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News analysis Health Business

Kayihura sanctions Is that supplement Experts on NSSF’s


in perspective safe to take? Shs402billion loss

Issue No. 591 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

Pouyanné:
‘Total Oil
boss ready
to teach
Museveni
a lesson’

www.independent.co.ug
Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 1
inbox

Issue No. 591 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019

News analysis Business Health Arts Motoring

Cover story
Pouyanne: Museveni’s oil trouble has a name
`The man ready to teach Uganda a lesson’

5 The Week
30 Comments
NRM, Opposition face off in tight
Hoima Woman MP by-election Mugabe and importance of
finishing well: Like many self-
centred African freedom fighters
9 The Last Word
and revolutionaries, Mugabe
America’s human rights imperialism started well but finished badly
2: Why we should be suspicious of
America’s attempts to insert itself in
32 Health
our national politics
Is that supplement safe
14 Analysis to take?: This Artificial
Intelligence tool scours
Kayihura sanctions in perspective: Why we must research to find out
see America’s summons to Uganda about human
rights as an ideological weapon for domination
35 Arts & Culture
27 Business
Minimalist portraiture of
NSSF’s Shs402billion loss: Experts women: Young artist with
urge management to rethink bold views praised for
daring the status quo
investment strategy

STRATEGY & EDITORIAL DIRECTOR: Andrew M. Mwenda WRITERS:Ronald Musoke, Ian Katusiime,
MANAGING EDITOR: Joseph Were Patricia Akankwatsa, Julius Businge.
INVESTIGATIONS EDITOR: Haggai Matsiko DESIGN/LAYOUT: Sarah Ngororano
BUSINESS EDITOR: Isaac Khisa CARTOONIST: Harriet Jamwa

PUBLISHER: Independent Publications Limited, Plot 82/84, Kanjokya Street, P. O. Box 3304, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: +256-312-637-391/ 2/ 3/ 4 | Fax: +256-312-637-396 E-mail: editor@independent.co.ug | advertising@independent.co.ug
circulation@independent.co.ug | Website: www.independent.co.ug

2 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


inbox

“I am here to recognize the hard


work the Ugandan government
and its health ministry have done
to prevent the spread of Ebola
outbreak from the eastern DR
Congo” Alex Alazar, US Secretary of
Health and Human Services in Kampala
State Minister John Chrysestom Muyingo (L) speaks to National Council for Higher Education (NCHE)
officials during the 1.1billion launch of the Integrated Management Information System. NCHE executive
director, Prof Mary J N Okwakol (2nd L), said that the system will address data collection, verification
and dissemination of information for all institutions of higher learning.   INDEPENDENT/ ALFRED OCHWO

The State Minister


for Gender, Peace
Mutuuzo, announced
the cabinet’s approval
of the National Kiswahili
council in Uganda.
Kiswahili will be the
second official language
to be used in Uganda
reviled on Sept 18 at “The time is now for the young
UMC.   INDEPENDENT/
ALFRED OCHWO
generation to take over”Sam Kutesa,
minister for foreign affairs announcing his
retirement from politics

The Executive Director


Divine Bamboo, Divine
Nabaweesi (2nd R, holding
seedling) interacts with
some of bamboo farmers
at one of their nursery
beds in Bombo as they
commemorate World
Bamboo day on Sept “We are investigating reports that
18.  INDEPENDENT/ ALFRED President Museveni bribed our candidate
OCHWO
with Shs1.2bn to withdraw from the
race” FDC spokesperson Ibrahim Semujju on
FDC candidate pulling out of Kaabong MP race

Families in Students who have Digital system


300 Iganga facing
eviction
1100 petitioned gov’t over
missing out on tuition loans
Shs9bn judiciary unveiled
to track case files

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 3


week
NRM, Opposition face off in tight Hoima Woman MP by-election
NRM Chairman, President Nyakato, the joint opposition candidate for
Yoweri Museveni, and People the Sept. 26 election. Tensions have been rife in
Power leader Robert Kyagulanyi Hoima since the seat fell vacant in July. The last
aka Bobi Wine held parallel time Museveni and Bobi Wine were in the same
rallies on the same day in the district in a by-election was in Arua district in a
climax for the Hoima Woman charged environment that was characterised by
MP race. Museveni campaigned bloodshed and the arrest of several opposition
for Harriet Businge Mugenyi, the leaders. The venues for the last rallies for both
NRM flag bearer in the poll while opposition NRM are less than a kilometer apart.
Bobi Wine stumped for Asinansi Asinansi Nyakato Harriet Businge

NRM set to win


MP Galiwango appeals to Kaabong MP race
Speaker over personal security The ruling party NRM
is set to win the Kaabong
MP race after the FDC
candidate Judith Adyaka
Nalibe quit the race a
week to polling day. Her
decision means NRM will
win the Sept. 26 election
unopposed. The seat fell
vacant after incumbent
Kaabong District Woman
Simon Akena, MP, Rose Lilly Akello
opted to represent Karenga
another city murder District, carved out of
Kaabong District. Kaabong
There is heightened anxiety district became operational
over the kidnaps and mur- on July 1. Ibrahim Ssemujju
ders in Uganda. There is a Nganda FDC spokesperson
palpable resignation among claimed that Nalibe held
the public including among Mbale Woman MP Connie guards of my choice not ones a secret meeting with
security officers over the secu- Galiwango has appealed to dictated by people who want to President Museveni, the
rity situation in Uganda. The Speaker Rebecca Kadaga over harm me,” she told the House. NRM chairman, in Moroto
latest incident played out in the persistent threats to her life Galiwango says she is now fac- Town on Sept.12, the day
similar fashion; reports of a that she says started since she ing a threat from unidentified the President was scheduled
missing person and days later, voted against the amendment people who threw leaflets in to sign a memorandum of
the discovery of their body in of the presidential age limit in her compound demanding for understanding with his
heart rending circumstances. December 2017. She told par- a staggering Shs400m. Kadaga visiting Kenyan counterpart
The body of Akena, a graph- liament last week that her two promised to convene a meeting Uhuru Kenyatta on cross-
ics designer was discovered guards were withdrawn under with Police and the minister for border movements in the
by a fisherman on the shores unclear circumstances. “I need internal affairs. area.
of Lake Victoria in Kitubu-
lu, Katabi Town Council in
Entebbe on Sept.18. It had
marks of strangulation on the
Defence ministry, MPs hold talks on security
neck and a deep cut on the The ministry of Zaake. Mwesige said
forehead. Police have arrested defence and veteran the atmosphere at
two suspects in connection affairs and the par- Munyonyo Common-
with the murder of Akena. liamentary commit- wealth Resort was
The incident is barely a month tee on defence and more conducive than
after the kidnap and murder internal affairs had that of parliament.
of Maria Nagirinya, a social a two day meeting Although journalists
worker who was killed with discussing torture, were barred from the
her driver. President Musev- safe houses, re-arrest Francis Zaake Gen. David Muhoozi discussions, some
eni and his government have of suspects, rampant MPs like Zaake com-
rama, (defence) Col. MPs included Doreen
been under fire over the esca- murders and the secu- plained about the
Charles Engola, Chief Amule, the ranking
rity situation in the rampant torture in
lating insecurity in the coun- of Defence Forces member of the com-
country. The meeting the country narrating
try. Security services remain Gen. David Muhoozi mittee, Butambala
was attended by min- the ordeal he went
active and vigilant when it and other army County MP Muwanga
ister for defence Adolf through last year at
comes to curtailing the activi- officers from Chief- Kivumbi, Mityana
Mwesige, (veteran the hands of army
ties of opposition politicians. taincy of Military Municipality Francis
affairs) Bright Rwami- officers.
Intelligence (CMI).

4 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


week

Is Justice Tibatemwa being targeted for age limit judgment? Kayihura: Museveni
Supreme Court Justice Lillian ed,” the statement read. This criticises opposition
Tibatemwa was appointed to has prompted speculation that
the Seychelles Court of Appeal, Tibatemwa, a former deputy President Yoweri Museveni
the country’s highest court. vice chancellor at Makerere criticised opposition politicians
Ordinarily, this would be a rea- University, is probably being tar- for celebrating the sanctions
son to celebrate in the judicial geted for quashing the age limit slapped on former Police chief
community in Uganda. Not amendment in a petition before Gen. Kale Kayihura by the
the case though. Apparently the Supreme Court. The petition U.S. In a statement, Museveni
there is an issue regarding the was dismissed in a 4-3 verdict said the opposition have faulty
procedure in which she took and Tibatemwa was among the spectacles for jubilating over
up the job. The Judicial Service three justices who ruled that such. “Why do they think that
Commission (JSC) has denied the process leading to the con- going to the USA or indeed
approving her appointment ceptualization of Constitution any non-African country is so
to the Seychelles court. In a Lillian Tibatemwa (Amendment) (No. 2) Bill, 2017, important that if you are not
statement, the JSC permanent which paved way for scrapping allowed there, it will amount
secretary Ronald Sekagya said categorically refute the assertion of the presidential age limit to a painful punishment?” he
Tibatemwa’s appointment has that the chairperson of the JSC was illegal. The other justices asked. Museveni vowed that
not been submitted for review approved the appointment of are Paul Mugamba and Eldard those who have committed
to the JSC by anyone. “This is to Justice Tibatemwa as report- Mwanguhya. crimes will be tried in Uganda
but can never be handed over
to the International Criminal
Africa Logistics Properties tackles challenges in East Africa Region Court. However a few years
ago, Uganda handed over
APO Group Africa Logistics Dominic Ongwen, a former
Properties (ALP), a modern rebel commander under the
warehousing solutions Lords Resistance Army (LRA)
company hosted a Supply to the ICC. Museveni however
Chain Networking Breakfast expressed regret over the
Forum in celebration of its possibility of Kayihura owning
second anniversary since assets in the U.S. saying it is
the completion of phase tantamount to “treason”.
one - ALP North at Tatu
City’s Industrial Park. The
event brought together key
stakeholders in the Logistics
and Supply Chain sector
with the aim of generating breakfast event as a way of demand-led investment
industry solutions. Speaking creating dialogue to solve some opportunities within Africa
at the event, ALP CEO Richard of the key challenges many that will generate strong
Hough said, “Since setting up business’s experience within returns for its shareholders
operations in Kenya, we as the Supply Chain ecosystem as through the development of
an organisation have noticed well as align key international industrial real estate projects
various challenges in the best practices that are relevant whilst improving logistics and
East Africa’s Supply Chain and can be applicable to infrastructure in the markets in
ecosystem. We are delighted the East African Region.” which ALP operates.
to have our first supply chain ALP’s strategy is to identify

AfricellUG @AfricellUG

Dial *133*2# *terms and conditions apply |


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for more bundles

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 5


week
Why EU chose Makerere Climate change tops agenda at 74th UN General Assembly
for democracy day fete
The European Union Ambassador
to Uganda H.E Attilio Pacifici wants
as many young people as possible
to speak out on what they want
democracy in Uganda to look like.
This is why, on Sept.19, Makerere
hosted the international day of
democracy celebrations that was
facilitated by the European Union
Delegation to Uganda. Uganda
continues to grapple with gaps in
promoting democracy and rule
of law which have in many cases
resulted into several reported cases
relating to human rights abuse.
Issues like election malpractice, 2019 has been a year marked by climate General Antonio Guterres has mobilized
suppression of human and voting activism, the fires in the Amazon rain forest countries to cut their greenhouse gas emis-
rights, voter bribery, gaps in women have sparked fury among environmentalists sions and live up to the goals of the Paris
and youth empowerment, torturing the world over. The year has seen danger- Accord signed in 2015. Greta Thunberg, a 16
of opposition politicians and media ous floods, rising air pollution and more year old Swedish activist has electrified cli-
practitioners are some of the issues dangers to the planet become major issues in mate change activism with her passion and
that speakers talked about at the many countries. On the eve of the UN Gen- dedication. She sailed to New York over the
event. Pacifici said democracies today eral Assembly in New York, there were stu- course of two weeks to avoid flights which
face many challenges as countries seek dent protests over global warming in cities contribute to carbon emissions. US President
answers to serious questions on how across the world like Kampala, Lagos, Stock- Donald Trump snubbed a climate meeting
their system of government can adapt holm, Paris, Tokyo to demand for action in at the UN headquarters on Sept. 23 opting to
in a complex and changing world. combating climate change. UN Secretary attend a meeting on religious freedom.

6 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


Humour Did you know?
Huawei’s 5G phone lacks
Google-licensed apps

Huawei launched a new 5G flagship


smartphone lineup on Sept.19 without
pre-installed Google-licensed apps as
the Chinese tech giant faces fallout from
The former Inspector General of Police Kale Kayihura seeks an audience with a U.S. blacklist earlier this year.
the US government over the travel and economic sanctions imposed on him. The Mate 30 series, which was
unveiled at a launch event in Munich,
will operate on an open-source version
of Google’s Android operating system.
Huawei has been unable to license
the latest version of Android due to
restrictions imposed by the U.S. on the
Chinese firm.
That means the new phones won’t
come installed with key Google apps,
like Gmail, YouTube, Maps or the Play
Store. Instead, Huawei will offer its own
Android-based interface called EMUI10
and its own app store. Analysts said this
would put Huawei at a disadvantage
against rivals like Samsung and Apple.
Huawei pushed forward with the
Mate 30 launch this month despite
the U.S. restrictions. Huawei has been
working on its own operating system
called HarmonyOS, but it’s too soon to
The Uganda National Bureau of standards will soon start be put on the Mate 30.
regulating grasshoppers locally known as nsenene. The Mate 30 series is Huawei’s first
all-new phone series to launch since the
U.S. ban was announced. The lineup
includes the 6.62-inch Mate 30 and 6.53-
inch Mate 30 Pro, available in both 4G
and 5G models.
The Mate 30 will be powered by
Huawei’s new Kirin 990 processor, an
all-in-one artificial and 5G chip the
company calls its “most sophisticated
smartphone chipset launched to date.”
Smartphone makers are increasingly
competing to unveil new 5G devices.
Huawei first overtook Apple as the
second-biggest smartphone seller in the
world in 2018. Samsung is the world’s
biggest smartphone seller. It launched
the Galaxy Note 10+ 5G in August
and the Galaxy S10 5G in February.
Huawei’s Chinese competitors like
Xiaomi have also unveiled new 5G
devices this year. Apple, however, likely
Minister Sam Kutesa has picked his daughter as his successor for Mawogola North MP seat. won’t release a 5G device until 2020.

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


News analysis Health Business
American interest in Ending HIV Reprieve to cane farmers as
Uganda’s GMO law stigma government allows export

Issue No. 590 Sept. 20 - 26 2019


Ushs 5,000,Kshs 200, RwF 1,500, SDP 8

America pins ex-IGP


Kayihura on torture
Who is next on

Inbox
sanctions list?

Follow us on Twitter @
http://twitter.com/#!/ugandatalks

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www.facebook.com/TheIndependentMagazineUganda
www.independent.co.ug

Let Uganda, not America, handle Kayihura


Letters are Refer to: “America’s human believe America should stay es had better shut up and let
welcome ! rights imperialism: How US
government sanctions against
out of the human rights cases
in the world is; this same state
others that actually care to deal
with such cases. The torture
The Editor welcomes short and Kayihura are a toxic mixture of department (of America) can- victims will never see justice
concise letters from our esteemed ignorance, prejudice and hypoc- celled the travel visa for the ICC thanks to the U.S. government
readers on topical issues. Please risy” (The Independent Sept.20). prosecutor about a month ago protecting the torturers. And we
send them to:
The Editor, The Independent Today I agree with Mwenda because she launched investi- Ugandans should understand
Publications Ltd, on the point of the USA lacking gations of human rights abuse that if this colonialism (neo-co-
P.O Box 3304, moral authority to investigate or in Abu Ghraib prison by U.S. lonialism is only a term used
Plot 82/84 Kanjokya St, punish anyone anywhere in the soldiers. U.S President Donald to confuse us all) is to end, we
Kamwokya. world for human rights abuses. Trump and his team said via must be ready to deal with our
Kampala,Uganda.
Please understand that I believe twitter that U.S. soldiers will not own challenges and not wait for
Email: editor@independent.co.ug the former IGP committed be touched. They were so deter- America to come and play “big
certain offenses that he should mined to protect these criminals brother”. So Kayihura should
answer for. But on our terms that they threatened the ICC. So be dealt with but by us and not
and not American terms. a country that protects people those American pretenders.
The main reason why I that commit human rights abus- Muwanga the Ugandan

American racism, laziness in Penalise fake labour exporters Mwenda right to


Kayihura sanctions really? Labour export companies that do not com- condemn USA on Kayihura
ply with the services they are supposed to
Refer to: “America’s human rights offer or render to the people should be pun-
imperialism: How US government ished. I watched on TV and a certain company Refer to: “America’s human rights
sanctions against Kayihura are a toxic was being complained about. It does not make imperialism: How US government
mixture of ignorance, prejudice and sense to me - someone trusting you with their sanctions against Kayihura are a toxic
hypocrisy” (The Independent Sept.20). money and then you refuse to offer a service mixture of ignorance, prejudice and
Reading this article, one gets the they asked for? Such companies need to be hypocrisy” (The Independent Sept.20).
impression that the U.S. government, sued in courts of law. People who are victims I have said this before and I will say it
out of racism and laziness, is targeting complain that even after these companies have again. It is appalling and disgusting
an innocent man. One would never failed to offer the service, they refuse to refund to see some of the comments. Africans
guess that the former Inspector General the money or else they give you very little and especially Ugandans in particular
of Police, Gen. Kale Kayihura is actually money from the money you paid them. Such would give away their own. I don’t
facing criminal charges in Uganda. companies need to be penalised seriously. condone the actions of for Inspector
General of Police Kale Kayihura but
Sserukeera Kevin Seguya he was doing a very difficult Job.
Policing Uganda is a nightmare. Was
it OK to leave criminal to roam the city
unchallenged? Uganda has had a dif-
Kayihura should have known Americans better ficult history with criminality because
of frequently changing governments.
Refer to: “America’s human rights imperi- when they outlived their usefulness. KK per- Criminal have always liked it when
alism: How US government sanctions against haps thought the same could never happen to governments change. Gen. Kale Kay-
Kayihura are a toxic mixture of ignorance, him, because he is that much smarter. While ihura was an obstacle; the criminal
prejudice and hypocrisy” (The Independent he was doing the dirty work for and with the gangs in Kampala didn’t want security
Sept.20). Unless former Inspector General of Americans he stupidly fancied himself and to get in their way. Remember former
Police, Gen. Kale Kayihura is not as bright as thought that he was an equal with them and British Prime Minister Tonny Blair and
he would want people to believe, he should that nothing would happen to him. The reason U.S. President George Bush are living
have known that the sanctions that American he went ahead and did terrible things, thinking free after their armies killing 1,000,000
slapped on him and his family would come that he had the “dirty” on them and they would in Iraq. Can Uganda or the UN sanc-
– that it was just a matter of that commodity - sink together. Kayihura, now even your boss tion them for human right violations
time. Much greater men, among them former will leave you out to dry. Your children family in the Iraq War? Let Africans; especial-
presidents Saddam Hussein of Iraq and Mobu- and friends are going to suffer because of your ly ugandans start discovering them-
tu Sese Seko of then-Zaire (now DR Congo) ; deeds. selves. Andrew M. Mwenda is right to
people with whom America had “killed” the Ejakait Engoraton condemn the unbalanced USA.
proverbial “mukago” , were dispensed with Wanjala

8 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


The Last Word opinion

America’s human rights imperialism 2


By Andrew M. Mwenda
Why we should be suspicious of America’s
attempts to insert itself in our national politics

W
hy did the United States sanction they have adopted as their Trojan horse. gives him strong appeal, his emptiness in
Uganda’s former Inspector He is a catholic and a Muganda. Americans ideas and policies notwithstanding. His
General of Police, Gen. Kale know Ugandans, like most Americans, vote populist rhetoric endears him to masses
Kayihura, on allegations of largely based on identity: ethnic and religion. of frustrated youths who feel ignored by
violation of human rights, corruption and Bobi Wine may add a significant share of Museveni. He is therefore likely to increase
smuggling without providing the evidence demographic votes because he is young, voter turnout. Having adopted him as their
for the allegations? Why after he has left office fresh and a celebrity. He has a good intuitive Trojan horse, America’s liberal imperialists
and two years after its own Department of feeling of the frustrations of many ordinary fear that in the face of a strong wave in Bobi
Justice awarded him a medal for excellence young Ugandans. Wine’s favour, Museveni might keep him off
in fighting terrorism? Why is the indictment Of course we must ask why Americans the ballot or unleash such violence on a scale
coming one and a half years to the beginning would support a novice like Bobi Wine that can make people opt out of voting.
of the 2021 presidential election campaigns? against Museveni. Our president has been I suspect Americans calculate that they
As I wrote in this column last week, the their kingpin in this region. He has promoted can pressure Museveni to accept Bobi Wine
Uganda Human Rights Commission and free market policies of liberalisation and on the ballot. This leaves the President with
the Parliamentary Committee on Human privatisation that have stifled the growth the second option – violence. The sanctions
Rights both visited Nalufenya (the alleged of and/or displaced local capital to the against Kayihura are meant to send a signal
place of torture in the American indictment) advantage of multinational capital. He has to other officers in security about the evil
and interacted with the prisoners. Both been central in promoting America’s security that would be visited upon those who use
concluded that the claims of torture were interests in this region and fighting her their positions to crack down violently. They
not founded. Why did the U.S. Department enemies (for many years the government calculate, and I think naively and wrongly,
of State disregard the findings of Uganda’s in Khartoum and over the last decade the that in the high stakes game of power politics
institutions? Given that the UHRC has “terrorists” in Somalia). such threats can work. They forget that there
issued many reports detailing torture in While Museveni remains an important are many officials who prefer power and
Uganda and even made government to pay instrument in the security orchestra of this the privileges that come with it, to visiting
hefty compensations to torture victims, the region, things have changed significantly in America.
USA should have more confidence in our Washington DC. President Donald Trump The tragedy is the response of Ugandan
institutions. is not interested in Africa. He has not even elites in the opposition, “civil society”,
More critically, why does America seek appointed an Assistant Secretary of State for the mass media and academia. They
to enforce norms that it does not practice at African affairs. Africa policy has been left to celebrate this as a victory, unable to see
home, even though it claims they are its own low-level diplomats at the State Department, that foreign intrusions into our politics are
values? The American police are notorious with little or no input from the Pentagon and unlikely to resolve our internal political
for killing innocent African American males. the National Security Council. The diplomats problems but rather accentuate them. I
Indeed every 28 hours a black man is shot at State are naïve and idealistic liberal personally have many frustrations with
dead by police in America for no reason but imperialists of the human rights variety. They Museveni’s government: its corruption and
the colour of their skin. Doesn’t charity begin are schemers who lack the realism of people incompetence, its lack of a vision for the
at home? Why does America seek to enforce at the Pentagon and NSC who understand country, its prostitution to the interests of
international laws it has refused to be subject the complexity of geopolitics. multinational capital, its fatigue and inertia
to under international treaties like the Rome Back to elections and what I think are and the pettiness of its politics.
Statute that created the ICC? America’s calculations: Museveni performs Yet in spite of these frustrations, I am not
Last week I dealt with the substance of better when there is low voter turnout. Voter willing to support any local or foreign force
these claims: first that Kayihura was a very turnout would be low if people feel their seeking change. Whoever wants to remove
honest public servant who did not use his votes do not count because Museveni will Museveni must demonstrate that they share
official position to enrich himself. Second steal them. For many years, Museveni had my values, understand our national interest,
that while security forces routinely torture, the most credible person for this message of and can balance all this against local, regional
Kayihura made efforts to put checks in place. hopelessness – Kizza Besigye. He actively and global interests to secure the best for our
Third, that America has been complicit in told Ugandans that he won all the last four people. Yet for some Ugandans any change
torture. This column and the article following presidential elections but Museveni cheated from Museveni is welcome. This addresses
it on pages 16-17 seek to address America’s him. This actually sucked energy, motivation an emotion, not policy. The Americans
motivations. and enthusiasm out of the electoral process. don’t care about the consequence of their
The sanctions against Kayihura are not Thus while subjectively a strong critique of adventures. They supported the Misrata
actually aimed at him. Americans want to the president, Besigye has objectively been Brigade to remove Muammar Gadaffi and
influence the 2021 elections. They sense Museveni’s strategic ally. see where Libya is today!
fatigue about President Yoweri Museveni and Bobi Wine is different. He calls on
a wave in favour of Kyadondo East legislator, Ugandans to register and vote and gives amwenda@independent.co.ug
Robert Kyagulanyi aka Bobi Wine, whom them hope of success. His youthful idealism

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 9


cover story

Pouyanné: Museveni’s
Oil trouble has a name
‘The man ready to
teach Uganda a lesson’

I
By Independent Team n a bid to get the deal done, Total ini-
tially arranged a transaction in which
Details emerging following the recent failure of major oil companies to it would carry 50% of Tullow’s CGT.
pressure the Uganda government to grant tax concessions before a But Total gave the government a con-
crucial sale and purchase deal are casting the country as a “nightmare” for dition that the money it was paying
oil firms. And the result is that the French oil major, Total, is determined to had to be tax deductible when Total
change that – by “teaching Uganda a lesson.” starts recovering the money it has invested
as soon as Uganda starts earning oil money.
Signing of the Sale and Purchase Agreements (SPAs) between Tullow Oil The government countered that Tullow’s
Plc, Total Exploration & Production (E&P) and the China National Offshore farm down was liable to a non-negotiable
Oil Corporation (CNOOC) would have paved way for a Final Investment CGT and any arrangements Tullow entered
Decision (FID). But Tullow insisted on getting a 51% waiver of the due with Total could not change the tax liability.
Capital Gains Tax (CGT) because, it said, the money from the US$900 Following that impasse; Tullow, Total,
and CNOOC allowed the SPAs they had
million farm-down was to be re-invested in the sector. agreed in 2017 to expire on Aug.29. Then
Total raised the ante when on Sept.05 it
announced that it was suspending activity
of the East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline and,
together with its Joint Venture Partners –
Tullow and CNOOC, started laying off staff.
Based on these developments, several
news media in the North Sea region that
comprises the UK, Norway, Germany, The
Netherlands and Denmark, have carried
reports that Uganda is a “nightmare” for oil.
Total has been the second biggest player in
the North Sea oil mix since 2017 and Total
CEO Patrick Pouyanné has been a major
news maker since he paid US$7.5bn there to
acquire Maersk Oil.
Now the leading digital news platform
for oil and gas from Europe’s energy capital
Aberdeen in Scotland called Energy Voice has
been making the point that Total is deter-
mined to “teach Uganda a lesson.”
The news platform which boasts of being
read in over 100 countries around the globe
because of its influential in-depth research
and market analysis has been citing chal-
lenges Tullow has faced. It says from
the moment Tullow purchased
Heritage’s concession and got
entangled in tax disputes

10 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


cover story
with the Uganda government, “it was a sign
that things would not be straightforward.”
“This is not the first time that Uganda has
proved challenging for Tullow. When the
company bought out Heritage Oil, it faced a
drawn out battle with the government over
tax,” Energy Voice said in one of its reports.
It quotes one Stephane Foucaud from
a firm called GMP First Energy, who says
Total E&P, is determined to change that by
freezing all activity in Uganda.
“Total is sending a clear message to the
Ugandan government that unless things are
changed, the company will not do anything.
Nobody can replace them. The alternative
option would be for Tullow to sell to a new
buyer at a much lower level. In the near term
everything will be stuck,” Foucaud reported-
ly told Energy Voice.
Total’s move could also be seen as a warn-
ing to other countries in the early stages of
development planning, according to the
report. “This could be seen as a salvo fired
at Kenya, a warning,” Foucaud reportedly
said. “For Total and Tullow just focusing
on Kenya would be easier – and there’s an
incentive to make sure things work.”

The Tullow-Total gamble


The gamble is that Uganda needs the oil
deal more than Total does.
The assumption has been that President
Museveni, who has been pegging most
government spending (including purchase
on loan of planes for the revamped national
airline) on “oil money,” would want the
money in a hurry to finance major infrastruc-
ture projects, bolster Uganda’s capacity to
manage its growing public debt, and finance
his 2021 re-election.
A June report on the state of the economy
by the country’s central bank, for instance,
said Uganda needs to export oil by 2023 if
the debt is to be sustainably managed. called Assaye Risks. (MUST).
The report said Uganda’s public debt He says Total has a number of projects
stock will grow from the current US$10.74 that it is working on and it has already Museveni ‘ready to fight’
bn (Shs39 trillion) to US$13.4bn (Approx. moved key personnel from the Uganda Other reports citing highly classified
Shs49 trillion) in the 2019/20 financial year. project to other roles. So too does Tullow, diplomatic sources indicate that that
This is a rise from 42.2% of GDP to 45.7%. which noted in its statement on the failure of President Museveni has assured Tullow and
The government has set a debt-to-GDP the sales process that it has exciting work in Total that they would not get a tax waiver.
threshold of 50%. Kenya and Guyana in South America. Museveni reportedly said he was ready
The Energy Voice report says “while Lake The report cites the public comments by to fight it out but would not let Uganda
Albert and the pipeline plan do represent a Tanzanian President John Magufuli that become like Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and
major step for Uganda, it is less important Uganda should give the oil firms the “small” Angola; countries he said are not getting a
for Total.” tax concessions and stand to gain the “big” fair share from their oil.
It adds: Total are also distracted by other rewards when oil starts flowing. He reportedly explained that Uganda has
areas, where it has big ticket projects in the It says pressure has been piling on Musev- made many concessions and infrastructural
works, such as Mozambique and Papua eni domestically about the oil developments investments that the oil companies need to
New Guinea (PNG), with major Liquefied being slow. appreciate. Museveni reportedly met them
Natural Gas (LNG) plans. The French com- “Uganda is moving towards elections on Sept.06 on the sidelines of the recent
pany feels it has invested enough and is and this is one of the issues that have seized Uganda-Tanzania Business Forum in Dar es
holding out for change to come from Ugan- attention. The government needs to demon- Salaam.
da. strate progress. It has taken a number of “You asked me for an airport; I went to
“And that has to come from the top, from steps to support the oil plans, such as roads London and borrowed US$350 million. Now
Ugandan President YoweriMuseveni. The and an airport construction, but local people you are saying you don’t want to invest even
pipeline is not a simple undertaking. If are questioning why it’s taking so much after I delivered the list of things you asked
Uganda is not careful, they’ll miss the boat,” time,” according to Tom Ogwang of Mbar- of me,” he reportedly said.
says one James Hopkinson from a company ara University of Science & Technology’s He reportedly also listed major roads,

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 11


cover story
including the so-called oil roads, an
international airport under construction,
numerous concessions on taxes and tariffs,
and laws that support the oil sector.
“You told me you had money to invest
if I fulfilled a list of conditions. I have
met those conditions, so why are you not
investing?” the president reportedly said.
He termed the tax waiver demands as
new pre-conditions to signing of the FID.
The oil companies also want to raise the
transportation tariff from US$12.2 per
barrel to at least US$15. According to the
Permanent Secretary in Uganda’s Ministry
of Energy and Mineral Development,
Robert Kasande, the oil roads alone require
Uganda to raise US$1bn.
President Museveni has also raised
eyebrows with recent remarks that implied
that Uganda could start pumping oil in two
years; this amidst a public face off with oil
firms – something many assume killed any
prospects for Uganda oil in the short-term.
The President was on Sept.12 speaking
at the signing off a joint cross-border
integrated programme for sustainable
peace and social-economic transformation
for Turkana, West Pokot, and Karamoja
in the far northeastern Uganda town of
Moroto. Museveni was explaining that the
integration requires a road to connect to
Ethiopia through Kenya when he made the
quip which has become a talking point. He
said, in any case, if the UN fails he would
build the road.
“Once my oil comes out in two years, I
will build the road myself,” he said.
The Permanent Secretary, Kasande, on
Sept.17 followed up Museveni’s remark
during an energy sector meeting in
Kampala. He said “the collapse of Tullow
Oil’s Sale and Purchase Agreement would
not end Uganda’s oil and gas industry.”
In the context of Museveni’s dispute with
the Joint Venture Partners in Uganda’s oil
development, their optimism has sparked
speculation.
Museveni’s remark is significant
because the road he wants would connect
to Turkana’s main oil producing town of
Lodwar. Kenya is developing an oil pipeline
from Lokichar to the Port of Lamu that
could be an option in case of failure of a
pipeline deal Uganda agreed with Total,
CNOOC, and Tullow. The agreed pipeline
would go through Tanzania and is designed
to run for 1,443 km from Lake Albert to
the Tanzanian port of Tanga and take three
years to construct.
Speculation has been rife that Museveni
could lock out Total and do a deal with
CNOOC which favours the Kenya route.
But analysts have spoken of secret meetings
between Total and CNOOC and the
Chinese frustration over Museveni slow
bureaucrats. In any case, CNOOC has
also pulled back on staff and activities in
Uganda. An oil rig worker talks to journalists during the exploration phase in 2012.   FILE PHOTO

12 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


cover story
Big fight coming country, lack of experience in a new
Analysts anticipate a tough tussle country to oil, and challenges of creating
between Museveni and Pouyanné; everything from scratch.
the Total CEO whose personal and But by April when the CEOs of Total
professional lifestyle are marked by bold and Tullow had one of their several
deal making. The 56-year old Pouyanné meetings with Museveni, it had become
is known to be very smart and his clear that getting the FID going would not
negotiation style has been described as be easy because of disagreements over tax
“hard charging.” issues.
According to Anne-Marie Idrac, As The Independent reported earlier
a former French trade minister who in our story “Museveni locks out oil
has been on Total’s board since 2012, investors: It’s Total disaster,” the oil firms
Pouyanné is a good deal-maker because wanted Museveni to direct the Uganda
he “thinks quicker than most people,” Revenue Authority (URA) on how to
and is “a lot more straightforward than handle the tax dispute in their favour. But
other French bosses.” Pouyanne is known when they gave him a take it or leave it
to have an “eruptive temper” and with his ultimatum to freeze activities in Uganda,
imposing size, he can be intimidating. Museveni reportedly ended the meeting
“A lot of people fear him” and working prematurely. Museveni cancelled another
with Pouyanné can be stressful, said meeting that had beebn scheduled for June
Thierry Defresne, the representative of the 05.
CGT union in Total’s refining division, From that point, the FID appeared
according to one report. basically dead unless the JVPs paid the
Pouyanné has publicly mocked a taxes. The JVPs let Sale and Purchase
French junior minister who opposed his Agreements (SPAs) they had signed to
plans, and publicly squabbled with other expire on August 29 without a deal. Under
oil sector CEOs over strategy. Unlike most the SPAs signed on January 9, 2017, Total
Western executives, he refused to boycott and CNOOC were to acquire of 21.57%
an investment conference in Riyadh, out of Tullow’s 33.33% interest in the Lake
Saudi Arabia, in the wake of the murder Albert licenses.
of journalist Jamal Khashoggi. At the time, it was thought that the
He shares some traits with Museveni, expiry of the SPAs would delay but not
including a tendency to micro-manage. freeze the oil development. After all
Pouyanné is described as a “strategist Uganda first announced impending oil
and a perfectionist” who wants to be production in 2011 but has kept pushing
involved in everything that matters for the deadline for eight years.
the company. Like Museveni, Pouyanné Panmure Gordon analyst Colin Smith
keeps an unusually tight rein over his summed up the thinking when he
deals. According to one report, Pouyanné advised investors that “given the national
sometimes does work that should be done importance of the project we expect a
by his in-house experts himself. resolution will be found and that the most
“You have to be quick and to be likely outcome is that the previous deal
discrete,” Pouyanné once reportedly told or something similar with the existing
a journalist. partners will be concluded.” But then
Quite significantly, Pouyanné Total on Sept.05 ratcheted up things by
understands how frustratingly slow announcing that it was suspending all
government decision-making can be. activities, including tenders, on the East
In the 1990s he worked in the Ministry Africa Crude Pipeline (EACOP). The JVPs
of Industry and the office of the French immediately started major layoffs of staff.
prime minister. He quit in 1997 to join the Despite all that, Total’s exploration &
private sector — because in the private production President, Arnaud Breuillac
sector “you can take actions, you are said in statement that Total together
judged on results.” with its partners CNOOC and Tullow
He also understands Africa, having will continue to focus on progressing
worked in Angola and has visited the development of the Lake Albert oil
Rwanda to see the gorillas. resources.
In February, this year, Pouyanné Said Breuillac: “The project is technically
told journalists in Paris that getting FID mature, and we are committed to
would be his priority in 2019. At the time, continuing to work with the government
however, he had significantly quipped of Uganda to address the key outstanding
that the project has “too many crocodiles issues required to reach an investment
that need to be tamed.” decision. A stable and suitable legal
A story by the Reuters news agency and fiscal framework remains a critical
that reported the incident said Pouyanné requirement for investors.” In other
was alluding to various difficulties in words, it appears, Total wants Uganda’s
getting the Uganda project off the ground; oil but on Total’s terms. Museveni does
including logistics of a landlocked not like that.

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 13


news analysis

An Oranto Petroleum badge in western Uganda during the seismic data acquisition exercise in May, this year.   FILE PHOTO

Govt looks to
new oil deals
There is plenty to cheer than mourn
about after Tullow oil deal failed
By Ronald Musoke and CNOOC had been left to expire without was expected to be undertaken by Total,

F
a deal and Total’s subsequent announce- CNOOC, and Tullow?
ollowing the August fallout of Tullow ment that it was suspending activity on the Although Merel wanted answers to the
Oil Plc’s farm down to Total E&P East Africa Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP). immediate concerns, the answers from the
Uganda and China National Off- But it became immediately clear that government official took a long-term per-
shore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), the people with the answers had skipped spective.
the government appears to be going after a the conference; starting with the Minister Simon D’Ujang, the minister of State for
three-pronged come-back strategy: remain of Energy and Mineral Resources, Irene Energy and Robert Kasande, the permanent
bullish, handle activities leading to first oil Muloni, to the country managers of Total, secretary were determined to paint the coun-
separate from Tullow’s farm down fumble, Tullow and CNOOC. It was announced that try’s faltering oil and gas sector in rather
and aggressively look out for new investors Muloni was in Austria on official duty but optimistic colours.
in the oil sector. the big names in Uganda’s oil; Total, Tullow D’Ujang referred to the current stalemate
The government’s bullish face was on and CNOOC, who often hog the discussion, between the oil companies and the govern-
show at the recent annual Energy and Min- were barely mentioned. ment as a “small hiccup.”
eral Joint Sector Review (JSR) on Sept.17-18 With the top voices away, the discussion “Although we have encountered a small
at the Munyonyo Commonwealth Resort in was left to Energy ministry officials and hiccup, we are engaging as partners and we
Kampala. members of the diplomatic community. are discussing,” D’Ujang said, “This is not
Many of the attendees trooped there Cedric Merel, the Head of cooperation at strange at all in any business undertaking.”
expecting to hear “concrete” updates on the the European Union Delegation in Kampala
latest developments surrounding the Aug.29 who led the discussion side of the diplomats Activities to continue
announcement that the Sale and Purchase had one major question; what will happen Meanwhile Kasande said the oil compa-
Agreements (SPAs) between Tullow, Total to the Final Investment Decision which nies had not yet notified the government

14 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


news analysis
either been completed or were underway.
The Meanwhile, the lead oil refinery investor,
the Albertine Graben Refinery Consortium
collapse of (AGRC), has also made progress with the
Tullow Oil’s Front End Engineering Design (FEED)
studies that will eventually inform the Final
Sale and Investment Decision of the project.
Purchase New oil investors
Agreement Irene Batebe, the Acting Commissioner
will not (midstream) in the Petroleum Directorate
noted that irrespective of the current chal-
end lenges the government will continue pursu-
Uganda’s ing its targets.
The government expects more companies
oil and gas to come and invest in the country’s upstream
industry (exploration and production) sub-sector.
On the new investment front, the Energy
ministry is looking at two licensees; the
Nigerian firm, Oranto Petroleum Ltd and
barrels of oil per day at its peak. Australian firm Armour Energy pty Ltd that
Kasande told The Independent on the are already carrying out seismic surveys.
sidelines of the sector review that the The government is also reviewing appli-
government is at the moment undertaking cations for production licences over the Lyec
road shows that are meant to promote the field in exploration area 1A, Mpyo and Jobi-
second licensing round. East fields in Exploration Area 1 operated
“After this has been done and the by Total. These could be approved in this
companies have expressed interest in Financial Year 2019/20.
exploration, they will have access to the All eyes are on the second licensing round
government database so that they can which was launched in May at the East Afri-
with regards to the suspension of activities. evaluate the potential of the blocks,” he can Petroleum Conference and Exhibition
“The collapse of Tullow Oil’s Sale and said. held in Mombasa.
Purchase Agreement would not end Ugan- Thereafter, he said, expressions of interest “We are very hopeful that prospective
da’s oil and gas industry,” he said. by interested companies will be accepted investors will pick interest in the request
Kasande said since Tullow has been look- followed by evaluation and due diligence. for qualification and participate in the bid-
ing for resources to invest in the Ugandan “We expect that the conclusion of this ding process for the opened up exploration
project, it expects the British oil firm to go licensing will be in the last quarter of 2020,” areas,” Batebe said, “We seek to produce first
back to the market to look for these resourc- he added. oil by 2022 and we hope that the crude oil
es. Kasande said besides international oil pipeline will be in place by 2022 and the oil
In the meantime, the Final Investment prices, the two other factors that make refinery will be up and running by 2023.”
Decision Management Committee which he investing in exploration in oil and gas fron- “We seek to establish additional reserves
chairs and comprises CEOs from CNOOC, tier basins like Uganda are legislation and because this is very critical for the sustain-
Total and Tullow Oil, the Uganda National potential of the blocks. ability in terms of additional crude oil over
Oil Company (UNOC) and the Petroleum “On these two fronts, Uganda is doing and above what has been discovered so far,”
Authority of Uganda (PAU) will soon meet well,” he said. “While Uganda is still a she added.
in Kampala to determine the way forward frontier basin, at least until we produce our Uganda’s Albertine Graben is now a
on several pending agreements. first oil, the potential has been proven and mature oil and gas province with nine pro-
These include the host government agree- all indications point in the direction that we duction licences already issued to Total E&P
ments, the transportation and tariff agree- will have this infrastructure (pipeline and oil Uganda, CNOOC Uganda Ltd and Tullow
ment and the shareholder agreement (for the refinery).” Uganda Operations Pty Ltd, she said.
EACOP). The government officials said there is a Batebe said the government plan is to
“These will continue until Tullow finds lot more to be cheerful about. Let’s focus on continue to assess the country’s petroleum
the money and hopefully concludes the farm the progress that had been made before the potential, support the national content poli-
down,” he said. The idea, Kasande said, is recent Tullow announcement, they said. cy, and upgrade existing geochemical labo-
to remain on course for the Final Investment They listed the Environmental and Social ratories, and supervise the FID and ESIA for
Decision which the government officials still Impact Assessment for the two upstream the oil refinery and the EACOP.
hope will happen by the end of this year. projects of Tilenga and Kingfisher that had Before Tullow’s announcement that its
“We had expected that first oil would been completed with the National Envi- SPAs with Total and CNOOC had expired
happen three years after FID,” he explained, ronment Management Authority (NEMA) and Total’s subsequent announcement that
“If FID happens this year, we will still be approving Tilenga while Kingfisher was in it was suspending activities on the Pipeline,
on course because most of the preliminary the final review stages. the Joint Venture Partners were frantically
activities have been undertaken.” They also mentioned the Route Alignment working to pump first oil by 2022. Although
Kasande insisted the companies cannot and Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) imple- the government remains determined to fol-
choose to walk away because they have a mentation for the EACOP, the Products low that timeline, it also appears to be work-
proven oil resource which they have since Pipeline Corridors, the brand new inter- ing on a longer-term plan.
booked in their reserves and even the stock national airport in the oil region, and the
exchange. The Lake Albert Development Kabaale Industrial Park for oil related indus-
Project is expected to pump out 230,000 tries. These projects, the officials said, had

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 15


news analysis

Kayihura sanctions
in perspective
Why we must see America’s summons to Uganda about
human rights as an ideological weapon for domination
By Andrew M. Mwenda pays for their security. But it the West’s approach, even to internal virtues and vices of

W
does not tell them how to gov- child upbringing and education. poorer nations. More than any
hen the US govern- ern themselves. Norway, Swe- Many white people who indulge other country, the U.S. should be
ment sanctioned den and Denmark have social in endless lectures, summons understanding of the complexity
Uganda’s former democratic policies that are and scolding of African lead- of social change.
Inspector General almost the opposite of America’s ers give white children a lot of America was born as a liberal
of Police, Gen. Kale Kayihura, free market system. However autonomy to make decisions. democracy, with a free press,
many Ugandans in opposition, America does not scold and lec- They pick the bills and yet give an independent judiciary, a par-
traditional and social media and ture their leaders on how to be the children freedom to experi- liament and a presidency held
in “civil society” celebrated. This good free market copycats.  ment and make mistakes. They by many checks and balances.
is naïve. Western nations (Eu- The reason behind the sanc- recognise that mistakes are nec- Yet it took them 56 years from
rope and her offshoots in North timonious summons to Africa essary for learning. its Declaration of Independence
America and Oceania) keep by the West is racial. There is The same applies to the West- in 1776 (which said all man are
governments and leaders in Af- a deeply engrained, often sub- ern education systems. As one born equal) to granting poor
rica under pressure to govern in conscious, though in some cases who has benefited from it, I have white men the right to vote, 88
particular ways. Yet they know conscious, racial superiority been impressed and inspired by years to end slavery, 144 years
from their own experience that to give women the right to vote
you cannot impose other coun- and 188 years to give black
tries’ standards, which are alien people the right to vote. Slavery
and totally disconnected with a was ended by a democratic
people’s history, culture, poli- president using emergency
tics etc. and they work. powers to issue the Emancipa-
The common argument tion Proclamation during a civil
among many of our elites is that war. Even then, America had
western nations intrude in our to endure another 100 years of
(African) sovereignty because apartheid before black people
they give financial assistance could be guaranteed the right to
to our governments. I think vote. This is not to mention that
this is a very small part of the America evolved by genocide
motivation. There are countries of native peoples. Even today,
in Africa, like Eritrea, which do America is involved in torture
not get U.S. assistance but are in her “war against terrorism.”
subjected to the same sanctimo- Former Inspector General of Police Kale Kayihura was in 2016 awarded by Americans are not ignorant
nious summons. the U.S. Department of Justice and the FBI for his fight against terrorism. of this, their history. They know
The desire, nay the impulse, how long it took their country
to lecture and to scold African complex in the mind of many the attitude lecturers towards to fight and reduce most of its
countries and their leaders white people. They believe that students in the West. They allow evils, many of which still per-
on how to govern themselves Africans are children incapable them to experiment, give them a sist. This is why we must see
seems to form an important part of self-government and, there- lot of autonomy and avoid exer- America’s summons to Uganda
of white people’s psychological fore, need the paternalist hand of cising authority over them. about human rights as an ideo-
DNA. The nations of Asia such white superintendents. This was At a personal level, I do not logical weapon for domination.
as Japan, South Korea and China the basis of colonialism and has dictate to my son or the many To function as such, the human
provide huge sums of money to never gone away. The view of young people I have fostered. I rights ideology calls for the
African countries. But they do many white people, consciously help(ed) finance their education rewriting of history, selective
not lecture and scold our lead- or subconsciously, is exactly and other needs but I do not see indignation and arbitrary pri-
ers on how to govern. Neither like what Albert Schweitzer of this as a basis to dictate to them orities. The paradox is that the
do they speak grandiloquently Gabon fame wrote in the 19th how they should lead their lives. more ethics advance towards a
about how awesome their polit- Century: that “the African is a Nations like individuals can genuine universality, the more
ical institutions and their proce- child and with children nothing change and improve. But they hypocritical America becomes.
dures are and how we should can be done without authority.” need time and space to do so In many ways Africa helps
imitate them. So deep is the impulse to without intrusions from outside. white people build their identity
In any case, all of Western lecture and scold Africans; espe- Besides there is nothing that and self-confidence. Their sense
Europe lives under the U.S. cially leaders, that this attitude proves that the richest countries of superiority and their sense of
security umbrella i.e. America cannot be found anywhere in are best placed to judge the mission as the world’s civilizers

16 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


news analysis
depend on presenting Africans as a barbaric great degree. They have built elaborate sys- ect. Their reports create the justification for
people who need white people to civilise tems to reward those who accept their inter- America’s wars of aggression, which are sold
them. It requires a belief that Africans cannot ventions (as aimed at our own good) and through its diplomacy and media as altruis-
possess a civilisation and a culture equal to punish those who seek to expose the selfish, tic missions to save the vulnerable from their
that of whites. Because if white people felt often dark intentions that lie behind these leaders. Their work today mirrors that of the
such equality with Africans, they would sanctimonious lectures. Decades ago, politi- Christian missionaries of the 19th century
have no purpose and no justification for the cal struggles were about the ability to control whose work justified colonialism as coming
domination they seek. They would lose their and transmit scarce information. Today they to bring civilisation and commerce.
sense of superiority. So their relationship are about the creation and destruction of We must never forget that those who seek
with Africa requires the reinvention of the credibility. to dominate others always claim to do so for
African, carrying with it a discourse and a For instance, those who defend Africa the benefit of their victims. This is not to say
narrative that Africans are barbaric, their from these neo-colonial intrusions are often that our leaders and the governments they
leaders are murderous and thieves and presented as malcontents supporting tyrants preside over are virtuous. Yet in spite of all
therefore need white people to come and and thieves. The narrative that African lead- the ills they may inflict on us, our sovereign-
save them from themselves. ers are tyrants and thieves has sunk deeply ty is important. While there can be sover-
For Africans, there is a critical need to into our social consciousness. It is now the eignty without democracy, there cannot be
challenge this moral superiority complex of weapon used to delegitimise the state we democracy without sovereignty! Attempts
the West and its reinvention of who we are. won through our struggle for independence. to undermine our sovereignty are, therefore,
They write the script of who we are, what we That narrative is now used to justify foreign acts to undermine our democracy.
need and how we should get it. They control interventions with disastrous consequences Liberal thinking since the 17th century is
nearly all the weapons of mass propaganda. for our people as we have seen in Libya. based on the idea that there are essentially
When I see our opposition politicians, “civil three forms of life in society: Hobbesian
society” (largely NGOs paid by the West to anarchy (the war of all against all), The levi-
do its bidding) and academia celebrating athan (an absolute sovereign who imposes
Western attempts to set the narrative about The spokespersons peace by force) and a legal democratic order
us (Africans), I am only reminded of what based on the rule of law and individual
the hero of the South African anti-apartheid of Western interests liberty. Now the dictatorial regimes that the
struggle, Steve Biko said: the greatest weap- in our countries are USA and her army of human rights activists
on in the hands of an oppressor is not his well protected. If the denounces, have the advantage of the abso-
army but the mind of the oppressed. Unless lute sovereign i.e. the ability to ensure order
we unwittingly (or knowingly out of person- national government did by stopping the war of all against all. But the
al self interest) acquiesce to such ideological something bad to them, disadvantage here is that such a sovereign
domination, we cannot be conquered.
American leaders in academia, diplomacy
they will be presented as acts in his own interests. His authority may
not be accepted in the hearts and minds of
and some in the mass media know from human rights defenders his subjects; the reason he relies on repres-
experience that politics is much more com- sion, which provokes protests and revolts
plicated in practice than in theory. There is calling for more repression. This is the justi-
a difference between abstract political ideals fication for a system based on the rule of law
and actual politics as lived and participated Today, politicians, journalists, “civil soci- and individual liberty.
in by people. Governments function in con- ety” activists who defend Western intrusions All this makes sense when dealing with
formity with the norms and traditions of the and regurgitate Western lectures to us are the internal affairs of nations. But let us now
society, not only on abstract principles of openly supported, invited to conferences, turn to international affairs. If we do not
government. Building a nation, a state and praised in their mass media, given awards respect national sovereignty, the sovereign
its political institutions takes time and is nev- and their reputations are nourished. The would be the USA. It is a great power that
er a result of a single instantaneous decision tragedy is partly the failure of Africa’s polit- engages in international affairs in pursuit of
or lectures from abroad. Political systems ical and other leaders to see this, and where her national interests. Its role in international
develop over time and this always involves they do, to do anything about it. Critics affairs is therefore exactly like that of a levi-
mistakes from which participants have to are right to point out that African leaders athan, an exercise of arbitrary power for her
learn. Over time and by slowly responding jump onto Pan-African slogans as a defence own interests. America is not intervening in
to circumstantial exigencies, societies devel- against Western attacks, not out of solid Uganda to help Ugandans. It is intervening
op more mature forms of government. commitment to it. in promotion of her national interests.
One does not need to be a philosopher While no single president, political lead- Sometimes her national interests converge
or historian to see this point. Western pol- er, intellectual, academic or journalist can with ours. But often they don’t; the more
iticians, journalists, diplomats, academics win the war today, each one of us can play reason we need to be careful when America
etc. know this. They ignore it because it is a role in recasting the narrative about us. comes knocking on our door as our liberator.
convenient to for them to rely on prejudice The spokespersons of Western interests In any case, Americans have gone through
to intrude into our affairs for their own in our countries are well protected. If the many political struggles but have never
interests. This is not the main problem. The national government did something bad called upon foreigners to help liberate
real problem is the failure of African elites to them, they will be presented as human them. They have seen their struggles as
to see through such attempts to capture our rights defenders and democracy activists. domestic, accepting foreign assistance (as
nations and use them to serve interests other Their plight is exaggerated and movingly the help of the French during America’s
than those of our people. Western coun- told, their families taken care of, and given war of independence) as secondary and
tries hide their actual intentions behind the asylum in the West. This is the subtle way coming on their terms. It is our responsibility
smokescreen of human rights, democracy, in which the West has used the language of to liberate ourselves. So we must be
freedom and good governance. human rights to gain both intellectual and leading participants in the struggle for
There is an active effort by governments ideological control over our national con- our emancipation, not passive spectators
and institutions in the West to capture us versations. Human rights organisations are receiving international charity.
ideologically, and they have succeeded to a Fifth columnists in America’s imperial proj-

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 17


NEWS ANALYSIS

UNRA says it will have procured the operator for the Kampala Entebbe Expressway by January 2020.

UNRA’s challenges
Shs400bn needed to settle project affected persons
By Ian Katusiime “99% of funds allocated for Land Acquisition approximately Shs980billion.”

T
were absorbed by the end of the second Of the Shs4.2trillion, Shs71billion will
he insecurity at the Kampala Entebbe quarter of the FY,” Kagina said. be spent on wages of the over 1500 staff
Expressway could be no more as A single project code for land acquisition employed by UNRA.
soon as January 2020 according to the was created and this fast tracked the com- The cash challenges were apparent as
Uganda National Roads Authority pensation of PAPs however this ended in some of the directors fielded questions on
(UNRA). December 2018, the second quarter. Kagina UNRA operations. On why UNRA goes
UNRA hopes to have procured the oper- said UNRA needs about Shs400billion this ahead to sign contracts with contractors
ator for the 57km Expressway by January. financial year to settle compensation issues. before obtaining right of way, which leads to
The operator will be in charge of installing UNRA will have a busy year going for- delays and financial penalties, UNRA Direc-
lighting and cameras, patrolling the high- ward because of the contracts it awarded in tor of Roads and Bridges, Sam Muhoozi
way, and maintenance of the road. 2018/2019 for the upgrade or rehabilitation of said the roads agency operates only one
“The operator will also attend to all the roads. These include civil works for upgrad- budget. “We run one budget which is the
incidents and accidents that happen on the ing of Rukungiri-Kihihi-Ishasha-Kanungu same for land acquisition, road maintenance,
Kampala Entebbe Expressway,” said Patrick Road (75km) to bituminous standards to paying for salaries; which is appropriated
Muleme, UNRA’s Head of Design at a press facilitate tourism; civil works for upgrading at once and we cannot commit on only one
briefing held on Sept.17 at UNRA head offic- of Masaka-Bukakata Road (41km) from activity,” Muhoozi said.
es in Kampala. gravel to paved bituminous standards to “Procurement moves faster than acqui-
With the operator in charge, the tolling facilitate agriculture. sition of land, we are in court sometimes,”
among users of the Expressway will begin to There is also the Kampala Flyover Con- he added. Muhoozi told the press that some
enable the maintenance of the four lane road. struction and road upgrading project and contractors are so fast and UNRA cannot
The Expressway has been a major subject the civil works for the construction of Buse- stop them from working before obtaining
of discussion in the works sector since it was ga-Mpigi Expressway (23.7km) to decongest right of way. Muhoozi also spoke about the
opened to the public in June 2018. Kampala city. In the last financial year, challenges of local contractors. “Not all of
On Sept. 17, UNRA executive director UNRA awarded contracts for the packaging them have the capacity to mobilise equip-
Allen Kagina flanked by other directors of five critical oil roads to facilitate oil pro- ment and attract local financing.”
addressed the press on the performance of duction, in spite of the persistent setbacks in He said the Ministry of Works and Trans-
the roads agency in the last financial year the oil sector. This lot of upgrading includes port is in talks with other stakeholders to
2018/2019. It was also a chance for Kagina 20km of town roads in Mbarara municipal- provide affordable loans and subsidised
and her team to give accountability for the ity and the rehabilitation of a 9km stretch of equipment to local contractors.
budget of Shs3.4trillion that they were allo- the Kampala-Mukono road from the junc- Fred Omach, former minister of finance
cated in the past financial year. tion at Nakawa near Spear Motors. and currently board chairperson of UNRA
The team took turns answering questions said local contractors now get 28% value of
on roads affected by bad weather in the More cash challenges contracts awarded. “We are not fully satis-
eastern part of the country, stalled road For the current financial year 2019/2020, fied but we will get there,” he said.
projects, compensation of Project Affected UNRA was appropriated Shs4.2trillion to Rules set by Public Disposal and Procure-
Persons (PAPs), loan repayment, progress cover its recurrent expenditure, maintenance ment of Public Assets (PPDA) state that 30%
on oil roads and boosting local contractors in and development of the national road net- of the value of any contracts taken by foreign
construction. work. “By the end of FY 2018/2019, UNRA firms, must be handed to their Ugandan
Kagina said the national road network had a debt of Shs474billion. In addition, counterparts.
has increased by 312km from 20,544km to the ongoing projects under Government Omach also spoke with optimism about
20,856km in the last financial year. of Uganda development have a deficit of the performance of the board he leads. It was
Shs500billion,” Kagina said in a statement. inaugurated on March 14, 2017 for a three
Land acquisition headache She added, “This means that the allocated year tenure. “It will be up to the minister to
She said the complexity of land acquisi- budget to the 2019/20 work plan is short by see whether we have done a good job.”
tion had created new challenges for UNRA.

18 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


NEWS ANALYSIS

It’s Ok to change your mind


It makes you seem intelligent - research

By Martha Jeong, Leslie K. John, initial stance in the face of valid Previous research has or one where showing your
Francesca Gino, Laura Huang contradictory evidence. Similar demonstrated that we are often confidence is critical? If it’s the

H
to what we observed in the loathe to change our minds for former, you’re more likely to
ardheadedness seems actual competition, participants various psychological reasons, gain traction if you back down
to be rampant. From believed that entrepreneurs who but we wondered if impression and if it’s the latter, you’d be
the boardroom to changed their minds should management concerns were one better off sticking to your guns.
politics to everyday advance in the competition, of them. In other words, do we Our research also provides
interactions, we often encounter compared to those who dug hold accurate beliefs on how guidance to managers and
people (and may also find their heels in. We also found we will be perceived by others leaders who want to promote
ourselves) upholding a that participants perceived when we decide to change our thoughtfulness in employees
stance despite evidence of its those who changed their minds? In another study, we — they should take steps to
inaccuracy. Take the many well- minds as lacking confidence, asked participants to make such ensure that people can change
educated and well-intended but demonstrating intelligence predictions and interestingly, their minds without losing
individuals who, despite — the results suggest that in we found that people were face. For example, in heated
overwhelming factual evidence an entrepreneurial context at pretty accurate. Specifically, decision-making meetings —
to the contrary, continue to least, showcasing intelligence is participants believed they say, the vigorous debate that
deny climate change or believe ultimately paramount. would be seen as confident but can arise when considering
that vaccines cause autism. But However, further research lacking intelligence if they dug which of many talented job
what do people think of those suggests that there are contexts their heels in. This presented a candidates to hire — leaders
who refuse to change their can elicit final votes privately,
minds? How do leaders, in helping those declaring their
particular, come across when stances from the get-go by
they steadfastly continue to giving them the opportunity to
uphold a stance in the face quietly and gracefully change
of contradictory evidence? their mind after having heard
We performed a series of their colleagues’ counter
experiments to find out. arguments. Leaders might also
First, we examined the try to model “mind-changing”:
implications of refusing to in response to valid evidence
change your mind in a real- that their initial stance was
world context with important wrong, leaders might label their
outcomes – an entrepreneurial behavior as being responsive to
pitch competition. Consistent facts or simply say, loudly and
with prior research, we found clearly, “I was wrong.”
that entrepreneurs had a
general tendency to dig their Martha Jeong is an assistant
heels in: 76% of entrepreneurs in which stubbornness isn’t conundrum to us. If people are professor of management at
refused to change their minds penalized. For example, generally accurate in how they The Hong Kong University of
when faced with contradictory in another study where will be perceived, why is it that Science and Technology, where
evidence. Unfortunately, participants were evaluating they are still so often unlikely to she researches negotiations,
this tendency turned out job candidates, participants change their minds? We found social judgments, and decision-
to be counterproductive to were more likely to agree that that part of the answer is that making. Leslie K. John is an
their interests. Specifically, a candidate who changed it’s embarrassing to change associate professor of business
entrepreneurs who changed their mind should be hired our minds in front of others. administration at Harvard
their minds during the pitch if the job was one where Indeed, we demonstrate in our Business School. Francesca Gino
were almost six times more intelligence was valued (such last experiment that participants is a behavioral scientist and
likely to advance to the final as engineering). However, the were more likely to change their the Tandon Family Professor
round of the competition. preference was muted in jobs minds in situations where they of Business Administration
Next, we took our findings where confidence was valued could do so in relative privacy. at Harvard Business School
from the pitch competition into (such as public speaking). We Given our research, what and Laura Huang is an
the laboratory to find out more believe these results shed some should you do the next time you associate professor of business
about what was driving these light on why we sometimes are faced with this predicament? administration at Harvard
outcomes. Participants played hold inconsistent opinions of Will it be more helpful for you Business School.
the role of investors evaluating those who change their minds to change your mind or dig your
entrepreneurs, where half of the — at times disparaging them heels in? Much of that answer Source:HBR
entrepreneurs were described for their equivocation and at depends on the context in which
as changing their minds while times applauding them for you’re making this decision. Is it
the other half were described their thoughtfulness. Context is one where demonstrating your
as holding their ground on an everything. intelligence is more important

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 19


news analysis

Millions of people have been displaced from countries like the DR Congo. Can a free trade zone create more security?

Africa’s trade and security


Why the continent’s free trade zone
can’t ignore its security issues

By Christian Abadioko Sambou to state sovereignty. States are facing are theatres of violence. States

T
opposition from rebel movements, experiencing armed conflict, among
he new African free trade zone terrorist groups, jihadis, vigilante them Libya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria,
came into effect at the end of organisations, transnational criminals, Burkina Faso, the Central African
May 2019. All of the African and so on. These groups are known for Republic, Sudan and the Democratic
Union’s (AU) member states their mobility. They defy borders and Republic of the Congo (DRC), share
are now legally bound to allow African national territorial sovereignty. thousands of kilometres of borders
goods to be traded without restraint Given that some states are being with other nations.
throughout the continent. But there asked to increase their presence in This explains why conflicts in Mali
are some security concerns to be border and remote areas, free trade and and the DRC impact the entire region,
considered. free movement of goods and people resulting in millions of displaced
Entering the African free trade could become a real cause for concern. people and refugees. The Sahel-
zone requires nations to relinquish an Sarahan strip, the Gulf of Guinea, the
important part of their sovereignty Vast borders Great Lakes, and the Horn of Africa are
at a time when widespread violence The thousands of kilometres all conflict zones.
is posing unprecedented challenges of borders within the continent Therefore, problems with the

20 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


news analysis
Does trade promote peace?
While we await impact studies in the
African free trade zone, we can look
to integration on other continents. The
European Union, the North American
free trade agreement (now replaced
by the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement)
and the Association of South East
Asian Nations have all had a pacifying
effect on relations between nation
states.
Does trade promote peace? Could
achieving the AU’s 2063 Agenda goal
of “a peaceful and secure Africa”
be facilitated by implementing the
free trade zone? Of the 54 states who
signed the agreement, no fewer than
20 are directly or indirectly affected by
political violence of some sort.
But although they pose challenges to
the free trade zone, security problems
could be solved by the zone itself. In
the face of external interventionist
security and developmental
approaches, the zone could be seen as
a new paradigm for promoting peace
in Africa for several reasons.
First of all, the growth of trade
between people and nations will
generate mutual interests and shared
goods. These interdependencies
will encourage people to settle
disagreements with the help of
laws, according to the rules of the
market and competition. This will
generate perceptions and relations
of rivalry, not hostility. The business
environment, with its culture of
contracts and trade rules, would be
movement of goods and people within states and underlying unwelcoming to the pillage of natural
within these zones have less to do frustrations linked to the absence resources carried out by illicit groups,
with infrastructural issues than with of identity recognition for some often aligned with governments.
governance, peace and security. groups and a lack of redistribution of All of these rules, norms,
Such frontier and remote zones are national wealth. For many nations, interdependencies and mutual
vulnerable, due to a lack of state the intensification of terrorist activity interests will reinforce the institutions
presence. They are also used for all precludes the opportunities potentially that protect goods and people, on
kinds of traffic and transit and so offered by the African free trade zone. the condition that the future wealth
remain highly prone to conflict. The fight against terrorism has led generated benefits local populations.
These security issues also apply to the militarisation of vast areas. A holistic approach to security issues
online. As Africa is undergoing Terrorist attacks, along with the is required. Human security involves
digitalisation, investments must be violence of traditional civil wars military, economic, societal and
made in security for electronic trade associated with conflict between environmental issues. Free trade has
to guard businesses and states against communities, post-electoral and always given rise to security challenges,
cybercrime. secessionist violence, pose a significant and it would be reckless to ignore this
However, security concerns are challenge that must be overcome if we in the context of the largest continental
mainly physical. Even former hot are to achieve equality of circulation of market in the world. But developing
spots, like Chad and the Gulf of goods and people within the African Africa via intracontinental trade may
Guinea, are still militarised, plagued by free trade zone. turn out to be the path to peace.
mercenaries, bandits and transnational In a continent rife with competing
criminals. Thousands of young people priorities, the security of people and
make easy recruits and lands are rich goods can no longer wait. Integration Christian Abadioko Sambou is from the
with exportable mining resources. into the free trade zone must go ATER Sciences politiques, Université de
Fragile national armies and low per hand-in-hand with peacekeeping Lille. This article was translated from
capita income create conditions ripe for mechanisms for regions at high risk of French by Alice Heathwood for Fast
the use of violence for economic and conflict. Integration must reinforce the ForWord
political gains. power of states.
Since the beginning of the 2000s But is the free trade zone really the
terrorism has fed on internal conflicts best way to achieve all this?

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 21


NEWS ANALYSIS

Commonwealth Women Parliamentarians with former Miss Uganda Quinn Abenakyo (in blue)

64th Commonwealth
Conference
Women participation, climate change dominate agenda

By Ian Katusiime The theme of the conference; `Adaption, numbers of female legislators, and main-

A
engagement and evolution of Parliaments streaming of gender considerations in all
n estimated 1000 participants in a rapidly changing Commonwealth,’ Commonwealth Parliamentary Associa-
from Africa, Asia, British islands was also praised as relevant and well- tion activities.
and the Mediterranean region, timed. There were also meetings of the CPA
the Caribbean in Kampala for Hosting a successful 64th Common- Small Branches, the Steering Committee
the 64th Commonwealth Parliamentary wealth Parliamentary Conference is a big and the Meeting of the CPA Regional
Conference (CPC) from Sept.22- Sept.29 achievement for Uganda which is only Secretaries. Small Branches are defined as
raised strong demands for increased and doing it for the second time and after 32 jurisdictions having a population of below
equitable participation of women in public years. Uganda first hosted the CPC in 500,000 people. The CPA Secretariat works
offices. 1967, five years after attaining indepen- closely with Small Branches to identify
The Speaker of Parliament Rebecca dence. their unique needs and requirements so as
Kadaga, who is also the Commonwealth In the East African region, Tanzania to strengthen their parliaments.
Parliamentary Association (CPA) President hosted the 55th CPC in 2009, while Kenya At Munyonyo Commonwealth Resort
Designate 2018-2019, has been praised for hosted the 56th edition the following year. where the conference venue of the event,
being the perfect hostess. On the second day, Sept.23, Kadaga Ugandans set up stalls where they sold
Kadaga’s being on hand to receive the addressed Commonwealth Women Parlia- clothes in unique Ugandan designs, crafts
participants as the jetted into the country mentarians. She called for more inclusive and other items. The Kiira EVS was also on
starting Sept. 22 together with Prime Min- leadership for women in parliaments and display outside the meeting halls to show-
ister Ruhakana Rugunda at Entebbe Inter- governance. “Many countries have not case Uganda’s manufacturing potential.
national Airport left most delegates prais- domesticated international instruments Security was tightened around the ven-
ing Uganda’s hospitality. Some delegates, and conventions that call for inclusive- ue including as far away as a kilometer.
such as those from the Caribbean, arrived ness.” Police and UPDF soldiers were dotted at
in the Uganda much earlier and toured During the Commonwealth Women the venue and in surrounding areas like
different parts of the country. They were Parliamentarians Conference, delegates Buziga and Bunga.
all in praise of Uganda’s beautiful scenery, discussed issues that affect women, their Sept. 24 marked the arrival of all dele-
wildlife, and hospitality. involvement in leadership, boosting gates, observers, Accompanying Persons,

22 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


NEWS ANALYSIS
Society-of-Clerks-at-the-Table, and the
arrival of other guests as they prepared for
the official opening of the conference on
Sept.26.
Paul Amoru, then Head of the CPC com-
munication sub-committee told the press
that over 50 Speakers were expected in
the country. These were Speakers of both
national and provincial assemblies.
On the opening ceremony, President
Yoweri Museveni, the vice patron of the
Commonwealth conference, welcomed
delegates and encouraged them to enjoy
the natural beauty of Uganda. He also
gave tips on democracy and the role par-
liaments play in national development.
The Queen of England is the Patron of the
Commonwealth.
In the middle of the week on Sept.25,
delegates were taken on tours in Kampala
city, the Source of the Nile in Jinja, national
parks, the Equator monument in Masaka
and other attractions in the country. On
the same day, members of the Executive
Committee of CPA were treated to a boat
cruise luncheon on Lake Victoria.
Parliament procured more than 60 cars Speaker of Parliament Rebecca Kadaga addressing delegates
for the delegates’ travel in and around the
country. These included buses, Coaster call to foster a culture of unity, fairness significant because of the present danger
vans, double cabin trucks and other salon and dignity. of Al Shabaab, an Islamist terrorist group
cars. These attracted some public com- In countries like the United States, Sena- based in Somalia.
ments over the expenditure on the cars tors have been forced to resign due to their Al Shabaab has staged kidnaps, sieges
which has been termed as extravagant but history of sexual harassment of women on malls and killed university students
Kadaga said the cars will be part of the and girls. The vice is rampant in legisla- in Kenya. It was also responsible for twin
national stock after the conference. tures around the world and even in Ugan- bomb blasts that killed 74 people in Ugan-
da incidents have been reported. da in 2010.
Topics discussed The role of parliament in the doctrine of
There was a talk show panel where del- separation of powers was also dissected by History of the CPA
egates discussed climate change; achieve- delegates. Many countries in the Common- The CPA was founded in 1911 as the
ments, challenges and efficacies of parlia- wealth face a problem where the Executive Empire Parliamentary Association and
ment interventions. Speaker Kadaga has oversteps its powers usually interfering or was run in the United Kingdom. At the
been vocal about climate change urging even usurping the role of parliament. time, there were not more than twen-
the Ugandan government and visiting del- In Uganda this situation reached a cre- ty four nations that had parliamentary
egates to make it a priority in their home scendo in 2017 when the army invaded democracies.
countries. parliament over a contentious debate on a Women were not allowed to vote and
It has been a year marked with activism constitutional amendment of the presiden- as a sign of how the parliamentary system
on climate change. Climate change was tial age limit. has evolved, most of the parliamentarians
also top on the agenda at the 74th United However, accountability committees like were appointed rather than elected.
Nations General Assembly which hap- Public Accounts Committee (PAC), Com- Originally, the CPA comprised Austra-
pened over the same time in New York, mittee on State Authorities and Statutory lia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zea-
USA. Enterprises (COSASE) have been instru- land, South Africa and the United King-
There was also a TED Talk on inno- mental in holding government accounting dom and later expanded.
vation in parliament; and the impact of officers to account for expenditure of pub- Now it is an ever growing association
science and technology on the work of lic funds. with 180 Branches which include fourteen
parliament. On the main, the interplay between overseas territories, three Crown depen-
More discussions were held on how leg- the executive and parliament in Uganda dencies and more than 125 sub-national
islators can held People With Disabilities remains tense. The Speaker Kadaga, her states, provinces and territories in federal
(PWDs), the youth and refugees. deputy Jacob Oulanya, MPS have had dis- style countries all with their own parlia-
The Commonwealth conference could agreements with judges, the President and ments, according to CPA records.
not end without a discussion on Brexit and the cabinet in execution of their various The CPA exists to develop promote
its impact on other CPA branches. British roles. and support parliamentarians to identify
Prime Minister Boris Johnson caused con- Deliberations on the separation of pow- benchmarks of good governance and to
troversy this month when he suspended ers included ways on strengthening the implement the values of the Common-
Parliament for five weeks over the Brexit oversight role of parliament. This is many wealth. Parliaments, their members and
impasse. The British Supreme Court ruled times hamstrung by a powerful executive. officials learn from each other through
that the suspension was unlawful. As the 64th CPC drew to a close, dele- CPA activities such as the annual CPC,
Delegates also had discussions on sexual gates tackled terrorism; its dynamism and regional conferences and inter-parliamen-
harassment in parliaments. There was a challenges in Eastern Africa. The topic was tary visits.

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 23


NSSF’s Shs402billion loss
Experts urge management to rethink investment strategy

T
By Julius Businge

he Shs402bn that the National


Social Security Fund (NSSF)
reported recently as a loss for
FY2018/2019 has been a subject
of debate by its members.
But the Fund’s top manage-
ment and pension sector experts and econo-
mists are not surprised that this happened.
They insist the Fund remains financially
strong and on the right path of growth.
Richard Byarugaba, the NSSF managing
director told reporters on Sept.17 in Kampa- Byarugaba and his deputy Patrick Ayota addressing journalists on the Fund’s performance.
la that the Fund would this year pay a lower
interest rate to its members on account of a incomes. Contributions increased by 15% the company is not determined by earnings
drop in its total income compared to the pre- from Shs1trillion to Shs1.2trillion. The per share (EPS) but depends on the decisions
vious year. In 2017/2018, the Fund paid 15% amount of money paid in benefits increased of the owners.
interest rate, the highest in its history. by 25% from Shs360bn to Shs450bn in the “What NSSF needs to do is to look at other
He said that whereas the Fund’s revenue period under review. asset classes like infrastructure bonds,” he
which includes interest, dividend and rental Cost of administration slightly improved said. He cited popular projects like Karuma
income increased by slightly over 20% to from 1.3% to 1.28%. Cost to income ratio and Isimba power stations and roads that
Shs1.3trillion, overall income reduced by remained flat at 11.6%. The compliance level NSSF could invest in by lending to gov-
around Shs402 billion due to a decline in based on one month was reported at 61%. ernment instead of the latter depending on
regional equity prices and currencies. NSSF Customer satisfaction slightly dipped by 1% loans from China and other foreign coun-
is a shareholder in several listed companies from 85% in 2017/18 to 84% this year. Staff tries. He said this investment move succeed-
on the East African Stock Markets. engagement on the other hand increased ed in developed economies like Singapore.
For instance, during the year, the Nairobi from 84% in 2017/18 to 88% in 2018/2019. Nuwagaba supported Byarugaba’s view
Stock Exchange lost 14%, the Uganda local With this performance, the Fund still and said the global economy has not been
share index shed 10% while Tanzania’s remains the largest in East Africa by value performing well starting from China and
plummeted by around 21%. and the aim is to grow assets under manage- other influential markets which could have
This meant that share prices closed below ment to Shs20trillion by 2025. affected performance of equities across the
the prices registered at the end of the previ- The Fund has a total of 1.981 million regis- EAC region.
ous financial year, which negatively impact- tered members but only 830, 000 are active. “Because of slow growth, very high inter-
ed the performance of the Fund’s equity It has a total of 46, 000 registered employ- est rate, very high government borrowing,
portfolio. ers and, 21, 000 are active. It has a total of 15, very low export performance, generally eco-
In addition, there was general deprecia- 000 as voluntary contributors. On a monthly nomic activity and growth is very limited,”
tion of the regional currencies against the basis, the Fund records Shs102bn as contri- he said and added, “I am not surprised that
Uganda Shilling – both the Kenyan and Tan- butions. NSSF lost money on the equity side.”
zanian shilling depreciated by 6.1% against The Shs11.3trillion is invested in three He also said that the Fund could think
the Ugandan currency. asset classes – fixed income (79%), equities more about investing in real estate which is
Byarugaba however said that the Fund (15%) and real estate (6%). good and bad. Good in the sense that it can-
would pay a competitive return, at least 2 In separate interviews with The Indepen- not be eroded by inflation and bad in that it
percentage points above a 10 year average dent, Prof. Augustus Nuwagaba, a popular cannot get quicker returns.
rate of inflation – which has been delivered economist and Aeko Ongodia, an invest- But since Byarugaba appears to be hap-
since 2012/2013. ment expert and chief executive officer at py with the Fund’s long term investment
“The Fund is stable and financially sound XENO Technologies Uganda Limited said strategy, isn’t this a good option to explore
and continues to grow both in value and the Fund appears to remain financially further.
membership,” he said. strong but more thinking on its investment Nuwagaba recommended that since peo-
During the year, the Fund’s assets under classes needs to be done. ple who save with NSSF take many years to
management increased by 13% from 9.9tril- Nuwagaba said for several years, equity get back their money, the Fund could think
lion to Shs11.3trillion at the end of June 2019. markets (listed companies) have not been of somehow increasing its investment in that
This growth was mainly driven by performing well. portfolio as compared to equity markets that
increased contributions and interest But he also pointed out that profitability of are not dependable and not easily controlled.

24 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


business
When asked about these issues, Ongodia
first gave context to the performance.
He argued that for any investment that
one enters into, they hold onto it for some
period of time to generate cash flows or
increase the value over time.
Investments, he said happen when Funds
like NSSF lend to banks, government or
companies through standardised instru-
ments such as fixed deposits (for banks), cor-
porate bonds (in the case of companies) and
treasury bonds in the case of government.
In any case, he said investment is about
taking risk.
“Sometimes you can invest and earn a
decent return, sometimes an average return
and at times you may earn a below average
return – because you put that money to
work,” he said.
What becomes important, he said, is that Eng. Mutikanga (in white helmet) commissioning the construction of the six housing units on
if an investor lends money to an entity, it has Sept.20.  INDEPENDENT/J.BUSINGE.
to be paid back with the stipulated interest.
In the case of NSSF losing money in
stocks, he said it is a normal occurrence
because businesses record varying perfor- UEGCL wants Shs20bn
for Isimba workers
mance periodically depending on the eco-
nomic performance.
“It is quite possible that the equity part
of the NSSF portfolio had a bad 2018/19…
indeed when you look at actual data in the
market, it has been bad across the board,” he By Julius Businge complete the facilities so we can have a moti-

T
said, “And this is not because the fundamen- vated workforce that is settled on site and is
tals of the businesses are wrong but because he 183MW Isimba Hydropower focused on running the plant more efficient-
people have been buying fewer goods from station is a very important project for ly,” Mutikanga said on Sept.20 at the ground
them than what they did in the year before.” Uganda that must be run efficiently. breaking ceremony for the construction of
“A lot of the time when you invest in First, it cost a lot of money – the first six units.
stocks,typically you wouldn’t undertake that $567million (Approx.Shs2trillion) and Ugan- Mutikanga said the government is aware
investment in a very short period of time,” dans are already paying this money because of this problem and has promised to provide
he said. “In our market, it makes a lot of the larger part of it was a loan from China. funding soon. Meanwhile, he said UEGCL
Secondly, it is supporting the economy by is developing a master plan that will have
sense to make investments capped between
powering industries and creating opportuni- facilities including roads, sewerage systems,
five to ten years,” he added.
ties for businesses to thrive. and recreation facilities to serve the families
Ongodia said that within those 10 years,
But since March 2019, when President residing on site.
possibly one year or two will be bad but the
Yoweri Museveni commissioned it to start “We want all our staff to be comfortable,”
rest of the years will compensate the bad
commercial operations, there has been one he said. Krishna Construction Company
performance for the two years. outstanding challenge regarding housing
The most fundamental thing to look at, he Limited, a local Ugandan company, is the
for workers that could hinder its smooth contractor for the Shs2bn housing project.
stated, is the percentage of the Fund’s invest- operation. In order to manage this challenge,
ment portfolio that is exposed to those risks. September 20 marked 183 days since
the government has to provide Shs20bn to the plant was commissioned and UEGCL
In the case of NSSF, he said, it is important Uganda Electricity Generation Company
to diversify investment within the equities officials including Mutikanga and George
Limited (UEGCL) to put up houses for Tusingwire, the chief operations manager,
market by shifting investments to only com- employees who commute several kilometers
panies that have consistently been perform- said all is well and supply of power from
from Jinja and Kampala to the site to main- the plant is determined by a day’s demand.
ing better than others. tain and operate the power plant.
Ongodia said that the losses suffered by On average, officials said they wire about
The workers say it is tedious and risky to 135MW to the national grid.
NSSF are just typically paper losses. That be regularly on the road to Isimba, located in
they will only become realized losses if Isimba power station is located 4km
Kayunga district to work. They say it affects upstream of Isimba Falls on the River Nile,
they actually exceed the bottom line of the their productivity.
market. He said the 15% equity portfolio for approximately 50KM downstream of the
UEGCL, the overseer for this power plant source of the Nile.The run-of-the-river plant
NSSF is a good exposure because it is a seg- has so far only been provided with Shs2bn to
ment that will make losses in the short term station is about 21km from Kayunga town
start construction of the first phase involving and about 65km from Jinja town.
and bounce back in the long term. six housing units. The six will only house six Mutikanga said they have already started
He said that performance on equities families out of an estimated 60. invoicing Uganda Electricity Transmission
could be made better if the law is changed to Official construction of the six units start- Company Limited that is buying the Isimba
allow the Fund to invest beyond East Africa. ed on Sept.20 and will last seven months, dam electricity at US$ Cents 4.16 per kWh. It
Going forward, Byarugaba said that, NSSF according to Harrison Mutikanga, the is estimated that annually UEGCL will earn
being a long term investor, they will con- chief executive officer of UEGCL. “We are about US$41.6million (approx.Shs150bn)
tinue to hold their investments even as the requesting government to provide us with from the sale of electricity from this station.
equity market remains underperforming. more money so we are able to build and

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 25


business

Afreximbank Kampala office


starts business in October
The branch will promote intra and extra-
African trade in East African countries
By Isaac Khisa branch office following long trade finance in the East Africa would have long-term impact

A
winding negotiations with the region and in Uganda, describ- on Uganda and East Africa
frica’s multilateral Kenyan government that did not ing Afreximbank as a typical with a lot of benefits accruing
lender, African-Import seem to yield any positive result example of a strong African to them. Also speaking, Kasaija
Export Bank (Afrex- within the shortest time possible. institution. said that Uganda stood to reap
imbank) concluded The proposal to have an office He said the establishment a number of benefits from the
the formalities for the take-off in East Africa was approved of the Branch Office would establishment of the Branch
of its East Africa Branch Office at the same time with that of boost the implementation of the Office in Kampala, including
in Kampala as it signed the two Abidjan, Ivory Coast, which was African Continental Free Trade increased export and import
principal documents with the opened more than three years Area (AFCTA), adding that the trade and enhanced access to
government at State-House, En- ago. signing, ratification and launch credit facilities.
tebbe, on Sept.20. It would also increase Afrex-
Afreximbank President, Prof. imbank’s portfolio in Uganda
Benedict Oramah and Phile- and lead to job creation and
mon Mateke, Minister of State expansion of credit liquidity in
for regional affairs, signed the the country.
Branch Office Agreement while So far, Afreximbank has
Prof. Oramah and Matia Kasaija, extended lines of credit to the
Minister of Finance, Planning Uganda Development Bank,
and Economic Development, Standard Gauge Railway in
signed the Memorandum of Tanzania, Kenya Airways and
Understanding Concerning RwandAir.
the Temporary and Permanent The Bank has also extended
Premises of the East Africa credit to various bank insti-
Branch Office in Kampala. tutions within the region for
The signing ceremony was onward lending to the Small
witnessed by President Yoweri Matia Kasaija Benedict Oramah and Medium Enterprises in the
Museveni and former Nigerian region.
President, Olusegun Obasanjo. Established in October 1993
President Museveni com- in Abuja, Nigeria, to finance,
mended Afreximbank for choos- The issues that were under of the AfCFTA was one of the promote and expand intra-Af-
ing to establish the Branch Office contention in Kenya included best things that has happened to rican and Extra-African trade,
in Uganda and promised the granting diplomatic immunity Africa in recent times. Afreximbank shareholders are a
support of the government to for the bank’s top executives and Earlier, Prof. Oramah said that mix of the public including the
ensure its success. exempting them from paying the establishment of the Branch Ugandan government through
Museveni said that through local taxes. Office represented a signifi- the Bank of Uganda, and private
its provision of trade finance and Obi Emekekwue, the head of cant milestone in the annals of entities divided into four classes.
promotion of value addition to communications at the Afrexim- Afreximbank as the absence of These consist of African gov-
Africa’s commodities and prod- bank said the bank has secured a physical presence in the East ernments, central banks, region-
ucts, Afreximbank was helping space for its office in Rwenzori Africa region had been a “yawn- al and sub-regional institutions,
to address some of the major Towers in the heart of the city ing gap” in the Bank’s vision for private investors and financial
deficits confronting Africa, and that it will start business in enhanced effectiveness in deliv- institutions, as well as non-Afri-
which he said were under-con- October with a formal launch in ering its mandate in Africa. can financial institutions, export
suming and under-producing. November this year. He said that the establishment credit agencies and private
“If you don’t trade, you can- Afreximbank, which is head- of the Branch Office had set the investors.
not grow,” he said, highlighting quartered in Cairo, currently stage for deepening the Bank’s Last year, the bank recorded
that without trade, the economy has branch offices in Abidjan, operation across the East African a 24% growth in revenue to
would collapse as there would Abuja, and Harare. Former countries under its jurisdiction reach US$806million, with the
be no jobs and social problems Nigerian President, Obasanjo and expressed gratitude to the net income increasing by 26%
would ensue. said the establishment of the government of Uganda for to US$276million. Similarly, the
This development comes Afreximbank East Africa Branch agreeing to host it and for work- bank’s total assets include con-
barely two years since the Bank Office represented a signifi- ing so hard for the realisation of tingent liabilities, which went up
ditched Nairobi in favour of cant advance in ensuring the that goal. by 15% from $13 billion in 2017
Kampala to set up its regional provision and availability of He said the Branch Office to $15 billion in 2018.

26 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


business

Road to AfCFTA
By Julius Businge

J
uly 1, 2020 is an important day on the
calendar for all the 55 African coun-

implementation
tries.
It will mark the beginning of free
trade amongst countries. Trade under this
arrangement is going to remove trade taxes
on at least 90% of all trade between African
countries. Trade experts say cooperation is key
Officials across governments are making
progress on all the required trade docu-
ments and related infrastructure to ensure
that trade begins next year.
How possible will this be given that most
trading blocs in Africa still face implementa-
tion challenges because of selfish interests?
Speaking on the sidelines of the 11th
African Union Sub-committee of Directors
General of Customs Conference held at
Speke Resort Munyonyo on Sept.19, Albert
Muchang, the African Union Commissioner
for Trade and Industry said that state par-
ties are working on trade facilitation docu-
ments and electronic systems among other
things to be able to beat the 2020 deadline.
“I know it is a difficult task but we will
do it,” he said. Muchang said there would
be an extra-ordinary summit early next year
for member states to update themselves on
progress made and draw conclusions to
pave way for trade to begin. Kateshumbwa (right) hands over a gift to the WCO Secretary General, Kunio Mikuriya.
“There is a lot of expectation across Africa
from this project…it is Africa’s largest proj- “We need to work together to transform that Kwame Nkrumah, the former President
ect,” he added. the African continent,” Akol said. of Ghana did for the African Continent.
AfCFTA was launched on July 7, 2019 in Is Uganda ready? Asked this question, the In a speech read by Prime Minister
Niamey, Niger. Commitment was made in Commissioner for Customs at URA, Dick- Ruhakana Rugunda, President Yoweri
March 2018 when African Presidents signed sons Kateshumbwa said they are already Museveni said, the implementation of the
the AfCFTA framework agreement in Kigali, moving fast. AfCFTA requires tariff liberalisation and,
Rwanda. He said that Uganda will be building on implementation of the AfCFTA rules of
Since then, leaders have said that its the already supporting trade infrastruc- origin and trade facilitation measures that
implementation will be progressive and ture in place to actively participate in the ensure faster movement of goods on the
would in the end eliminate tariffs on AfCFTA. continent.
intra-African trade. He listed One Stop Boarder Posts, Single He said that the AfCFTA should be used
By July 2019, a total of 54 African Union Customs Territory, Electronic Cargo Track- by African governments to fully utilise the
member states had signed the AfCFTA with ing System, Electronic Single Window, immense resources available and to unite the
the exception of Eritrea which was about to Authorised Economic Operator that are people for the common good.
join. being implemented at the East African Com- “It is not enough to boast of the large pop-
According to the African Union data, the munity level as tools to build on as AfCFTA ulation if we cannot organise ourselves into a
AfCFTA has a vision of creating one market comes to pass. unified customer base,” Museveni said.
of 1.2bn people and a Gross Domestic Prod- Kunio Mikuriya, the secretary general for “A unified and strong customer base is a
uct of $2.5trillion across all the 55 member the World Customs Organisation said that precursor for investments,” he added.
states. Uganda remains a very important player in He said investors will always associate
So far, 29 countries had already signed global trade. with big economies with a large market base.
and ratified the treaty by September 2019. “It is known for connecting customs and He said member states must swiftly deal
Doris Akol, the commissioner general for business to the world,” he said. with trade barriers such as bureaucratic red
Uganda Revenue Authority said, the coming Implementing the AfCFTA will not only tape that one has to go through to start and
together of African customs organisation is a increase intra-African trade but will create a operate a business. The others are the
strong statement of cooperation and would firm ground for Africa to export to the other non-tariff barriers, uncoordinated services
offer solutions to African trade problems. markets. amongst economies, the slow manual pro-
She said all revenue efforts being put in by Meanwhile, Ghana has been chosen to cesses and the negative attitude towards
various member states are geared towards house the AfCFTA Secretariat where all trade amongst African countries.
increasing intra-Africa trade, strengthening activities of the bloc will be coordinated “Every investor must be given an
unity and partnerships amongst member from. opportunity to make profit,” he said,
countries. Akol said the Munyonyo meeting Rossette Nyirinkindi Katungye, the advi- “We therefore must make our market
would help member states to draw action sor on regional integration in the office of the attractive by categorically reducing the
plans leading to the beginning of trade in chairperson of the African Union said Ghana cost of doing business.”
July 2020. was chosen largely because of the good work

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 27


business
TECH OIL

Nokia unveils two Kenol Kobil to make changes to Uganda, Rwanda subsidiaries
new devices on structures.
Kenyan market “The integration of the
Kenol Kobil subsidiaries

M
is under way, with a
obile phone manu- new management team
facturer, HMD Glob- working to refocus the
al., has announced business on segments with
that consumers in higher margins and better
Kenya can now pre-order the visibility,” Rubis says in its
Nokia 6.2 and Nokia7.2 devices half year performance in
from selected retail partners. 2019 to date.
“We are happy to provide our Rubis adds that the first
fans with two phones powered quarter performance after

R
by AI and allowing customers completion of consolidation
to have an enjoyable advanced ubis Energie is set The French firm says in April was negatively
smartphone experience,” to make changes at it has picked a new team impacted by muted aviation
Gopher Ogembo, the Senior the 33 Kenol Kobil to work on “profound and retail sales margins.
Business Manager for HMD petrol stations in re-organisation” of the However, it remains unclear
Global, said. Uganda and Rwanda, barely acquired subsidiaries to on whether or not the
And for every successful six months after acquiring bring them up to Rubis’ reorganization will result
pre-order, consumers will the entire stake of Kenya’s standards. The changes into job losses.
either receive complimentary largest oil firm, according to will affect internal controls,
award-winning wireless ear Kenya’s BusinessDaily. organisation and governance
buds for the Nokia 7.2 or a
Nokia backpack for the Nokia
6.2 respectively – while stocks PAY TV
last. Ogembo said Nokia 7.2
offers fans advanced tools to Azam TV cuts subscription fees

T
express their creativity.
Everything from the ZEISS he first Pay TV service Kololo.
Optics, exclusive ZEISS bokeh provider to bring down Kalikwani told the media that
modes and powerful AI imag- prices was DSTV who to ensure that more customers
ing, to its breath-taking Pure recently announced subscribe to Azam pay-tv ser-
Display technology, makes the major cuts to a number of their vices, they have also announced
Nokia 7.2 a device that truly packages. Now, the Tanzanian new price changes for the pay-
stands out,” he said. based Azam TV has followed TV with immediate effect start-
The Nokia 6.2 comes with two suit, slashing prices on most of ing Sept.17.
exciting firsts: a breath-taking its packages. According to Kalikwani,
and immersive Pure Display Dennis Kalikwani, the Head changes will be for the new
screen and a powerful AI-pow- of Marketing at Azam TV Ugan- connectivity in their new pro-
ered triple camera. da says the existing customers Dennis Kalikwani motion. For the full kit, one will
The Nokia 6.2 comes in will enjoy two months free sub- have to pay UGX130, 000 down
Ceramic Black and will be avail- scription when they pay three “This is Azam TV’s way of from shs 199,000 and for the
able from $230 while the Nokia months subscription up from saying thank you to our cus- decoder, one will pay as low
7.2 comes in either Cyan Green on any package of their choice. tomers for years of loyalty. It is as shs 85,000 down from shs
or Charcoal and will be available Azam pure will be at shs 10, 000, the beginning of greater things 138,500 and all new customers
from $325 – both devices launch Azam plus at shs 25,000 and to come from Azam TV,” said will enjoy one-month free sub-
at the end of September. Azam play at shs 37,000). Kalikwani at their offices in scription on Azam play package.

AVIATION

Ethiopian Airline’s revenue, passenger numbers up

E
thiopia’s national This comes amidst a Airlines operates 117 air-
carrier, Ethiopian sharp rise in fuel cost craft, both passenger and
Airlines, has shown which are generally even freighters, and has indicat-
that it remains Af- higher than world average ed that they will continue
rica’s leading carrier. The in Africa. to take delivery of new
company said it recorded Ethiopian’s passenger aircraft by in average one
an 18% growth in net prof- numbers for the first time new plane a month, need-
it to 210 million Euros for exceeded 12 million travel- ed to continue the aggres-
the year ending June 30 as ers, 14% up from last year’s sive rollout of additional
other African carrier con- 10.6 million passengers. destinations across Africa
tinue to record losses. Presently, Ethiopian and the rest of the world.

28 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


business

Diversify tourist attractions,


government told
By The Independent ly as souvenirs.

U
She, however, said this can
ganda needs to diver- happen with increased budget-
sify its tourism poten- ing to the sector as is the case
tial to reap maximum with the Seychelles.
benefits from the sec- Kakooza’s comments come a
tor, according to Pearl Kakooza, few days since the government
the President of Uganda Tour- concluded the sector review
ism Association. performance for the Finan-
Kakooza, who also serves as cial Year 2018/19 and set up
Uganda’s tourism ambassador targets for this new Financial
to Seychelles said during the Year 2019/20. Data from the
Uganda Marketers Society tourism ministry shows that
meeting, held at the Kampala tourist arrivals increased by
Sheraton Hotel on Sept. 20 7.4% to 1.5million in 2018 due
Chris Ebal, NWSC board chairman hands over a trophy to the best that the East African nation to increased marketing efforts
employees during the corporation’s achievements ceremony. Ebal said the has relied a lot on marketing locally and internationally,
massive expansion the corporation has achieved in the years is the reason mountain gorillas yet there are
why they reward performing departments.  INDEPENDENT/ ALFRED OCHWO good will form stakeholders,
so many products that deserve stable political environment,
to be marketed to attract more increased investment in tour-
tourists. “We have religious ism enterprises and improved
tourism, cultural tourism, agri- conservation efforts that have
cultural tourism that need to be seen increases in stock of wild-
marketed as well,” she said. life. Subsequently, the sector
“We need to tap into marine experienced an increase in
tourism. We should have water foreign exchange earnings from
transport from Entebbe airport US$1.45bn in 2017 to US$1.6bn
to Speke Resort Munyonyo in 2018.
instead of using road transport. Daniel Irunga, the market-
We need to have vessels sailing ing officer at Uganda Tourism
on L. Victoria to Kalangala Board, said the country pres-
Island and other islands. This is ents immense opportunities
an area that is yet to be tapped.” for those interested in invest-
Kakooza said Uganda should ing in tourism and that the
also come up with a brand for marketing agency is trying its
its tourism attractions including best to boost tourism numbers
artifacts that visitors value high- and sector growth.
Commissioner General of Prisons Johnson Byabashaija (C) receives
a dummy chenque of Shs10 million from Michael Jjingo (3rd L),
Centenary Bank general manager as the bank’s sponsorship for
Maroon football club. The event was held on Sept 24 at Uganda
Preson head Ofices in Kampala.   INDEPENDENT/ ALFRED OCHWO

Weekly share price movement (Sep. 03)


Security Sep. 03 Aug.08 Movement
BATU 30,000 30000 00
BOBU 130 128 1.5
CENT 1,037 1,157 10.3
QCL 130 130 00
DFCU 650 650 00
EABL 6,985 7,243 3.5
EBL 1,422 1,446 00
JHL 13,177 13,261 0.6
KA 89 105 15.2
KCB 1,430 1,411 1.3
NIC 12 12 00
NMG 1,356 1,609 15.7
NVL 325 329 1.2
SBU 28 29 3.4
L-R; Dr Sarah Byakika, Commissioner Planning Ministry of Health, Hennery UCHM 10 12 16.6
Mwebesa Acting Director General, Ministry of Health and Linden Murrison the
UCL 14 14 00
department head of Global Fund, speak during the Uganda Health Financing
Dialogue.   INDEPENDENT/ ALFRED OCHWO UMEME 297 297 00
ALSI -- -- --

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 29


Is that supplement
safe to take?
This Artificial Intelligence tool scours research to find out

D
By Agencies face the same regulations, aren’t Fortunately researchers at the Allen
studied as closely, and have less clinical Institute for AI (AI2) already did a large
ietary supplements are documentation than prescription part of the work with the creation of
used by millions who drugs. That leaves the door open for Semantic Scholar, a natural language
accept the occasionally scary situations where a little-known processing system that ingests enormous
scarce evidence they help supplement has a dangerous interaction numbers of papers and identifies key
out with some condition with a drug not commonly taken. words, results, and other aspects,
or another. But also scarce There are a handful of common making them able to be easily searched
is documentation of potential harmful interactions that some people may know and cross-referenced.
interactions with other supplements or to avoid, but many of them are hidden The team repurposed some of this
drugs. A new tool called Supp.ai looks behind medical industry paywalls, work, tweaking and augmenting it so it
through years of health research papers and many not reported at all. But just could pick out evidence of interactions
to extract potential conflicts that may not because they aren’t easily reported between supplements and other drugs
be listed anywhere else. doesn’t mean they haven’t been found — and organising them into a single
It’s not meant as a fear-mongering the info is just buried somewhere in the searchable database: Supp.ai.
anti-supplement thing, though. The thousands of research papers out there. “Both supplements and drugs
simple fact is that supplements don’t How to find it? are pharmacologic entities, with

30 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


HEALTH

Vegan diets and


the distinction more attributable
to marketing and social pressures
rather than functional differences,”
say the researchers in their paper

weight loss
describing the new system. ”However,
due to this somewhat arbitrary
distinction, supplement entities are
less well represented in databases
of pharmaceutical entities, and less
information is publicly available on their They lose weight, fat without cutting calories
interactions. Our work is an attempt to
close this gap.”
For instance, deep in some paper By Agencies provides evidence on how this works: The

E
looking at a cross-section of the study found high levels of healthy gut bac-
diabetic population, there might be a ating vegan (avoiding all animal teria were likely responsible for the health
sentence noting that a person taking a products, eggs, dairy products) may benefits of vegan diets.
glucosamine supplement saw slower help people who are overweight “Eating a plant-based diet with ample
uptake of insulin into the bloodstream. reduce body fat and promote weight fiber changes the gut microbiome composi-
In fact there is such a sentence — dozens loss without restricting calories, a new study tion for the better by feeding the right kind
of them, actually, as I found out when I suggests. of bacteria,” Dr. Hana Kahleova, lead author
searched for glucosamine on the tool. Researchers found a plant-based diet and director of clinical research at the Physi-
changes the body’s microbiome, increasing cians Committee for Responsible Medicine,
gluco suppai the healthy bacteria in the digestive system. says. She explained that the study’s goal
Supp.AI is smart enough to recognise This improves gut health and can protect was to explain previous research showing
the search term and any abbreviations, against diseases like diabetes. that vegans lost up to twice as much weight
like GlcN, and liberally interprets These findings support previous research as non-vegans while consuming the same
evidentiary sentences so that it errs on that vegan diets can have myriad health ben- number of calories.
the side of inclusion. An interaction may efits, including protecting against diabetes Kahleova’s team found that participants
be big or small, helpful or harmful — but and improving metabolic health, although on the vegan diet had more of a type of gut
what matters is that it was documented, there are also poten- bacteria called bacteroi-
and that a user be made aware of that tial downsides. detes, which digest fiber
documentation. There’s even more and produce compounds
Snippets are provided from the papers, evidence to suggest called short-chain fatty
but they’re unlikely to be understood switching to plant- acids. These fatty acids are
by the average person searching for based eating may be associated with metabolic
info on a supplement they’re taking. better for your health. health.
The intention, however, is more to raise The new study A particular species
awareness of these potential interactions found that overweight called Faecalibacterium
so that the user can ask their doctor or and obese adults who prausnitzii, which thrives
search for a specific combination they switched to a vegan on the fiber found in plant-
might be worried about. diet had healthier based products, is linked
“Currently, no comprehensive tool microbiomes, or good to weight loss, especially
Vegan salad: A plant-based diet high in fiber
exists for consumers to determine if gut bacteria, and bet- is good for your gut, research shows. a reduction in body fat.
their supplement might interact with ter insulin sensitivity, It can also improve insu-
other medications. This information is which protects against lin sensitivity, which is
particularly important because there is diabetes, than non-vegans. As a result, important for metabolic health and prevent-
no law requiring supplement companies they also lost weight and body fat without ing diabetes. This study specifically looked
to place supplement-drug interactions restricting calories. at how a low-fat vegan diet can improve
on the label of dietary supplements,” For the study, researchers from the Physi- metabolic health, but other studies have
said Harvard’s Pieter Cohen, who has cians Committee for Responsible Medicine shown there are benefits to high-fat plant-
addressed this before and whom AI2 looked at 148 overweight and obese adults based eating habits such as the Mediterrean
asked to review the paper. over a period of 16 weeks, half of whom diet.
He suggested Supp.ai will become were instructed to follow a low-fat vegan Kahleova says her future research will
“an essential resource for consumers,” diet. look at participants’ gut bacteria to compare
and that being able to select drug- Participants on the vegan diet lost a signif- a low-fat vegan diet with other types of
supplement or supplement-supplement icant amount of weight compared with those nutrition plans, including the Mediterranean
pairs to dive deeper into specific who stuck with their ordinary, non-vegan diet, a high-fat vegan diet, and a meal plan
interactions is a natural direction to eating habits, according to the research, recommended to manage diabetes.
expand. which was presented at the 2019 annual However, veganism can present its own
Supp.ai is free to use and should meeting for the European Association for the challenges. It can be difficult for some people
be updated with new information Study of Diabetes. to sustain because it restricts the use of all
“periodically” as new papers are added to And, of the total weight loss by the veg- animal products; nutritionists say sustain-
the database, but the data used to create an group, nearly two-thirds was body fat, able diets are healthier in the long term.
the service is also freely available should researchers found. Veganism may also make it difficult to get
you want to build your own version or These findings support previous research enough of certain nutrients, such as B vita-
examine the corpus yourself. that plant-based diets can offer significant mins and iron, according to dietitians.
health benefits and boost weight-loss efforts.
Source: Internet Importantly, though, the new research also Source: MedScape Medical News.

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 31


comment
By Harold Acemah
Mugabe: Importance of finishing well
Like many self-centred African freedom fighters and
revolutionaries, Mugabe started well but finished badly

A
s if he wanted to go down in which was abandoned as national cur- As I wrote in a previous opinion, I
history like the icon and great rency in 2009. first met Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo
African hero, Nelson Man- in 1975 in New York when the co-Presi-
dela, former president and Finishing well matters dents of ZANU-PF came to address the
founding father of Zimbabwe, Robert The concept and goal of finishing UN Security Council on the situation in
Mugabe, died on September 6 at the well is important for all human beings, Rhodesia which was locked in a bitter
same age as Madiba, 95 years. Both especially for believers. The apostle and protracted liberation war led by
men had wives named Grace (Graça). Paul wrote extensively on this subject the two freedom fighters. Mugabe was
I believe that is where the similarities and one of the classic passages on the a cool, intelligent, and eloquent man
end. matter is contained in chapter 4 of who left a positive impression on most
The “breaking news” of Mugabe’s Paul’s second letter to Timothy. Paul delegates.
death in Singapore was received with a writes: When he became Prime Minister of
weird sense of jubilation in newsrooms “For I am already being poured out independent Zimbabwe in 1980, he did
and political science departments like a drink offering, and the time has not disappoint and confirmed the pos-
across Africa and the world. It pro- come for my departure. I have fought itive image he cut as a freedom fighter
vided and continues to provide a field the good fight, I have finished the race, and pan-Africanist. In 1986, I visited
day and a feeding frenzy for journal- I have kept the faith. Now there is in Zimbabwe to attend a Non-aligned
ists, columnists, and political scientists. store for me the crown of righteous- Movement Summit in Harare and was
Before I got to know the inner work- ness, which the LORD, the righteous pleasantly surprised by the country
ings of the media, I was often amazed Judge, will award to me on that day – whose economy was booming and
by how quickly media practitioners and not only to me, but also to all who Zimbabwe dollar was stronger than
publish lengthy and detailed obituaries have longed for his appearing.” (2 Tim- the Uganda shilling, which contrasts
and commentaries on VIPs, so soon othy 4 v 6-8 (NIV) sharply with what prevailed a decade
after they die. Like many self-styled and self-cen- or so later. The rest is history, but what
After some exposure on how the tred African freedom fighters and rev- a tragic end to a promising beginning!
media functions, I learnt that media olutionaries, past and present, Mugabe Mugabe and many African leaders
houses assign staff to prepare draft started well, but finished badly, in fact forget or ignore at their own peril the
obituaries of every Tom, Dick and so badly that one can almost hear the fact that they are servants of the people
Harry among VIPs long before the racist former Prime Minister of Rho- to whom power belongs. How dare he
inevitable last day comes to pass. So desia, Ian Smith, laugh in his grave and tell Tony Blair, “Zimbabwe is mine,
when “breaking news” occurs, obituary whisper, I told them so! keep your Britain, I will keep my Zim-
writers simply download and fill in the babwe” as if the country of which he
blanks, such as, date, cause and venue was a servant is his personal estate?
of death of the deceased. Paul compared Christian life with a
One can safely assume that media
houses have already prepared draft Mugabe and race and looked forward eagerly to the
prize which awaits those who cross the
obituaries of most African political
dinosaurs whose days are numbered,
many African eternal finish line. Mugabe failed dis-
mally to cross the temporal finish line
such as, President Teodoro Nguema of leaders forget or and has consequently been dumped by

ignore at their
Equatorial Guinea and President Paul wananchi into the dustbin of history. I
Biya of Cameroon, to mention but a tell you, many others will soon follow
few.
Mugabe has left a lamentable, tragic
own peril the him in the hall of shame.

and unenviable legacy. He eventu- fact that they are Harold Acemah is a retired former
ally fell on his own sword. Power diplomat based in Arua, Uganda
corrupted him so thoroughly that he servants of the
believed he was invincible. I predict
the verdict of history on Comrade people to whom
Mugabe will be merciless. Except for
close relatives and cronies, nobody will
power belongs
miss Mugabe. On balance, his record
leaves a lot to be desired and his legacy
is as worthless as the Zimbabwe dollar

32 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


COMMENT
By Mashupye Herbert Maserumule
Xenophobia in South Africa
Why it puts rainbow nation’s moral
authority in Africa at risk

S
outh African President Cyril Rama- Why then do impulses of aggressive some in government that attacks on foreign
phosa was heckled during the recent patriotism exist in the post-apartheid South nationals are sheer criminality rather than
funeral service of Zimbabwe’s erst- Africa? Shouldn’t this pan-African disposi- xenophobia is not cutting ice.
while leader Robert Mugabe. It was tion have foregrounded the term “Africa” in Some South Africans also became the vic-
easy to guess why. When he stood to speak, “South Africa” as an idea. Shouldn’t it even tims in retaliatory attacks.
Ramaphosa apologised for weeks of violence have shaped the country’s nation-building Coupled with calls that South Africa
in his country targeted at non-national Afri- and state formation project? should be shunned, all these beget a cycle
cans. Xenophobia and pan-Africanism are antin- of internecine hostilities. These fracture eco-
Immediately after this apology, heckling omies. They have opposite implications on nomic, political and social relations.
turned into cheers. His apology, a stroke of state formation and nation-building. Unfortunately, dissociation is not a solu-
ingenuity, defused the tension. But it didn’t Xenophobia is a function of insularity – tion. It’s a cop-out. If South Africa were
answer the key question that philosopher lack of interest in others’ culture, outside to become a pariah state – again – whose
and political theorist Achille Mbembe once one’s own experience. South Africa’s insu- interest would be served, and to what end?
asked in relation to xenophobic violence in larity was facilitated by the fact that it was a Wouldn’t it be those who, in the Berlin Con-
South Africa: “When we say ‘South Africa’, pariah state for many years. The apartheid ference of 1884-1885, negotiated the rules
is ‘Africa’ an idea or simply a geographical system’s strong border control played a about the scramble for Africa?
accident?” role, too. The country internalised the intol- Their borders that balkanised Africa con-
To many, the answer appears pretty erance of difference. This explains its social tinue to stoke interstate acrimony. The xeno-
obvious: recent events that have seen people disorientation, suspicious of foreigners as phobic flare-ups in South Africa should be
baying for the blood of “foreigners” makes “unknown others”. understood as the cumulative effect of this
the meaning of Africa in South Africa mean- In many instances, non-national Africans historical burden.
ingless. are the primary target of this suspicion. Ramaphosa sent special envoys to the
Importantly though, xenophobia is not a They are, therefore, more likely to be on the countries whose citizens were mostly
uniquely South African phenomenon. Nor receiving end of xenophobic violence. An affected by xenophobic violence – Nigeria,
is it simply a question of violence against appropriate term for this is afrophobia. This Niger, Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania, the Dem-
non-national Africans. It is the consequences is the dehumanising of people of African ocratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia –
of the historical burden that colonialism has descent, and in the diaspora, because of to mend relations. This is a good diplomatic
bequeathed the continent. This refers to colo- their physiques, colour of their skins and gesture. However, this shouldn’t simply be
nially determined borders. behaviours. a charm offensive, but instead a deliberate
These borders separated African people The post-apartheid project of nation- pursuit to give meaning to the term “Africa”
into different nationalities. They were main- building is the by-product of the contra- in “South Africa”, which has waned after
tained after Africa’s independence. This diction of insularity agitating for “South Mbeki’s presidency. South Africa should
spawned nationalisms. Xenophobia is the Africanness”, and the African Renaissance reclaim its leading role in Africa’s renais-
function of the contests of these national- as an all-embracing crystallisation of the con- sance. Re-imagining the future of Africa
isms. As the British social scientist Michael sciousness of the whole of Africa’s people. requires true commitment to pan-Afri-
Billig explains in his book, `Banal Nation- A system of organising society in which canism, anchored in the African philosophy
alism’, “the triumph of a particular nation- individual rights and freedoms are pro- of ubuntu (humanism), which decrees that “I
alism is seldom achieved without the defeat tected, and the markets are left to their own am because we are”.
of alternative nationalisms and other ways of devices, spawned insular nationhood. This The pan-Africanism spirit shouldn’t be
imagining peoplehood”. trumps the pursuit of a common African fostered only in the African leadership and
Xenophobia negates the spirit of pan-Af- identity. It is because of this that, as the diplomatic circles, and used for political
ricanism, especially its laudable ideal that socio-economic grievances of the nationals expediency. It should be part of the psyche
Africans share a mutual bond regardless of increase, largely because of the economy’s of society and become a lived daily experi-
their geographical location. poor performance, nationalism morphs into ence.
That xenophobic incidents are increasing in jingoism. The non-nationals become scape- Xenophobia is a function of attitude. It
post-apartheid South Africa is unexpected. goats. Often, the consequences of this, as laid thus requires the intervention of social insti-
In its formative years as a democracy since bare in the streets of Gauteng province, are tutions, such as universities, to mainstream
1994, the country had assumed the lead- pernicious. pan-Africanism as a philosophy in their cur-
ership of the African Renaissance cause. It Unfortunately, because of this, South Afri- ricula and teaching.
was championed by former South African ca’s moral authority, which it earned after it It is important to shape the characters
President Thabo Mbeki who advocated became a democracy by playing a prominent of students, who are future leaders, to
pan-African “cohesion of economics, culture, role in Africa, is at stake. Hence its govern- understand that human co-existence is not
growth and development”. ment is at pains to accept that xenophobia a function of nationality, but of humanity.
Mbeki eloquently stated that, for African exists, and that it has been on the rise in the This should be part of the decoloniality
countries to assert their influence in global post-apartheid South Africa. agenda in Africa.
affairs, their governments should (forego Of course, in some instances this phenom-
their) “atomistic nation-state, zero sum enon is opportunistically used to obscure the Mashupye Herbert Maserumule is Professor of
sovereignty, and recognise their interdepen- criminal activities of some non-national Afri- Public Affairs, Tshwane University of Technology
dence”. cans in the country. But the suggestion by Source: theconversation

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 33


feature

Babies for attachments with caregivers

Parenting practices
around the world
They are diverse and not all about attachment
By Sam Carr dren’s lives are given a sense of structure one another for survival. He argued that a

M
and predictability). mother’s sensitivity to her child’s desire for
ost parents would agree that Research shows that differences in these closeness and comfort was a critical factor in
parenting is extremely complex key features of parenting can have signif- shaping attachment and child development.
and challenging. What works icant implications for child development. This sensitivity relates to a mother’s abil-
for one child, might not work for Indeed, the emotional bonds (“attach- ity and capacity to detect, understand and
another – even within the same family. ments”) that children have with their parents respond appropriately to her child’s cues
Parenting practices and beliefs around the or caregivers can have lasting effects. around distress and threat. If her baby is
world can also be strikingly different. Japa- At the centre of the study of human rela- distressed, a securely attached mother is
nese children, for example, are often allowed tionships are ideas from attachment theory. attuned to the distress – she detects it, she is
to go on the passenger train service by them- Essentially, attachment theory focuses on motivated to alleviate it, and she offers a set
selves from as young as seven. This would the “psychological connectedness between of soothing responses to do so.
be considered unthinkable to parents in human beings.” The theory looks at the Leading attachment researchers have
some other countries. Similarly, the idea of quality of the intimate bonds we make argued that a consistent lack of such mater-
children going to bed at 6.30pm is horrifying during the course of our lives, with a specific nal sensitivity in infancy and early childhood
to many Spanish or Latin American parents focus on parent-child relations. results in a belief that the world is unsup-
who see it as critical for children to take part portive and that one is unlovable.
in family life during the evening. Attachment theory explained Since Bowlby’s initial volume, `Attach-
Researchers have explored cultural and John Bowlby formulated his ideas on ment and Loss’, in 1969, there have been
historical differences in parenting practices attachment theory during the 1950s. He more than 20,000 published journal articles
for many years. Studies tend to agree that worked as a child psychiatrist at the Tavis- on the topic of attachment. The literature
three major factors often explain differences tock Clinic in London during World War II strongly suggests that if we deny children
in parenting style: emotional warmth versus – noting the devastating impact of maternal sensitive care during the early years, there
hostility (how loving, warm, and affectionate separation and loss on child development. can be significant negative consequences for
parents are towards children), autonomy Working with Mary Ainsworth, a Canadi- their emotional and relational life.
versus control (the degree to which children an psychologist, Bowlby provided support The key principles of attachment theory
are given a sense of control over their lives), for the idea that mothers and children are have become embedded in contemporary
and structure versus chaos (how much chil- mutually motivated to seek proximity to Western ideas about parenting. And the lan-

34 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


feature
guage of attachment theory underpins the should be placed in a separate room. This child-rearing practices that aligned with the
“attachment parenting movement” – which was thought to have the added benefit of goals of the Hitler Youth movement. Parents
advocates methods such as co-sleeping – protecting the baby from the germs of those were encouraged to produce children who
where babies and young children sleep close outside the family. It was also said to allow could be integrated into the community,
to one or both parents – and feeding on the mother the necessary time to recuperate showed no signs of self-pity, self-indulgence
demand. from the stresses of birth. or self-concern, and were brave, obedient
Attachment theory has also influenced This separation, Haarer instructed, should and disciplined. Advice centres and training
policies about time spent in day care and continue for the first three months of a courses for mothers based on Haarer’s ideas
time away from parents during the early baby’s life. A mother could visit the baby were a tool for the inculcation of Nazi ide-
years – such as the generous maternity and only for strictly regulated breastfeeding – no ology.
paternity leave entitlements that ensure longer than 20 minutes – and she should
Swedish parents are able to care for their avoid playing or dawdling around. Haarer Wider implications
children up to the age of eight. And it has believed that such separation was a critical Attachment theorists such as Klaus
also influenced guidelines on early years part of a baby’s “training regime”. If a baby Grossmann have suggested that the Nazi
educational practice – in the UK for exam- continued to cry after it had been fed on child-rearing movement reflected a set of
ple, the role of a child’s “key person” (their schedule, if it was clean and dry, and if it had social, historical and political circumstances
main contact) within early years education is been offered a dummy, “then, dear mother, that probably ensured a generation of young
informed by attachment theory. become tough” and simply leave her to cry. children were raised in the absence of attach-
This cultural tide reflects a profound Haarer’s understanding of babies was that ment security.
movement towards a “child-centred” they were “pre-human” and showed little He argued that such large scale, national
approach to parenting, which puts the needs signs of genuine mental life in the first few neglect mirrored what was found in Roma-
of the child at the centre of their learning and months after birth. Crying, she believed, was nian orphanages under Nicolae Ceausescu’s
development. simply a baby’s way of passing the time. rule from 1965 to 1989. Here, many children
Some argue, however, that this has nega- She strongly advised mothers not to carry, were brought up in terrible conditions –
tive consequences. U.S. writer Judith Warner where violence was used to humiliate and
suggests that attachment theory has fuelled control on a daily basis.
a culture of “total motherhood”, in which As a result, children who grew up in these
mothers are placed in a demanding position Romanian Orphanges were shown to have
of “total responsibility” for their child’s a dramatically increased risk for major prob-
needs. Attachment parenting, she says, lems with insecure attachments, sociability
pressures working mothers (particularly) and indiscriminate friendliness – as well
towards a life where they must perpetually as significant differences in brain develop-
work a double shift – both at home and in ment. For these children, a lack of love and
the workplace – in the interest of their child’s connection was found to be associated with
development. anatomical differences in key regions of the
brain. A major difference though, is that
Nazi child rearing Haarer’s ideas reflected organised, intention-
In contemporary Western societies, al ideology cloaked in scientific credibility, as
emphasis and value are placed on the devel- opposed to being the byproduct of conflict of
opment of our unique “self” and a private displacement.
emotional world. And attachment theory’s Sociobiologists Heider Keller and Hiltrud
child-centred focus on the emotional needs Otto have questioned whether such periods
of infants – and how parents respond to Children could be better off if they form in German history have played a role in
them – lends itself nicely to this value sys- attachment with other members of the community shaping parenting for future generations.
tem. rock or attempt to comfort crying babies. It In their book chapter, `Is there something
But this hasn’t always been the case. A was suggested that this would lead babies to like German parenting?’, they argued that
look at parenting in Nazi Germany and how expect a sympathetic response and ultimate- it is difficult to say whether such powerful
subsequent generations have struggled to ly to develop into a “little, but unrelenting historical trends in child rearing set a tone
bond with their children raises questions tyrant”. that continues to exist as a dominant force in
about what happens when societies engineer Not giving too much attention to babies Germany today.
beliefs about parenting that are starkly at was also, for Haarer, a critical part of their Indeed, since World War II, child-centred
odds with the propositions of attachment training. She argued that it “is not a sign of philosophies and practices from the Western
theory. special motherly love if one showers one’s world have taken root in German society.
German historians and psychologists have child continuously with tenderness; such And high levels of immigration have meant
written extensively about the works of the doting love spoils the child” and will in the that there are many ideas and beliefs about
Nazi educator and physician, Johanna Haar- long run “emasculate” young boys. parenting in contemporary Germany that sit
er, whose baby-care manual, `The German Haarer’s beliefs about parenting reflect alongside these generational trends. So it’s
Mother and her First Child’ – published by values that were deemed important for likely that the influx of these different cultur-
the prolific Nazi publisher Julius Friedrich life in the Third Reich. She believed that it al and historical beliefs has helped to create a
Lehmanns – sold around 600,000 copies by was necessary for every German citizen to society with a myriad of parenting practices
1945. be “a useful member of the Volksgemein- that have diluted the impact of historical
Haarer’s manual is most notable for par- schaft (national community)” and strongly trends.
enting strategies and beliefs that contradict opposed child-rearing practices that fur-
attachment theory. To some extent, her thered children’s individuality. A child had Many caregivers
work could be accurately described as an to learn “to integrate into the community Much of the contemporary Western
“anti-attachment manual”. She said that and to subordinate his wishes and endeav- evidence suggests that, in contrast to what
babies should be separated from their moth- ours for the sake of the community”. the Nazis thought, attachment still plays
ers for 24 hours after they are born, and they Ultimately, her work reflected and shaped an important role in many societies when

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 35


feature

Some communities encourage toddlers to forge loving relations away from the mother

it comes to raising children – even though because I want her (the baby) to be used to Susan Seymour’s work on Indian parenting,
the ways in which such attachments are everybody and love everybody equally.” where exclusive mothering is the exception:
arranged can vary dramatically. And while And as one mother noted, higher mater- “India provides an excellent case study for
researchers have provided evidence that cer- nal death rates increased the importance examining multiple childcare. Even in a
tain features of attachment may be universal, having many caregivers to look after chil- context of rapid change and modernisation,
others can vary remarkably from culture to dren: “Following only me? For me I don’t my research and that of others indicate that
culture. think it’s too good for her, because like now exclusive mothering is the exception, rather
It has been presumed, for example, that if she keeps on following only me, loving than the rule and that the concept of mater-
there is a universal need and motivation for only me, if I’m not by her side now or if I nal indulgence – that is, a mother focused
all infants to form attachments to caregivers. maybe die, who will take care of her? She solely or primarily on responding to and
They are thought to be neurologically hard- needs to at least love everybody or try to be nurturing her child – is itself problematic”.
wired to seek close attachments and to be used to everybody, so that in case I am not German researchers have also suggested
equipped with a behavioural repertoire that around, anybody can take care of her”. that mothers and fathers may have unique
has evolved to facilitate this. For the Nso, actively forcing their children ways of developing a secure attachment
But how such attachments are formed to develop close bonds with other mem- bond with their children. The pathway
(and with whom) can differ. Bowlby’s bers of the community was seen as good to secure attachment for mothers may be
attachment theory emphasises the impor- parenting, as was frightening children to through sensitive care-giving responses in
tance of an infant caregiver bond – most discourage exclusivity between a mother times of distress. But they identified that
exclusively with the mother or a primary and child: “I force him to go to other people. fathers were more likely to build secure
caregiver. But it is not universally true that When I see any person, I would like to force attachment bonds through sensitive play –
has to be mother or primary care giver and is the child to go to them, so that I should not play that was harmonious, attuned to the
largely a reflection of Western middle-class be the one who is taking care of the child. child, and cooperative.
societies. Because it is not possible that I can be taking These studies show that child-rearing
Research in other cultures has revealed care of him alone. He would be disturbing values are a reflection of our culture. They
different ways of responding to the univer- me most often. It means I will not be able to are not universal. And they are vulnerable to
sal need for attachment security in infants. do any other thing”. generational changes.
Otto’s doctoral research, for example, Otto explained that “Nso mothers train In the contemporary Western world,
explored attachment patterns in 30 children their children towards Nso socialisation beliefs about attachment and parenting have
from the north-west Cameroonian Nso com- goals”. This involves producing calm and a strong connection to Bowlby’s original
munity. Her data revealed some fascinating obedient children who are well suited (and framework. These ideas and beliefs have
differences around attachment. Nso mothers not resistant) to being loved and cared for played a critical role in the move towards
tended to have very different beliefs about by many carers. To this end, they discourage a healthier society for child development
the value and importance of an exclusive the maternal exclusivity that many attach- and well-being. But given the historical and
mother-infant bond. In fact, they often dis- ment-based Western parenting models cultural diversity in parenting and broader
couraged maternal exclusivity, believing that advocate. social values, there should be caution about
to provide optimal care, many caregivers are advocating attachment theory as the “only”
best. As one mother noted: “Just one person Parenting values way. In the end, perhaps it is comforting to
cannot take care of a child throughout.” Other researchers have identified similar know that parenting is so diverse and that
It was important to Nso mothers that cultural differences. Anthropologist Court- there isn’t a one-size-fits-all model.
children did not develop an exclusive attach- ney Meehan’s work with the Aka, a Congo
ment to them and developed equally close Basin tropical forest foraging community, Sam Carr is Senior Lecturer in Education
bonds with older siblings, neighbours or revealed that infants have about 20 care- with Psychology, University of Bath
other children in the community: “(Follow- givers interacting and caring for them on Source: theconversation
ing only one person) is not considered good, a daily basis. There’s also anthropologist

36 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


ART | BOOKS | SOCIETY | TRAVEL | CULTURE

Minimalist
portraiture
of women
Young artist with bold
views praised for
daring the status quo

T
By Dominic Muwanguzi

he figures are ebony- skinned


females - almost akin to tribal
figurines presented in minimal-
ist style. They capture the eye
with finely accentuated facial
features like curvy-like eyes, full
lips, large forehead and high cheekbones.
There’s also a deliberate use of negative
space such that only the profile of the subject
is shown or specific features are focused
on. This technique inspires curiosity among skinned woman. This is her idea of a true only recently left the banking profession to
viewers of the art. It also challenges the norm African beautiful woman – a typical African practice as a full time artist. The bold move
that surrounds minimalistic portraiture; princess. A reference can be made of the illustrates her tendency to contest traditional
often interpreted by elements in contempo- painting of Nigerian Princess Tutu tilted norms of society and the status quo.
rary art as boring or disengaging. `African Monalisa 1974’ by Ben Enwonwu. It is not surprising that as many young
Almost all the paintings sit on a white The portrait of the African Princess had the women embrace lighter skin, Sungi bravely
background, with the female subjects assum- subject with notable features like a gazelle- maintains her ground, preserving and pro-
ing different postures. The artist, Sungi like neck (long and elegant), high cheek moting dark skin complexions. Her large
Mlengera in Kampala from Tanzania, says bones and a large forehead. These exact fea- portraits are emblems of a universal message
she focuses on women as representatives of tures can be found in Sungi’s portraits of the against neo-colonialism, racism and the ram-
their societies. black female. pant consumerism of global culture. Sungi
“The central role of women as life bearers, In this array of work, Sungi is deftly is celebrating the strength of the black wom-
nurturers, caretakers and educators has responding to the day to day experiences of an. Interestingly, with this type of art she
ensured stability of their communities,” she contemporary life. A graduate of a Bachelors defiantly distances herself from the touristic
says. Degree of Commerce in Finance, the artist art that dominates Tanzania.
Sungi’s body of work portrays the images Sungi is a youthful artist with a lot of
of elegant ebony – skinned women within a promise regionally who gets positive
context of skin colour prejudices; including reviews from regional art critics and manag-
skin bleaching. It is not surprising that ers and appears set for the bigger global art
Skin bleaching is common among many
young people; especially dark-skinned
as many young women world. Her first exhibition in Kampala, held
at Afriart gallery has been well received and
women. Lighter skin is sought after as beau- embrace lighter skin, so has her participation in the Latitudes Art
tiful or even classy. The number of people Sungi bravely maintains Fair, Johannesburg, South Africa 2019.
clamouring for skin lightening creams keeps
rising. Changing skin colour is often hinged her ground, preserving Sungi Mlengeya is represented by Afriart gallery,
on cultural stereotyping. and promoting dark skin Kampala and her work can be found at the
But Sungi’s black women allude to the complexions gallery. Images courtesy of Afriart gallery.
simplicity and naturalness of the black

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 37


Ex-con wants to go back to prison so he can watch free TV Man paid millions to
We’re no strangers to weird to French premium television old man committed a series of sleep in top hotels
stories here on OC, but this channel Canal+ costs around burglaries in the Toulouse sub-
one’s a bit too weird even for us. 10 euros (Approx. Shs49,000), urb of Colomiers and on Sep- An influencer has revealed
A French burglar intentionally but inmates in French prisons tember 2nd, during a hearing he’s earned a staggering
left traces of DNA all over the can apparently watch it for free, before the Criminal Court, the £44,000 (Approx.Shs 160 mil-
crime scene just so he would which was apparently a good burglar loudly proclaimed that lion) in just 18 months after
end up in prison and watch enough reason for an ex-con to he wanted to go back to pris- being paid to nap his way
encrypted TV channel Canal+ commit a crime and get himself on so he could watch Canal+, around the world in luxuri-
for free. A monthly subscription caught. The unnamed 25-year- which shocked even his lawyer. ous hotels.
Alex Shannon, 35, who
was born in London but is
Kenyans, Nigerians Russians love `drug Bust’ marriage proposals now based in Los Angeles,
launched his Instagram
clash over Lupita’s And then they find it – a small account @followthenap over
role in new movie plastic bag full of white powder
that they claim is illegal drugs.
a year-and-a-half ago — and
has since been inundated with
You’ve never seen it before, but messages from hotels, luggage
A war of words has erupted they claim otherwise and you companies, airlines, and paja-
between Kenyans and Nige- feel your legs shaking under ma brands eager to work with
rians on Twitter and the bone you as you try to grasp the him. He now lives the life-
of contention is why Lupita implications of the situation. style ofa millionaire and has
Nyong’o was picked to play Then, all of a sudden, one of the stayed in the likes of the Four
a Nigerian character in a new threatening men drops down Seasons in San Francisco and
movie. The Kenyan-born star to one knee, pops open a small Armani in Dubai. At Beverly
actress was chosen by Ameri- case and says “Marry me!” That Wilshire he was given over
can movie giant WarnerMedia hardly sounds like the scenario £36,000 of jewelry from Jason
Entertainment to play role of a of a perfect marriage proposals, of Beverly Hills to wear (and
Nigerian character in the mov- but it’s apparently all the rage in photograph) during his stay
ie Adaptation of Chimaman- Russia. And psychologists say and he has tried the 24K gold
da’s Americanah. WarnerMe- that there’s a very logical expla- cappuccino and Home Alone
dia’s decision infuriated Nige- nation to why that is. ice cream sundae! Alex boasts
rians who trooped to Twitter to Imagine driving a car, mind- “Humor is a way for society 14.5K Instagram followers.
express their displeasure and ing your own business, when to respond to what is happening Alex’s top hotels Manda-
demand answers. “They need all of a sudden a black van cuts with it,” psychologist Polina rin Oriental Paris - Parisian
to stop doing this. We have you off and slams the breaks Soldatova said. “These pranks… Apartment ($35,000 per
fine actresses from Nigeria forcing you to do the same in are a way of accepting the fact night), Mandarin Oriental Par-
who can play these roles better. a split second. The van door that the security forces can is - Penthouse Suite ($16,500
Lupita is good but try other slides open and masked men always come for you. People per night), Amangiri in Utah
people who are Nigerians. She’ carrying assault rifles jump out need a way to reconcile them- (starting at $2,800 per night),
is going to be told or taught and violently pull you out of the selves with this reality. The Beverly Wilshire Hotel - Pres-
how to speak half-baked Igbo vehicle, while they go through would-be fiancées laugh and idential Suite ($20,000 per
instead of a real Nigerian?” your personal belongings seem- smile out of relief that the men night),Taj Dubai Presidential
posed one tweep. ingly searching for something. aren’t real cops.” Suite ($5,000 per night) .

Kardashian claims hubby Kanye West is born again


Reality TV star Kim She said Kanye has always of being born again and
Kardashian has come had strong religious beliefs being saved by Christ.”
out to reveal her hubby and has been on a personal A video which has been
Kanye West has decided to journey to healing himself. doing rounds online also
“dedicate his life to Christ”. “Kanye started this to really seems to suggest Kanye has
Kim K was a guest at The heal himself and it was a been making stopovers at
View – an American talk really personal thing, and it various churches to spread
show - where she spoke on a was just friends and family,” the gospel through what is
number of aspects of her life Kardashian West told host being termed as “ministry
including her hubby Kanye Sunny Hostin, “He has music”.
West’s recent transitions. had an amazing evolution

38 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


Toyota’s ‘luxury
taxi’: Quantum VX
F
orget the Kamunye, Kigege (as the mood lighting. The arrangement includes cyclist detection, “high-speed” active cruise
Toyota Hiace vans are called locally), a pair of captain’s chairs in the second row, control, lane-departure alert, road sign assist
and the Coaster; the main taxi vehi- two more individual seats in the third row and automatic high beams. It has front and
cles that dominate Uganda’s public and a bench for three in the final row. The rear parking sensors and a reversing camera.
passenger vehicle sector; Toyota has un- four Captain’s chairs feature armrests, reclin- Powering the Quantum VX is a 2.8-litre
leashed the 2019 Quantum VX, which is the ing backrests and fold-out business class four-cylinder turbodiesel engine with six-
ultimate luxury taxi. The new Quantum VX type leg rests. This is the perfect shuttle van speed automatic transmission. Toyota has
appears to have been modeled on the Toyota for busy hotel airport runs. It has power-op- configured the 2.8 turbodiesel to boost
Granvia. erated sliding doors on either side. 115kW and 420Nm. It claims cruising diesel
The Quantum boasts better design; better Its comprehensive safety packages include consumption is 8.7l/100km. The Quantum
interior that sits nine, each with individual nine-airbags. It also has rear cross-traffic alert is rear-wheel drive, which gives it superior
climate control features and multiple USB that help avoid collisions as they warn driver traction. It uses 17-inch alloy wheels for
ports, and better safety features than the cur- of an approaching vehicle when reversing 235/60/R17 tyres.
rent models. It boasts of Toyota’s audio-vi- out of a parking bay. In a long vehicle such The large chrome-effect grille with three
sual navigation touchscreen infotainment as the Quantum, with its larger profile and horizontal slats is flanked by standard LED
system. blind spots, the rear cross-traffic alert is a headlamps. The thin chrome-effect strip
On the outside, it has chrome grille and great safety feature. Its side mirrors boast links with the LED foglamps in the lower
additional chrome garnish on the front power adjustment and blind-spot moni- bumper. There are chrome touches on the
apron and tailgate. The interior boasts glis- toring. Other features include pre-collision exterior door handles, and side-mirror caps,
tening wood veneers and soft blue LED safety system with pedestrian detection and the VX badge and LED elements.

Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019 39


global comment
By Rachel Kyte
Climate Code Red
The world has 12 years to change the trajectory of
carbon dioxide emissions to limit global warming

W
hen emergencies strike, special pre-industrial levels – a goal of the Paris projects in developing economies. But the
processes within governments agreement. Civil society, and young sheer number and complexity of these
and communities swing into people in particular, are demanding facilities may prevent them from being
gear. And everyone steps up to answers and greater efforts to meet this used. Project operators and government
help. target. officials complain that finance isn’t
The world is now in a climate emer- Guterres therefore explicitly asked gov- flowing, while investors have difficulty
gency. At the United Nations Climate ernment leaders to come to the summit identifying suitable projects. A clean
Action Summit in New York on Sep- with concrete plans, not empty speeches. investment platform should help to iron
tember 23, leaders from government, He threw down the gauntlet to the out these kinks.
finance, business, and civil society needed world’s major economies: tell us when Renewable energy increasingly out-
to show far greater ambition in combating you will phase out coal, end harmful fos- competes coal, but storage capacity is
global warming than they have done so sil-fuel subsidies, and shift taxation from desperately needed if renewables are
far. And a faster transition to clean energy income to pollution. Those are the deci- quickly to become a reliable part of devel-
will be key to accelerated efforts. sions that will drive the transformation oping countries’ energy systems. Encour-
Scientists have warned us of climatic the world needs. agingly, public and private partners
tipping points, yet we are starting to At the heart of this transformation is are coming together to scale up battery
move past them as if watching mileposts the energy transition, which, although storage, especially in Africa.
through a train window. The Arctic is on underway, is lagging or has stalled in How the industrial and transport sectors
fire, droughts are fiercer, planting seasons many parts of the world. A more ambi- consume energy over the coming decade
are disrupted, and greenhouse-gas emis- tious effort by energy providers and will be critical to hopes of meeting the
sions are increasing. major end users is critical, as is extending Paris agreement’s goals. Many industries
True, the world is responding to the affordable and reliable clean-energy ser- are developing more ambitious plans
crisis. Each day, new breakthroughs in vices to all who need them. There also to mitigate climate change. In addition,
transport, industry, energy, agriculture, needs to be a major reform of how the the electric vehicle revolution needs to
and land use show that we can wean our- transition is financed. spread to goods transport, aviation, and
selves off carbon. The financial sector is Encouragingly, the September 23 shipping.
also waking up to the climate risk and its summit highlighted that increased ambi- One bright spot here is increased collab-
responsibility to address it. Large inves- tion in several ways. oration across the shipping value chain,
tors in the Climate Action 100+ initiative, For starters, a new club of pacesetters is which will breathe life into the hard-
for example, are asking harder, more emerging to show how improving energy fought agreements reached at the Inter-
pointed questions of the companies in efficiency is often the most cost-effective national Maritime Organisation. With
their portfolios. The credit-rating agency way to reduce CO2 emissions and help countries such as Denmark leading the
Moody’s has acquired firms whose safeguard air quality. By improving way, work is focused on developing the
detailed models forecast physical risks to energy efficiency faster in order to tackle zero-emissions vessels that must be at the
assets under various climate scenarios. climate change more aggressively and heart of a global carbon-neutral economy.
And a growing number of central banks meet the UN Sustainable Development Many ship manufacturers and owners,
are addressing the implications of pur- Goals, these countries will get access to fuel companies, ports, and multinational
suing the goals of the 2015 Paris climate data, technical assistance, and advice – companies have adopted science-based
agreement. including from the private sector. This emissions-reduction targets. And efforts
But, as UN Secretary-General António will help policymakers pinpoint the most are currently underway to establish a
Guterres has repeatedly said, the current effective and appropriate fast-action strat- global framework for responsible ship
global response is insufficient. When egies for buildings, transport, and house- finance under the Poseidon Principles.
Guterres first called for the upcoming hold appliances. The management guru Tom Peters has
climate summit back in the spring of In addition, a sustainable cooling coali- said that “leaders don’t create followers,
2017, the fear had been that the world’s tion has emerged during the sweltering they create more leaders.” If the world
attention to the issue might waver, and northern summer of 2019. Governments is to meet its climate goals, it urgently
that listless national political leadership are committed to developing national needs more inspiring role models. In
would be no match for increasingly plans that aim to ensure access to cooling New York on September 23, we found
severe climate consequences. for everyone, including those on low out who they are.
Since then, the summit has assumed incomes and the most vulnerable, in a
even greater importance. A report hyper-efficient way that is free of super Rachel Kyte, a former World Bank Group Vice
released in October 2018 by the UN Inter- pollutants. President, is Special Representative of the UN
governmental Panel on Climate Change Another priority is to match investors Secretary-General for Sustainable Energy for
concluded that the world had 12 years in and clean energy projects more effec- All.
which to change the trajectory of carbon tively. Through development assistance Copyright: Project Syndicate, 2019.
dioxide emissions in order to limit global and climate finance, rich countries have
warming this century to 1.5 °C above long dedicated funds to support such

40 Sept. 27 - Oct. 03, 2019


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