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# HEAT TRANSFER

## from BASICS to APPLICATION

Ashwin Chandarana
entech ENGINEERS
+91 9879822740
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Heat Transfer - Introduction
Necessary to understand concept of Temperature v/s Heat transfer

##  Temperature Units are ° C, ° K, or ° F

 Heat is related to the energy in transit, and science dealing with its rate
is HEAT TRANSFER

##  Temperature indicates the ‘hotness’ of substance and helps predict the

direction of Heat Transfer

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Heat Transfer - Introduction
 Heat transfer is from High temperature source to Low temperature
 Heat transfer may or may not be associated with temperature change /
phase change
 Eg. Heating of Ice

## Temperature increases above boiling point

STEAM
Temperature at boiling point

## Temperature at melting point

ICE Temperature increases till melting point

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
 3 types of mechanisms for Heat Transfer:

 Conduction

 Convection

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction
Conduction:
 Energy transfer across system boundary/ fixed
material by mechanism of inter-molecular
interactions
 This needs matter and does not need any bulk
motion
 Usually through solids, with limited application to
liquids/ gases

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction
 The rate equation is described by
Fourier Law:
Q = -k*A*ΔT

 Proportional to
 Area of contact
 Temperature difference
 Intrinsic property of material,
Thermal conductivity
(considering constant thickness)

##  Vector quantity (dependent on

direction)

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Convection
Convection:
 Energy transfer across system boundary by
combination of inter-molecular interactions and
bulk transport/ fluid mixing
 This needs fluid matter
 Two types of Convection
 Natural convection (induced by buoyancy forces)
 Forced convection (induced by external means)

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Convection
 The rate equation is described by Newton’s Law of Cooling:
Q = h*A*ΔT

 Proportional to
 Area of contact
 Temperature difference
 Heat transfer Coefficient

 Scalar quantity

##  Heat transfer Coefficient is influenced by Geometry, fluid characteristics, flow

characteristics etc.

 Coefficients for
 Natural convection < Forced convection < for Phase change (Boiling/
Condensation)

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
 Energy transfer by electromagnetic waves that
arises due to temperature of the body
 This does not need matter
energy is absorbed and part reflected by receiver
 The actual heat transfer mechanism/ estimate is
quite complex

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
 The rate equation is described by Boltzman’s Law:
E = σ*ε*A* T ^4
 σ = Dimensional (Boltzman)
constant

##  Emissive power is proportional to

 Emissivity (property of the surface)
 Area
 4th power of absolute temperature

##  Ideal Source is ‘Black Body’ with emissivity = 1.0

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Process Heat Transfer

##  Process Heat Transfer in practical applications is normally a

combination of different mechanisms of Heat transfer

industry

##  Since Convection mechanism is related to bulk motion of fluids,

understanding of Fluid flow is important for relating to Heat transfer
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Process Heat Transfer
 Variety of Heat Exchangers used in Industry:
 Double pipe
 Shell and Tube
 Plate and Frame
 Spiral type
 Air coolers
 Jacketed/ Coiled vessels
 Fired Heaters

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 Shell and Tube Heat exchangers are most common and
versatile for most of the process applications

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 Larger Surface area in smaller volume
 Suitable for pressure applications because of its
geometry
 Different Material of Constructions can be used
 Well established Design methods
 Well established Fabrication methods
 Reasonably easy for maintenance

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Design Considerations
 Application and Heat duty
 Single phase – Liquid or Gas or combination
 Phase change – Boiling or Vaporization or Condensation
 Type of STHE, for eg.
 Fixed Tube sheet
 U-tube
 Fluid Allocation
 Shell side
 Tube side
 Process considerations
 Stream terminal temperatures
 Fluid properties
 Material of Construction
 Fluid Velocities/ Pressure drop
 Fouling considerations

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 General Equation

Q = U A ΔT

 Q = Heat transferred
 U = Overall Heat transfer Coefficient
 A = Heat transfer area
 ΔT = Mean Temperature Difference

##  Objective is to determine required HT area A


A 
 ∆

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 Heat to be transferred Q
 Sensible heat for no phase change application
 Latent heat for phase change application
 Combination for simultaneous application

##  Mean temperature difference

ΔT
 Driving force between
Temperatures of both streams –
in/ out
 Depends on flow arrangement -
Co-current (Parallel)/ Counter-
current
 Depends on no. of passes

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Overall HT Coefficient U is reciprocal of the overall resistance

##  Components of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

ho
 Outer Heat transfer coefficient (ho)
kw hod
 Outer Fouling coefficient (hod) hid
hi
 Tube metal thermal conductivity (kw)

##  Inner Heat transfer coefficient (hi)

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Overall HT Coefficient Uo (based on Tube OD)

 ho = Outside HT coefficient

 hi = Inside HT coefficient

##  di = Tube Inside Diameter

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Metal resistance
 From conductivity of material and the geometry of tube

##  Fouling resistance/ coefficient for both sides

 Published data available for most of the fluids
 Based on experience/ nature of fluid in some cases

##  Outer (Shell side) HT Coefficient is complex due to the geometry of bundle/

baffles/ leakage etc. Rigorous correlations are available.

established.

##  Following dimensionless numbers are very important for Heat Transfer

calculations and are correlated.
 Reynold no.
 Prandtl no.
 Nusselt no.
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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers –
General Design methodology
 Individual coefficients depend on factors
like
 Nature of Heat transfer process,
 Fluid properties,
 Process parameters,
 HE geometry,
 Material of construction etc.

##  Design of STHE is iterative and by Trial-

and-Error method
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Establish Process / Heat duty, collect Fluid properties/
Fouling factors etc.

assuming new U

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THANK YOU

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