteristics of R, L, and C elements.

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Sinusoids
 The sinusoidal wave form can be derived from the length of the vertical projection of a radius vector
rotating in a uniform circular motion about a fixed point.

Vm sin 

Vm cos 
 The velocity with which the radius vector rotates about the center, called the angular velocity, can be
determined from the following equation:

##  The angular velocity () is:   t

 Since () is typically provided in radians per second, the angle α obtained using α = t is usually in
 The time required to complete one revolution is equal to the period (T) of the sinusoidal waveform. The
radians subtended in this time interval are 2π.

2
 or   2 f
T
Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Sinusoids
 The basic mathematical format for the sinusoidal waveform is:

Vmsinα
 Vm is the peak value of the waveform and α is the unit of measure for the horizontal axis.

 The equation α = t states that the angle α through which the rotating vector will pass is determined by
the angular velocity of the rotating vector and the length of time the vector rotates.
 For a particular angular velocity (fixed ), the longer the radius vector is permitted to rotate (that is, the
greater the value of t ), the greater will be the number of degrees or radians through which the vector will
pass. The general format of a sine wave can also be as:
Vm sin(t )
Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Sinusoids
 A SINUSOID is a signal that has the form of the sine or cosine function.
 The sinusoidal current is referred to as AC. Circuits driven by AC sources are referred to as AC Circuits.

 Sketch of Vmsint.
T Period

## (a) As a function of t. (b) As a function of t .

• Vm is the AMPLITUDE of the sinusoid.
•  is the ANGULAR FREQUENCY in radians/s.
• f is the FREQUENCY in Hertz.
• T is the period in seconds.   2 f and f 1
T
Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Phase of Sinusoids
 A periodic function is one that satisfies v(t) = v(t + nT), for all t
and for all integers n.

1
f  Hz   2 f
T

##  Only two sinusoidal values with the same frequency can be

compared by their amplitude and phase difference.
 If phase difference is zero, they are in phase; if phase difference is
not zero, they are out of phase.

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Phase of Sinusoids
 The terms lead and lag are used to indicate the relationship between two sinusoidal waveforms of the
same frequency plotted on the same set of axes.
 The cosine curve is said to lead the sine curve by 90°.

##  90 is referred to as the phase angle between the two waveforms.

When determining the phase measurement we first note that each sinusoidal function has the same
frequency, permitting the use of either waveform to determine the period.

 Since the full period represents a cycle of 360°, the following ratio can be formed:

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Phase of Sinusoids
 Consider the sinusoidal voltage having phase φ, v(t )  Vm sin(t   )

• v2 LEADS v1 by phase φ.
• v1 LAGS v2 by phase φ.
• v1 and v2 are out of phase.

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
(120 V at 60 Hz) versus (220 V at 50 Hz) AC
 In North and South America the most common available ac supply is 120 V at 60 Hz, while in Europe
and the Eastern countries it is 220 V at 50 Hz.
 Technically there is no noticeable difference between 50 and 60 cycles per second (Hz).
 The effect of frequency on the size of transformers and the role it plays in the generation and
distribution of power was also a factor.
 The fundamental equation for transformer design is that the size of the transformer is inversely
proportional to frequency.
 A 50 HZ transformer must be larger than a 60 Hz (17% larger) sinusoidal voltage having phase φ.
 Higher frequencies result in concerns about arcing, increased losses in the transformer core due to eddy
current and hysteresis losses, and skin effect phenomena.
 Larger voltages (such as 220 V) raise safety issues beyond those of 120 V.
 Higher voltages result in lower current for the same demand, permitting the use of smaller conductors.
 Motors and power supplies, found in common home appliances and throughout the industrial
community, can be smaller in size if supplied with a higher voltage.

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Trigonometric Identities
 Sine and cosine form conversions. Graphically relating sine
and cosine functions.
sin( A  B)  sin A cos B  cos A sin B
cos( A  B)  cos A cos B sin A sin B

## sin(t  180)   sin t

cos(t  180)   cos t
cos(t  90)  sin t
sin(t  90)   cos t
cos(t  90)  sin t

## A cos t  B sin t  C cos(t   )

Where
B
C= A 2  B 2 and  =tan -1
A
Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II sin(t  180)   sin t
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
Figure shows a pair of waveforms v1 and
v2 on an oscilloscope. Each major vertical
division represents 20 V and each major
division on the horizontal (time) scale
represents 20 ms. Voltage v1 leads.
Prepare a phasor diagram using v1 as
reference. Determine equations for both
voltages.

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university
EXERCISE
 Voltage and current are out of phase by 40°, and voltage lags. Using current as the
reference, sketch the phasor diagram and the corresponding waveforms.

Payam zarbakhsh
EElE301 Circuit Theory II
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Cyprus International university