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1/23/2018

ENG 402.1: ENGINEERING ECONOMICS


Part One (1)

Engr. Dr. S. S. Ikiensikimama


Associate Professor of Petroleum & Gas Engineering

Department of Petroleum & Gas Engineering


University of Port Harcourt

REFERENCES USED FOR THE WHOLE LECTURE


MATERIAL
Leland Blank , P. E & Anthony Tarquin , P. E. “Engineering
Economy” Published by McGraw-Hill, Seventh Edition,
2015.
www.osbornebooksshop.co.uk/files/asa2.pdf (Accessed
13/01/2018)
M. A Mian (2010): Project Economics and Decision
Analysis
Dr. Daulat D. Mamora“Fundamentals of Oil and Gas
Economic Evaluations and Risk Management”, A Course
for Total S.A. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. August 8-12, 2005.

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REFERENCES USED FOR THE WHOLE LECTURE


MATERIAL
Dr. Daulat D. Mamora“Fundamentals of Oil and Gas
Economic Evaluations and Risk Management”, A Course
for Total S.A. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. August 8-12, 2005.

Net Advantage To Leasing (NAL)


https://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/netadvantagetol
e sing.asp#ixzz54RtwPa9x

REFERENCE (S) FOR THIS SECTION

Leland Blank , P. E & Anthony Tarquin , P. E. “Engineering


Economy” Published by McGraw-Hill, Seventh Edition,
2015.

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COURSE OUTLINE FOR PART 1 OF 3


 Why Engineering Economic is Important to Engineers
 Role of Engineering Economic in Decision Making
 Performing an Engineering Economics Study
 Interest Rate and Rate of Return
 Economic Equivalence
 Simple and Compound Interest
 Minimum Attractive Rate of Return

COURSE OUTLINE FOR PART 1 OF 3


 Cash Flows

 Cash Flows Analysis – Single Amount Factors (F/P and P/F)

 Uniform Series Present Worth Factor and Capital Recovery


Factor (P/A and A/P)

 Sinking Fund Factor and Uniform Series Compound Amount


Factor (A/F and F/A)

 Cash Flow Analysis- Linear Interpolation

 Arithmetic Gradient Factors (P/G and A/G)

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COURSE OUTLINE FOR PART 1 OF 3

Determining i or n for Known Cash Flow Values

Calculations for Uniform Series That are Shifted

Nominal and Effective Interest Rates

Effective Interest Rates for Any Time Period

Rate of Return (ROR) Analysis

Why Engineering Economic is Important to


Engineers
 Decisions made by engineers, managers, corporation presidents, and
individuals are commonly the result of choosing one alternative over
another.

 The decision of how to invest capital will invariably change the future,
hopefully for the better; that is, it will add value.

 Engineers play a major role in capital investment decisions based on their


analysis, synthesis, and design efforts.

 The factors considered in making the decision are a combination of


economic and non-economic factors.

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Why Engineering Economic is Important to


Engineers
 Engineering Economic involves formulating, estimating, and evaluating the
economics outcomes when alternatives to accomplish a defined purpose
are available.

 Some of the questions an engineer ask are;

 How much will it cost each year?

 Are there tax advantages?

 What is the basis for selecting an alternative?

 What is the expected rate of return?

 What happens if it fly more or less than we estimate now?

Role of Engineering Economic in Decision


Making
 The techniques and models of engineering Economic assist
people in making decisions.

 Since decision affect what will be done, the time frame of


engineering economic is primarily the future.

 Therefore, numbers used in an engineering economic analysis


are best estimates of what is expected to occur.

 These estimates often involves three essential elements (cash


flows, time of occurrence and interest rate).

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Role of Engineering Economics in Decision


Making
 Commonly, sensitivity analysis is performed during the
engineering economic study to determine how the decision
might change based on varying estimates.

 Engineering economic can be used equally well to analyze


outcomes of the past.

 Observed data are evaluated to determine if the outcomes


have met or not met a specified criterion, such as a rate of
return requirement.

Role of Engineering Economics in Decision


Making
 There is an important procedure used to address the development and
selection of alternatives.

 It is commonly referred to as the problem-solving approach or the


decision-making process, the steps in the approach follow;
 understand the problem and define the objective.
 Collect relevant information.
 Define the feasible alternative solutions and make realistic estimates.
 Identify the criteria for decision making using one or more attributes.
 Evaluate each alternatives, using sensitivity analysis to enhance the evaluation.
 Select the best alternative.
 Implement the solution and monitor the result.

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Role of Engineering Economics in Decision


Making
 The criterion used to select an alternative in engineering
economic for a specific set of estimates is called a measure of
worth.

 Some of these measures to be learnt in this course are:

Present worth (PW), Future worth (FW), Annual worth (AW),

Rate of return (ROR), Benefit/cost (B/C), Capitalized cost (CC),

Payback period, Economic value added (EVA) and

Cost Effectiveness.

Role of Engineering Economics in Decision


Making
All these measures of worth account for the fact that
money makes money over time.

This is the concept of the time value of money.

The change in the amount of money over a given

time period is called the time value of money; it is the

most important concept in engineering economic.

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Performing an Engineering Economics Study


 Alternatives are stand-alone options that involve a word
description and best estimates of parameters, such as first
cost, useful life, estimated annual incomes and expenses,
salvage value, an interest rate, and possibly inflation and
income tax effects.

 Cash Flows are estimated inflows (revenues) and outflows


(costs) of money.

 Without cash flow estimates over a stated time period, no


engineering economic study can be conducted.

Performing an Engineering Economics Study


Engineering Economic Analysis

 The techniques and computations that you will learn and use
throughout this course utilize the cash flow estimates, time
value of money, and a selected measure of worth.

 Before an economic analysis technique is applied to the cash


flows, some decisions about what to include in the analysis
must be made:

 Two important possibilities are taxes and inflation.

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Performing an Engineering Economics Study


 Federal, state or provincial, county (local), and city taxes will
impact the costs of every alternative.

 An after-tax analysis includes some additional estimates and


methods compared to a before-tax analysis.

 If taxes and inflation are expected to impact all alternatives


equally, they may be disregarded in the analysis.

 Also, if the impact of inflation over time is important to the


decision, an additional set of computations must be added to
the analysis.

Performing an Engineering Economics Study


Selection of the Best Alternative

 The measure of worth is a primary basis for selecting the best


economic alternative.

 For example, if alternative A has a rate of return (ROR)


of 15.2% per year and alternative B will result in an ROR of
16.9% per year, B is better economically.

 However, there can always be noneconomic or intangible


factors that must be considered and that may alter the
decision.

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Performing an Engineering Economics Study


 An after-tax analysis is performed during project evaluation,
usually with only significant effects for asset depreciation and
income taxes accounted for.

 Taxes imposed by local, state, federal, and international


governments usually take the form of an income tax on
revenues.

INTEREST RATE AND RATE OF RETURN


 Interest is the manifestation of the time value of
money.

Computationally, interest is the different between an


ending amount of money and the beginning
amount.

There are always two perspectives to an amount of


interest – Interest Paid and Interest earned.

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INTEREST RATE AND RATE OF RETURN


When interest paid over a specific time unit is
expressed as a percentage of the original amount
(principal), the result is called the interest rate.

int erest accrued per time unit


Interest rate %  100%
original amount

The time unit of the rate is called the interest period.

INTEREST RATE AND RATE OF RETURN


 From the perspective of a saver, a lender, or an investor,
interest earned is the final amount minus the initial amount, or
principal.

 Interest = total amount now – original amount

 Interest paid over a specific period of time is expressed as a


percentage of the original amount and is called rate of return
(ROR).

interest accrued per time unit


Rate of Return%  100 %
original amount

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INTEREST RATE AND RATE OF RETURN


 The term return on investment (ROI) is used equivalently with
ROR in different industries and settings, especially where large
capital funds are committed to engineering-oriented
programs.

 Note: if interest period is more than 1year, it is necessary to


state whether the interest is accrued on a simple or
compound basis from one period to the next.

 An additional economic consideration for any engineering


economy study is INFLATION.

INTEREST RATE AND RATE OF RETURN


 Inflation means that cost and revenue cash flow estimates
increases over time.

 Inflation contributes to:


 A reduction in purchasing power

 An increase in CPI (consumer price index)

 An increase in the cost of equipment and its maintenance

 An increase in the cost of salaried professionals and hourly employees

 A reduction in the real rate of return on personal savings and corporate


investments.

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ECONOMIC EQUIVALENCE
Economic equivalence is a fundamental concept
upon which engineering economy computations are
based.

Economic equivalence is a combination of interest


rate and time value of money to determine the
different amounts of money at different points in time
that are equal in economic value.

ECONOMIC EQUIVALENCE
As an illustration, if the interest rate is 6% per year,
$100 today (present time) is equivalent to $106 one
year from today.

Amount accrued = 100 + 100(0.06) = 100 + 6 = $106.

If someone offer you a gift of $100 today or $106 one


year from today, it will make no difference which
offer you accept from an economic perspective.

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ECONOMIC EQUIVALENCE
 However, the two sums of money are equivalent to each
other only when the interest rate is 6% per year.

Fig. 1:Equivalent of money at 6%


per year interest.

ECONOMIC EQUIVALENCE
EXAMPLE 1.

Manufacturers make backup batteries for computer systems


available to dealers through privately owned distributorships. In
general, batteries are stored throughout the year, and a 5% cost
increase is added each year to cover the inventory carrying
charge for the distributorship owner. Assume you own the City
Center Batteries + outlet. Make the calculations necessary to
show which of the following statements are true and which are
false about battery costs.

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ECONOMIC EQUIVALENCE
EXAMPLE 1.

a) The amount of $98 now is equivalent to a cost of $105.60 one


year from now.

b) A truck battery cost of $200 one year ago is equivalent to


$205 now.

c) A $38 cost now is equivalent to $39.90 one year from now.

d) A $3000 cost now is equivalent to $2887.14 one year earlier.

e) The carrying charge accumulated in 1 year on an investment


of $20,000 worth of batteries is $1000.

ECONOMIC EQUIVALENCE
Solutions

a) Total amount accrued = 98(1.05) = $102.90 ≠ $105.6; therefore, it is false.


Another way of solving this is as follows: Required original cost is 105.6/1.05
=$100.57 ≠ $98.

b) Equivalent cost 1year ago is 205.00/1.05 = $195.24 ≠ $200; therefore, it is


false.

c) The cost 1 year from now is $38(1.05) = $39.90; True.

d) Cost now is 2887.14(1.05) = $3031.50 ≠ $3000; False.

e) The charge is 5% per year interest, or $20,000(0.05) = $1000; True.

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SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST


 The terms interest, interest period, and interest rate are
useful in calculating equivalent sums of money for one
interest period in the past and one period in the future.

 However, for more than one interest period, the terms


simple interest and compound interest become
important.

 Simple interest is calculated using the principal only,


ignoring any interest accrued in preceding interest
periods.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND INTEREST


 The total simple interest over several period is computed as

Interest = (principal)(number of periods)(interest rate)

I = P*n*i Eq. 1

 Compound interest is the interest accrued for each interest. It


is calculated as

Interest = (principal + all accrued interest)(interest rate)

 Compound interest means interest on top of interest. It reflects


the effect of the time value of money on the interest.

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MINIMUM ATTRACTIVE RATE OF RETURN

For any investment to be profitable, the investor


(corporate or individual) expects to receive more
money than the amount of capital invested.

In other words, a fair rate of return, or return on


investment, must be realizable.

Engineering alternatives are evaluated upon the


prognosis that a reasonable ROR can be expected.

MINIMUM ATTRACTIVE RATE OF RETURN

The Minimum Attractive Rate of Return (MARR) is a


reasonable rate of return established for the
evaluation and selection of alternatives.

A project is not economically viable unless it is


expected to return at least the MARR.

MARR is also referred to as the hurdle rate, cutoff


rate, benchmark rate, and minimum acceptable
rate of return.

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MINIMUM ATTRACTIVE RATE OF RETURN

The expected rate of return on the unfunded project is


called the opportunity cost.

The opportunity cost is the rate of return of a forgone


opportunity caused by the inability to pursue a project.

Numerically, it is the largest rate of return of all the


projects not accepted (forgone) due to the lack of
capital funds or other resources.

MINIMUM ATTRACTIVE RATE OF RETURN

Capital is developed in two ways;

i. Equity Financing: The corporation uses its own funds

from cash on hand, stock sales, or retained earnings.

ii. Debt Financing: The corporation borrows from outside

sources and repays the principal and interest

according to some schedule.

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CASH FLOWS
 Engineering economy bases its computations on the timing,
size, and direction of cash flows.

 Cash inflows are the receipts, revenues, incomes, and savings


generated by project and business activity. A plus sign
indicates a cash inflow.

 Cash outflows are costs, disbursements, expenses, and taxes


caused by projects and business activity. A negative or minus
sign indicates a cash outflow.

CASH FLOWS
 Once all cash inflows and outflows are estimated (or determined for
a completed project), the net cash flow for each time period is
calculated.

Net cash flow = receipts (cash inflows) – disbursement (cash outflow)


Eq. 1a

 The end-of-period convention means that all cash inflows and all
cash outflows are assumed to take place at the end of the interest
period in which they actually occur.

 When several inflows and outflows occur within the same period,
the net cash flow is assumed to occur at the end of the period.

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CASH FLOWS
 The cash flow diagram is a very important tool in an economic
analysis, especially when the cash flow series is complex.

 It is a graphical representation of cash flows drawn on the y-


axis with a time scale on the x-axis.

 The diagram includes what is known, what is estimated, and


what is needed.

 That is, once the cash flow diagram is complete, another


person should be able to work the problem by looking at the
diagram.

CASH FLOWS
 Cash flow diagram time t = 0 is the present, and t =1 is the end of
time period 1. We assume that the periods are in years for now.

 The time scale of Figure 2 is set up for 5 years

Fig. 2:

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CASH FLOWS

The direction of the arrows on the diagram is


important to differentiate income (inflow) from
outflow.

A vertical arrow pointing up indicates a positive cash


flow. Conversely, a down-pointing arrow indicates a
negative cash flow.

We will use a bold, colored arrow to indicate what is


unknown and to be determined.

CASH FLOWS

For example, if a future value F is to be determined in


year 5, a wide, colored arrow with F = ? is shown in
year 5. The interest rate is also indicated on the
diagram (Figure 3).

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CASH FLOWS - Example

An electrical engineer wants to deposit an amount P


now such that she can withdraw an equal annual
amount of A1 = $2000 per year for the first 5 years,
starting 1 year after the deposit, and a different
annual withdrawal of A2 = $3000 per year for the
following 3 years. How would the cash flow diagram
appear if i = 8.5% per year?

CASH FLOWS - Solution

 The cash flows are shown in the Figure 3. The negative cash
outflow P occurs now. The withdrawals (positive cash inflow)
for the A1 series occur at the end of years 1 through 5, and
A2 occurs in years 6 through 8.

Fig. 3:

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CASH FLOWS - Example

 A rental company spent $2500 on a new air compressor 7


years ago. The annual rental income from the compressor
has been $750. The $100 spent on maintenance the first year
has increased each year by $25. The company plans to sell
the compressor at the end of next year for $150. Construct
the cash flow diagram from the company’s perspective and
indicate where the present worth now is located.

CASH FLOWS - Solution


 Let now be time t = 0. The incomes and costs for years 7
through 1 (next year) are tabulated below with net cash flow
computed using Equation 1a.
End of Year Income ($) Cost ($) Net Cash Flow $
-7 0 2500 -2500
-6 750 100 650
-5 750 125 625
-4 750 150 600
-3 750 175 575
-2 750 200 550
-1 750 225 525
0 750 250 500
1 750 + 150 275 625

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CASH FLOWS - Solution

The net cash flows (seven negative, one positive) is


shown in the Figure 4. Present worth P is located at year
0.

Fig. 4:

CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
 The most fundamental factor in engineering economics is the one
that determines the amount of money F accumulated after n years
(or periods) from a single present worth P, with interest compounded
one time per year (or period).

 Recall that compound interest refers to interest paid on top of


interest. Therefore, if an amount P is invested at time t = 0, the
amount F1 accumulated one (1) year hence at an interest rate of i
percent per year will be

F1  P  Pi  P 1  i  Eqn. 2

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CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
From Equation 2; the interest rate i is expressed in
decimal form.

Therefore, at the end of the second year, the amount


accumulated F2 is the amount after year 1 plus the
interest from the end of year 1 to the end of year 2 on
the entire F1.

F2  F1  F1i  P 1  i 
2
Eqn. 3

CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
 Similarly, the amount of money accumulated at the end
of year 3, will be

F3  F2  F2 i  P 1  i 
3
Eqn. 3
 From the preceding values, it is evident by mathematical
induction that the formula can be generalized for n years.
To find F , given P,

F  P 1  i 
n
Eqn. 4

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CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
Cash flow diagrams for single-payment factors: (a)
find F, given P, and (b) find P, given F.

Fig. 5:

CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
The factor (1+ i )n is called the single-payment
compound amount factor (SPCAF), but it is usually
referred to as the F/P factor.

This is the conversion factor that, when multiplied by


P, yields the future amount F of an initial amount P
after n years at interest rate i.

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CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
Reverse the situation to determine the P value for a
stated amount F that occurs n periods in the future.
Simply solve Equation [4] for P.

 1 
P  F n
 F 1  i n
Eqn. 5
 1  i  -n
The expression (1 + i ) is known as the single-
payment present worth factor (SPPWF), or the P/F
factor.

CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
Equation 5 is an expression use to determine the
present worth P of a given future amount F after n
years at interest rate i.

Note that the two factors derived here are for single
payments; that is, they are used to find the present or
future amount when only one payment or receipt is
involved.

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CASH FLOWS ANALYSIS – Single Amount


Factors (F/P and P/F)
Reading from Table;

i. A future value F is calculated by the FV function


using the format = FV(i%,n,P).

ii. Also, a present amount P is determined using the PV


function with the format = PV(i%,n,F).

These functions are read from Table.

Single Amount Factors (F/P and P/F) -


Example
 Sandy, a manufacturing engineer, just received a year-end
bonus of $10,000 that will be invested immediately. With the
expectation of earning at the rate of 8% per year, Sandy hopes
to take the entire amount out in exactly 20 years to pay for a
family vacation when the oldest daughter is due to graduate
from college. Find the amount of funds that will be available in
20 years by using hand solution by applying the factor formula
and tabulated value.

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Single Amount Factors (F/P and P/F) -


Solution
Given: P = $10,000; F = ?; i = 8% per year; n = 20 years.

Factor formula: Apply Equation [4] to find the future value F.


Rounding to four decimals, we have

F  P1  i   10,0001  0.8  $46,610


n 20

Standard notation and tabulated value: Notation for the F/P factor
is (F/P,i%,n).

F = P(F/P,8%,20) = 10,000(4.6610) = $46,610

Uniform Series Present Worth Factor and


Capital Recovery Factor (P/A and A/P)
The equivalent present worth P of a uniform
series A of end-of-period cash flows
(investments) is shown in Figure 6 (a) (next slide).

An expression for the present worth can be


determined by considering each A value as a
future worth F.

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Uniform Series Present Worth Factor and


Capital Recovery Factor (P/A and A/P)

Fig. 6: Cash flow diagrams used to determine (a) P, given a uniform


series A, and (b) A, given a present worth P.

Uniform Series Present Worth Factor and


Capital Recovery Factor (P/A and A/P)
Calculating its present worth with the P/F factor will be

 1  i n  1 
P  A n 
i0 Eqn. 6
 i 1  i  
The term in brackets in Equation [6] is the conversion
factor referred to as the uniform series present worth
factor (USPWF).

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Uniform Series Present Worth Factor and


Capital Recovery Factor (P/A and A/P)
It is the P/A factor used to calculate the equivalent P
value in year 0 for a uniform end-of-period series of A
values beginning at the end of period 1 and extending
for n periods.

To reverse the situation, the present worth P is known


and the equivalent uniform series amount A is sought
(Figure 6b).

Uniform Series Present Worth Factor and


Capital Recovery Factor (P/A and A/P)
 The first A value occurs at the end of period 1, that is, one period
after P occurs. Solve Equation [6] for A to obtain

 i 1  i n  Eqn. 7
A  P 
 1  i   1 
n

 The term in brackets is called the capital recovery factor (CRF),


or A/P factor. It calculates the equivalent uniform annual worth A
over n years for a given P in year 0, when the interest rate is i.

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EXAMPLE

How much money should you be willing to pay


now for a guaranteed $600 per year for 9 years
starting next year, at a rate of return of 16% per
year?

SOLUTION

The cash flows follow the pattern of Figure 6a


above.

Given: A = $600; i = 16%; and n = 9; P = ?

Using Equation 6
 1  0.16 9  1 
P  600  9
 600 4.6065   $2763 .90
 0.161  0.16  

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Sinking Fund Factor and Uniform Series


Compound Amount Factor (A/F and F/A)
 The expression in brackets in Equation [8] is the A/F or sinking
fund factor. It determines the uniform annual series A that is
equivalent to a given future amount F .

 This is shown graphically in Figure 7a, where A is a uniform annual


investment.

 i  Eqn. 8
A F 
 1  i n
 1 

Sinking Fund Factor and Uniform Series


Compound Amount Factor (A/F and F/A)

Fig. 7: Cash flow diagrams to ( a ) find A, given F , and ( b ) find F,


given A .

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Sinking Fund Factor and Uniform Series


Compound Amount Factor (A/F and F/A)
 The uniform series A begins at the end of year (period) 1 and
continues through the year of the given F. The last A value
and F occur at the same time.

 Equation [8] can be rearranged to find F for a stated A series


in periods 1 through n (Figure 7 b ).

 1  i n  1 
F  A  Eqn. 9
 i 

Sinking Fund Factor and Uniform Series


Compound Amount Factor (A/F and F/A)

 The term in bracket in Equation (9) is called the uniform


series compound amount factor (USCAF), or FA factor.

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Example

The president of Ford Motor Company wants to know


the equivalent future worth of a $1000 capital
investment each year for 8 years, starting 1 year from
now. Ford capital earns at a rate of 14% per year.

Solution
The cash flow diagram below shows the annual investments starting
at the end of year 1 and ending in the year the future worth is
desired. For $1000, the F value in year 8 is found by using the F/A
factor.

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Solution

 1  0.14 8  1 
F  1000    1000 13.2328 
 0.14 
F  $13,233

CASH FLOW ANALYSIS- Linear Interpolation

Linear interpolation for an untabulated interest rate i or


number of years n takes more time to complete than
using the formula or spreadsheet function.

Also interpolation introduces some level of inaccuracy,


depending upon the distance between the two
boundary values selected for i or n, as the formulas
themselves are nonlinear functions.

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS- Linear Interpolation

Fig. 8: Linear interpolation in factor value tables.

CASH FLOW ANALYSIS- Linear Interpolation

The value of d will be positive or negative if the factor is


increasing or decreasing, respectively, for value
between x1 and x2.

f  f1 
 x  x1  a
 f2  f1  f1  c  f1  d Eqn. 10
x2  x1  b

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Arithmetic Gradient Factors (P/G and A/G)

An arithmetic gradient series is a cash flow series


that either increases or decreases by a constant
amount each period. The amount of change is
called the gradient.

Formulas previously developed for an A series


have year-end amounts of equal value.

Arithmetic Gradient Factors (P/G and A/G)

In the case of a gradient, each year-end cash


flow is different, so new formulas must be
derived.

First, assume that the cash flow at the end of


year 1 is the base amount of the cash flow series
and, therefore, not part of the gradient series.

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Arithmetic Gradient Factors (P/G and A/G)

This is convenient because in actual applications, the


base amount is usually significantly different in size
compared to the gradient.

Fig. 9

Arithmetic Gradient Factors (P/G and A/G)

G = constant arithmetic change in cash flows


from one time period to the next; G may be
positive or negative.

CFn is for cash flow in year n as follows.

CF n  base amount  n  1G Eqn. 11

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Example 6
A local university has initiated a logo-licensing
program with the clothier Hollister, Inc. Estimated
fees (revenues) are $80,000 for the first year with
uniform increases to a total of $200,000 by the end
of year 9. Determine the gradient and construct a
cash flow diagram that identifies the base amount
and the gradient series.

Solution
The year 1 base amount is CF1 = $80,000, and the total increase
over 9 years is

CF9 – CF1 = 200,000 – 80,000 = $120,000

Solving for G using Equation 11, the arithmetic gradient becomes

G
CF9  CF1  120,000
  $15,000/ yr
n 1 9 1

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Solution

The cash flow diagram shows the base amount of $80,000 in years 1
through 9 and the $15,000 gradient starting in year 2 and continuing
through year 9.

Determining i or n for Known Cash Flow Values

When all the cash flow values are known or have been
estimated, the i value (interest rate or rate of return) or n
value (number of years) is often the unknown.

A company invested money to develop a new product.


After the net annual income series is known following several
years on the market, determine the rate of return i on the
investment.

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Determining i or n for Known Cash Flow Values

There are several ways to find an unknown i or n value,


depending upon the nature of the cash flow series and the
method chosen to find the unknown.

The simplest case involves only single amounts (P and F) and


solution utilizing a spreadsheet function.

Example

If Laurel made a $30,000 investment in a


friend’s business and received $50,000 five(5)
years later, determine the rate of return.

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Solution

Since only single amounts are involved, i can be determined


directly from the P / F factor
1
P  F P F , i , n   F
1  i n
1
30 , 000  50 , 000
1  i 5
1
0 . 60 
1  i 5

Solution
0 .2
 1 
i   1  0 .10760 or 10 .76 %
 0 .6 
 Alternatively, the interest rate can be found by setting up the standard
P/F relation, solving for the factor value, and interpolating in the tables.

P  F P F , i , n 
30 , 000  50 , 000 P F , i , 5 
P F , i , 5   0 . 60

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Solution

From the interest tables, a P/F factor of 0.6000


for n = 5 lies between 10% and 11%. Interpolate
between these two values to obtain i =10.76%.

Example

Pyramid Energy requires that for each of its offshore wind


power generators $5000 per year be placed into a capital
reserve fund to cover unexpected major rework on field
equipment. In one case, $5000 was deposited for 15 years and
covered a rework costing $100,000 in year 15. What rate of
return did this practice provide for the company?

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Solution
The cash flow diagram is shown below . Either the A/F or F/A
factor can be used.

Solution

Using A/F.
A  F A F , i, n 
5000  100 , 000  A F , i ,15 
A F , i ,15   0 . 050

From the A/F interest tables for 15 years, the value 0.0500 lies
between 3% and 4%. By interpolation, i 3.98%.

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Calculations for Uniform Series that are


Shifted
When a uniform series begins at a time other than at
the end of period 1, it is called a shifted series.

The present worth is always located one period prior to


the first uniform series amount when using the P/A
factor.

The future worth is always located in the same period


as the last uniform series amount when using the F/A
factor.

Calculations for Uniform Series that are


Shifted
Steps in solving shifted cash flow problems;
i. Draw a diagram of the positive and negative cash
flows.
ii. Locate the present worth or future worth of each
series on the cash flow diagram.
iii. Determine n for each series by renumbering the cash
flow diagram.
iv. Draw another cash flow diagram representing the
desired equivalent cash flow.
v. Set up and solve the equations.

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Example

The offshore design group at Bechtel just


purchased upgraded CAD software for $5000 now
and annual payments of $500 per year for 6 years
starting 3 years from now for annual upgrades.
What is the present worth in year 0 of the
payments if the interest rate is 8% per year?

Solution

The cash flow diagram is shown below

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Solution
PA is the present worth of a uniform annual series A , and
P'A is the present worth at a time other than period 0.

Similarly, PT represents the total present worth at time 0.


The correct placement of P'A and the diagram
renumbering to obtain n are also indicated.

Note that P'A is located in actual year 2, not year 3. Also,


n = 6, not 8, for the P/A factor. First find the value of P'A of
the shifted series.

Solution

PA'  $500 P A ,8%,6 


Since P'A is located in year 2, now find PA in year 0.

PA  PA' P F ,8%, 2 
The total present worth is determined by adding PA and the
initial payment P0 in year 0.

PT  Po  PA  5000  500P A ,8%,6 P F ,8%, 2 


PT  5000  5004.6229 0.8573   $6981 .60

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Calculations for Shifted Gradients

It is important to note that the A/G factor cannot be


used to find an equivalent A value in periods 1 through n
for cash flows involving a shifted gradient.

To find the equivalent A series of a shifted gradient


through all the n periods, first find the present worth of
the gradient at actual time 0, then apply the (A/P, i, n)
factor.

NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATES

To understand and correctly handle effective interest


rate is important in engineering practice as well as for
individual finances.

The interest amounts for loans, mortgages, bonds, and


stocks are commonly based upon interest rates
compounded more frequently than annually.

The engineering economic study must account for these


effects.

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NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATES

nominal interest rate r is an interest rate that does not


account for compounding. By definition,

r = interest rate per time period x number of periods Eqn. 12


A nominal rate may be calculated for any time period
longer than the time period stated by using Equation
[12].

NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATES

An effective interest rate i is a rate wherein the


compounding of interest is taken into account. Effective
rates are commonly expressed on an annual basis as an
effective annual rate; however, any time basis may be
used.
r
Effective rate per CP  Eqn. 12
m
Where, r = % per time period t, m = compounding periods
per t.

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NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATES

Interest period (t) —The period of time over which the


interest is expressed. This is the t in the statement of r %
per time period t , for example, 1% per month.

Compounding period (CP) —The shortest time unit over


which interest is charged or earned. This is defined by the
compounding term in the interest rate statement, for
example, 8% per year, compounded monthly.

NOMINAL AND EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATES

Compounding frequency (m)—The number of times that


compounding occurs within the interest period t. If the
compounding period CP and the time period t are the
same, the compounding frequency is 1, for example, 1%
per month, compounded monthly.

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Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

The effective annual interest ia rate can be expressed in


terms of m as

i a  1  i   1
m
Eqn. 13

Equation [13] calculates the effective annual interest


rate ia for any number of compounding periods per year
when i is the rate for one compounding period.

Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

If the effective annual rate ia and compounding


frequency m are known, Equation [13] can be solved for i
to determine the effective interest rate per
compounding period.

i  1  i a 
1 m
1 Eqn. 14

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Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Equation [13] calculates an effective interest rate per


year from any effective rate over a shorter time period.

We can generalize this equation to determine the


effective interest rate for any time period (shorter or
longer than 1 year).
m
 r  Eqn. 15
i  1    1
 m

Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Where

i = effective rate for specified time period (say, semiannual)

r = nominal interest rate for same time period (semiannual)

m = number of times interest is compounded per stated

time period (times per 6 months)

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Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

The term r/m is always the effective interest rate

over a compounding period CP, and m is always

the number of times that interest is compounded

per the time period on the left of the equals sign

in Equation [15].

EXAMPLE
Tesla Motors manufactures high-performance battery electric
vehicles. An engineer is on a Tesla committee to evaluate bids for
new-generation coordinate-measuring machinery to be directly
linked to the automated manufacturing of high-precision vehicle
components. Three bids include the interest rates that vendors will
charge on unpaid balances. To get a clear understanding of finance
costs, Tesla management asked the engineer to determine the
effective semiannual and annual interest rates for each bid. The bids
are as follows:
Bid 1: 9% per year, compounded quarterly
Bid 2: 3% per quarter, compounded quarterly
Bid 3: 8.8% per year, compounded monthly

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EXAMPLE

(a) Determine the effective rate for each bid on the basis
of semiannual periods.

(b) What are the effective annual rates? These are to be a


part of the final bid selection.

(c) Which bid has the lowest effective annual rate?

SOLUTION
(a) Convert the nominal rates to a semiannual basis,
determine m, then use Equation [15] to calculate the
effective semiannual interest rate i. For BID 1,

r = 9% per year = 4.5% per 6 months; m = 2 quarters per 6


months

Effective i% per 6 months is given as


2
 0.045 
i% / 6 months  1    1  1.0455  1  4.55%
 2 

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SOLUTION

For BID 2,

r = 3% per quarter = 6.0% per 6 months; m = 2


quarters per 6 months

Effective i% per 6 months is given as


2
 0.06 
i% / 6 months  1    1  1.0609  1  6.09%
 2 

SOLUTION

For BID 3,

r = 8.8% per year = 4.4% per 6 months; m = 6 months

Effective i% per 6 months is given as

2
 0.044 
i% / 6 months  1    1  1.0445  1  4.45%
 2 

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SOLUTION

(b) For the effective annual rate, the time basis in


Equation [15] is 1 year. For BID 1,

r = 9% per year; m = 4 quarters per year

4
 0.09 
i%/ year  1  1  1.09311  9.31%
 4 

SOLUTION

For BID 2,

r = 3% per quarter = 12% per year; m = 4 quarters


per year

4
 0.12 
i% / year  1    1  1.1255  1  12.55%
 4 

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SOLUTION

For BID 3,

r = 8.8% per year; m = 12 months per year


12
 0.088
i%/ year  1  1  1.09161  9.16%
 12 
(c) Bid 3 includes the lowest effective annual rate of 9.16%,
which is equivalent to an effective semiannual rate of
4.48% when interest is compounded monthly.

Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Payment Period and Compounding Period

The payment period (PP) is the length of time


between cash flows (inflows or outflows).

It is common that the lengths of the payment period


and the compounding period (CP) do not coincide.

It is important to determine if PP = CP, PP>CP, or


PP<CP.

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Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Payment Period and Compounding Period

If a company deposits money each month into an


account that earns at the nominal rate of 8% per year,
compounded semiannually, the cash flow deposits
define a payment period of 1 month and the nominal
interest rate defines a compounding period of 6 months.
These time periods are shown in Figure 10.

Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Payment Period and Compounding Period

Fig. 10

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Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Payment Period and Compounding Period

The length of the PP is defined by the interest


period in the stated interest rate. If the rate is 8%
per year, for example, PP = CP = 1 year.

However, if the rate is 10% per year, compounded


quarterly, then PP is 1 year, CP is 1 quarter or 3
months, and PP > CP.

Effective Interest Rates for any Time Period

Payment Period and Compounding Period

For example, assume that the stated credit card rate is


nominal 15% per year, compounded monthly. Here CP is 1
month. To find P or F over a 2-year span, calculate the
effective monthly rate of 15%/12 = 1.25% and the total
months of 2(12) = 24. Then 1.25% and 24 are used in the P/F
and F/P factors.

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RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

The most commonly quoted measure of economic worth

for a project or alternative is its rate of return (ROR).

The ROR is known by other names such as the internal

rate of return (IROR), which is the technically correct

term, and return on investment (ROI).

RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

Rate of return (ROR) is the rate paid on the unpaid


balance of borrowed money, or the rate earned on the
unrecovered balance of an investment, so that the final
payment or receipt brings the balance to exactly zero
with interest considered.

The rate of return is expressed as a percent per period,


for example, i = 10% per year.

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RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

Rate of Return Calculation Using a PW or AW Relation

The ROR value is determined in a generically different


way compared to the PW or AW value for a series of
cash flows.

The rate of return is the interest rate that makes the


present worth or annual worth of a cash flow series
exactly equal to 0.

RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

Rate of Return Calculation Using a PW or AW Relation

To determine the rate of return, develop the ROR


equation using either a PW or AW relation, set it equal to
0, and solve for the interest rate.

Alternatively, the present worth of cash outflows (costs


and disbursements) PW0 may be equated to the present
worth of cash inflows (revenues and savings) PW1 .

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RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

Rate of Return Calculation Using a PW or AW Relation

That is, solve for i using either of the relations


0  PW
Eqn. 16
PW0  PW1
The annual worth approach utilizes the AW values in the
same fashion to solve for i.
0  AW
AW0  AW1 Eqn. 17

RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

Rate of Return Calculation Using a PW or AW Relation

The i value that makes these equations numerically


correct is called i*.

It is the root of the ROR relation.

To determine if the investment project’s cash flow series is


viable, compare i* with the established MARR.

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RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

Rate of Return Calculation Using a PW or AW Relation

The guideline is as follows:

If i* ≥ MARR, accept the project as economically viable.

If i* < MARR, the project is not economically viable.

In rate of return calculations, the objective is to


find the interest rate i* at which the cash flows are
equivalent.

RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

i* Using Trial and Error; The general procedure of using a


PW-based equation is as follows:

1. Draw a cash flow diagram.

2. Set up the rate of return equation in the form of


Equation [16]or[17].

3. Select values of i by trial and error until the equation is


balanced.

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RATE OF RETURN (ROR) ANALYSIS

When the trial-and-error method is applied to determine


i*, it is advantageous in step 3 to get fairly close to the
correct answer on the first trial.

If the cash flows are combined in such a manner that the
income and disbursements can be represented by a
single factor such as P/F or P/A , it is possible to look up
the interest rate (in the tables) corresponding to the
value of that factor for n years.

EXAMPLE
Applications of green, lean manufacturing techniques coupled with
value stream mapping can make large financial differences over
future years while placing greater emphasis on environmental
factors. Engineers with Monarch Paints have recommended to
management an investment of $200,000 now in novel methods that
will reduce the amount of wastewater, packaging materials, and
other solid waste in their consumer paint manufacturing facility.
Estimated savings are $15,000 per year for each of the next 10 years
and an additional savings of $300,000 at the end of 10 years in facility
and equipment upgrade costs. Determine the rate of return.

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SOLUTION
Use the trial-and-error procedure based on a PW equation.
1. The cash flow diagram is show below

SOLUTION
2. Use Equation [16] format for the ROR equation.

  
0   200 ,000  15 ,000 P A , i  ,10  300 ,000 P F , i  ,10 
3. Use the estimation procedure to determine i for the first trial. All
income will be regarded as a single F in year 10 so that the P/F
factor can be used. The P/F factor is selected because most of
the cash flow ($300,000) already fits this factor and errors created
by neglecting the time value of the remaining money will be
minimized. Only for the first estimate of i , define P = $200,000, n =
10, and F = 10(15,000) + 300,000 = $450,000. Now we can state
that

200 ,000  450 ,000 P F , i  ,10 
P F , i ,10   0.444

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SOLUTION

The roughly estimated i is between 8% and 9%. Use 9% as the first trial
because this approximate rate for the P/F factor will be lower than
the true value when the time value of money is considered.

0   200 ,000  15 ,000 P A ,9 %,10   300 ,000 P F ,9 %,10 


0  $22 ,986
The result is positive, indicating that the return is more than 9%. Try i =
11%.
0   200 ,000  15 ,000 P A ,11 %,10   300 ,000 P F ,11 %,10 
0  $  6002

SOLUTION

Since the interest rate of 11% is too high, linearly interpolate between
9% and 11%.

22 ,986  0
i *  9 .00  2 .0 
22 ,986   6002 
i *  9 .00  1 .58  10 .58 %

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