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HEAT TRANSFER

from BASICS to APPLICATION

Ashwin Chandarana
entech ENGINEERS
+91 9879822740
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Heat Transfer - Introduction
Necessary to understand concept of Temperature v/s Heat transfer

 Temperature is measure of energy of molecules of substance.

 Temperature Units are ° C, ° K, or ° F

 Heat is related to the energy in transit, and science dealing with its rate
is HEAT TRANSFER

 Heat transfer units are cal/hr, joule/ hr or Btu/ hr

 Temperature indicates the ‘hotness’ of substance and helps predict the


direction of Heat Transfer

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Heat Transfer - Introduction
 Heat transfer is from High temperature source to Low temperature
receiver
 Heat transfer may or may not be associated with temperature change /
phase change
 Eg. Heating of Ice

Temperature increases above boiling point


STEAM
Temperature at boiling point

WATER Temperature increases till boiling point

Temperature at melting point


ICE Temperature increases till melting point

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
 3 types of mechanisms for Heat Transfer:

 Conduction

 Convection

 Radiation

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction
Conduction:
 Energy transfer across system boundary/ fixed
material by mechanism of inter-molecular
interactions
 This needs matter and does not need any bulk
motion
 Usually through solids, with limited application to
liquids/ gases

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction
 The rate equation is described by
Fourier Law:
Q = -k*A*ΔT

 Proportional to
 Area of contact
 Temperature difference
 Intrinsic property of material,
Thermal conductivity
(considering constant thickness)

 Vector quantity (dependent on


direction)

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Convection
Convection:
 Energy transfer across system boundary by
combination of inter-molecular interactions and
bulk transport/ fluid mixing
 This needs fluid matter
 Two types of Convection
 Natural convection (induced by buoyancy forces)
 Forced convection (induced by external means)

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Convection
 The rate equation is described by Newton’s Law of Cooling:
Q = h*A*ΔT

 Proportional to
 Area of contact
 Temperature difference
 Heat transfer Coefficient

 Scalar quantity

 Heat transfer Coefficient is influenced by Geometry, fluid characteristics, flow


characteristics etc.

 Coefficients for
 Natural convection < Forced convection < for Phase change (Boiling/
Condensation)

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Radiation
Radiation:
 Energy transfer by electromagnetic waves that
arises due to temperature of the body
 This does not need matter
 When source radiates heat to receiver, part of
energy is absorbed and part reflected by receiver
 The actual heat transfer mechanism/ estimate is
quite complex

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Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Radiation
 The rate equation is described by Boltzman’s Law:
E = σ*ε*A* T ^4
 σ = Dimensional (Boltzman)
constant

 Emissive power is proportional to


 Emissivity (property of the surface)
 Area
 4th power of absolute temperature

 This equation gives Emissive power of substance (of which, part


will be absorbed by Receiver)

 Ideal Source is ‘Black Body’ with emissivity = 1.0


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Process Heat Transfer

 Process Heat Transfer in practical applications is normally a


combination of different mechanisms of Heat transfer

 Heat transfer governed by Convection mechanism are common in


industry

 Since Convection mechanism is related to bulk motion of fluids,


understanding of Fluid flow is important for relating to Heat transfer
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Process Heat Transfer
 Variety of Heat Exchangers used in Industry:
 Double pipe
 Shell and Tube
 Plate and Frame
 Spiral type
 Air coolers
 Jacketed/ Coiled vessels
 Fired Heaters

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 Shell and Tube Heat exchangers are most common and
versatile for most of the process applications

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 Typical advantages of STHE:
 Larger Surface area in smaller volume
 Suitable for pressure applications because of its
geometry
 Different Material of Constructions can be used
 Well established Design methods
 Well established Fabrication methods
 Reasonably easy for maintenance

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Design Considerations
 Application and Heat duty
 Single phase – Liquid or Gas or combination
 Phase change – Boiling or Vaporization or Condensation
 Type of STHE, for eg.
 Fixed Tube sheet
 U-tube
 Internal Floating Head
 External Floating Head
 Fluid Allocation
 Shell side
 Tube side
 Process considerations
 Stream terminal temperatures
 Fluid properties
 Material of Construction
 Fluid Velocities/ Pressure drop
 Fouling considerations

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 General Equation

Q = U A ΔT

 Q = Heat transferred
 U = Overall Heat transfer Coefficient
 A = Heat transfer area
 ΔT = Mean Temperature Difference

 Objective is to determine required HT area A



A 
 ∆

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
 Heat to be transferred Q
 Sensible heat for no phase change application
 Latent heat for phase change application
 Combination for simultaneous application

 Mean temperature difference


ΔT
 Driving force between
Temperatures of both streams –
in/ out
 Depends on flow arrangement -
Co-current (Parallel)/ Counter-
current
 Depends on no. of passes

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Overall HT Coefficient U is reciprocal of the overall resistance

 Overall resistance is combination of individual resistances

 Components of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient


ho
 Outer Heat transfer coefficient (ho)
kw hod
 Outer Fouling coefficient (hod) hid
hi
 Tube metal thermal conductivity (kw)

 Inner Fouling coefficient (hid)

 Inner Heat transfer coefficient (hi)


Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Overall HT Coefficient Uo (based on Tube OD)

 ho = Outside HT coefficient

 hi = Inside HT coefficient

 hod = Outside Fouling coefficient

 hid = Inside Fouling coefficient

 kw= Thermal conductivity of Tube material

 do = Tube Outside Diameter

 di = Tube Inside Diameter

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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
 Metal resistance
 From conductivity of material and the geometry of tube

 Fouling resistance/ coefficient for both sides


 Published data available for most of the fluids
 Based on experience/ nature of fluid in some cases

 Outer (Shell side) HT Coefficient is complex due to the geometry of bundle/


baffles/ leakage etc. Rigorous correlations are available.

 Inner (Tube side) HT Coefficient calculation is relatively simpler and well


established.

 Following dimensionless numbers are very important for Heat Transfer


calculations and are correlated.
 Reynold no.
 Prandtl no.
 Nusselt no.
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Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers –
General Design methodology
 Individual coefficients depend on factors
like
 Nature of Heat transfer process,
 Fluid properties,
 Process parameters,
 HE geometry,
 Material of construction etc.

 Design of STHE is iterative and by Trial-


and-Error method
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Establish Process / Heat duty, collect Fluid properties/
Fouling factors etc.

Assume Overall U based on application

Define Geometry of STHE

If not, repeat by Calculate the individual coefficients


assuming new U

Calculate Overall HT coefficient U

Compare with the assumed HT Coefficient U

If U matches, calculate dP etc., firm up the design


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THANK YOU

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